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Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529729/characterization-of-the-novel-in1059-harbouring-vim-gene-cassette
#1
Dongguo Wang, Jinhong Yang, Meiyu Fang, Wei He, Ying Zhang, Caixia Liu, Dongsheng Zhou
BACKGROUND: VIM-type enzyme encodes the most widely acquired metallo-β-lactamases in Gram- negative bacteria. To obtain current epidemiological data for integrons from enterobacteriae in hospital, the study characterizes the genetic structure in In1059 by comparison with In846 integrons harbouring VIM gene and other class 1 integrons including In37, In62, In843 and In1021 with the aim of identifying the putative mechanisms involved integron mobilization and infer evolution of relevant integrons...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515905/colonization-of-long-term-care-facility-patients-with-mdr-gram-negatives-during-an-acinetobacter-baumannii-outbreak
#2
Ines Zollner-Schwetz, Elisabeth Zechner, Elisabeth Ullrich, Josefa Luxner, Christian Pux, Gerald Pichler, Walter Schippinger, Robert Krause, Eva Leitner
BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the prevalence of colonization by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria including ESBL-producing enterobacteriaceae, carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii at two wards caring long term for patients with disorder of consciousness at the Geriatric Health Centers Graz, Austria. During our study we detected two A. baumannii outbreaks. METHODS: In August 2015, we conducted a point-prevalence study...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515904/weekly-screening-supports-terminating-nosocomial-transmissions-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-on-an-oncologic-ward-a-retrospective-analysis
#3
Stefanie Kampmeier, Dennis Knaack, Annelene Kossow, Stefanie Willems, Christoph Schliemann, Wolfgang E Berdel, Frank Kipp, Alexander Mellmann
BACKGROUND: To investigate the impact of weekly screening within the bundle of infection control measures to terminate vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) transmissions on an oncologic ward. METHODS: A cluster of 12 VRE colonisation and five infections was detected on an oncologic ward between January and April 2015. Subsequently, the VRE point prevalence was detected and, as part of a the bundle of infection control strategies to terminate the VRE cluster, we isolated affected patients, performed hand hygiene training among staff on ward, increased observations by infection control specialists, intensified surface disinfection, used personal protective equipment and initiated an admission screening in May 2015...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515903/the-threat-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-developing-countries-causes-and-control-strategies
#4
REVIEW
James A Ayukekbong, Michel Ntemgwa, Andrew N Atabe
The causes of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in developing countries are complex and may be rooted in practices of health care professionals and patients' behavior towards the use of antimicrobials as well as supply chains of antimicrobials in the population. Some of these factors may include inappropriate prescription practices, inadequate patient education, limited diagnostic facilities, unauthorized sale of antimicrobials, lack of appropriate functioning drug regulatory mechanisms, and non-human use of antimicrobials such as in animal production...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515902/sites-of-colonization-in-hospitalized-patients-with-infections-caused-by-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-organisms-a-prospective-cohort-study
#5
Zeina A Kanafani, Sukayna M Fadlallah, Sarah Assaf, Khalil Anouti, Kohar Annie B Kissoyan, Jad Sfeir, Tamara Nawar, Mohamad Yasmin, Ghassan M Matar
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to determine whether patients infected with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing organisms are colonized at multiple body sites. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study at a tertiary care center in Beirut, Lebanon. Hospitalized patients with infections caused by ESBL-producing organisms were included. Cultures were obtained from the primary site of infection as well as from other sites (skin, nasopharynx, urine, rectum)...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507731/patient-engagement-with-surgical-site-infection-prevention-an-expert-panel-perspective
#6
REVIEW
E Tartari, V Weterings, P Gastmeier, J Rodríguez Baño, A Widmer, J Kluytmans, A Voss
Despite remarkable developments in the use of surgical techniques, ergonomic advancements in the operating room, and implementation of bundles, surgical site infections (SSIs) remain a substantial burden, associated with increased morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs. National and international recommendations to prevent SSIs have been published, including recent guidelines by the World Health Organization, but implementation into clinical practice remains an unresolved issue. SSI improvement programs require an integrative approach with measures taken during the pre-, intra- and postoperative care from the numerous stakeholders involved...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503302/reliability-and-validity-of-using-telephone-calls-for-post-discharge-surveillance-of-surgical-site-infection-following-caesarean-section-at-a-tertiary-hospital-in-tanzania
#7
Boniface Nguhuni, Pasquale De Nardo, Elisa Gentilotti, Zainab Chaula, Caroline Damian, Paola Mencarini, Emanuele Nicastri, Arnold Fulment, Alessandro Piscini, Francesco Vairo, Alexander M Aiken, Giuseppe Ippolito
