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Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control

Maria Jurado-Ruiz, Gerard P Slobogean, Sofia Bzovsky, Alisha Garibaldi, Nathan N O'Hara, Andrea Howe, Brad Petrisor, Sheila Sprague
Background: Surgically-managed fractures, particularly open fractures, are associated with high rates of surgical site infections (SSIs). To reduce the risk of an SSI, orthopaedic surgeons routinely clean open fracture wounds in the emergency department (ED) and then apply a bandage to the open wound. Prior to the surgical incision, it is standard practice to prepare the fracture region with an antiseptic skin solution as an additional SSI prevention strategy. Multiple antiseptic solutions are available...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Luise Hutzschenreuter, Steffen Flessa, Kathleen Dittmann, Nils-Olaf Hübner
Background: Nosocomial infections are among the most common complications in hospitals. A major part is caused by multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO). MRSA is still the most prominent and frequent MDRO. The early detection of carriers of multidrug-resistant bacteria is an effective measure to reduce nosocomial infections caused by MDRO. For patients who are planning to go to the hospital, an outpatient screening for MDRO and pre-hospital decolonization is recommended. However, the effectiveness of such pre-admission MDRO management in preparation for a planned hospital stay has not yet been sufficiently scientifically examined from an economic perspective...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Andreas F Wendel, Monika Malecki, Robin Otchwemah, Carlos J Tellez-Castillo, Samir G Sakka, Frauke Mattner
Background: A. baumannii is a common nosocomial pathogen known for its high transmission potential. A high rate of carbapenem-susceptible Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii (ACB)-complex in clinical specimens led to the implementation of a pathogen-based surveillance on a 32-bed surgical intensive care unit (SICU) in a German tertiary care centre. Methods: Between April 2017 and March 2018, ACB-complex isolates with an epidemiological link to the SICU were further assessed...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Wenxia Zhang, Yan Guo, Jiayin Li, Yiyuan Zhang, Yang Yang, Dong Dong, Demei Zhu, Ping He, Fupin Hu
Background: In recent years, the incidence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) infections has increased rapidly. Since the CRE strain is usually resistant to most of antimicrobial agents, patients with this infection are often accompanied by a high mortality. Therefore, it instigates a severe challenge the clinical management of infection. In this study, we study the in vitro and in vivo bactericidal activity of ceftazidime-avibactam administrated either alone or in combination with aztreonam against KPC or NDM carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae , and explore a new clinical therapeutic regimen for infections induced by their resistant strains...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Florian Salm, Frank Schwab, Michael Behnke, Frank M Brunkhorst, André Scherag, Christine Geffers, Petra Gastmeier
Background: Blood cultures (BCs) are the gold standard for diagnosing sepsis and are prerequisite for a targeted antibiotic treatment and essential for patient outcomes. Aim of the study was to analyze the frequency of BCs, the rate of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) and to study the association between both parameters on intensive care units in Germany over time. Methods: Cross-sectional studies at two points in time (2006, 2015) on ICUs participating in the German hospital infection surveillance system...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Chloe Bogaty, Laura Mataseje, Andrew Gray, Brigitte Lefebvre, Simon Lévesque, Michael Mulvey, Yves Longtin
Background: The standard epidemiologic investigation of outbreaks typically relies on spatiotemporal data and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), but whole genome sequencing (WGS) is becoming increasingly used. This investigation aimed to characterize a carbapenemase-producing Acinetobacter baumannii (CPAb) nosocomial outbreak using WGS compared to a standard outbreak investigation. Methods: The CPAb outbreak occurred in a single center between 2012 and 2014...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Yu Jin Park, Nguyen Le Phuong, Naina Adren Pinto, Mi Jeong Kwon, Roshan D'Souza, Jung-Hyun Byun, Heungsup Sung, Dongeun Yong
Background: Small colony and capnophilic variant cases have been separately reported, but there has been no reports of their simultaneous presence in one isolate. We report a case of Escherichia coli with coexpressed small colony and capnophilic phenotypes causing misidentification in automated biochemical kits and non-reactions in antimicrobial susceptibility test cards. Case presentation: An 86-year-old woman developed urinary tract infection from a strain of Escherichia coli with SCV and capnophilic phenotypes in co-existence...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Mulatu Gashaw, Melkamu Berhane, Sisay Bekele, Gebre Kibru, Lule Teshager, Yonas Yilma, Yesuf Ahmed, Netsanet Fentahun, Henok Assefa, Andreas Wieser, Esayas Kebede Gudina, Solomon Ali
