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Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control

Yu Lü, Min Hong Cai, Jian Cheng, Kun Zou, Qian Xiang, Jia Yu Wu, Dao Qiong Wei, Zhong Hua Zhou, Hui Wang, Chen Wang, Jing Chen
Background: In 2018, the Chinese government demanded nationwide implementation of medical insurance payment methods based on Single-Disease Payment (SDP), but during the operation process the medical insurance system did not fully consider the extra economic burden caused by healthcare-associated infection (HAI). HAIs can prolong the length of stay and increase the hospitalization costs, but only a few studies have been conducted in Sichuan province, China. We evaluated the hospitalization costs and length of stay due to HAI in Sichuan province based on the prevalence survey, and provided data reference for China's medical insurance reform...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Poojan Shrestha, Ben S Cooper, Joanna Coast, Raymond Oppong, Nga Do Thi Thuy, Tuangrat Phodha, Olivier Celhay, Philippe J Guerin, Heiman Wertheim, Yoel Lubell
Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) poses a colossal threat to global health and incurs high economic costs to society. Economic evaluations of antimicrobials and interventions such as diagnostics and vaccines that affect their consumption rarely include the costs of AMR, resulting in sub-optimal policy recommendations. We estimate the economic cost of AMR per antibiotic consumed, stratified by drug class and national income level. Methods: The model is comprised of three components: correlation coefficients between human antibiotic consumption and subsequent resistance; the economic costs of AMR for five key pathogens; and consumption data for antibiotic classes driving resistance in these organisms...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Giovanni Lorenzin, Giorgio Piccinelli, Lucrezia Carlassara, Francesco Scolari, Francesca Caccuri, Arnaldo Caruso, Maria Antonia De Francesco
Background: Myroides spp. are common environmental organisms and they can be isolated predominantly in water, soil, food and in sewage treatment plants. In the last two decades, an increasing number of infections such as urinary tract infections and skin and soft tissue infections, caused by these microorganisms has been reported. Selection of appropriate antibiotic therapy to treat the infections caused by Myroides spp . is difficult due to the production of a biofilm and the organism's intrinsic resistance to many antibiotic classes...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Ksenia Ershova, Ivan Savin, Nataliya Kurdyumova, Darren Wong, Gleb Danilov, Michael Shifrin, Irina Alexandrova, Ekaterina Sokolova, Nadezhda Fursova, Vladimir Zelman, Olga Ershova
Background: The impact of infection prevention and control (IPC) programs in limited resource countries such as Russia are largely unknown due to a lack of reliable data. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of an IPC program with respect to healthcare associated infection (HAI) prevention and to define the incidence of HAIs in a Russian ICU. Methods: A pioneering IPC program was implemented in a neuro-ICU at Burdenko Neurosurgery Institute in 2010 and included hand hygiene, surveillance, contact precautions, patient isolation, and environmental cleaning measures...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Wen-Pin Tseng, Yee-Chun Chen, Shang-Yu Chen, Shey-Ying Chen, Shan-Chwen Chang
Background: Risks for subsequent multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria (MDRGNB) infection and long-term outcome after hospitalization among patients with MDRGNB colonization remain unknown. Methods: This observational study enrolled 817 patients who were hospitalized in the study hospital in 2009. We defined MDRGNB as a GNB resistant to at least three different antimicrobial classes. Patients were classified into MDRGNB culture-positive (MDRGNB-CP; 125 patients) and culture-negative (MDRGNB-CN; 692 patients) groups based on the presence or absence of any MDRGNB identified from either active surveillance or clinical cultures during index hospitalization...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Teresa M Wozniak
The systematic review published by Naylor et al. in April 2018 highlights methodological assumptions and biases that occur in studies investigating the burden of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). They note that, due to both the large diversity of statistical approaches and perspectives chosen, the current evidence base of the burden of AMR is highly variable. Certainly, these conclusions are valid and the authors present a very thorough analysis of the currently published literature with a broad array of drug-bug combinations...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Daniel Asfaw Erku, Sisay Yifru Aberra
