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Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644052/environmental-colonization-and-onward-clonal-transmission-of-carbapenem-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-crab-in-a-medical-intensive-care-unit-the-case-for-environmental-hygiene
#1
Deborah H L Ng, Kalisvar Marimuthu, Jia Jun Lee, Wei Xin Khong, Oon Tek Ng, Wei Zhang, Bee Fong Poh, Pooja Rao, Maya Devi Rajinder Raj, Brenda Ang, Partha Pratim De
Background: In May 2015, we noticed an increase in carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) infections in the Medical Intensive Care Unit (MICU). To investigate this, we studied the extent of environmental contamination and subsequent onward clonal transmission of CRAB. Methods: We conducted a one-day point prevalence screening (PPS) of the patients and environment in the MICU. We screened patients using endotracheal tube aspirates and swabs from nares, axillae, groin, rectum, wounds, and exit sites of drains...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29636911/strain-disinfectant-concentration-and-contact-time-quantitatively-impact-disinfectant-efficacy
#2
Alyssa M West, Peter J Teska, Caitlinn B Lineback, Haley F Oliver
Background: Transmission of healthcare-associated infections caused by antibiotic- and multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogens (e.g. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa ) are a major concern in patient care facilities. Disinfectant usage is critical to control and prevent pathogen transmission, yet the relationships among strain, disinfectant type, contact time, and concentration are not well-characterized. We hypothesized that there would be significant differences in disinfectant efficacy among clinically relevant strains under off-label disinfectant conditions, but there would be less no differences among at registered label use concentrations and contact times...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29636910/prospective-surveillance-of-healthcare-associated-infections-and-patterns-of-antimicrobial-resistance-of-pathogens-in-an-italian-intensive-care-unit
#3
Aida Bianco, Maria Simona Capano, Valentina Mascaro, Claudia Pileggi, Maria Pavia
Background: The study aimed to evaluate the distribution of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs), the incidence rates and device utilization ratio (DUR) of device-associated infections (DAIs), as well as the distribution and patterns of antimicrobial resistance of the responsible pathogens. Methods: Eligible patients who were admitted to an adult Intensive Care Unit (ICU) from May 1, 2013 to December 31, 2016 were included in the surveillance. Demographics, intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors, information regarding infection and isolated pathogens with antibiogram results were collected...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29632665/an-in-vitro-comparison-of-standard-cleaning-to-a-continuous-passive-disinfection-cap-for-the-decontamination-of-needle-free-connectors
#4
Anna L Casey, Tarja J Karpanen, Peter Nightingale, Tom S J Elliott
Background: The optimal decontamination method for needle-free connectors is still unresolved. The objective of this study was to determine if a continuous passive disinfection cap is as effective as standard cleaning for the microbial decontamination of injection ports of two types of needle-free connectors. Methods: The injection ports of needle-free connectors were inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus and allowed to dry. Disinfection caps containing 70% ( v / v ) isopropyl alcohol (IPA) were attached to the connectors for one, three or 7 days and were compared with needle-free connectors cleaned with 2% ( w / v ) chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) in 70% ( v/v ) IPA...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619214/multiple-drug-resistance-and-biocide-resistance-in-escherichia-coli-environmental-isolates-from-hospital-and-household-settings
#5
Bothyna Ghanem, Randa Nayef Haddadin
Background: Antibiotic resistance of environmental Escherichia coli in hospitals could be increased due to extensive use of biocides resulting in serious infections. In this study, the prevalence of antibiotic resistance of environmental isolates of E. coli from hospitals and household settings were evaluated and compared. In addition, the association between biocide minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and multiple drug resistance (MDR) was investigated. Methods: Environmental samples were collected from different homes and hospitals in Amman, Jordan...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619213/pet-owner-and-vet-interactions-exploring-the-drivers-of-amr
#6
Matt Smith, Caroline King, Mark Davis, Adele Dickson, Jeni Park, Fraser Smith, Kay Currie, Paul Flowers
Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a growing public health problem across the world. As the negative consequences of AMR become apparent at local, national and international levels, more attention is being focussed on the variety of mechanisms by which AMR is potentiated. We explore how interactions between pet owners and veterinarians represent a key arena in which AMR-related behaviours can be shaped. Methods: In depth semi-structured interviews were carried out with pet owners ( n  = 23) and vets ( n  = 16) across the UK in 2017...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599969/healthcare-associated-fungal-outbreaks-new-and-uncommon-species-new-molecular-tools-for-investigation-and-prevention
#7
REVIEW
Marie-Elisabeth Bougnoux, Sophie Brun, Jean-Ralph Zahar