Background: The rates of resistant microorganisms which complicate the management of healthcare associated infections (HAIs) are increasing worldwide and getting more serious in developing countries. The objective of this study was to describe microbiological features and resistance profiles of bacterial pathogens of HAIs in Jimma University Medical Center (JUMC) in Ethiopia. Methods: Institution based cross sectional study was carried out on hospitalized patients from May to September, 2016 in JUMC...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Ping Yang, Yunbo Chen, Saiping Jiang, Ping Shen, Xiaoyang Lu, Yonghong Xiao
Background: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the rate of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria and antibiotic consumption intensity in 153 tertiary hospitals from China in 2014. Methods: A retrospective study using national surveillance data from 2014 was conducted. Data on the annual consumption of each antibiotic, as well as the rate of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, were collected from each participating hospital, and the correlation between antibiotic consumption and carbapenem- resistant rate was analyzed...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Jadwiga Wojkowska-Mach, Brian Godman, Amanda Glassman, Amanj Kurdi, Andrzej Pilc, Anna Rozanska, Szymon Skoczyński, Marta Wałaszek, Tomasz Bochenek
Background: The problem of inappropriate use of antibiotics and the resulting growth in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has implications for Poland and the world. The objective of this paper was to compare and contrast antibiotic resistance and antibiotic utilisation in Poland in recent years versus other European countries, including agreed quality indicators, alongside current AMR patterns and ongoing policies and initiatives in Poland to influence and improve antibiotic prescribing...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Isabel Morales Barroso, Lorena López-Cerero, María Dolores Navarro, Belén Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Alvaro Pascual, Jesús Rodríguez-Baño
Background: Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131) is a successful clonal group that has dramatically spread during the last decades and is considered an important driver for the rapid increase of quinolone resistance in E. coli . Methods: Risk factors for rectal colonization by ST131 Escherichia coli (irrespective of ESBL production) were investigated in 64 household members (18 were colonized) and 54 hospital contacts (HC; 10 colonized) of 34 and 30 index patients with community and nosocomial infection due to these organisms, respectively, using multilevel analysis with a p limit of < 0...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Raspail Carrel Founou, Luria Leslie Founou, Sabiha Yusuf Essack
Background: Gram-negative ESKAPE bacteria are increasingly implicated in several difficult-to-treat infections in developed and developing countries. They are listed by the World Health Organization as resistant bacteria of critical priority in research. Objectives: To determine the risk factors, prevalence, phenotypic profiles, genetic diversity and clonal relatedness of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing multi-drug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative ESKAPE bacteria in the faecal carriage and clinical samples from patients in an urban, tertiary and a rural, district hospital in uMgungundlovu District, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Tobias Siegfried Kramer, Cornelius Remschmidt, Sven Werner, Michael Behnke, Frank Schwab, Guido Werner, Petra Gastmeier, Rasmus Leistner
Background: Infections caused by vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are on the rise worldwide. Few studies have tried to estimate the mortality burden as well as the financial burden of those infections and found that VRE are associated with increased mortality and higher hospital costs. However, it is unclear whether these worse outcomes are attributable to vancomycin resistance only or whether the enterococcal species ( Enterococcus faecium or Enterococcus faecalis ) play an important role...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Marie Davat, Lydia Wuarin, Dimitrios Stafylakis, Mohamed Abbas, Stephan Harbarth, Didier Hannouche, Ilker Uçkay
Background: Prolonged hospital stay before surgery is a risk for colonization with antibiotic-resistant microorganisms and possible antibiotic-resistant surgical site infections (SSI), which lacks acknowledgement in international guidelines for perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis. Method: Retrospective cohort study focusing on prophylaxis-resistant SSI in adult orthopedic implant patients; with emphasis on length of hospital stay prior to the index surgery. Results: We enrolled 611 cases of SSI (median age, 65 years; 241 females and 161 immune-suppressed) in four large implant groups: arthroplasties ( n  = 309), plates ( n  = 127), spondylodeses ( n  = 31), and nails ( n  = 46)...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Jocelyn Qi-Min Teo, Samuel Rocky Candra, Shannon Jing-Yi Lee, Shannon Yu-Hng Chia, Hui Leck, Ai-Ling Tan, Hui-Peng Neo, Kenneth Wei-Liang Leow, Yiying Cai, Pui Lai Rachel Ee, Tze-Peng Lim, Winnie Lee, Andrea Lay-Hoon Kwa
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s13756-017-0184-1.].
