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Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904748/patterns-of-medication-use-and-factors-associated-with-antibiotic-use-among-adult-fever-patients-at-singapore-primary-care-clinics
#1
Zaw Myo Tun, Mahesh Moorthy, Martin Linster, Yvonne C F Su, Richard James Coker, Eng Eong Ooi, Jenny Guek-Hong Low, Gavin J D Smith, Clarence C Tam
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is a public health problem of global importance. In Singapore, much focus has been given to antibiotic usage patterns in hospital settings. Data on antibiotic use in primary care is lacking. We describe antibiotic usage patterns and assess factors contributing to antibiotic usage among adults presenting with acute febrile illness (AFI) in primary care settings in Singapore. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Early Dengue infection and outcome study...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904747/comparing-the-disk-diffusion-and-agar-dilution-tests-for-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing
#2
Hsi Liu, Thomas H Taylor, Kevin Pettus, Steve Johnson, John R Papp, David Trees
BACKGROUND: We assessed the validity of testing for antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical and mutant Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) isolates by disk diffusion in comparison to agar dilution, and Etest® (bioMerieux, France), respectively, for three third generation extended spectrum cephalosporins (ESC): ceftriaxone (CRO), cefixime (CFX), and cefpodoxime (CPD). METHODS: One hundred and five clinical isolates and ten laboratory-mutants were tested following Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) and manufacturer's standards for each of the three methods...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895904/poor-adherence-to-guidelines-for-preventing-central-line-associated-bloodstream-infections-clabsi-results-of-a-worldwide-survey
#3
Cristina Valencia, Naïma Hammami, Antonella Agodi, Alain Lepape, Eduardo Palencia Herrejon, Stijn Blot, Jean-Louis Vincent, Marie-Laurence Lambert
BACKGROUND: Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) are a cause of increased morbidity and mortality, and are largely preventable. We documented attitudes and practices in intensive care units (ICUs) in 2015 in order to assess compliance with CLABSI prevention guidelines. METHODS: Between June and October 2015, an online questionnaire was made available to medical doctors and nurses working in ICUs worldwide. We investigated practices related to central line (CL) insertion, maintenance and measurement of CLABSI-related data following the SHEA guidelines as a standard...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895903/deliberate-exposure-of-humans-to-chlorine-the-aftermath-of-ebola-in-west-africa
#4
Shaheen Mehtar, Andre N H Bulabula, Haurace Nyandemoh, Steve Jambawai
BACKGROUND: During the recent Ebola outbreak, spraying of the environment and humans, including healthcare workers, with chlorine was wide spread in affected African countries; adverse clinical effects are reported here. METHODS: A cross sectional survey by interview of 1550 volunteers consisting of 500 healthcare workers (HCW), 550 Ebola survivors (EVD) and 500 quarantined asymptomatic Ebola contacts (NEVD) was conducted. Demographics, frequency of exposure to chlorine, clinical condition after chlorine exposure particularly eye, respiratory and skin conditions were noted...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895902/effect-of-%C3%AE-lactamase-inhibitors-on-in-vitro-activity-of-%C3%AE-lactam-antibiotics-against-burkholderia-cepacia-complex-species
#5
Annelien Everaert, Tom Coenye
BACKGROUND: Bacteria belonging to the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) are an important cause of chronic respiratory tract infections in cystic fibrosis patients. Intrinsic resistance to a wide range of antimicrobial agents, including a variety of β-lactam antibiotics, is frequently observed in Bcc strains. Resistance to β-lactams is most commonly mediated by efflux pumps, alterations in penicillin-binding proteins or the expression of β-lactamases. β-lactamase inhibitors are able to restore the in vitro activity of β-lactam molecules against a variety of Gram-negative species, but the effect of these inhibitors on the activity of β-lactam treatment against Bcc species is still poorly investigated...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895901/prevention-of-hospital-acquired-pneumonia-in-non-ventilated-adult-patients-a-narrative-review
#6
REVIEW
Leonor Pássaro, Stephan Harbarth, Caroline Landelle
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is one of the leading hospital-acquired infections worldwide and has an important impact. Although preventive measures for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) are well known, less is known about appropriate measures for prevention of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP). AIM: The purpose of this narrative review is to provide an overview of the current standards for preventing HAP in non-ventilated adult patients. METHODS: A search of the literature up to May 2015 was conducted using Medline for guidelines published by national professional societies or professional medical associations...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891222/epidemiology-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-bloodstream-infections-in-a-teaching-hospital-factors-related-to-the-carbapenem-resistance-and-patient-mortality
#7
Lijun Tian, Ruoming Tan, Yang Chen, Jingyong Sun, Jialin Liu, Hongping Qu, Xiaoli Wang
