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Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344783/retrospective-report-of-antimicrobial-susceptibility-observed-in-bacterial-pathogens-isolated-from-ocular-samples-at-mount-sinai-hospital-2010-to-2015
#1
Marko Oydanich, Tanis C Dingle, Camille L Hamula, Claudia Ghisa, Penny Asbell
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance has emerged as a major threat to global public health. Thus, the surveillance of changes in antimicrobial resistance in local and global settings is a paramount necessity. While many studies have tracked antimicrobial resistance, only a small percentage surveyed ocular isolates. The purpose of this study was to report the in vitro susceptibility of bacterial pathogens isolated from ocular samples in New York, NY from 2010 to 2015. METHODS: A retrospective review of ocular isolates was conducted...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316780/screening-for-fecal-carriage-of-mcr-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-healthy-humans-and-primary-care-patients
#2
Katrin Zurfluh, Roger Stephan, Andreas Widmer, Laurent Poirel, Patrice Nordmann, Hans-Jakob Nüesch, Herbert Hächler, Magdalena Nüesch-Inderbinen
BACKGROUND: The extent of the occurrence of the plasmid-encoded colistin resistance genes mcr-1 and mcr-2 among humans is currently sparsely studied in Western Europe. OBJECTIVES: To determine the occurrence of MCR-producing Enterobacteriaceae in fecal samples of healthy humans with high occupational exposure to food and primary care patients in Switzerland. METHODS: Stool samples from 1091 healthy individuals and fecal swabs from 53 primary care patients were screened for polymyxin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae using LB agar containing 4 mg/L colistin...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293420/candidemia-in-a-major-regional-tertiary-referral-hospital-epidemiology-practice-patterns-and-outcomes
#3
Jocelyn Qi-Min Teo, Samuel Rocky Candra, Shannon Jing-Yi Lee, Shannon Yu-Hng Chia, Hui Leck, Ai-Ling Tan, Hui-Peng Neo, Kenneth Wei-Liang Leow, Yiying Cai, Rachel Pui-Lai Ee, Tze-Peng Lim, Winnie Lee, Andrea Lay-Hoon Kwa
BACKGROUND: Candidemia is a common cause of nosocomial bloodstream infections, resulting in high morbidity and mortality. This study was conducted to describe the epidemiology, species distribution, antifungal susceptibility patterns and outcomes of candidemia in a large regional tertiary referral hospital. METHODS: A retrospective surveillance study of patients with candidemia was conducted at Singapore General Hospital between July 2012 and December 2015. In addition, incidence densities and species distribution of candidemia episodes were analysed from 2008 to 2015...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239454/transcriptional-analysis-of-blandm-1-and-copy-number-alteration-under-carbapenem-stress
#4
Deepjyoti Paul, Amitabha Bhattacharjee, Dibyojyoti Bhattacharjee, Debadatta Dhar, Anand Prakash Maurya, Atanu Chakravarty
BACKGROUND: New Delhi metallo beta-lactamase is known to compromise carbapenem therapy and leading to treatment failure. However, their response to carbapenem stress is not clearly known. Here, we have investigated the transcriptional response of blaNDM-1 and plasmid copy number alteration under carbapenem exposure. METHODS: Three blaNDM-1 harboring plasmids representing three incompatibility types (IncFIC, IncA/C and IncK) were inoculated in LB broth with and without imipenem, meropenem and ertapenem...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239453/the-sink-as-a-potential-source-of-transmission-of-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#5
Deborah De Geyter, Lieve Blommaert, Nicole Verbraeken, Mark Sevenois, Luc Huyghens, Helena Martini, Lieve Covens, Denis Piérard, Ingrid Wybo
BACKGROUND: Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are emerging pathogens that represent a major public health threat. In the University Hospital of Brussels, the incidence of new patients with CPE rose from 1 case in 2010 to 35 cases in 2015. Between January and August 2015, five patients became infected/colonized with CPE during their stay in the same room in the intensive care unit (ICU). Since the time period between those patients was relatively short and the strains belonged to different species with different antibiograms and mechanisms of resistance, the hypothesis was that the environment could be a possible source of transmission...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239452/intervening-with-healthcare-workers-hand-hygiene-compliance-knowledge-and-perception-in-a-limited-resource-hospital-in-indonesia-a-randomized-controlled-trial-study
