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Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034091/phenotypic-and-genotypic-characterization-of-antibiotic-resistance-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-hospital-food
#1
Farhad Safarpoor Dehkordi, Hasan Gandomi, Afshin Akhondzadeh Basti, Ali Misaghi, Ebrahim Rahimi
BACKGROUND: Pathogenic biotypes of the Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains are considered to be one of the major cause of food-borne diseases in hospitals. The present investigation was done to study the pattern of antibiotic resistance and prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes of different biotypes of the MRSA strains isolated from various types of hospital food samples. METHODS: Four-hundred and eighty-five raw and cooked hospital food samples were cultured and MRSA strains were identified using the oxacillin and cefoxitin disk diffusion tests and mecA-based PCR amplification...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026536/implementation-of-central-line-associated-bloodstream-infection-prevention-bundles-in-a-surgical-intensive-care-unit-using-peer-tutoring
#2
Sang-Won Park, Suhui Ko, Hye-Sun An, Ji Hwan Bang, Woo-Young Chung
BACKGROUND: Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) can be prevented through well-coordinated, multifaceted programs. However, implementation of CLABSI prevention programs requires individualized strategies for different institutional situations, and the best strategy in resource-limited settings is uncertain. Peer tutoring may be an efficient and effective method that is applicable in such settings. METHODS: A prospective intervention was performed to reduce CLABSIs in a surgical intensive care unit (SICU) at a tertiary hospital...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026535/clinical-and-molecular-characteristics-risk-factors-and-outcomes-of-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-bloodstream-infections-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#3
Xia Zheng, Jian-Feng Wang, Wang-Lan Xu, Jun Xu, Juan Hu
BACKGROUND: To analyze the clinical characteristics and outcomes of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKp) and carbapenem-susceptible K. pneumoniae (CSKp) bloodstream infections (BSIs), and to study the risk factors for development of CRKp BSI and K. pneumoniae BSI-related mortality. METHODS: A retrospective case control study of patients with K. pneumoniae BSI was conducted in the intensive care unit of the First Affiliated Hospital, Medical of College, Zhejiang University from January 2013 to December 2014...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021895/readiness-for-antimicrobial-resistance-amr-surveillance-in-pakistan-a-model-for-laboratory-strengthening
#4
Dania Khalid Saeed, Rumina Hasan, Mahwish Naim, Afia Zafar, Erum Khan, Kausar Jabeen, Seema Irfan, Imran Ahmed, Mohammad Zeeshan, Zabin Wajidali, Joveria Farooqi, Sadia Shakoor, Abdul Chagla, Jason Rao
BACKGROUND: Limited capacity of laboratories for antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) presents a critical diagnostic bottleneck in resource limited countries. This paper aims to identify such gaps and to explore whether laboratory networks could contribute towards improving AST in low resource settings. METHODS: A self-assessment tool to assess antimicrobial susceptibility testing capacity was administered as a pre-workshop activity to participants from 30 microbiology laboratories in 3 cities in Pakistan...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959441/clonal-diversity-and-detection-of-carbapenem-resistance-encoding-genes-among-multidrug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-isolates-recovered-from-patients-and-environment-in-two-intensive-care-units-in-a-moroccan-hospital
#5
Jean Uwingabiye, Abdelhay Lemnouer, Ignasi Roca, Tarek Alouane, Mohammed Frikh, Bouchra Belefquih, Fatna Bssaibis, Adil Maleb, Yassine Benlahlou, Jalal Kassouati, Nawfal Doghmi, Abdelouahed Bait, Charki Haimeur, Lhoussain Louzi, Azeddine Ibrahimi, Jordi Vila, Mostafa Elouennass
BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii has recently been defined by the World Health Organization as a critical pathogen. The aim of this study was to compare clonal diversity and carbapenemase-encoding genes of A. baumannii isolates collected from colonized or infected patients and hospital environment in two intensive care units (ICUs) in Morocco. METHODS: The patient and environmental sampling was carried out in the medical and surgical ICUs of Mohammed V Military teaching hospital from March to August 2015...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944053/implementation-of-who-multimodal-strategy-for-improvement-of-hand-hygiene-a-quasi-experimental-study-in-a-traditional-chinese-medicine-hospital-in-xi-an-china
#6
Li Shen, Xiaoqing Wang, Junming An, Jialu An, Ning Zhou, Lu Sun, Hong Chen, Lin Feng, Jing Han, Xiaorong Liu
BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene (HH) is an essential component for preventing and controlling of healthcare-associated infection (HAI), whereas compliance with HH among health care workers (HCWs) is frequently poor. This study aimed to assess compliance and correctness with HH before and after the implementation of a multimodal HH improvement strategy launched by the World Health Organization (WHO). METHODS: A quasi-experimental study design including questionnaire survey generalizing possible factors affecting HH behaviors of HCWs and direct observation method was used to evaluate the effectiveness of WHO multimodal HH strategy in a hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932390/newest-data-on-fluoroquinolone-resistance-mechanism-of-shigella-flexneri-isolates-in-jiangsu-province-of-china
#7