BACKGROUND: Although Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infections (KP-BSIs) have recently attracted attention due to an alarming raise in morbidity and mortality, there have been few reports on the epidemiology of KP-BSIs in mainland China. We sought to describe the epidemiological, microbiological, and clinical characteristics of KP-BSIs, focusing on the risk factors of carbapenem resistance and patient mortality. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of WHONET data of KP-BSI patients admitted to a teaching hospital in Shanghai, China, between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2015 was performed, and the annual percentage of patients with carbapenem-resistant K...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857835/antibiotics-practice-and-opinions-of-cambodian-commercial-farmers-animal-feed-retailers-and-veterinarians
#8
Chhorvoin Om, Mary-Louise McLaws
BACKGROUND: Cambodia has reported multidrug resistant bacteria in poultry, similar to other countries in the region. We visited commercial food animal farms to explore opinions and antibiotic practices on the farms. METHODS: We used individual in-depth qualitative interviews with 16 commercial farmers, four feed retailers and nine veterinarians from food animal industry and government offices from the southwestern region of Phnom Penh. Transcribed interviews were thematically analysed...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822366/global-variances-in-infection-control-practices-for-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-results-of-an-electronic-survey
#9
H Isenman, J Michaels, D Fisher
An electronic survey was disseminated amongst infection control practitioners to investigate the variation in practices toward vancomycin resistant enterococci. There were 235 analysable responses, mostly from doctors, in 48 countries. The survey considered active surveillance, in-hospital precautions and tagging and untagging processes. There was a great variation in responses between and within countries highlighting a gap in guidance for practitioners on which to base institutional policy.
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777761/a-pilot-study-to-assess-use-of-fluorescent-lotion-in-patient-care-simulations-to-illustrate-pathogen-dissemination-and-train-personnel-in-correct-use-of-personal-protective-equipment
#10
Heba Alhmidi, Sreelatha Koganti, Myreen E Tomas, Jennifer L Cadnum, Annette Jencson, Curtis J Donskey
BACKGROUND: Simulations using fluorescent tracers can be useful in understanding the spread of pathogens and in devising effective infection control strategies. METHODS: During simulated patient care interactions in which providers wore gloves and gowns, we evaluated environmental and personnel dissemination of fluorescent lotion and bacteriophage MS2 from a contaminated mannequin. The frequency of skin and clothing contamination after removal of personal protective equipment (PPE) was compared before versus after an intervention that included education and practice in PPE donning and doffing...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777760/a-mixed-methods-study-to-understand-patient-expectations-for-antibiotics-for-an-upper-respiratory-tract-infection
#11
Christina Gaarslev, Melissa Yee, Georgi Chan, Stephanie Fletcher-Lartey, Rabia Khan
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is a public health challenge supplemented by inappropriate prescribing, especially for an upper respiratory tract infection in primary care. Patient/carer expectations have been identified as one of the main drivers for inappropriate antibiotics prescribing by primary care physicians. The aim of this study was to understand who is more likely to expect an antibiotic for an upper respiratory tract infection from their doctor and the reasons underlying it...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777759/regional-variations-in-fluoroquinolone-non-susceptibility-among-escherichia-coli-bloodstream-infections-within-the-veterans-healthcare-administration
#12
Daniel J Livorsi, Michihiko Goto, Margaret Carrel, Makoto M Jones, Jennifer McDanel, Rajeshwari Nair, Bruce Alexander, Brice Beck, Kelly K Richardson, Eli N Perencevich
OBJECTIVES: We sought to define regional variations in fluoroquinolone non-susceptibility (FQ-NS) among bloodstream isolates of Escherichia coli across the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) in the United States. METHODS: We analyzed a retrospective cohort of patients managed at 136 VHA hospitals who had a blood culture positive for E.coli between 2003 and 2013. Hospitals were classified based on US Census Divisions, and regional variations in FQ-NS were analyzed...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777758/e-coli-bacteremia-in-comparison-to-k-pneumoniae-bacteremia-influence-of-pathogen-species-and-esbl-production-on-7-day-mortality
#13
R Leistner, A Bloch, P Gastmeier, F Schwab
In a previous study, we demonstrated prolonged length of hospital stay in cases of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-positive K. pneumoniae bacteremia compared to bacteremia cases due to E. coli (ESBL-positive and -negative) and ESBL-negative K. pneumoniae. The overall mortality was significantly higher in bacteremia cases resulting from ESBL-positive pathogens but also in K. pneumoniae cases disregarding ESBL-production. In order to examine whether pathogen species rather than multidrug resistance might affect mortality risk, we reanalyzed our dataset that includes 1...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777757/a-quasi-experimental-study-to-determine-the-effects-of-a-multifaceted-educational-intervention-on-hand-hygiene-compliance-in-a-radiography-unit
#14
Margaret O'Donoghue, Suk-Hing Ng, Lorna Kp Suen, Maureen Boost
BACKGROUND: Whilst numerous studies have investigated nurses' compliance with hand hygiene and use of alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR), limited attention has been paid to these issues in allied health staff. Reports have linked infections to breaches in infection control in the radiography unit (RU). With advances in medical imaging, a higher proportion of patients come into contact with RU staff increasing the need for good hand hygiene compliance. This study aimed to evaluate effectiveness on compliance of an intervention to improve awareness of hand hygiene in the RU of a district hospital...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777756/first-hospital-outbreak-of-the-globally-emerging-candida-auris-in-a-european-hospital