#6
Dewi Santosaningsih, Dewi Erikawati, Sanarto Santoso, Noorhamdani Noorhamdani, Irene Ratridewi, Didi Candradikusuma, Iin N Chozin, Thomas E C J Huwae, Gwen van der Donk, Eva van Boven, Anne F Voor In 't Holt, Henri A Verbrugh, Juliëtte A Severin
BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene is recognized as an important measure to prevent healthcare-associated infections. Hand hygiene adherence among healthcare workers is associated with their knowledge and perception. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of three different educational programs on improving hand hygiene compliance, knowledge, and perception among healthcare workers in a tertiary care hospital in Indonesia. METHODS: The study was performed from May to October 2014 and divided into a pre-intervention, intervention, and post-intervention phase...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239451/management-of-a-cluster-of-clostridium-difficile-infections-among-patients-with-osteoarticular-infections
#7
Jacqueline Färber, Sebastian Illiger, Fabian Berger, Barbara Gärtner, Lutz von Müller, Christoph H Lohmann, Katja Bauer, Christina Grabau, Stefanie Zibolka, Dirk Schlüter, Gernot Geginat
BACKGROUND: Here we describe a cluster of hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) among 26 patients with osteoarticular infections. The aim of the study was to define the source of C. difficile and to evaluate the impact of general infection control measures and antibiotic stewardship on the incidence of CDI. METHODS: Epidemiological analysis included typing of C. difficile strains and analysis of possible patient to patient transmission. Infection control measures comprised strict isolation of CDI patients, additional hand washings, and intensified environmental cleaning with sporicidal disinfection...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191309/co-existence-of-blaoxa-23-and-blandm-1-genes-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-isolated-from-nepal-antimicrobial-resistance-and-clinical-significance
#8
Prabhu Raj Joshi, Mahesh Acharya, Trishna Kakshapati, Udomluk Leungtongkam, Rapee Thummeepak, Sutthirat Sitthisak
BACKGROUND: Molecular analysis of carbapenem-resistant genes in Acinetobacter baumannii, an emerging pathogen, is less commonly reported from Nepal. In this study we determined the antibiotic susceptibility profile and genetic mechanism of carbapenem resistance in clinical isolates of A. baumannii. METHODS: A. baumannii were isolated from various clinical specimens and identified based on Gram staining, biochemical tests, and PCR amplification of organism specific 16S rRNA and blaOXA-51 genes...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191308/ralstonia-mannitolilytica-infections-in-an-oncologic-day-ward-description-of-a-cluster-among-high-risk-patients
#9
Claudia Lucarelli, Enea Gino Di Domenico, Luigi Toma, Domenico Bracco, Grazia Prignano, Maria Fortunati, Lorella Pelagalli, Fabrizio Ensoli, Patrizio Pezzotti, Aurora García-Fernández, Annalisa Pantosti, Loredana Ingrosso
BACKGROUND: Ralstonia spp, an environmental microorganism, has been occasionally associated with healthcare infections. The aim of this study was to investigate an outbreak caused by Ralstonia mannitolilytica in oncology patients. METHODS: Case definition: Oncology outpatients attending a day ward, with positive blood and/or central venous catheter (CVC) culture for Ralstonia spp from September 2013 - June 2014. We analysed medical records, procedures and environmental samples...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184301/detection-of-diverse-genotypes-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-from-hospital-personnel-and-the-environment-in-armenia
#10
Hermine V Mkrtchyan, Zhen Xu, Maria Yacoub, Mary M Ter-Stepanyan, Hayk D Karapetyan, Angela M Kearns, Ronald R Cutler, Bruno Pichon, Armen Dz Hambardzumyan
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a public health concern internationally. Studies examining a range of cohorts have been reported from various regions of the world, but little is known about the molecular epidemiology of MRSA in Armenia. METHODS: Between May and September 2013, twenty isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA; mecA positive) were recovered from hospital personnel (n = 10; 9 females, 1 male) and environmental sites (n = 10) in the maternity ward of one of the teaching hospitals in Armenia...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149507/complications-with-peripherally-inserted-central-catheters-piccs-used-in-hospitalized-patients-and-outpatients-a-prospective-cohort-study