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Cho-Han Chiang, Sung-Ching Pan, Tyan-Shin Yang, Keisuke Matsuda, Hong Bin Kim, Young Hwa Choi, Satoshi Hori, Jann-Tay Wang, Wang-Huei Sheng, Yee-Chun Chen, Feng-Yee Chang, Shan-Chwen Chang
Background: Sustainable systematic interventions are important for infection prevention and control (IPC). Data from surveillance of healthcare-associated infections (HAI) provides feedback for implementation of IPC programs. To address the paucity of such data in Asia, we searched for national HAI surveillance and IPC programs in this region. Methods: Data were analysed from open access national surveillance reports of three Asian countries: Taiwan, South Korea and Japan from 2008 to 2015...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Noor Ul Ain, Anam Iftikhar, Syeda Sadia Bukhari, Samyyia Abrar, Shahida Hussain, Muhammad Hayat Haider, Farhan Rasheed, Saba Riaz
Background: Metallo-β-lactamase (MBL)-producing isolates have a strong impact on diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. A high frequency of MBL-producing gram-negative bacilli has been reported worldwide. The current study was based on determining the incidence of MBL-producing imipenem-resistant clinical isolates and investigating the β-lactamase gene variants in strains conferring resistance to a carbapenem drug (imipenem). Methods: A total of 924 gram negative isolates were recovered from a tertiary care hospital in Lahore, Pakistan, during a two-year period (July 2015 to February 2017)...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Junwan Lu, Jinfang Zhang, Lei Xu, Yabo Liu, Pingping Li, Tingyuan Zhu, Cong Cheng, Shunfei Lu, Teng Xu, Huiguang Yi, Kewei Li, Wu Zhou, Peizhen Li, Liyan Ni, Qiyu Bao
Background: Florfenicol is a derivative of chloramphenicol that is used only for the treatment of animal diseases. A key resistance gene for florfenicol, floR , can spread among bacteria of the same and different species or genera through horizontal gene transfer. To analyze the potential transmission of resistance genes between animal and human pathogens, we investigated floR in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from patient samples. floR in human pathogens may originate from animal pathogens and would reflect the risk to human health of using antimicrobial agents in animals...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Akane Takamatsu, Yasuaki Tagashira, Kaori Ishii, Yasuhiro Morita, Yasuharu Tokuda, Hitoshi Honda
Background: The optimal timing of preoperative surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis (SAP) remains uncertain. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of changing the timing of SAP on the incidence of surgical site infection (SSI) in laparoscopic surgery. Methods: We performed a before-after study from August 2014 through June 2017 to assess the impact of changes in the timing of SAP on the incidence of SSI at a 790-bed tertiary care center in Japan. The intervention was the administration of SAP immediately after the study patients entered the operating room for laparoscopic surgery...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Laurel Legenza, Susanne Barnett, Warren Rose, Nasia Safdar, Theresa Emmerling, Keng Hee Peh, Renier Coetzee
Background: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is understudied in limited resource settings. In addition, provider awareness of CDI as a prevalent threat is unknown. An assessment of current facilitators and barriers to CDI identification, management, and prevention is needed in limited resource settings to design and evaluate quality improvement strategies to effectively minimize the risk of CDI. Methods: Our study aimed to identify CDI perceptions and practices among healthcare providers in South African secondary hospitals to identify facilitators and barriers to providing quality CDI care...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
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