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Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control

Richard Aschbacher, Elisabetta Pagani, Massimo Confalonieri, Claudio Farina, Paolo Fazii, Francesco Luzzaro, Pier Giorgio Montanera, Aurora Piazza, Laura Pagani
BACKGROUND: Rates of colonization and infection with multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria are increasing worldwide, in both acute care hospitals and long-term care facilities (LTCFs). Italy has one of the highest prevalence of MDR bacteria in European countries, especially with regard to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) or carbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE). METHOD: Review of studies on colonization by MDR bacteria from Italian LTCFs, risk factors for colonization and molecular characteristics of surveillance and clinical isolates, compared with other European countries...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Nataliya G Batina, Christopher J Crnich, David F Anderson, Dörte Döpfer
BACKGROUND: Residents of nursing homes are commonly colonized with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) but there is a limited understanding of the dynamics and determinants of spread in this setting. To address this gap, we sought to use mathematical modeling to assess the epidemic potential of MRSA in nursing homes and to determine conditions under which non-USA300 and USA300 MRSA could be eliminated or reduced in the facilities. METHODS: Model parameters were estimated from data generated during a longitudinal study of MRSA in 6 Wisconsin nursing homes...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
M Krull, I Klare, B Ross, R Trenschel, D W Beelen, D Todt, E Steinmann, J Buer, P-M Rath, J Steinmann
BACKGROUND: Prevalence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci has increased in Germany. Here, we report the cluster of linezolid- and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (LVRE) in a German department for hematologic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). METHODS: In this retrospective analysis we included all patients with LVRE in a university-based department for HSCT in 2014 and 2015. Patients chart reviews were used to investigate the epidemiology and clinical outcome...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Gobinda Thapa, Narayan Dutt Pant, Saroj Khatiwada, Binod Lekhak, Bhawana Shrestha
BACKGROUND: Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a serious public health problem in Nepal. It is a major obstacle for the control of the tuberculosis. The main objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of the multidrug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis and to evaluate the drug susceptibility patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from previously treated and newly diagnosed cases of pulmonary tuberculosis. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2013 to August 2013 at German-Nepal tuberculosis project (GENETUP) laboratory, Kathmandu, Nepal...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Falzon A Parascandalo, P Zarb, E Tartari, D Lacej, S Bitincka, O Manastirliu, D Nika, M A Borg
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance has been recognised as a serious global Public Health problem. Prevalence of Multiple-Drug-Resistant (MDR) organism carriage in Albania is largely unknown since no national surveillance system is in place and few publications are accessible in the literature. METHODS: A 1-day point-prevalence-survey (PPS) screening for nasal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and rectal MDR Gram-negative carriage was carried out at the high-dependency wards in the country's only tertiary care hospital, in Tirana...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Andreas Voss
Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control would like to thank the following colleagues for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for the journal in 2015.
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Arjun Ojha Kshetry, Narayan Dutt Pant, Raju Bhandari, Sabita Khatri, Krishma Laxmi Shrestha, Shambhu Kumar Upadhaya, Asia Poudel, Binod Lekhak, Bijendra R Raghubanshi
BACKGROUND: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has evolved as a serious threat to public health. It has capability to cause infections not only in health care settings but also in community. Due to the multidrug resistance shown by MRSA, there are limited treatment options for the infections caused by this superbug. Vancomycin is used as the drug of choice for the treatment of infections caused by MRSA. Different studies from all around the world have documented the emergence of strains of S...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Pearl Shuang Ye Tong, Anita Sugam Kale, Kailyn Ng, Amelia Peiwen Loke, Mahesh Arjandas Choolani, Chin Leong Lim, Yiong Huak Chan, Yap Seng Chong, Paul Anantharajah Tambyah, Eu-Leong Yong
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s13756-015-0086-z.].
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Bernhard Jahn, Trudy M Wassenaar, Annemarie Stroh
BACKGROUND: Guidelines for the control of hospital-acquired MRSA include decolonization measures to end MRSA carrier status in colonized and infected patients. Successful decolonization typically requires up to 22 days of treatment, which is longer than the average hospital length of stay (LOS). Incomplete decolonization is therefore common, with long-term MRSA carriage as a consequence. To overcome this, we developed an integrated MRSA Management (IMM) by extending MRSA decolonization to the outpatient and domestic setting...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Daniela Pires, Virginie Prendki, Gesuele Renzi, Carolina Fankhauser, Valerie Sauvan, Benedikt Huttner, Jacques Schrenzel, Stephan Harbarth
BACKGROUND: The role of asymptomatic carriers of toxigenic Clostridium difficile (TCD) in nosocomial cross-transmission remains debatable. Moreover, its relevance in the elderly has been sparsely studied. OBJECTIVES: To assess asymptomatic TCD carriage in an acute care geriatric population. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study at the 296-bed geriatric hospital of the Geneva University Hospitals. We consecutively recruited all patients admitted to two 15-bed acute-care wards...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Pappu Kumar Gupta, Narayan Dutt Pant, Ramkrishna Bhandari, Padma Shrestha
BACKGROUND: Cholera is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in underdeveloped countries including Nepal. Recently drug resistance in Vibrio cholerae has become a serious problem mainly in developing countries. The main objectives of our study were to investigate the occurrence of Vibrio cholerae in stool samples from patients with watery diarrhea and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of V. cholerae isolates. METHODS: A total of 116 stool samples from patients suffering from watery diarrhea during July to December 2012 were obtained from outbreak areas from all over Nepal...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Krishma Laxmi Shrestha, Narayan Dutt Pant, Raju Bhandari, Sabita Khatri, Basudha Shrestha, Binod Lekhak