Background: Although prohibited by law and legal regulatory frameworks, non-prescribed sale of antibiotics in community medicine retail outlets (CMROs) remains a serious problem in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to document the extent of and motivations behind non-prescribed sale of antibiotics among CMROs in Gondar town, Ethiopia. Methods: A 2 phase mixed-methods study (a simulated patient visit followed by an in-depth interview) was conducted among CMROs in Gondar town, Ethiopia...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Nahla O Eltai, Asmaa A Al Thani, Khalid Al-Ansari, Anand S Deshmukh, Eman Wehedy, Sara H Al-Hadidi, Hadi M Yassine
Background: The β-lactam antibiotics have traditionally been the main treatment of Enterobacteriaceae infections, nonetheless, the emergence of species producing β- Lactamases has rendered this class of antibiotics largely ineffective. There are no published data on etiology of urinary tract infections (UTI) and antimicrobial resistance profile of uropathogens among children in Qatar. The aim of this study is to determine the phenotypic and genotypic profiles of antimicrobial resistant Enterobacteriaceae among children with UTI in Qatar...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Alexia Cusini, David Herren, Lukas Bütikofer, Catherine Plüss-Suard, Andreas Kronenberg, Jonas Marschall
Background: Monitoring antimicrobial use and resistance in hospitals are important tools of antimicrobial stewardship programs. We aimed to determine the association between the use of frequently prescribed antibiotics and the corresponding resistance rates in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae among the clinical departments of a tertiary care hospital. Methods: We performed a retrospective observational study to analyse the use of nine frequently prescribed antibiotics and the corresponding antimicrobial resistance rates in hospital acquired E...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Philipp Kohler, Rosamaria Fulchini, Werner C Albrich, Adrian Egli, Carlo Balmelli, Stephan Harbarth, Delphine Héquet, Christian R Kahlert, Stefan P Kuster, Christiane Petignat, Matthias Schlegel, Andreas Kronenberg
Background: We evaluated data from isolates of nursing home (NH) patients sent to the Swiss centre for antibiotic resistance (ANRESIS). We focussed on carbapenem-resistance (CR) among Gram-negative pathogens, extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant (ESC-R) Escherichia coli / Klebsiella pneumoniae , methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and glycopeptide-resistant enterococci (GRE). Methods: NH patient isolates from 01/2007 to 10/2017 were extracted...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Katie R Margulieux, Apichai Srijan, Sirigade Ruekit, Panida Nobthai, Kamonporn Poramathikul, Prativa Pandey, Oralak Serichantalergs, Sanjaya K Shrestha, Ladaporn Bodhidatta, Brett E Swierczewski
Background: Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacterial species are an increasingly dangerous public health threat, and are now endemic in many areas of South Asia. However, there are a lack of comprehensive data from many countries in this region determining historic and current MDR prevalence. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a leading cause of both acute infant diarrhea and traveler's diarrhea in Nepal. The MDR prevalence and associated resistance mechanisms of ETEC isolates responsible for enteric infections in Nepal are largely unknown...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Peter Kreidl, Astrid Mayr, Guido Hinterberger, Michael Berktold, Ludwig Knabl, Stefan Fuchs, Wilfried Posch, Stephan Eschertzhuber, Alois Obwegeser, Cornelia Lass-Flörl, Dorothea Orth-Höller
Background: Vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) are an emerging problem in health care settings. The purpose of the investigation was to assess the extent of the outbreak including environmental contamination and to limit further transmission. Methods: We used retrospective patient and laboratory data including pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing and virulence and resistance gene analysis. For comparison of medians the Mann-Whitney and for comparison of proportions the Fisher exact tests were used...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Addisu Gize Yeshanew, Rozina Ambachew Geremew
Background: Neisseria gonorrhoeae , the causative agent of gonorrhoea, is a Gram negative, coffee-bean shaped facultative intracellular diplococcus bacterium, the classical sexually transmitted bacteria. Nowadays, N. gonorrhoeae has developed high-level resistance to all traditional antimicrobials used for the treatment of gonorrhoea and makes the treatment complicated. So, the aim of this study was to determine magnitude and antimicrobial resistance patterns of N. gonorrhoeae. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted between April and August 2016 among STI clinic clients in Gondar town hospitals and health centers...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
W Wangchinda, N Pati, N Maknakhon, C Seenama, S Tiengrim, V Thamlikitkul