#11
Delphine Grau, Béatrice Clarivet, Anne Lotthé, Sébastien Bommart, Sylvie Parer
BACKGROUND: Peripherally Inserted Central Catheters (PICCs) are widely used for hospitalized patients and among outpatients. Despite many advantages, PICC-related complications can occur such as infection, thrombosis or mechanical complications. We aimed to evaluate rates and nature of PICC-related complications from insertion to removal and analyze risk factors of complications at baseline and during healthcare. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study looking at PICC-related complication rates in the inpatient and outpatient settings of 163 patients over a 7-month period...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138386/anti-bacterial-efficacy-of-alcoholic-hand-rubs-in-the-kenyan-market-2015
#12
Missiani Ochwoto, Lucy Muita, Keith Talaam, Cecilia Wanjala, Frank Ogeto, Faith Wachira, Saida Osman, James Kimotho, Linus Ndegwa
BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene is known to be effective in preventing hospital and community-acquired infections. The increasing number of hand sanitizer brands in Kenyan hospitals and consumer outlets is of concern. Thus the main aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-bacterial efficacy and organoleptic properties of these hand sanitizers in Kenya. METHODS: This was an experimental, laboratory-based study of 14 different brands of hand sanitizers (coded HS1-14) available in various retail outlets and hospitals in Kenya...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138385/prospective-surveillance-of-healthcare-associated-infections-in-a-cambodian-pediatric-hospital
#13
Pasco Hearn, Thyl Miliya, Soklin Seng, Chanpheaktra Ngoun, Nicholas P J Day, Yoel Lubell, Claudia Turner, Paul Turner
BACKGROUND: Healthcare associated infections (HAI) are the most common preventable adverse events following admission to healthcare facilities. Data from low-income countries are scarce. We sought to prospectively define HAI incidence at Angkor Hospital for Children (AHC), a Cambodian pediatric referral hospital. METHODS: Prospective HAI surveillance was introduced for medical admissions to AHC. Cases were identified on daily ward rounds and confirmed using locally adapted Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) definitions...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138384/hospital-clones-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-are-carried-by-medical-students-even-before-healthcare-exposure
#14
Ido Orlin, Assaf Rokney, Avi Onn, Daniel Glikman, Avi Peretz
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains are prevalent in healthcare and the community. Few studies have examined MRSA carriage among medical students. The aim of this study is to examine Staphylococcus aureus (SA) carriage, and particular MRSA, over time in cohort medical students. METHODS: Prospective collection of nasal swabs from medical students in Israel and assessment of SA carriage. Three samples were taken per student in preclinical and clinical parts of studies...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127422/risk-factors-for-relapse-or-persistence-of-bacteraemia-caused-by-enterobacter-spp-a-case-control-study
#15
Patrick N A Harris, Anna M Peri, Anita M Pelecanos, Carly M Hughes, David L Paterson, John K Ferguson
BACKGROUND: Enterobacter spp. possess chromosomal AmpC beta-lactamases that may be expressed at high levels. Previous studies have demonstrated a risk of relapsed bacteraemia following therapy with third generation cephalosporins (3GCs). What additional factors predict microbiological failure in Enterobacter bacteraemia is unclear. We aimed to determine factors associated with microbiological failure in Enterobacter bacteraemia. METHODS: We retrospectively identified cases of bacteraemia caused by Enterobacter spp...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105330/genetic-markers-associated-with-resistance-to-beta-lactam-and-quinolone-antimicrobials-in-non-typhoidal-salmonella-isolates-from-humans-and-animals-in-central-ethiopia
#16