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infection (SSI) is a common post-operative complication causing significant morbidity and mortality. Many SSI occur after discharge from hospital. Post-discharge SSI surveillance in low and middle income countries needs to be improved. METHODOLOGY: We conducted an observational cohort study in Dodoma, Tanzania to examine the sensitivity and specificity of telephone calls to detect SSI after discharge from hospital in comparison to a gold standard of clinician review...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491294/prevalence-and-pattern-of-antibiotic-resistance-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-door-handles-and-other-points-of-contact-in-public-hospitals-in-ghana
#8
Courage Kosi Setsoafia Saba, Jean Kwadwo Amenyona, Stephen Wilson Kpordze
BACKGROUND: Studies have implicated Staphylococcus aureus as the leading cause of septicemia in the Tamale metropolis of Ghana. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of S. aureus and Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in the environments of three hospitals in Ghana. METHODS: A total of 120 swab samples were taken from door handles, stair railings and other points of contact at Tamale Teaching Hospital, Tamale Central Hospital and Tamale West Hospital...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484592/clean-your-hands-5th-may-2017-fight-antibiotic-resistance-it-s-in-your-hands
#9
EDITORIAL
Ermira Tartari, Daniela Pires, Didier Pittet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473912/high-burden-of-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-cre-fecal-carriage-at-a-teaching-hospital-cost-effectiveness-of-screening-in-low-resource-setting
#10
Abdul Rahman Zaidah, Nurul Izzah Mohammad, Siti Suraiya, Azian Harun
BACKGROUND: Infections by multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB) have been continuously growing and pose challenge to health institution globally. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriacea (CRE) was identified as one of the MDR-GNB which has limited treatment options and higher mortality compared to those of sensitive strains. We report an increased burden of CRE fecal carriage at a hospital in the North-eastern region of Malaysia. METHODS: A retrospective descriptive study from August 2013 to December 2015 was conducted in the Medical Microbiology & Parasitology laboratory of Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, which is a tertiary teaching hospital with more than 700 beds...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465825/investigation-of-antimicrobial-use-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-southern-punjab-pakistan-using-who-methodology
#11
Muhammad Atif, Muhammad Azeem, Anum Saqib, Shane Scahill
BACKGROUND: Globally, between 20 to 50% of antimicrobial consumption is inappropriate, causing significant impact on the quality of care, cost of therapy and incidence of adverse drug reactions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prescribing patterns and utilization of antimicrobials in ten selected wards at Bahawal Victoria Hospital (BVH), Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was designed using the World Health Organization (WHO) indicators for antimicrobial use...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439408/risk-factors-and-outcomes-of-organ-space-surgical-site-infections-after-elective-colon-and-rectal-surgery
#12
Aina Gomila, Jordi Carratalà, Daniel Camprubí, Evelyn Shaw, Josep Mª Badia, Antoni Cruz, Francesc Aguilar, Carmen Nicolás, Anna Marrón, Laura Mora, Rafel Perez, Lydia Martin, Rosa Vázquez, Ana Felisa Lopez, Enric Limón, Francesc Gudiol, Miquel Pujol
BACKGROUND: Organ-space surgical site infections (SSI) are the most serious and costly infections after colorectal surgery. Most previous studies of risk factors for SSI have analysed colon and rectal procedures together. The aim of the study was to determine whether colon and rectal procedures have different risk factors and outcomes for organ-space SSI. METHODS: A multicentre observational prospective cohort study of adults undergoing elective colon and rectal procedures at 10 Spanish hospitals from 2011 to 2014...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428877/p-aeruginosa-colonization-at-icu-admission-as-a-risk-factor-for-developing-p-aeruginosa-icu-pneumonia
#13
Fleur P Paling, Martin Wolkewitz, Pieter Depuydt, Liesbet de Bus, Frangiscos Sifakis, Marc J M Bonten, Jan A J W Kluytmans
OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of P. aeruginosa (PA) ICU pneumonia and its independent association with PA colonization at ICU admission. METHODS: This was a post-hoc analysis of a prospectively collected cohort study. Adult ICU patients with a length of stay of ≥48 h were included and assessed for microbiologically confirmed PA ICU pneumonia. Multivariate survival analysis was performed, including the covariates age, gender, PA colonization at ICU admission, ICU admission specialty and mechanical ventilation at ICU admission, while taking into account the effect of competing risks...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413631/screening-and-contact-precautions-a-survey-on-infection-control-measures-for-multidrug-resistant-bacteria-in-german-university-hospitals
#14
Lena M Biehl, Hartmut Bertz, Johannes Bogner, Ute-Helke Dobermann, Johanna Kessel, Carolin Krämer, Sebastian Lemmen, Marie von Lilienfeld-Toal, Silke Peter, Mathias W Pletz, Holger Rohde, Stefan Schmiedel, Sören Schubert, Andrew J Ullmann, Gerd Fätkenheuer, Maria J G T Vehreschild
To assess the scope of infection control measures for multidrug-resistant bacteria in high-risk settings, a survey among university hospitals was conducted. Fourteen professionals from 8 sites participated. Reported policies varied largely with respect to the types of wards conducting screening, sample types used for screening and implementation of contact precautions. This variability among sites highlights the need for an evidence-based consensus of current infection control policies.