Tingting Qin, Huimin Qian, Wenting Fan, Ping Ma, Lu Zhou, Chen Dong, Bing Gu, Xiang Huo
BACKGROUND: To determine the prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and related presence of mutations in quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) genes and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) among Shigella flexneri isolates obtained from Jiangsu Province, China. METHODS: A total of 400 Shigella flexneri clinical isolates collected during 2012-2015 were identified by biochemical and serological methods, and the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was evaluated using the disc-diffusion method...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924473/chlorhexidine-is-not-an-essential-component-in-alcohol-based-surgical-hand-preparation-a-comparative-study-of-two-handrubs-based-on-a-modified-en-12791-test-protocol
#8
Thomas-Jörg Hennig, Sebastian Werner, Kathrin Naujox, Andreas Arndt
BACKGROUND: Surgical hand preparation is an essential part of modern surgery. Both alcohol-based and antiseptic detergent-based hand preparation are recommended practices, with a trend towards use of alcohol based handrubs. However, discussion has arisen whether chlorhexidine is a required ingredient in highly efficacious alcohol-based formulations, in view of providing sustained antimicrobial efficacy. METHODS: One alcohol-only formulation (product A), containing ethanol and n-propanol, and one formulation containing a chlorhexidine-ethanol combination (product B) were directly compared with each other using a modified test protocol based on European standard EN 12791 (2016) with 25 volunteers...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924472/the-effect-of-antibiotic-use-on-prevalence-of-nosocomial-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-an-ecologic-study
#9
Cornelius Remschmidt, Michael Behnke, Axel Kola, Luis A Peña Diaz, Anna M Rohde, Petra Gastmeier, Frank Schwab
BACKGROUND: Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are among the most common antimicrobial-resistant pathogens causing nosocomial infections. Although antibiotic use has been identified as a risk factor for VRE, it remains unclear which antimicrobial agents particularly facilitate VRE selection. Here, we assessed whether use of specific antimicrobial agents is independently associated with healthcare-associated (HA) VRE rates in a university hospital setting in Berlin, Germany. METHODS: We conducted the study between January 2014 and December 2015 at the Charité-university hospital of Berlin, Germany...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912948/outbreak-of-fusarium-oxysporum-infections-in-children-with-cancer-an-experience-with-7-episodes-of-catheter-related-fungemia
#10
Fabianne Carlesse, Anna-Paula C Amaral, Sarah S Gonçalves, Hemilio Xafranski, Maria-Lucia M Lee, Victor Zecchin, Antonio S Petrilli, Abdullah M Al-Hatmi, Ferry Hagen, Jacques F Meis, Arnaldo L Colombo
BACKGROUND: Fusarium species are widely spread in nature as plant pathogens but are also able to cause opportunistic fungal infections in humans. We report a cluster of Fusarium oxysporum bloodstream infections in a single pediatric cancer center. METHODS: All clinical and epidemiological data related to an outbreak involving seven cases of fungemia by Fusarium oxysporum during October 2013 and February 2014 were analysed. All cultured isolates (n = 14) were identified to species level by sequencing of the TEF1 and RPB2 genes...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904790/prevalence-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-in-retail-food-in-singapore
#11
Kyaw Thu Aung, Li Yang Hsu, Tse Hsien Koh, Hapuarachchige Chanditha Hapuarachchi, Man Ling Chau, Ramona Alikiiteaga Gutiérrez, Lee Ching Ng
We characterised 227 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from retail food and food handlers' gloves samples obtained through food surveillance and risk assessment studies between 2011 and 2014. Of 227 isolates, five (2.2%) were methicillin-resistant and belonged to sequence types ST80 (n = 3) and ST6 (n = 2). All five isolates belonged to SCCmec type IV, were Panton-Valentine leukocidin (pvl)-negative and staphylococcal enterotoxin genes-positive. Resistance to azithromycin was found in ST80 isolates, in addition to resistance to beta-lactams...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883912/infection-control-at-an-urban-hospital-in-manila-philippines-a-systems-engineering-assessment-of-barriers-and-facilitators
#12
Kaitlin F Mitchell, Anna K Barker, Cybele L Abad, Nasia Safdar
BACKGROUND: Healthcare facilities in low- and middle-income countries, including the Philippines, face substantial challenges in achieving effective infection control. Early stages of interventions should include efforts to understand perceptions held by healthcare workers who participate in infection control programs. METHODS: We performed a qualitative study to examine facilitators and barriers to infection control at an 800-bed, private, tertiary hospital in Manila, Philippines...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883911/antibiotic-resistance-and-biofilm-formation-among-coagulase-negative-staphylococci-isolated-from-clinical-samples-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-of-eastern-nepal
#13
Lok Bahadur Shrestha, Narayan Raj Bhattarai, Basudha Khanal
BACKGROUND: Coagulase negative staphylococci were long regarded non-pathogenic as they are the commensals of human skin and mucosa but the recent changes in the medical practice and changes in underlying host populations, they are being considered significant pathogens associated with number of nosocomial infections. The objective of the study was to determine the species, antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, biofilm forming ability of the clinically significant CoNS isolates and to compare the different methods for the detection of biofilm formation...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878891/epidemic-characterization-and-molecular-genotyping-of-shigella-flexneri-isolated-from-calves-with-diarrhea-in-northwest-china
