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Cilia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27602205/using-sea-urchin-gametes-and-zygotes-to-investigate-centrosome-duplication
#1
REVIEW
Greenfield Sluder
Centriole structure and function in the sea urchin zygote parallel those in mammalian somatic cells. Here, I briefly introduce the properties and attributes of the sea urchin system that make it an attractive platform for the study of centrosome and centriole duplication. These attributes apply to all echinoderms readily available from commercial suppliers: sea urchins, sand dollars, and starfish. I list some of the practical aspects of the system that make it a cost- and time-effective system for experimental work and then list properties that are a "tool kit" that can be used to conduct studies that would not be practical, or in some cases not possible, with mammalian somatic cells...
2016: Cilia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27493724/the-in-out-assay-a-new-tool-to-study-ciliogenesis
#2
Ira Kukic, Felix Rivera-Molina, Derek Toomre
BACKGROUND: Nearly all cells have a primary cilia on their surface, which functions as a cellular antennae. Primary cilia assembly begins intracellularly and eventually emerges extracellularly. However, current ciliogenesis assays, which detect cilia length and number, do not monitor ciliary stages. METHODS: We developed a new assay that detects antibody access to a fluorescently tagged ciliary transmembrane protein, which revealed three ciliary states: classified as 'inside,' 'outside,' or 'partial' cilia...
2016: Cilia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27382461/drosophila-melanogaster-as-a-model-for-basal-body-research
#3
REVIEW
Swadhin Chandra Jana, Mónica Bettencourt-Dias, Bénédicte Durand, Timothy L Megraw
The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is one of the most extensively studied organisms in biological research and has centrioles/basal bodies and cilia that can be modelled to investigate their functions in animals generally. Centrioles are nine-fold symmetrical microtubule-based cylindrical structures required to form centrosomes and also to nucleate the formation of cilia and flagella. When they function to template cilia, centrioles transition into basal bodies. The fruit fly has various types of basal bodies and cilia, which are needed for sensory neuron and sperm function...
2016: Cilia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27379179/eight-unique-basal-bodies-in-the-multi-flagellated-diplomonad-giardia-lamblia
#4
REVIEW
Shane G McInally, Scott C Dawson
Giardia lamblia is an intestinal parasitic protist that causes significant acute and chronic diarrheal disease worldwide. Giardia belongs to the diplomonads, a group of protists in the supergroup Excavata. Diplomonads are characterized by eight motile flagella organized into four bilaterally symmetric pairs. Each of the eight Giardia axonemes has a long cytoplasmic region that extends from the centrally located basal body before exiting the cell body as a membrane-bound flagellum. Each basal body is thus unique in its cytological position and its association with different cytoskeletal features, including the ventral disc, axonemes, and extra-axonemal structures...
2016: Cilia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27335639/ciliogenesis-and-the-dna-damage-response-a-stressful-relationship
#5
REVIEW
Colin A Johnson, Spencer J Collis
Both inherited and sporadic mutations can give rise to a plethora of human diseases. Through myriad diverse cellular processes, sporadic mutations can arise through a failure to accurately replicate the genetic code or by inaccurate separation of duplicated chromosomes into daughter cells. The human genome has therefore evolved to encode a large number of proteins that work together with regulators of the cell cycle to ensure that it remains error-free. This is collectively known as the DNA damage response (DDR), and genome stability mechanisms involve a complex network of signalling and processing factors that ensure redundancy and adaptability of these systems...
2016: Cilia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27293550/the-cilia-regulated-proteasome-and-its-role-in-the-development-of-ciliopathies-and-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Christoph Gerhardt, Tristan Leu, Johanna Maria Lier, Ulrich Rüther
The primary cilium is an essential structure for the mediation of numerous signaling pathways involved in the coordination and regulation of cellular processes essential for the development and maintenance of health. Consequently, ciliary dysfunction results in severe human diseases called ciliopathies. Since many of the cilia-mediated signaling pathways are oncogenic pathways, cilia are linked to cancer. Recent studies demonstrate the existence of a cilia-regulated proteasome and that this proteasome is involved in cancer development via the progression of oncogenic, cilia-mediated signaling...
2016: Cilia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27252853/the-basal-bodies-of-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#7
REVIEW
Susan K Dutcher, Eileen T O'Toole
The unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, is a biflagellated cell that can swim or glide. C. reinhardtii cells are amenable to genetic, biochemical, proteomic, and microscopic analysis of its basal bodies. The basal bodies contain triplet microtubules and a well-ordered transition zone. Both the mother and daughter basal bodies assemble flagella. Many of the proteins found in other basal body-containing organisms are present in the Chlamydomonas genome, and mutants in these genes affect the assembly of basal bodies...