#15
Silke Schelenz, Ferry Hagen, Johanna L Rhodes, Alireza Abdolrasouli, Anuradha Chowdhary, Anne Hall, Lisa Ryan, Joanne Shackleton, Richard Trimlett, Jacques F Meis, Darius Armstrong-James, Matthew C Fisher
BACKGROUND: Candida auris is a globally emerging multidrug resistant fungal pathogen causing nosocomial transmission. We report an ongoing outbreak of C. auris in a London cardio-thoracic center between April 2015 and July 2016. This is the first report of C. auris in Europe and the largest outbreak so far. We describe the identification, investigation and implementation of control measures. METHODS: Data on C. auris case demographics, environmental screening, implementation of infection prevention/control measures, and antifungal susceptibility of patient isolates were prospectively recorded then analysed retrospectively...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777755/serious-electronic-games-as-behavioural-change-interventions-in-healthcare-associated-infections-and-infection-prevention-and-control-a-scoping-review-of-the-literature-and-future-directions
#16
Enrique Castro-Sánchez, Yiannis Kyratsis, Michiyo Iwami, Timothy M Rawson, Alison H Holmes
BACKGROUND: The uptake of improvement initiatives in infection prevention and control (IPC) has often proven challenging. Innovative interventions such as 'serious games' have been proposed in other areas to educate and help clinicians adopt optimal behaviours. There is limited evidence about the application and evaluation of serious games in IPC. The purposes of the study were: a) to synthesise research evidence on the use of serious games in IPC to support healthcare workers' behaviour change and best practice learning; and b) to identify gaps across the formulation and evaluation of serious games in IPC...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766146/review-on-colonization-of-residents-and-staff-in-italian-long-term-care-facilities-by-multidrug-resistant-bacteria-compared-with-other-european-countries
#17
Richard Aschbacher, Elisabetta Pagani, Massimo Confalonieri, Claudio Farina, Paolo Fazii, Francesco Luzzaro, Pier Giorgio Montanera, Aurora Piazza, Laura Pagani
BACKGROUND: Rates of colonization and infection with multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria are increasing worldwide, in both acute care hospitals and long-term care facilities (LTCFs). Italy has one of the highest prevalence of MDR bacteria in European countries, especially with regard to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) or carbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE). METHOD: Review of studies on colonization by MDR bacteria from Italian LTCFs, risk factors for colonization and molecular characteristics of surveillance and clinical isolates, compared with other European countries...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688877/identifying%C3%A2-conditions-for-elimination-and-epidemic-potential-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-nursing-homes
#18
Nataliya G Batina, Christopher J Crnich, David F Anderson, Dörte Döpfer
BACKGROUND: Residents of nursing homes are commonly colonized with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) but there is a limited understanding of the dynamics and determinants of spread in this setting. To address this gap, we sought to use mathematical modeling to assess the epidemic potential of MRSA in nursing homes and to determine conditions under which non-USA300 and USA300 MRSA could be eliminated or reduced in the facilities. METHODS: Model parameters were estimated from data generated during a longitudinal study of MRSA in 6 Wisconsin nursing homes...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688876/emergence-of-linezolid-and-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-in-a-department-for-hematologic-stem-cell-transplantation
#19
M Krull, I Klare, B Ross, R Trenschel, D W Beelen, D Todt, E Steinmann, J Buer, P-M Rath, J Steinmann
BACKGROUND: Prevalence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci has increased in Germany. Here, we report the cluster of linezolid- and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (LVRE) in a German department for hematologic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). METHODS: In this retrospective analysis we included all patients with LVRE in a university-based department for HSCT in 2014 and 2015. Patients chart reviews were used to investigate the epidemiology and clinical outcome...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583136/drug-susceptibility-patterns-of-the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolated-from-previously-treated-and-new-cases-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-at-german-nepal-tuberculosis-project-laboratory-kathmandu-nepal
#20
Gobinda Thapa, Narayan Dutt Pant, Saroj Khatiwada, Binod Lekhak, Bhawana Shrestha
BACKGROUND: Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a serious public health problem in Nepal. It is a major obstacle for the control of the tuberculosis. The main objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of the multidrug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis and to evaluate the drug susceptibility patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from previously treated and newly diagnosed cases of pulmonary tuberculosis. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2013 to August 2013 at German-Nepal tuberculosis project (GENETUP) laboratory, Kathmandu, Nepal...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
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