BACKGROUND: Enteric fever is an important public health problem in Nepal. Due to emergence of multidrug resistant strains of Salmonella spp. the conventional first-line drugs, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and cotrimoxazole have not been used as empiric therapy for treatment of enteric fever for last two decades and there have been increased uses of fluoroquinolones as the drugs of choice. The aim of this study was to evaluate and analyze the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Salmonella spp...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Surasak Wiboonchutikul, Weerawat Manosuthi, Sirirat Likanonsakul, Chariya Sangsajja, Paweena Kongsanan, Ravee Nitiyanontakij, Varaporn Thientong, Hatairat Lerdsamran, Pilaipan Puthavathana
INTRODUCTION: A hospital-associated outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was reported. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of infection control measures among healthcare workers (HCWs) who were exposed to a MERS patient and/or his body fluids in our institute. METHODS: A descriptive study was conducted among HCWs who worked with a MERS patient in Bamrasnaradura Infectious Diseases Institute, Thailand, between 18 June and 3 July 2015...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Anne F G van Woezik, Louise M A Braakman-Jansen, Olga Kulyk, Liseth Siemons, Julia E W C van Gemert-Pijnen
BACKGROUND: Infection prevention and control can be seen as a wicked public health problem as there is no consensus regarding problem definition and solution, multiple stakeholders with different needs and values are involved, and there is no clear end-point of the problem-solving process. Co-creation with stakeholders has been proposed as a suitable strategy to tackle wicked problems, yet little information and no clear step-by-step guide exist on how to do this. The objectives of this study were to develop a guideline to assist developers in tackling wicked problems using co-creation with stakeholders, and to apply this guideline to practice with an example case in the field of infection prevention and control...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Geoffrey Taylor, Denise Gravel, Anne Matlow, Joanne Embree, Nicole LeSaux, Lynn Johnston, Kathryn N Suh, Michael John, John Embil, Elizabeth Henderson, Virginia Roth, Alice Wong
BACKGROUND: Healthcare acquired infections (HAI) are an important public health problem in developed countries, but comprehensive data on trends over time are lacking. Prevalence surveys have been used as a surrogate for incidence studies and can be readily repeated. METHODS: The Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program conducted prevalence surveys in 2002 and 2009 in a large network of major Canadian acute care hospitals. NHSN definitions of HAI were used...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Tolbert Sonda, Happiness Kumburu, Marco van Zwetselaar, Michael Alifrangis, Ole Lund, Gibson Kibiki, Frank M Aarestrup
BACKGROUND: A high proportion of Extended-Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae is causing common infections in all regions of the world. The burden of antibiotic resistance due to ESBL in East Africa is large but information is scarce and thus it is unclear how big the problem really is. To gain insight into the magnitude and molecular epidemiology of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in East Africa a literature search was performed in PubMed on 31 July 2015 to retrieve articles with relevant information on ESBL...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Moi Lin Ling, Anucha Apisarnthanarak, Namita Jaggi, Glenys Harrington, Keita Morikane, Le Thi Anh Thu, Patricia Ching, Victoria Villanueva, Zhiyong Zong, Jae Sim Jeong, Chun-Ming Lee
This document is an executive summary of the APSIC Guide for Prevention of Central Line Associated Bloodstream Infections (CLABSI). It describes key evidence-based care components of the Central Line Insertion and Maintenance Bundles and its implementation using the quality improvement methodology, namely the Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) methodology involving multidisciplinary process and stakeholders. Monitoring of improvement over time with timely feedback to stakeholders is a key component to ensure the success of implementing best practices...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Nuntra Suwantarat, Karen C Carroll
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MDRGN), including extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and multidrug-resistant glucose-nonfermenting Gram-negative bacilli (nonfermenters), have emerged and spread throughout Southeast Asia. METHODS: We reviewed and summarized current critical knowledge on the epidemiology and molecular characterization of MDRGN in Southeast Asia by PubMed searches for publications prior to 10 March 2016 with the term related to "MDRGN definition" combined with specific Southeast Asian country names (Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, Vietnam, Indonesia, Philippines, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar, Brunei)...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Jan-Willem H Dik, Bhanu Sinha, Alex W Friedrich, Jerome R Lo-Ten-Foe, Ron Hendrix, Robin Köck, Bert Bijker, Maarten J Postma, Michael H Freitag, Gerd Glaeske, Falk Hoffmann
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance is a worldwide problem and inappropriate prescriptions are a cause. Especially among children, prescriptions tend to be high. It is unclear how they differ in bordering regions. This study therefore examined the antibiotic prescription prevalence among children in primary care between northern Netherlands and north-west of Germany. METHODS: Two datasets were used: The Dutch (IADB) comprises representative data of pharmacists in North Netherland and the German (BARMER GEK) includes nationwide health insurance data...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Awa Ndir, Amadou Diop, Roughyatou Ka, Pape Makhtar Faye, Ndeye Mery Dia-Badiane, Babacar Ndoye, Pascal Astagneau
BACKGROUND: Infections caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamases producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) are of major concern in clinical practice because of limited therapeutic options effective to treat them. Published studies showed that ESBL-E, widely spread in Europe, United States or Asia; are also frequent in Africa. However, the impact of ESBL-E infections is yet to be adequately determined in Sub-Saharan African countries, particularly in Senegal. The aim of our study was to estimate the incidence rate of ESBL-E infections and to assess their clinical and economic impact in Senegal...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
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