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405312/barriers-and-facilitators-to-infection-control-at-a-hospital-in-northern-india-a-qualitative-study
#15
Anna K Barker, Kelli Brown, Dawd Siraj, Muneeb Ahsan, Sharmila Sengupta, Nasia Safdar
BACKGROUND: Hospital acquired infections occur at higher rates in low- and middle-income countries, like India, than in high-income countries. Effective implementation of infection control practices is crucial to reducing the transmission of hospital acquired infections at hospitals worldwide. Yet, no comprehensive assessments of the barriers to sustained, successful implementation of hospital interventions have been performed in Indian healthcare settings to date. The Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS) model examines problems through the lens of interactions between people and systems...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400958/in-vitro-evaluation-of-the-susceptibility-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-isolates-to-antiseptics-and-disinfectants-comparison-between-clinical-and-environmental-isolates
#16
Sanae Lanjri, Jean Uwingabiye, Mohammed Frikh, Lina Abdellatifi, Jalal Kasouati, Adil Maleb, Abdelouahed Bait, Abdelhay Lemnouer, Mostafa Elouennass
BACKGROUND: This study aims to assess the susceptibility of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates to the antiseptics and disinfectants commonly used, and to the non-approved product. METHODS: This is a prospective study carried out from February to August 2015, in the Bacteriology department of Mohammed V Military Teaching hospital of Rabat on A.baumannii isolates collected from colonized and/or infected patients and environmental samples. The antiseptics and disinfectants susceptibility testing was assessed using the micromethod validated in our department...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396730/the-incidence-of-mrsa-infections-in-the-united-states-is-a-more-comprehensive-tracking-system-needed
#17
Kevin T Kavanagh, Said Abusalem, Lindsay E Calderon
A review of epidemiological studies on the incidence of MRSA infections overtime was performed along with an analysis of data available for download from Hospital Compare (https://data.medicare.gov/data/hospital-compare). We found the estimations of the incidence of MRSA infections varied widely depending upon the type of population studied, the types of infections captured and in the definitions and terminology used to describe the results. We could not find definitive evidence that the incidence of MRSA infections in U...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360995/inappropriate-prescribing-in-outpatient-healthcare-an-evaluation-of-respiratory-infection-visits-among-veterans-in-teaching-versus-non-teaching-primary-care-clinics
#18
Diane M Parente, Tristan T Timbrook, Aisling R Caffrey, Kerry L LaPlante
A recent study led by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) revealed at least 30% of antibiotic prescriptions in the outpatient setting were inappropriate. In this study of all ages, among adult patients, results were similar to the overall population, with the majority of inappropriate prescribing relating to respiratory infections. We applied the same methodology to investigate rates of antibiotic prescribing for respiratory tract infections in outpatient primary care clinics at the Providence Veterans Affairs Medical Center...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360994/mrsa-decolonization-failure-are-biofilms-the-missing-link
#19
Frank Günther, Brigitte Blessing, Evelina Tacconelli, Nico T Mutters
BACKGROUND: Device-associated infections due to biofilm-producing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been recently associated with the failure of antibiotic treatment and decolonization measures. The goal of our study was to evaluate the extent to which the formation of biofilms influenced the efficacy of topical decolonization agents or disinfectants such as mupirocin (MUP), octenidine (OCT), chlorhexidine (CHG), polyhexanide (POL), and chloroxylenol (CLO). METHODS: Bacterial killing in biofilms by the disinfectants and MUP was determined as the reduction [%] in metabolic activity determined by a biofilm viability assay that uses kinetic analysis of metabolic activity...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360993/risk-factors-for-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-surgical-patients-hospitalized-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-belgrade-serbia-a-case-control-study
#20
Vesna Šuljagić, Ivan Miljković, Srđan Starčević, Nenad Stepić, Zoran Kostić, Dragutin Jovanović, Jelena Brusić-Renaud, Biljana Mijović, Sandra Šipetić-Grujičić
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to investigate independent risk factors (RFs) connected with healthcare-associated (HA) Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in surgical patients, its frequency per surgical wards and in-hospital-mortality at a single hospital. METHODS: Risk factors for the infection were prospectively assessed among surgical patients with laboratory confirmed HA CDI and compared with a control group without HA CDI. RESULTS: The overall incidence rate of HA CDI was 2...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
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