2016: Cilia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27168933/zebrafish-a-vertebrate-tool-for-studying-basal-body-biogenesis-structure-and-function
#8
REVIEW
Ryan A Marshall, Daniel P S Osborn
Understanding the role of basal bodies (BBs) during development and disease has been largely overshadowed by research into the function of the cilium. Although these two organelles are closely associated, they have specific roles to complete for successful cellular development. Appropriate development and function of the BB are fundamental for cilia function. Indeed, there are a growing number of human genetic diseases affecting ciliary development, known collectively as the ciliopathies. Accumulating evidence suggests that BBs establish cell polarity, direct ciliogenesis, and provide docking sites for proteins required within the ciliary axoneme...
2016: Cilia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27148446/flagellar-apparatus-structure-of-choanoflagellates
#9
REVIEW
Sergey A Karpov
Phylum choanoflagellata is the nearest unicellular neighbor of metazoa at the phylogenetic tree. They are single celled or form the colonies, can be presented by naked cells or live in theca or lorica, but in all cases they have a flagellum surrounded by microvilli of the collar. They have rather uniform and peculiar flagellar apparatus structure with flagellar basal body (FB) producing a flagellum, and non-flagellar basal body (NFB) lying orthogonal to the FB. Long flagellar transition zone contains a unique structure among eukaryotes, the central filament, which connects central microtubules to the transversal plate...
2016: Cilia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27141300/update-on-oral-facial-digital-syndromes-ofds
#10
REVIEW
Brunella Franco, Christel Thauvin-Robinet
Oral-facial-digital syndromes (OFDS) represent a heterogeneous group of rare developmental disorders affecting the mouth, the face and the digits. Additional signs may involve brain, kidneys and other organs thus better defining the different clinical subtypes. With the exception of OFD types I and VIII, which are X-linked, the majority of OFDS is transmitted as an autosomal recessive syndrome. A number of genes have already found to be mutated in OFDS and most of the encoded proteins are predicted or proven to be involved in primary cilia/basal body function...
2016: Cilia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27114821/a-primer-on-the-mouse-basal-body
#11
REVIEW
Galo Garcia, Jeremy F Reiter
The basal body is a highly organized structure essential for the formation of cilia. Basal bodies dock to a cellular membrane through their distal appendages (also known as transition fibers) and provide the foundation on which the microtubules of the ciliary axoneme are built. Consequently, basal body position and orientation dictates the position and orientation of its cilium. The heart of the basal body is the mother centriole, the older of the two centrioles inherited during mitosis and which is comprised of  nine triplet microtubules arranged in a cylinder...
2016: Cilia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27069622/a-novel-ick-mutation-causes-ciliary-disruption-and-lethal-endocrine-cerebro-osteodysplasia-syndrome
#12
Machteld M Oud, Carine Bonnard, Dorus A Mans, Umut Altunoglu, Sumanty Tohari, Alvin Yu Jin Ng, Ascia Eskin, Hane Lee, C Anthony Rupar, Nathalie P de Wagenaar, Ka Man Wu, Piya Lahiry, Gregory J Pazour, Stanley F Nelson, Robert A Hegele, Ronald Roepman, Hülya Kayserili, Byrappa Venkatesh, Victoria M Siu, Bruno Reversade, Heleen H Arts
BACKGROUND: Endocrine-cerebro-osteodysplasia (ECO) syndrome [MIM:612651] caused by a recessive mutation (p.R272Q) in Intestinal cell kinase (ICK) shows significant clinical overlap with ciliary disorders. Similarities are strongest between ECO syndrome, the Majewski and Mohr-Majewski short-rib thoracic dysplasia (SRTD) with polydactyly syndromes, and hydrolethalus syndrome. In this study, we present a novel homozygous ICK mutation in a fetus with ECO syndrome and compare the effect of this mutation with the previously reported ICK variant on ciliogenesis and cilium morphology...
2016: Cilia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27047659/naegleria-a-classic-model-for-de-novo-basal-body-assembly
#13
REVIEW
Lillian K Fritz-Laylin, Chandler Fulton
The amoeboflagellate Naegleria was one of the first organisms in which de novo basal body/centriole assembly was documented. When in its flagellate form, this single-celled protist has two flagella that are templated by two basal bodies. Each of these basal bodies is structurally well conserved, with triplet microtubules and well-defined proximal cartwheel structures, similar to most other eukaryotic centrioles. The basal bodies are anchored to the nucleus by a single, long striated rootlet. The Naegleria genome encodes many conserved basal body genes whose expression is induced prior to basal body assembly...