Outbreaks of healthcare-associated fungal infections have repeatedly been described over recent years, often caused by new or uncommon species. Candida auris , a recently described multidrug-resistant yeast species, is certainly the most worrisome species having caused several severe healthcare outbreaks of invasive infections, on four continents. Also, large nosocomial outbreaks due to uncommon fungal species such as Exserohilum rostratum and Sarocladium kiliense , were both linked to contamination of medical products, however the source of another outbreak, caused by Saprochaete clavata , remains unresolved...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588851/vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-sequence-type-796-rapid-international-dissemination-of-a-new-epidemic-clone
#8
Andrew A Mahony, Andrew H Buultjens, Susan A Ballard, Elizabeth A Grabsch, Shirley Xie, Torsten Seemann, Rhonda L Stuart, Despina Kotsanas, Allen Cheng, Helen Heffernan, Sally A Roberts, Geoffrey W Coombs, Narin Bak, John K Ferguson, Glen C Carter, Benjamin P Howden, Timothy P Stinear, Paul D R Johnson
Background: Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) is a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections. New, presumably better-adapted strains of VRE appear unpredictably; it is uncertain how they spread despite improved infection control. We aimed to investigate the relatedness of a novel sequence type (ST) of vanB E. faecium - ST796 - very near its time of origin from hospitals in three Australian states and New Zealand. Methods: Following near-simultaneous outbreaks of ST796 in multiple institutions, we gathered then tested colonization and bloodstream infection isolates' antimicrobial resistance (AMR) phenotypes, and phylogenomic relationships using whole genome sequencing (WGS)...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568516/development-of-a-patient-centred-intervention-to-improve-knowledge-and-understanding-of-antibiotic-therapy-in-secondary-care
#9
Timothy M Rawson, Luke S P Moore, Enrique Castro-Sanchez, Esmita Charani, Bernard Hernandez, Vivian Alividza, Fran Husson, Christofer Toumazou, Raheelah Ahmad, Pantelis Georgiou, Alison H Holmes
Background: We developed a personalised antimicrobial information module co-designed with patients. This study aimed to evaluate the potential impact of this patient-centred intervention on short-term knowledge and understanding of antimicrobial therapy in secondary care. Methods: Thirty previous patients who had received antibiotics in hospital within 12 months were recruited to co-design an intervention to promote patient engagement with infection management...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568515/prevalence-and-molecular-characterization-of-staphylococcus-aureus-from-human-stool-samples
#10
A E Kates, D Thapaliya, T C Smith, M L Chorazy
Background: To determine the prevalence of intestinal S. aureus colonization of patients at a large teaching hospital and determine the molecular characteristics of the identified strains. The second objective of this research was to determine risk factors associated with S. aureus intestinal colonization. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 781 specimens from inpatients and outpatients at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics Clinical Microbiology Laboratory was conducted...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568514/prevalence-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-bacteria-isolated-from-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-neurosurgical-patients-at-peking-union-medical-college-hospital
#11
Jian-Bo Chang, Hao Wu, He Wang, Bai-Tao Ma, Ren-Zhi Wang, Jun-Ji Wei
Background: Postoperative central nervous system infections (PCNSIs) represent a serious complication, and the timely use of antibiotics guided by the identification of the causative pathogens and their antibiotic sensitivities is essential for treatment. However, there are little data regarding the prevalence of PCNSI pathogens in China. The aim of this study is to investigate the features of pathogens in patients with PCNSIs, which could help clinicians to choose the appropriate empirical antibiotic therapy...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564088/reducing-rates-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-by-switching-to-a-stand-alone-naat-with-clear-sampling-criteria
#12
E Casari, C De Luca, M Calabrò, C Scuderi, C Daleno, A Ferrario
Background: Clostridium difficile infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality but the optimal method of diagnosis for both patient management and infection prevention remains controversial. Methods: Our hospital made a decision to switch from the use of toxin immunoassay to a stand-alone nucleic acid test. This change was accompanied by the provision of clear sampling guidance and rejection criteria and this study aimed to assess the impact of that change...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556378/dual-infections-of-two-carbapenemase-producing-acinetobacter-baumannii-clinical-strains-isolated-from-the-same-blood-culture-sample-of-a-patient-in-iran
#13
Linda Hadjadj, Saeed Shoja, Seydina M Diene, Jean-Marc Rolain
In this study, the draft genome sequences of two different carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii clinical strains isolated from the same blood culture sample of an Iranian patient were determined. The strain A. baumannii 554S harbouring bla oxa72 gene belonged to ST 307 whereas A. baumannii 554L carrying bla oxa23 gene belonged to ST 2. We found that this sample contains two different isolates of A. baumannii, each phenotypically and genetically different.
