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Translational Cancer Research

Bradley C Carthon, Emmanuel S Antonarakis
Despite the numerous regulatory approvals for prostate cancer, metastatic prostate cancer remains a huge burden for men worldwide. In an exciting development, James et al. recently published data from the Systemic Therapy in Advanced or Metastatic Prostate Cancer: Evaluation of Drug Efficacy: a multi-stage multi-arm randomised control trial (STAMPEDE). This is an innovative multi-arm multi-stage (MAMS) trial that has utilized one control arm and several comparator arms in order to provide evidence for the inclusion of therapies beyond standard androgen deprivation alone...
September 2016: Translational Cancer Research
Wei Lu, Wengen Chen
Even with recent advances in cancer diagnosis and therapy, treatment outcomes for many cancers remain dismal. Patients often show different response to the same therapy regimen, supporting the development of personalized medicine. 18F-FDG PET/CT has been used routinely in the assessment of tumor response, in prediction of outcomes, and in guiding personalized treatment. These assessments are mainly based on physician's subjective or semi-quantitative evaluation. Recent development in Radiomics provides a promising objective way for tumor response assessment, which uses computerized tools to extract a large number of image features that capture additional information not currently used in clinic that has prognostic value...
August 2016: Translational Cancer Research
Nathan A Berger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Translational Cancer Research
Parth K Modi, Nicholas J Farber, Eric A Singer
The recent FDA approval of multiple new pharmaceutical agents for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has left physicians with several options for first- and second- line therapy. With limited head-to-head comparisons, however, there is a paucity of evidence to recommend the use of one agent over another. To address this knowledge gap, Voss et al. identified serum biomarkers from specimens collected during the RECORD-3 trial, a comparative study of first-line sunitinib versus first-line everolimus. Of the biomarkers identified, the 5 most strongly associated with first-line everolimus progression-free survival (PFS1L) were combined to form a composite biomarker score (CBS)...
June 2016: Translational Cancer Research
Nana Zheng, Wenyi Wei, Zhiwei Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Translational Cancer Research
Jung H Suh, Julie D Saba
Colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC) is a pathological condition defined by the development of colon cancer in patients afflicted by Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC), two idiopathic diseases of the gut which together comprise the disease group called inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). When IBD involves the colon, affected patients face an increased risk of developing colon cancer compared to the general population. The phenomenon of CAC represents one of the most convincing forms of evidence linking the processes of inflammation, oxidative stress and carcinogenesis...
October 1, 2015: Translational Cancer Research
Nicolas Goossens, Shigeki Nakagawa, Xiaochen Sun, Yujin Hoshida
With the emergence of genomic profiling technologies and selective molecular targeted therapies, biomarkers play an increasingly important role in the clinical management of cancer patients. Single gene/protein or multi-gene "signature"-based assays have been introduced to measure specific molecular pathway deregulations that guide therapeutic decision-making as predictive biomarkers. Genome-based prognostic biomarkers are also available for several cancer types for potential incorporation into clinical prognostic staging systems or practice guidelines...
June 2015: Translational Cancer Research
Louis Dubeau
Serous extra-uterine Müllerian tumors include lesions previously classified either as serous ovarian, fimbrial, or primary peritoneal tumors. They should be distinguished from intra-uterine (endometrial) serous tumors in spite of their common Müllerian differentiation lineage due to distinctive clinical-pathological parameters. Increased risk for these cancers is driven primarily by cell non-autonomous hormonal factors associated with menstrual cycle progression, which can be accentuated by mutations in BRCA1/2...
February 2015: Translational Cancer Research
Noor Hasan, Anders W Ohman, Daniela M Dinulescu
The complexity and heterogeneity of ovarian cancer cases are difficult to reproduce in in vitro studies, which cannot adequately elucidate the molecular events involved in tumor initiation and disease metastasis. It has now become clear that, although the multiple histological subtypes of ovarian cancer are being treated with similar surgical and therapeutic approaches, they are in fact characterized by distinct phenotypes, cell of origin, and underlying key genetic and genomic alterations. Consequently, the development of more personalized treatment methodologies, which are aimed at improving patient care and prognosis, will greatly benefit from a better understanding of the key differences between various subtypes...
February 2015: Translational Cancer Research
Steven K M Lau, Xiao Zhao, Ruben Carmona, Erik Knipprath, Daniel R Simpson, Sameer K Nath, Gwe-Ya Kim, Jona A Hattangadi, Clark C Chen, Kevin T Murphy
PURPOSE: Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is well accepted treatment for patients with intracranial metastases, but the role of frameless radiosurgery is not well defined. Here, we describe our clinical experience applying a novel single-isocenter technique to frameless intensity modulated stereotactic radiosurgery (IMRS) for simultaneous treatment of multiple intracranial metastases. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between 2006 and 2012, 100 consecutive patients received frameless IMRS for multiple intracranial metastases using a single, centrally-located isocenter...
August 1, 2014: Translational Cancer Research
Ying-Lin Hsu, Po-Yu Huang, Dung-Tsa Chen
A critical challenging component in analyzing high-dimensional data in cancer research is how to reduce the dimension of data and how to extract relevant features. Sparse principal component analysis (PCA) is a powerful statistical tool that could help reduce data dimension and select important variables simultaneously. In this paper, we review several approaches for sparse PCA, including variance maximization (VM), reconstruction error minimization (REM), singular value decomposition (SVD), and probabilistic modeling (PM) approaches...