#14
Zhen Zhu, Mingze Cao, Xuzheng Zhou, Bing Li, Jiyu Zhang
BACKGROUND: The widespread presence of antibiotics resistance genes in pathogenic bacteria can cause enormous problems. Food animals are one of the main reservoirs of intestinal pathogens that pose a potential risk to human. Analyzing the epidemiological characteristics and resistance patterns of Shigella flexneri in calves is necessary for animal and human health. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 54 Shigella flexneri isolates, including six serotypes (1a, 2a, 2b, 4a, 6 and Xv), were collected from 837 fecal samples obtained from 2014 to 2016...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878890/key-features-of-mcr-1-bearing-plasmids-from-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-humans-and-food
#15
Katrin Zurfluh, Magdalena Nüesch-Inderbinen, Jochen Klumpp, Laurent Poirel, Patrice Nordmann, Roger Stephan
BACKGROUND: Mcr-1-harboring Enterobacteriaceae are reported worldwide since their first discovery in 2015. However, a limited number of studies are available that compared full-length plasmid sequences of human and animal origins. METHODS: In this study, mcr-1-bearing plasmids from seven Escherichia coli isolates recovered from patients (n = 3), poultry meat (n = 2) and turkey meat (n = 2) in Switzerland were further analyzed and compared. Isolates were characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST)...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861267/frequency-of-antiseptic-resistance-genes-in-clinical-staphycocci-and-enterococci-isolates-in-turkey
#16
Seyda Ignak, Yasar Nakipoglu, Bulent Gurler
BACKGROUND: Disinfectants and antiseptics are biocides widely used in hospitals to prevent spread of pathogens. It has been reported that antiseptic resistance genes, qac's, caused tolerance to a variety of biocidal agents, such as benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and chlorhexidine digluconate (CHDG) in Staphylococcus spp. isolates. We aimed to search the frequency of antiseptic resistance genes in clinical Staphylococcus spp. and Enterococcus spp. isolates to investigate the possible association with antiseptic tolerance and antibiotic resistance...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855980/pseudomonas-endocarditis-with-an-unstable-phenotype-the-challenges-of-isolate-characterization-and-carbapenem-stewardship-with-a-partial-review-of-the-literature
#17
Emil Lesho, Erik Snesrud, Yoon Kwak, Ana Ong, Rosslyn Maybank, Maryrose Laguio-Vila, Ann R Falsey, Mary Hinkle
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas endocarditis is exceedingly rare, especially in patients without predisposing risks. We present such a case that included unexpected switches in antibacterial resistance profiles in two Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) strains with the same whole-genome sequence. The case also involved diagnostic and treatment challenges, such as issues with automated testing platforms, choosing the optimal aminoglycoside, minimizing unnecessary carbapenem exposure, and the need for faster, more informative laboratory tests...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852476/resistance-of-staphylococcus-aureus-to-antimicrobial-agents-in-ethiopia-a-meta-analysis
#18
Serawit Deyno, Sintayehu Fekadu, Ayalew Astatkie
BACKGROUND: Emergence of antimicrobial resistance by Staphylococcus aureus has limited treatment options against its infections. The purpose of this study was to determine the pooled prevalence of resistance to different antimicrobial agents by S. aureus in Ethiopia. METHODS: Web-based search was conducted in the databases of PubMed, Google Scholar, Hinari, Scopus and the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) to identify potentially eligible published studies...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852475/genetic-characterization-of-novel-class-1-integrons-in0-in1069-and-in1287-to-in1290-and-the-inference-of-in1069-associated-integron-evolution-in-enterobacteriaceae
#19
Dongguo Wang, Jianfeng Zhu, Kaiyu Zhou, Jiayu Chen, Zhe Yin, Jiao Feng, Liman Ma, Dongsheng Zhou
BACKGROUND: This study aims to characterize genetically related class 1 integrons In1069, In893 and In1287 to In1290, and to further propose a scheme of stepwise integration or excision of individual gene cassettes (GCs) to generation of these integron variations. METHODS: Six of 139 non-redundant Enterobacteriaceae strains were studied by bacterial antimicrobial susceptibility testing, detection of carbapenemase activity, and integron sequencing and sequence comparison...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828173/high-prevalence-of-the-mcr-1-gene-in-retail-chicken-meat-in-the-netherlands-in-2015
#20
Eefje J A Schrauwen, Pepijn Huizinga, Nick van Spreuwel, Carlo Verhulst, Marjolein F Q Kluytmans-van den Bergh, Jan A J W Kluytmans
Recently, plasmid-mediated colistin resistance was reported in humans, animals and food. We studied the presence of mcr-1 and mcr-2 in Dutch retail chicken meat. The prevalence of mcr-1 was 24,8% (53/214), whereas mcr-2 was not found. The presence of mcr-1-positive Enterobacteriaceae was confirmed by culture in 34/53 samples (64,2%). The prevalence depended on the supermarket chain and was lower in free-range chicken samples. The unexpected high prevalence of mcr-1 in food is cause for concern.
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
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