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556377/effectiveness-of-healthcare-worker-screening-in-hospital-outbreaks-with-gram-negative-pathogens-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Nikos Ulrich, Petra Gastmeier, Ralf-Peter Vonberg
Background: Identifying the source of an outbreak is the most crucial aspect of any outbreak investigation. In this review, we address the frequently discussed question of whether (rectal) screening of health care workers (HCWs) should be carried out when dealing with outbreaks caused by gram negative bacteria (GNB).A systematic search of the medical literature was performed, including the Worldwide Outbreak Database and PubMed. Outbreaks got included if a HCW was the source of the outbreak and the causative pathogen was an Escherichia coli , Klebsiella spp ...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541449/the-infection-risk-scan-iris-standardization-and-transparency-in-infection-control-and-antimicrobial-use
#15
Ina Willemsen, Jan Kluytmans
Background: Infection control needs user-friendly standardized instruments to measure the compliance to guidelines and to implement targeted improvement actions. This abstract describes a tool to measure the quality of infection control and antimicrobial use, the Infection Risk Scan (IRIS). It has been applied in a hospital, several nursing homes and a rehabilitation clinic in the Netherlands. Method: The IRIS consists of a set of objective reproducible measurements, combining patient- and healthcare related variables, such as: hand hygiene compliance, environmental contamination using ATP measurements, prevalence of resistant microorganisms by active screening, availability of infection control preconditions, personal hygiene of healthcare workers, appropriate use of indwelling medical devices and appropriate use of antimicrobials...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541448/multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacterial-infections-in-a-teaching-hospital-in-ghana
#16
Nicholas Agyepong, Usha Govinden, Alex Owusu-Ofori, Sabiha Yusuf Essack
Background: Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria have emerged as major clinical and therapeutic dilemma in hospitals in Ghana.To describe the prevalence and profile of infections attributable to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria among patients at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in the Ashanti region of Ghana. Methods: Bacterial cultures were randomly selected from the microbiology laboratory from February to August, 2015. Bacterial identification and minimum inhibitory concentrations were conducted using standard microbiological techniques and the Vitek-2 automated system...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541447/antimicrobials-in-small-scale-urban-pig-farming-in-a-lower-middle-income-country-arbitrary-use-and-high-resistance-levels
#17
G Ström, S Boqvist, A Albihn, L-L Fernström, A Andersson Djurfeldt, S Sokerya, T Sothyra, U Magnusson
Background: Administration of antimicrobials to food-producing animals is regarded as a major contributor to the overall emergence of resistance in bacteria worldwide. However, few data are available on global antimicrobial use and resistance (AMR) in livestock, especially from low- and middle-income countries. Methods: We conducted a structured survey of 91 small-scale pig farms in the urban and peri-urban areas of Phnom Penh, Cambodia, to assess the farmers' knowledge, attitudes and practices related to antimicrobial use in their pig production...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541446/reducing-health-care-associated-infections-by-implementing-separated-environmental-cleaning-management-measures-by-using-disposable-wipes-of-four-colors
#18
Swee Siang Wong, Cheng Hua Huang, Chiu Chu Yang, Yi Pei Hsieh, Chen Ni Kuo, Yi Ru Chen, Li Ching Chen
Background: Environmental cleaning is a fundamental principle of infection control in health care settings. We determined whether implementing separated environmental cleaning management measures in MICU reduced the density of HAI. Methods: We performed a 4-month prospective cohort intervention study between August and December 2013, at the MICU of Cathay General hospital. We arranged a training program for all the cleaning staff regarding separated environmental cleaning management measures by using disposable wipes of four colors to clean the patients' bedside areas, areas at a high risk of contamination, paperwork areas, and public areas...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527303/colonization-of-long-term-care-facility-residents-in-three-italian-provinces-by-multidrug-resistant-bacteria
#19
Elisabetta Nucleo, Mariasofia Caltagirone, Vittoria Mattioni Marchetti, Roberto D'Angelo, Elena Fogato, Massimo Confalonieri, Camilla Reboli, Albert March, Ferisa Sleghel, Gertrud Soelva, Elisabetta Pagani, Richard Aschbacher, Roberta Migliavacca, Laura Pagani
Background: Rationale and aims of the study were to compare colonization frequencies with MDR bacteria isolated from LTCF residents in three different Northern Italian regions, to investigate risk factors for colonization and the genotypic characteristics of isolates. The screening included Enterobacteriaceae expressing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESβLs) and high-level AmpC cephalosporinases, carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae , Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Acinetobacter baumannii , methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE)...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492262/vim-positive-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-a-large-tertiary-care-hospital-matched-case-control-studies-and-a-network-analysis
#20
Anne F Voor In 't Holt, Juliëtte A Severin, Margot B H Hagenaars, Inge de Goeij, Diederik Gommers, Margreet C Vos
Background: Emergence of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa is of global concern. We aimed to identify epidemiological relationships, the most common way of transmission, and risk factors for presence of Verona Integron-encoded Metallo-β-lactamase (VIM)-positive P. aeruginosa (VIM-PA). Methods: We conducted a network analysis and matched case-control studies (1:2:2). Controls were hospital-based and matched with cases for ward, day of admission (control group 1 and 2) and time between admission and the identification of VIM-PA (control group 1)...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
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