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Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29881543/whole-genome-sequence-revealed-the-fine-transmission-map-of-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumonia-isolates-within-a-nosocomial-outbreak
#1
Wenjun Sui, Haijian Zhou, Pengcheng Du, Lijun Wang, Tian Qin, Mei Wang, Hongyu Ren, Yanfei Huang, Jing Hou, Chen Chen, Xinxin Lu
Background: Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) is a major cause of nosocomial infections worldwide. The transmission route of CRKP isolates within an outbreak is rarely described. This study aimed to reveal the molecular characteristics and transmission route of CRKP isolates within an outbreak of nosocomial infection. Methods: Collecting case information, active screening and targeted environmental monitoring were carried out. The antibiotic susceptibility, drug-resistant genes, molecular subtype and whole genome sequence of CRKP strains were analyzed...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876100/social-media-posts-and-online-search-behaviour-as-early-warning-system-for-mrsa-outbreaks
#2
Tom H van de Belt, Pieter T van Stockum, Lucien J L P G Engelen, Jules Lancee, Remco Schrijver, Jesús Rodríguez-Baño, Evelina Tacconelli, Katja Saris, Marleen M H J van Gelder, Andreas Voss
Background: Despite many preventive measures, outbreaks with multi-drug resistant micro-organisms (MDROs) still occur. Moreover, current alert systems from healthcare organizations have shortcomings due to delayed or incomplete notifications, which may amplify the spread of MDROs by introducing infected patients into a new healthcare setting and institutions. Additional sources of information about upcoming and current outbreaks, may help to prevent further spread of MDROs.The study objective was to evaluate whether methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) outbreaks could be detected via social media posts or online search behaviour; if so, this might allow earlier detection than the official notifications by healthcare organizations...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876099/the-tigecycline-evaluation-and-surveillance-trial-assessment-of-the-activity-of-tigecycline-and-other-selected-antibiotics-against-gram-positive-and-gram-negative-pathogens-from-france-collected-between-2004-and-2016
#3
Jean-Winoc Decousser, Paul-Louis Woerther, Claude-James Soussy, Marguerite Fines-Guyon, Michael J Dowzicky
Background: A high level of antibiotic consumption in France means antimicrobial resistance requires rigorous monitoring. The Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (T.E.S.T.) is a global surveillance study that monitors the in vitro activities of tigecycline and a panel of marketed antimicrobials against clinically important Gram-positive and Gram-negative isolates. Methods: Annually clinically relevant strains were prospectively included in the survey through a national network of hospital-based laboratories...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29796252/dynamics-of-colistin-and-tobramycin-resistance-among-enterobacter-cloacae-during-prolonged-use-of-selective-decontamination-of-the-digestive-tract
#4
M J D Dautzenberg, J R Bayjanov, M A Leverstein-van Hall, A E Muller, L B S Gelinck, C L Jansen, E M S Leyten, T Ruys, J Scharringa, R E van der Starre, A C Fluit, M J M Bonten
Background: A high prevalence of colistin resistance among E. cloacae isolates in two intensive care units (ICU) (of 16 and 6 beds) using selective digestive decontamination (SDD) since 1990 instigated a retrospective and prospective investigation to quantify the role of clonal transmission. SDD is topical application of colistin and tobramycin and systemic use of cefotaxime during the first days of ICU-admission. Methods: Multi-resistant E. cloacae (MREb) was defined as ESBL production and/or tobramycin non-susceptibility and/or colistin non-susceptibility...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29796251/how-long-is-enough-identification-of-product-dry-time-as-a-primary-driver-of-alcohol-based-hand-rub-efficacy
#5
Miranda Suchomel, Rachel A Leslie, Albert E Parker, David R Macinga
Background: The World Health Organization has called for the development of improved methodologies to evaluate alcohol-based handrub (ABHR) efficacy, including evaluation at "short application times and volumes that reflect actual use in healthcare facilities". The objective of this study was to investigate variables influencing ABHR efficacy, under test conditions reflective of clinical use. Methods: The test product (60% V /V 2-propanol) was evaluated according to a modified EN 1500 methodology, where application volumes of 1 mL, 2 mL, and 3 mL were rubbed until dry...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760912/continuous-increase-of-vancomycin-resistance-in-enterococci-causing-nosocomial-infections-in-germany-10-years-of-surveillance
#6
Cornelius Remschmidt, Christin Schröder, Michael Behnke, Petra Gastmeier, Christine Geffers, Tobias Siegfried Kramer
Background: Enterococci are frequent pathogens causing nosocomial infections in Germany. Infections due to strains with vancomycin resistance are high when compared with other European states. Therefore, the study aimed to describe the recent progression of nosocomial infections due to vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in Germany. Methods: We analyzed data from two components of the German national nosocomial infection surveillance system for the period 2007-2016...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744044/enhancing-pharmacists-role-in-developing-countries-to-overcome-the-challenge-of-antimicrobial-resistance-a-narrative-review
#7
REVIEW
M H F Sakeena, Alexandra A Bennett, Andrew J McLachlan
Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global health challenge and developing countries are more vulnerable to the adverse health impacts of AMR. Health care workers including pharmacists can play a key role to support the appropriate use of antimicrobials in developing countries and reduce AMR. Objective: The aim of this review is to investigate the role of pharmacists in the appropriate use of antibiotics and to identify how the pharmacists' role can be enhanced to combat AMR in developing countries...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744043/genome-based-analysis-of-carbapenemase-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolates-from-german-hospital-patients-2008-2014
#8
Laura Becker, Martin Kaase, Yvonne Pfeifer, Stephan Fuchs, Annicka Reuss, Anja von Laer, Muna Abu Sin, Miriam Korte-Berwanger, Sören Gatermann, Guido Werner
Background: By using whole genome sequence data we aimed at describing a population snapshot of carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae isolated from hospitalized patients in Germany between 2008 and 2014. Methods: We selected a representative subset of 107 carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae clinical isolates possessing the four most prevalent carbapenemase types in Germany (KPC-2, KPC-3, OXA-48, NDM-1). Isolates were processed via illumina NGS. Data were analysed using different SNP-based mapping and de-novo assembly approaches...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744042/prevalence-and-patterns-of-drug-resistance-among-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients-in-hangzhou-china
#9
Qingchun Li, Gang Zhao, Limin Wu, Min Lu, Wei Liu, Yifei Wu, Le Wang, Ke Wang, Han-Zhu Qian, Li Xie
Background: To evaluate prevalence and patterns of drug resistance among pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients in Hangzhou City, China. Methods: Sputum samples of smear positive TB patients enrolled in 2011 and 2015 were collected and tested for drug susceptibility, and demographic and medical record data were extracted from the electronic database of China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention. Chi-square test was used to compare drug resistance prevalence between new and treated patients and between male and female patients, and Chi-square test for trend was used to compare the prevalence over calendar years 2011 and 2015...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744041/the-social-biography-of-antibiotic-use-in-smallholder-dairy-farms-in-india
#10
Abhimanyu Singh Chauhan, Mathew Sunil George, Pranab Chatterjee, Johanna Lindahl, Delia Grace, Manish Kakkar
Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has been identified as one of the major threats to global health, food security and development today. While there has been considerable attention about the use and misuse of antibiotics amongst human populations in both research and policy environments, there is no definitive estimate of the extent of misuse of antibiotics in the veterinary sector and its contribution to AMR in humans. In this study, we explored the drivers ofirrational usage of verterinary antibiotics in the dairy farming sector in peri-urban India...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736236/temporal-relationship-between-antibiotic-use-and-respiratory-virus-activities-in-the-republic-of-korea-a-time-series-analysis
#11
Sukhyun Ryu, Sojung Kim, Bryan I Kim, Eili Y Klein, Young Kyung Yoon, Byung Chul Chun
Background: Inappropriate use of antibiotics increases resistance and reduces their effectiveness. Despite evidence-based guidelines, antibiotics are still commonly used to treat infections likely caused by respiratory viruses. In this study, we examined the temporal relationships between antibiotic usage and respiratory infections in the Republic of Korea. Methods: The number of monthly antibiotic prescriptions and the incidence of acute respiratory tract infections between 2010 and 2015 at all primary care clinics were obtained from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719718/a-systematic-review-of-the-epidemiology-of-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-in-the-united-states
#12
Daniel J Livorsi, Margaret L Chorazy, Marin L Schweizer, Erin C Balkenende, Amy E Blevins, Rajeshwari Nair, Matthew H Samore, Richard E Nelson, Karim Khader, Eli N Perencevich
Background: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) pose an urgent public health threat in the United States. An important step in planning and monitoring a national response to CRE is understanding its epidemiology and associated outcomes. We conducted a systematic literature review of studies that investigated incidence and outcomes of CRE infection in the US. Methods: We performed searches in MEDLINE via Ovid, CDSR, DARE, CENTRAL, NHS EED, Scopus, and Web of Science for articles published from 1/1/2000 to 2/1/2016 about the incidence and outcomes of CRE at US sites...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713466/dissemination-of-bla-ndm-5-gene-via-an-incx3-type-plasmid-among-non-clonal-escherichia-coli-in-china
#13
Xi Li, Ying Fu, Mengyuan Shen, Danyan Huang, Xiaoxing Du, Qingfeng Hu, Yonglie Zhou, Dairong Wang, Yunsong Yu
Background: The emergence and spread of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae has been a serious challenge to manage in the clinic due to its rapid dissemination of multi-drug resistance worldwide. As one main type of carbapenemases, New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM)is able to confer resistance to almost all β-lactams, including carbapenems, in Enterobacteriaceae . Recently, New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-5 attracted extensive attention because of increased resistance to carbapenems and widespread dissemination...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713465/estimating-the-burden-of-antimicrobial-resistance-a-systematic-literature-review
#14
Nichola R Naylor, Rifat Atun, Nina Zhu, Kavian Kulasabanathan, Sachin Silva, Anuja Chatterjee, Gwenan M Knight, Julie V Robotham
