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Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638595/use-of-90-ethanol-to-decontaminate-stethoscopes-in-resource-limited-settings
#1
Bijendra Raj Raghubanshi, Supriya Sapkota, Arjab Adhikari, Aman Dutta, Utsuk Bhattarai, Rastriyata Bhandari
BACKGROUND: In developing countries like Nepal, 90% ethanol is cheap and is available in most hospitals. The unavailability of isopropyl alcohol (IPA) in these settings led us to compare the efficacy between 90% ethanol and isopropyl alcohol pads in reducing the bacterial contamination of diaphragm of stethoscope. METHODS: A randomized blinded experimental study was carried out to determine the difference between cleaning stethoscopes with 90% ethanol and IPA. Cultures of diaphragm were taken before and after cleaning with one of the cleaning agent...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638594/high-burden-of-antimicrobial-resistance-among-gram-negative-bacteria-causing-healthcare-associated-infections-in-a-critical-care-unit-of-nepal
#2
Narayan Prasad Parajuli, Subhash Prasad Acharya, Shyam Kumar Mishra, Keshab Parajuli, Basista Prasad Rijal, Bharat Mani Pokhrel
BACKGROUND: Healthcare associated infections (HCAI) and antimicrobial resistance are principal threats to the patients of intensive care units and are the major determining factors for patient outcome. They are associated with increased morbidity, mortality, excess hospitalization and financial costs. The present study is an attempt to investigate the spectrum and antimicrobial resistance of bacterial isolates involved in healthcare associated infections (HCAI) in the patients of a critical care unit at a tertiary care university hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630690/incidence-and-risk-factors-for-surgical-site-infections-in-obstetric-and-gynecological-surgeries-from-a-teaching-hospital-in-rural-india
#3
Ashish Pathak, Kalpana Mahadik, Manmat B Swami, Pulak K Roy, Megha Sharma, Vijay K Mahadik, Cecilia Stålsby Lundborg
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infections (SSI) are one of the most common healthcare associated infections in the low-middle income countries. Data on incidence and risk factors for SSI following surgeries in general and Obstetric and Gynecological surgeries in particular are scare. This study set out to identify risk factors for SSI in patients undergoing Obstetric and Gynecological surgeries in an Indian rural hospital. METHODS: Patients who underwent a surgical procedure between September 2010 to February 2013 in the 60-bedded ward of Obstetric and Gynecology department were included...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630689/why-language-matters-a-tour-through-hand-hygiene-literature
#4
Daniela Pires, Ermira Tartari, Fernando Bellissimo-Rodrigues, Didier Pittet
BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene has evolved over the last decades and many terminologies emerged. We aimed to analyse the evolution in the frequency of utilization of key hand hygiene terms in the literature along the years. METHODS: We identified keywords and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) used in MEDLINE® indexation related to hand hygiene by searching international guidelines and the MeSH database. We performed a MEDLINE® search combining the selected keywords and MeSH and analysed the number of publications retrieved yearly...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630688/prevalence-of-antimicrobial-resistant-pathogens-from-blood-cultures-results-from-a-laboratory-based-nationwide-surveillance-in-ghana
#5
Japheth Awuletey Opintan, Mercy Jemima Newman
BACKGROUND: Blood stream infections (BSI) are critical medical conditions with high morbidity and mortality. There is paucity of information on BSI from surveillance studies in Ghana. AIM: This study sought to demonstrate how useful BSI data can be gleaned from population-based surveillance, especially from resource-limited settings. METHODS: Data from a nationwide surveillance of antimicrobial drug resistance (AMR) in Ghana were extracted and analyzed...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630687/emerging-antimicrobial-resistance-in-early-and-late-onset-neonatal-sepsis
#6
Lamiaa Mohsen, Nermin Ramy, Dalia Saied, Dina Akmal, Niveen Salama, Mona M Abdel Haleim, Hany Aly
BACKGROUND: Compared to developed countries, the use of antimicrobials in Egypt is less regulated and is available over the counter without the need for prescriptions. The impact of such policy on antimicrobial resistance has not been studied. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of early and late onset sepsis, and the frequency of antimicrobial resistance in a major referral neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). METHODS: The study included all neonates admitted to the NICU over a 12-month period...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630686/fecal-carriage-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-and-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-egyptian-patients-with-community-onset-gastrointestinal-complaints-a-hospital-based-cross-sectional-study
#7
H M Abdallah, N Alnaiemi, E A Reuland, B B Wintermans, A Koek, A M Abdelwahab, A Samy, K W Abdelsalam, C M J E Vandenbroucke-Grauls
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and carbapenemase production among Enterobacteriaceae isolated from ambulatory patients with gastrointestinal complaints admitted to El-Ahrar General Hospital, Zagazig, Egypt in the period between January 2013 and May 2013. METHODS: One hundred and thirteen Enterobacteriaceae isolates were recovered from 100 consecutive Egyptian patients with community-onset gastrointestinal complaints...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630685/effectiveness-of-surface-coatings-containing-silver-ions-in-bacterial-decontamination-in-a-recovery-unit