2016: Cilia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26998257/basal-bodies-across-eukaryotes-series-basal-bodies-in-the-freshwater-planarian-schmidtea-mediterranea
#14
REVIEW
Juliette Azimzadeh, Cyril Basquin
The freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea has recently emerged as a valuable model system to study basal bodies (BBs) and cilia. Planarians are free-living flatworms that use cilia beating at the surface of their ventral epidermis for gliding along substrates. The ventral epidermis is composed of multiciliated cells (MCCs) that are similar to the MCCs in the respiratory airways, the brain ventricles, and the oviducts in vertebrates. In the planarian epidermis, each cell assembles approximately eighty cilia that beat in a coordinate fashion across the tissue...
2016: Cilia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26981235/human-basal-body-basics
#15
REVIEW
Anastassiia Vertii, Hui-Fang Hung, Heidi Hehnly, Stephen Doxsey
In human cells, the basal body (BB) core comprises a ninefold microtubule-triplet cylindrical structure. Distal and subdistal appendages are located at the distal end of BB, where they play indispensable roles in cilium formation and function. Most cells that arrest in the G0 stage of the cell cycle initiate BB docking at the plasma membrane followed by BB-mediated growth of a solitary primary cilium, a structure required for sensing the extracellular environment and cell signaling. In addition to the primary cilium, motile cilia are present in specialized cells, such as sperm and airway epithelium...
2016: Cilia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26937279/basal-body-structure-in-trichonympha
#16
REVIEW
Paul Guichard, Pierre Gönczy
Trichonympha is a symbiotic flagellate of many species of termites and of the wood-feeding cockroach. Remarkably, this unicellular organism harbors up to over ten thousand flagella on its surface, which serve to propel it through the viscous environment of the host hindgut. In the 1960s, analysis of resin-embedded Trichonympha samples by electron microscopy revealed that the basal bodies that give rise to these flagella are exceptionally long, with a proximal, cartwheel-bearing, region some 50 times longer than that of regular centrioles...
2016: Cilia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26870322/measuring-the-primary-cilium-length-improved-method-for-unbiased-high-throughput-analysis
#17
Anneloes Dummer, Christian Poelma, Marco C DeRuiter, Marie-José T H Goumans, Beerend P Hierck
BACKGROUND: Primary cilia are cellular protrusions involved in mechanic and chemical sensing on almost all cells of our body. Important signaling pathways, including Hedgehog, TGFβ, and Ca(2+), are linked to cilia and/or cilia function. Cilia can vary in length, which has functional implications. To measure these lengths correctly, a standardized method with high reliability and throughput is required. To date, methods for length measurements in cultured cells after fluorescent staining for ciliary components are error prone with a possible human selection bias, primarily caused by the orientation of cilia with respect of the imaging plane...
2016: Cilia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26862393/paramecium-tetraurelia-basal-body-structure
#18
REVIEW
Anne-Marie Tassin, Michel Lemullois, Anne Aubusson-Fleury
Paramecium is a free-living unicellular organism, easy to cultivate, featuring ca. 4000 motile cilia emanating from longitudinal rows of basal bodies anchored in the plasma membrane. The basal body circumferential polarity is marked by the asymmetrical organization of its associated appendages. The complex basal body plus its associated rootlets forms the kinetid. Kinetids are precisely oriented within a row in correlation with the cell polarity. Basal bodies also display a proximo-distal polarity with microtubule triplets at their proximal ends, surrounding a permanent cartwheel, and microtubule doublets at the transition zone located between the basal body and the cilium...
2015: Cilia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26862392/basal-body-structure-and-cell-cycle-dependent-biogenesis-in-trypanosoma-brucei
#19
REVIEW
Sue Vaughan, Keith Gull
Basal bodies are microtubule-based organelles that assemble cilia and flagella, which are critical for motility and sensory functions in all major eukaryotic lineages. The core structure of the basal body is highly conserved, but there is variability in biogenesis and additional functions that are organism and cell type specific. Work carried out in the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei has arguably produced one of the most detailed dissections of basal body structure and biogenesis within the context of the flagellar pocket and associated organelles...
2015: Cilia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26855772/basal-body-structure-and-composition-in-the-apicomplexans-toxoplasma-and-plasmodium
#20
REVIEW
Maria E Francia, Jean-Francois Dubremetz, Naomi S Morrissette
The phylum Apicomplexa encompasses numerous important human and animal disease-causing parasites, including the Plasmodium species, and Toxoplasma gondii, causative agents of malaria and toxoplasmosis, respectively. Apicomplexans proliferate by asexual replication and can also undergo sexual recombination. Most life cycle stages of the parasite lack flagella; these structures only appear on male gametes. Although male gametes (microgametes) assemble a typical 9+2 axoneme, the structure of the templating basal body is poorly defined...
2015: Cilia
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