June 2014: Translational Cancer Research
Zhen Qi, Eberhard O Voit
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is one of the most prevalent causes of cancer death. It has been studied extensively for a long time, and numerous genetic and epigenetic events have been associated with the disease. However, its molecular mechanisms are still unclear. High-throughput metabolomics data, combined with customized computational systems modeling, can assist our understanding of some of these mechanisms by revealing connections between alterations in enzymatic activities and their consequences for a person's metabolic profile...
June 1, 2014: Translational Cancer Research
Jamie K Teer
DNA sequencing technology advances have enabled genetic investigation of more samples in a shorter time than has previously been possible. Furthermore, the ability to analyze and understand large sequencing datasets has improved due to concurrent advances in sequence data analysis methods and software tools. Constant improvements to both technology and analytic approaches in this fast moving field are evidenced by many recent publications of computational methods, as well as biological results linking genetic events to human disease...
June 2014: Translational Cancer Research
Yian Ann Chen, Steven A Eschrich
Protein phosphorylation, one of the most ubiquitous post-translational modifications (PTM) of proteins, is known to play an essential role in cell signaling and regulation. With the increasing understanding of the complexity and redundancy of cell signaling, there is a growing recognition that targeting the entire network or system could be a necessary and advantageous strategy for treating cancer. Protein kinases, the proteins that add a phosphate group to the substrate proteins during phosphorylation events, have become one of the largest groups of 'druggable' targets in cancer therapeutics in recent years...
June 1, 2014: Translational Cancer Research
Yan Guo, Shilin Zhao, Pei-Fang Su, Chung-I Li, Fei Ye, Charles R Flynn, Yu Shyr
RNAseq technology is replacing microarray technology as the tool of choice for gene expression profiling. While providing much richer data than microarray, analysis of RNAseq data has been much more challenging. Among the many difficulties of RNAseq analysis, correctly adjusting for batch effect is a pivotal one for large-scale RNAseq based studies. The batch effect of RNAseq data is most obvious in microRNA (miRNA) sequencing studies. Using real miRNA sequencing (miRNAseq) data, we evaluated several batch removal techniques and discussed their effectiveness...
June 1, 2014: Translational Cancer Research
Prabhakar Chalise, Devin C Koestler, Milan Bimali, Qing Yu, Brooke L Fridley
High-throughput 'omic' data, such as gene expression, DNA methylation, DNA copy number, has played an instrumental role in furthering our understanding of the molecular basis in states of human health and disease. As cells with similar morphological characteristics can exhibit entirely different molecular profiles and because of the potential that these discrepancies might further our understanding of patient-level variability in clinical outcomes, there is significant interest in the use of high-throughput 'omic' data for the identification of novel molecular subtypes of a disease...
June 1, 2014: Translational Cancer Research
Vipan K Parihar, Munjal M Acharya, Dante E Roa, Omar Bosch, Lori-Ann Christie, Charles L Limoli
Brain tumor patients routinely undergo cranial radiotherapy, and while beneficial, this treatment often results in debilitating cognitive dysfunction. This serious and unresolved problem has at present, no clinical recourse, and has driven our efforts to more clearly define the consequences of different brain irradiation paradigms on specific indices of cognitive performance and on the underlying cellular mechanisms believed to affect these processes. To accomplish this we have developed the capability to deliver highly focused X-ray beams to small and precisely defined volumes of the athymic rat brain, thereby providing more realistic simulations of clinical irradiation scenarios...
April 1, 2014: Translational Cancer Research
Devin C Koestler, Carmen J Marsit, Brock C Christensen, Karl T Kelsey, E Andres Houseman
BACKGROUND: Longitudinally collected gene expression data provides an opportunity to investigate the dynamic behavior of gene expression and is crucial for establishing causal links between changes on a molecular level and disease development and progression. In terms of the analysis of such data, clustering of subjects based on time-course expression data may improve our understanding of temporal expression patterns that result in disease phenotypes. Although there are numerous existing methods for clustering subjects using gene expression data, most are not suitable when expression measurements are repeatedly collected over a time-course...
2014: Translational Cancer Research
Julio A Gutierrez, Robert G Gish
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a growing epidemic with a high mortality rate and clear need for improved therapies. In patients with Barcelona-Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) B and C, treatment with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) has been the gold standard in therapy as it delays progression; however, recurrence proves common. In the US, transarterial bead embolization (TABE) has uniformly replaced TACE. With this limited armamentarium, there is need for a shift to novel strategies combining different modalities to further improve patient outcomes...
December 2013: Translational Cancer Research
Wooi-Loon Ng, Qian Huang, Xinjian Liu, Mary Zimmerman, Fang Li, Chuan-Yuan Li
Radiotherapy remains one of most important treatment modalities for solid tumors. Current radiotherapy is mostly based on a set of concepts called the 4"R"s, which were established when there was lack of understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms. However, progress made in the past two decades are beginning to allow us to see some of the molecular details involved in tumor response to radiation therapy. In this review, we will attempt to summarize some of the key discoveries in molecular radiation biology that have direct relevance to radiotherapy...
October 1, 2013: Translational Cancer Research
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