#8
Rafael Manuel Ortí-Lucas, Julio Muñoz-Miguel
BACKGROUND: HAIs remain a frequent complication for hospitalised patients and pose a challenge that must be tackled by our health systems. METHODS: Quasi-experimental study. In order to determine the antimicrobial effectiveness of surface coating agents containing silver ions (BactiBlock®) the degree of contamination of several surfaces in two ICU wards was compared. The association between application of Bactiblock® and surface contamination was analysed using a relative risk (RR)...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616204/comparison-of-subsequent-infection-in-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-nasal-carriers-between-st72-community-genotype-and-hospital-genotypes-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#9
So Yeon Park, Doo Ryeon Chung, Yu Ri Kang, So Hyun Kim, Sun Young Cho, Young Eun Ha, Cheol-In Kang, Kyong Ran Peck, Jae-Hoon Song
BACKGROUND: Carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important risk factor of subsequent infection. The purpose of our study was to compare the rates of subsequent infection among newly-admitted patients carrying MRSA between community-genotype and hospital-genotypes. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we compared the rates of subsequent MRSA infection, time to subsequent infection and mortality in the following 6 months between the community-genotype ST72 MRSA cohort and the hospital-genotypes ST5 / ST239 MRSA cohort...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616203/reduced-rate-of-intensive-care-unit-acquired-gram-negative-bacilli-after-removal-of-sinks-and-introduction-of-water-free-patient-care
#10
Joost Hopman, Alma Tostmann, Heiman Wertheim, Maria Bos, Eva Kolwijck, Reinier Akkermans, Patrick Sturm, Andreas Voss, Peter Pickkers, Hans Vd Hoeven
BACKGROUND: Sinks in patient rooms are associated with hospital-acquired infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of removal of sinks from the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patient rooms and the introduction of 'water-free' patient care on gram-negative bacilli colonization rates. METHODS: We conducted a 2-year pre/post quasi-experimental study that compared monthly gram-negative bacilli colonization rates pre- and post-intervention using segmented regression analysis of interrupted time series data...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603609/antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-clostridium-difficile-isolated-in-thailand
#11
Papanin Putsathit, Monthira Maneerattanaporn, Pipat Piewngam, Daniel R Knight, Pattarachai Kiratisin, Thomas V Riley
BACKGROUND: Exposure to antimicrobials is the major risk factor associated with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Paradoxically, treatment of CDI with antimicrobials remains the preferred option. To date, only three studies have investigated the antimicrobial susceptibility of C. difficile from Thailand, two of which were published in the 1990s. This study aimed to investigate the contemporary antibiotic susceptibility of C. difficile isolated from patients in Thailand. METHODS: A collection of 105 C...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593045/virulence-traits-associated-with-burkholderia-cenocepacia-st856-epidemic-strain-isolated-from-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#12
Milka Malešević, Zorica Vasiljević, Aleksandar Sovtić, Brankica Filipić, Katarina Novović, Milan Kojić, Branko Jovčić
BACKGROUND: Burkholderia cenocepacia is considered one of the most problematic cystic fibrosis (CF) pathogens. Colonization prevalence in the Serbian CF population is high and virtually exclusively limited to a single highly transmissible clone of B. cenocepacia ST856 which is positive for both the B. cepacia epidemic strain marker (BCESM) and cable pilin, and is closely related to the epidemic strain CZ1 (ST32). METHODS: Biofilm formation for 182 isolates, and adhesion to components of the host extracellular matrix, proteolytic activity, mucoidy and motility of selected ST856 representatives, as well as B...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593044/surveillance-of-surgical-site-infections-by-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-strain-characterization-in-tanzanian-hospitals-does-not-provide-proof-for-a-role-of-hospital-water-plumbing-systems-in-transmission
#13
Nyambura Moremi, Heike Claus, Ulrich Vogel, Stephen E Mshana
BACKGROUND: The role of hospital water systems in the development of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) surgical site infections (SSIs) in low-income countries is barely studied. This study characterized P. aeruginosa isolates from patients and water in order to establish possible epidemiological links. METHODS: Between December 2014 and September 2015, rectal and wound swabs, and water samples were collected in the frame of active surveillance for SSIs in the two Tanzanian hospitals...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593043/diffusion-of-clindamycin-resistant-and-erythromycin-resistant-methicillin-susceptible-staphylococcus-aureus-mssa-potential-st398-in-united-states-veterans-health-administration-hospitals-2003-2014
#14
Margaret Carrel, Michihiko Goto, Marin L Schweizer, Michael Z David, Daniel Livorsi, Eli N Perencevich