Tadesse Eguale, Josephine Birungi, Daniel Asrat, Moses N Njahira, Joyce Njuguna, Wondwossen A Gebreyes, John S Gunn, Appolinaire Djikeng, Ephrem Engidawork
BACKGROUND: Beta-lactam and quinolone antimicrobials are commonly used for treatment of infections caused by non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) and other pathogens. Resistance to these classes of antimicrobials has increased significantly in the recent years. However, little is known on the genetic basis of resistance to these drugs in Salmonella isolates from Ethiopia. METHODS: Salmonella isolates with reduced susceptibility to beta-lactams (n = 43) were tested for genes encoding for beta-lactamase enzymes, and those resistant to quinolones (n = 29) for mutations in the quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) as well as plasmid mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes using PCR and sequencing...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101334/implementation-of-short-incubation-maldi-tof-ms-identification-from-positive-blood-cultures-in-routine-diagnostics-and-effects-on-empiric-antimicrobial-therapy
#17
Robin Köck, Jörg Wüllenweber, Dagmar Horn, Christian Lanckohr, Karsten Becker, Evgeny A Idelevich
BACKGROUND: Results of blood culture (BC) diagnostics should be swiftly available to guide treatment of critically ill patients. Conventional BC diagnostics usually performs species identification of microorganisms from mature solid medium colonies. Species identification might be speed up by using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) of biomass from shortly incubated solid media. METHODS: This single-center analysis compared the applicability of MALDI-TOF-based species identification from shortly incubated cultures in laboratory routine vs...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101333/behaviour-change-interventions-to-influence-antimicrobial-prescribing-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-reports-from-uk-state-of-the-art-scientific-conferences
#18
T M Rawson, L S P Moore, A M Tivey, A Tsao, M Gilchrist, E Charani, A H Holmes
BACKGROUND: To improve the quality of antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) interventions the application of behavioural sciences supported by multidisciplinary collaboration has been recommended. We analysed major UK scientific research conferences to investigate AMS behaviour change intervention reporting. METHODS: Leading UK 2015 scientific conference abstracts for 30 clinical specialties were identified and interrogated. All AMS and/or antimicrobial resistance(AMR) abstracts were identified using validated search criteria...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096978/carriage-of-antibiotic-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-in-hospitalised-children-in-tertiary-hospitals-in-harare-zimbabwe
#19
Marcelyn T Magwenzi, Muchaneta Gudza-Mugabe, Hilda A Mujuru, Mutsa Dangarembizi-Bwakura, Valerie Robertson, Alexander M Aiken
BACKGROUND: Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing and gentamicin resistant Enterobacteriaceae are increasingly recognised as a major cause of infection in low-income countries. We assessed the prevalence of gastrointestinal carriage of these bacteria in hospitalised children in Harare, Zimbabwe. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study in paediatric inpatients at two tertiary-referral hospitals between May and July 2015. Rectal swabs and faecal samples were collected within 24 h of admission and further follow-up samples were collected on alternate days during hospitalization...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096977/high-rates-of-multidrug-resistance-among-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-in-children-and-analyses-of-esbl-producers-from-nepal
#20
Narayan Prasad Parajuli, Pooja Maharjan, Hridaya Parajuli, Govardhan Joshi, Deliya Paudel, Sujan Sayami, Puspa Raj Khanal
BACKGROUND: Emergence of Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli causing urinary tract infections (UTI) among pediatric patients is an increasing problem worldwide. However, very little is known about pediatric urinary tract infections and antimicrobial resistance trend from Nepal. This study was conducted to assess the current antibiotic resistance rate and ESBL production among uropathogenic Escherichia coli in pediatric patients of a tertiary care teaching hospital of Nepal...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
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