Background: Accurate estimates of the burden of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) are needed to establish the magnitude of this global threat in terms of both health and cost, and to paramaterise cost-effectiveness evaluations of interventions aiming to tackle the problem. This review aimed to establish the alternative methodologies used in estimating AMR burden in order to appraise the current evidence base. Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, EconLit, PubMed and grey literature were searched...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713464/an-observational-case-study-of-hospital-associated-infections-in-a-critical-care-unit-in-astana-kazakhstan
#15
Dmitriy Viderman, Yekaterina Khamzina, Zhannur Kaligozhin, Makhira Khudaibergenova, Agzam Zhumadilov, Byron Crape, Azliyati Azizan
Background: Hospital Associated infections (HAI) are very common in Intensive Care Units (ICU) and are usually associated with use of invasive devices in the patients. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and etiological agents of HAI in a Surgical ICU in Kazakhstan, and to assess the impact of these infections on ICU stay and mortality. Objective: To assess the rate of device-associated infections and causative HAI etiological agents in an ICU at the National Research Center for Oncology and Transplantation (NRCOT) in Astana, Kazakhstan...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686859/prevalence-identification-of-virulence-factors-o-serogroups-and-antibiotic-resistance-properties-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-strains-isolated-from-raw-milk-and-traditional-dairy-products
#16
Reza Ranjbar, Farhad Safarpoor Dehkordi, Mohammad Hossein Sakhaei Shahreza, Ebrahim Rahimi
Background: Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli strains are one of the most important foodborne bacteria with an emergence of antibiotic resistance. Foodborne STEC strains are mainly associated with presence of certain virulence factors and O-seogroups. The present investigation was done to study the distribution of virulence factors, O-serogroups and antibiotic resistance properties of Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli isolated from milk and dairy products. Methods: Six-hundred samples were randomly collected and immediately transferred to laboratory...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682287/colonization-sites-in-carriers-of-esbl-producing-gram-negative-bacteria
#17
Joffrey van Prehn, Anna M Kaiser, Suzanne D van der Werff, Rosa van Mansfeld, Christina M J E Vandenbroucke-Grauls
Objective: The distribution of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-producing Gram-negative bacteria (ESBL-GNB) colonization sites is relevant for infection control guidelines on detection and follow-up of colonization. We questioned whether it is possible to rely solely on rectal swab culture for follow-up of ESBL-GNB colonization. Methods: We retrospectively assessed ESBL-GNB colonization sites in patients in a tertiary hospital in the Netherlands. The Laboratory Information Management System was queried for all bacterial cultures obtained between January 2012 and August 2016...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644052/environmental-colonization-and-onward-clonal-transmission-of-carbapenem-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-crab-in-a-medical-intensive-care-unit-the-case-for-environmental-hygiene
#18
Deborah H L Ng, Kalisvar Marimuthu, Jia Jun Lee, Wei Xin Khong, Oon Tek Ng, Wei Zhang, Bee Fong Poh, Pooja Rao, Maya Devi Rajinder Raj, Brenda Ang, Partha Pratim De
Background: In May 2015, we noticed an increase in carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) infections in the Medical Intensive Care Unit (MICU). To investigate this, we studied the extent of environmental contamination and subsequent onward clonal transmission of CRAB. Methods: We conducted a one-day point prevalence screening (PPS) of the patients and environment in the MICU. We screened patients using endotracheal tube aspirates and swabs from nares, axillae, groin, rectum, wounds, and exit sites of drains...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29636911/strain-disinfectant-concentration-and-contact-time-quantitatively-impact-disinfectant-efficacy
#19
Alyssa M West, Peter J Teska, Caitlinn B Lineback, Haley F Oliver
Background: Transmission of healthcare-associated infections caused by antibiotic- and multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogens (e.g. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa ) are a major concern in patient care facilities. Disinfectant usage is critical to control and prevent pathogen transmission, yet the relationships among strain, disinfectant type, contact time, and concentration are not well-characterized. We hypothesized that there would be significant differences in disinfectant efficacy among clinically relevant strains under off-label disinfectant conditions, but there would be less no differences among at registered label use concentrations and contact times...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29636910/prospective-surveillance-of-healthcare-associated-infections-and-patterns-of-antimicrobial-resistance-of-pathogens-in-an-italian-intensive-care-unit
#20
Aida Bianco, Maria Simona Capano, Valentina Mascaro, Claudia Pileggi, Maria Pavia
Background: The study aimed to evaluate the distribution of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs), the incidence rates and device utilization ratio (DUR) of device-associated infections (DAIs), as well as the distribution and patterns of antimicrobial resistance of the responsible pathogens. Methods: Eligible patients who were admitted to an adult Intensive Care Unit (ICU) from May 1, 2013 to December 31, 2016 were included in the surveillance. Demographics, intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors, information regarding infection and isolated pathogens with antibiogram results were collected...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
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