BACKGROUND: Changing phenotypic profiles of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) isolates can indicate the emergence of novel sequence types (ST). The diffusion of MSSA ST can be tracked by combining established genotypic profiles with phenotypic surveillance data. ST398 emerged in New York City (NYC) and exhibits resistance to clindamycin and erythromycin but tetracycline susceptibility ("potential ST398"). Trends of potential ST398 were examined in a national cohort of all Veterans Health Administration patients with MSSA invasive infections during 2003-2014...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588767/effectiveness-of-various-cleaning-and-disinfectant-products-on-clostridium-difficile-spores-of-pcr-ribotypes-010-014-and-027
#15
N Kenters, E G W Huijskens, S C J de Wit, I G J M Sanders, J van Rosmalen, E J Kuijper, A Voss
BACKGROUND: In healthcare facilities, Clostridium difficile infections spread by transmission of bacterial spores. Appropriate sporicidal disinfectants are needed to prevent development of clusters and outbreaks. In this study different cleaning/disinfecting wipes and sprays were tested for their efficacy against spores of distinctive C. difficile PCR ribotypes. METHODS: Four different products were tested; 1) hydrogen peroxide 1.5%; 2) glucoprotamin 1.5%; 3) a mixture of ethanol, propane and N-alkyl amino propyl glycine; and 4) a mixture of didecyldimonium chloride, benzalkonium chloride, polyaminopropyl, biguanide and dimenthicone as active ingredients...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588766/how-externalities-impact-an-evaluation-of-strategies-to-prevent-antimicrobial-resistance-in-health-care-organizations
#16
REVIEW
Jenine R Leal, John Conly, Elizabeth Ann Henderson, Braden J Manns
BACKGROUND: The rates of antimicrobial-resistant organisms (ARO) continue to increase for both hospitalized and community patients. Few resources have been allocated to reduce the spread of resistance on global, national and local levels, in part because the broader economic impact of antimicrobial resistance (i.e. the externality) is not fully considered when determining how much to invest to prevent AROs, including strategies to contain antimicrobial resistance, such as antimicrobial stewardship programs...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529729/characterization-of-the-novel-in1059-harbouring-vim-gene-cassette
#17
Dongguo Wang, Jinhong Yang, Meiyu Fang, Wei He, Ying Zhang, Caixia Liu, Dongsheng Zhou
BACKGROUND: VIM-type enzyme encodes the most widely acquired metallo-β-lactamases in Gram- negative bacteria. To obtain current epidemiological data for integrons from enterobacteriae in hospital, the study characterizes the genetic structure in In1059 by comparison with In846 integrons harbouring VIM gene and other class 1 integrons including In37, In62, In843 and In1021 with the aim of identifying the putative mechanisms involved integron mobilization and infer evolution of relevant integrons...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515905/colonization-of-long-term-care-facility-patients-with-mdr-gram-negatives-during-an-acinetobacter-baumannii-outbreak
#18
Ines Zollner-Schwetz, Elisabeth Zechner, Elisabeth Ullrich, Josefa Luxner, Christian Pux, Gerald Pichler, Walter Schippinger, Robert Krause, Eva Leitner
BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the prevalence of colonization by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria including ESBL-producing enterobacteriaceae, carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii at two wards caring long term for patients with disorder of consciousness at the Geriatric Health Centers Graz, Austria. During our study we detected two A. baumannii outbreaks. METHODS: In August 2015, we conducted a point-prevalence study...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515904/weekly-screening-supports-terminating-nosocomial-transmissions-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-on-an-oncologic-ward-a-retrospective-analysis
#19
Stefanie Kampmeier, Dennis Knaack, Annelene Kossow, Stefanie Willems, Christoph Schliemann, Wolfgang E Berdel, Frank Kipp, Alexander Mellmann
BACKGROUND: To investigate the impact of weekly screening within the bundle of infection control measures to terminate vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) transmissions on an oncologic ward. METHODS: A cluster of 12 VRE colonisation and five infections was detected on an oncologic ward between January and April 2015. Subsequently, the VRE point prevalence was detected and, as part of a the bundle of infection control strategies to terminate the VRE cluster, we isolated affected patients, performed hand hygiene training among staff on ward, increased observations by infection control specialists, intensified surface disinfection, used personal protective equipment and initiated an admission screening in May 2015...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515903/the-threat-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-developing-countries-causes-and-control-strategies
#20
REVIEW
James A Ayukekbong, Michel Ntemgwa, Andrew N Atabe
The causes of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in developing countries are complex and may be rooted in practices of health care professionals and patients' behavior towards the use of antimicrobials as well as supply chains of antimicrobials in the population. Some of these factors may include inappropriate prescription practices, inadequate patient education, limited diagnostic facilities, unauthorized sale of antimicrobials, lack of appropriate functioning drug regulatory mechanisms, and non-human use of antimicrobials such as in animal production...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
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