Background: Colistin has been used for therapy of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative infections in Thailand, especially carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa , for more than 10 years. However, the prevalence of colistin-resistant A. baumannii or P. aeruginosa is still less than 5%. Colistin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae has been increasingly reported globally over the past few years and the use of colistin in food animals might be associated with an emergence of colistin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Sukhyun Ryu, Eili Y Klein, Byung Chul Chun
Background: β-Lactam/β-lactamase inhibitors (BLBLIs) were introduced into clinical practice as an alternative to carbapenems for treating multi-drug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infections. However, little is known about the relationship between BLBLI treatment and antimicrobial resistance. In this study, we investigated the trends and the temporal association between antibiotic use and antimicrobial resistance in K. pneumoniae isolates obtained between 2012 and 2016. Methods: Data regarding quarterly consumption (total number of prescriptions per quarter) of all BLBLIs, all third-generation cephalosporins, and all fluoroquinolones at a tertiary care hospital were obtained from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Pa Saidou Chaw, Kristin Maria Schlinkmann, Heike Raupach-Rosin, André Karch, Mathias W Pletz, Johannes Huebner, Ousman Nyan, Rafael Mikolajczyk
Background: Antibiotics are useful but increasing resistance is a major problem. Our objectives were to assess antibiotic use and microbiology testing in hospitalized children in the Gambia. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of paediatric inpatient data at The Edward Francis Small Teaching Hospital in Banjul, The Gambia. We extracted relevant data from the admission folders of all patients (aged > 28 days to 15 years) admitted in 2015 (January-December), who received at least one antibiotic for 24 h...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Danielle Vuichard Gysin, Barry Cookson, Henri Saenz, Markus Dettenkofer, Andreas F Widmer
Background: Definitions and practices regarding use of contact precautions and isolation to prevent the spread of gram-positive and gram-negative multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) are not uniform. Methods: We conducted an on-site survey during the European Congress on Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 2014 to assess specific details on contact precaution and implementation barriers. Results: Attendants from 32 European (EU) and 24 non-EU countries participated ( n  = 213)...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Gilberto G Gaspar, Mayra G Menegueti, Ana Elisa R Lopes, Roberto O C Santos, Thamiris R de Araújo, Aline Nassiff, Lécio R Ferreira, Maria Eulalia L V Dallora, Silvia R M S Canini, Fernando Bellissimo-Rodrigues
Background: Although alcohol-based surgical hand preparation offers potential advantages over the traditional surgical scrubbing technique, implementing it may be challenging due to resistance of surgeons in changing their practice. We aimed to implement alcohol-based surgical hand preparation in the hospital setting evaluating the impact of that on the quality and duration of the procedure, as well as on the prevention of surgical site infections. Methods: A quasi-experimental study conducted at a tertiary-care university hospital from April 01 to November 01, 2017...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Gowri Raman, Esther E Avendano, Jeffrey Chan, Sanjay Merchant, Laura Puzniak
Background: Identifying risk factors predicting acquisition of resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa will aid surveillance and diagnostic initiatives and can be crucial in early and appropriate antibiotic therapy. We conducted a systematic review examining risk factors of acquisition of resistant P. aeruginosa among hospitalized patients. Methods: MEDLINE®, EMBASE®, and Cochrane Central were searched between 2000 and 2016 for studies examining independent risk factors associated with acquisition of resistant P...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Uwe Koppe, Anja von Laer, Lars E Kroll, Ines Noll, Marcel Feig, Marc Schneider, Hermann Claus, Tim Eckmanns, Muna Abu Sin
Background: Carbapenem resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae is of significant public health concern and recently spread across several countries. We investigated the extent of carbapenem non-susceptibility in K. pneumoniae isolates in Germany. Methods: We analysed 2011-2016 data from the German Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (ARS) System, which contains routine data of antimicrobial susceptibility testing from voluntarily participating German laboratories...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
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