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Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control

Teng-Ho Wang, Yi-Shing Leu, Nai-Yu Wang, Chang-Pan Liu, Tsong-Rong Yan
Background: Although the prevalence of the carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB) has increased in Taiwan, few studies have elucidated the prevalence of different carbapenemase genes in Taiwan. The first objective of this study was to identify the types and prevalence of different carbapenemase genes, and the second objective was to determine the carbapenem antimicrobial susceptibility of carbapenemase producing isolates. Methods: In total, 269 CRAB blood isolates from four medical centres in Taiwan from 1/1/2009 to 31/12/2013 were analysed...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Alyssa M West, Carine A Nkemngong, Maxwell G Voorn, Tongyu Wu, Xiaobao Li, Peter J Teska, Haley F Oliver
Background: Disinfectant products are often used on environmental surfaces (e.g. countertops, patient beds) and patient care equipment in healthcare facilities to help prevent the transmission of healthcare-associated infections. Ready-to-use (RTU) disinfectants in the form of pre-wetted towelettes are increasingly popular among healthcare facilities. Currently, the EPA does not require disinfectant manufacturers to include a recommended maximum surface area per towelette on their product labels...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Narbada Upreti, Binod Rayamajhee, Samendra P Sherchan, Mahesh Kumar Choudhari, Megha Raj Banjara
Background: Treatment and prevention of wound infection continues to be a challenging issue in clinical settings of Nepal especially in the context of globally growing problem of antimicrobial resistance. Study on opportunistic pathogens and sensitivity to commonly prescribed local antimicrobial agents are cardinal to reduce the disease burden of wound infections. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria from wound infections of patients at a tertiary care hospital in Nepal...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Marziyeh Tavakol, Hassan Momtaz, Parviz Mohajeri, Leili Shokoohizadeh, Elahe Tajbakhsh
Background: Acinetobacter baumannii strains with multiple antimicrobial resistance are primarily known as opportunistic nosocomial bacteria but they may also be regarded as emerging bacterial contaminants of food samples of animal origin. Here we aimed to study the molecular characteristics of the A. baumanni strains isolated from raw meat samples. Methods: A total of 22 A. baumanni strains were isolated from 126 animal meat samples and were genotyped by ERIC-PCR method and by PCR detection of their virulence and antimicrobial resistance determinants...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Yoel Lubell, Nga T T Do, Kinh V Nguyen, Ngan T D Ta, Ninh T H Tran, Hung M Than, Long B Hoang, Poojan Shrestha, Rogier H van Doorn, Behzad Nadjm, Heiman F L Wertheim
Aim: We assess the cost-benefit implications of C-reactive protein (CRP) testing in reducing antibiotic prescription for acute respiratory infection in Viet Nam by comparing the incremental costs of CRP testing with the economic costs of antimicrobial resistance averted due to lower antibiotic prescribing. Findings: Patients in the CRP group and the controls incurred similar costs in managing their illness, excluding the costs of the quantitative CRP tests, provided free of charge in the trial context...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Maryam Raeispour, Reza Ranjbar
Background: The way of treating different types of infectious diseases is really important. Using genotyping method, we can determine the genetic relatedness between the organisms with different resistance profile from different sources. The aim of this study was to determine antibiotic resistance and genotyping of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Method: Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) strains were recovered from the patients with urinary tract infections (UTI) whom admitted in several major hospitals in Tehran...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Anna Camilla Birkegård, Tariq Halasa, Nils Toft, Anders Folkesson, Kaare Græsbøll
Background: Antimicrobial resistance is a global health problem that demands all possible means to control it. Mathematical modelling is a valuable tool for understanding the mechanisms of AMR development and spread, and can help us to investigate and propose novel control strategies. However, it is of vital importance that mathematical models have a broad utility, which can be assured if good modelling practice is followed. Objective: The objective of this study was to provide a comprehensive systematic review of published models of AMR development and spread...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Hélène Mascitti, Clara Duran, Elisabeth-Marie Nemo, Frédérique Bouchand, Ruxandra Câlin, Alexis Descatha, Jean-Louis Gaillard, Christine Lawrence, Benjamin Davido, François Barbier, Aurélien Dinh
Background: Infections caused by multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) are emerging worldwide. Physicians are increasingly faced with the question of whether patients need empiric antibiotic treatment covering these pathogens. This question is especially essential among MDRO carriers. We aim to determine the occurrence of MDRO bacteraemia among bacteraemic patients colonized with MDRO, and the associated factors with MDRO bacteraemia among this population. Methods: We performed a retrospective monocentric study among MDRO carriers hospitalized with bacteraemia between January 2013 and August 2016 in a French hospital...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Reza Ranjbar, Farid Yadollahi Farsani, Farhad Safarpoor Dehkordi
Background: Foods with animal origins and particularly milk play a considerable role in transmission of Helicobacter pylori . The current study was performed to assess phenotypic characters of antibiotic resistance and genotyping pattern of vacA , cagA , iceA , oipA and babA2 alleles amongst the H. pylori strains isolated from raw milk. Methods: Six-hundred and thirty raw milk samples were collected and cultured on Wilkins Chalgren anaerobe media. Antibiotic resistance and genotyping patterns were studied using disk diffusion and PCR, respectively...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Shraddha Siwakoti, Asish Subedi, Abhilasha Sharma, Ratna Baral, Narayan Raj Bhattarai, Basudha Khanal
Background: Infections caused by multi-drug resistant gram-negative bacterial infections are the principle threats to the critically ill patients of intensive care units. Increasing reports of these infections from the Nepalese intensive care unit underline the clinical importance of these pathogens. However, the impact of these infections on the patient's clinical outcome has not yet been clearly evaluated. The objective of our study was to determine the incidence and associated clinical outcome of multi-drug resistant gram-negative bacterial infections in intensive care unit from a tertiary care center of Nepal...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Mohamed Abbas, Tammam Aloudat, Javier Bartolomei, Manuel Carballo, Sophie Durieux-Paillard, Laure Gabus, Alexandra Jablonka, Yves Jackson, Kanokporn Kaojaroen, Daniel Koch, Esperanza Martinez, Marc Mendelson, Roumyana Petrova-Benedict, Sotirios Tsiodras, Derek Christie, Mirko Saam, Sally Hargreaves, Didier Pittet
The 2015-2017 global migratory crisis saw unprecedented numbers of people on the move and tremendous diversity in terms of age, gender and medical requirements. This article focuses on key emerging public health issues around migrant populations and their interactions with host populations. Basic needs and rights of migrants and refugees are not always respected in regard to article 25 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and article 23 of the Refugee Convention. These are populations with varying degrees of vulnerability and needs in terms of protection, security, rights, and access to healthcare...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Kevin T Kavanagh, Said Abusalem, Lindsay E Calderon
The authors advocate the addition of two preventative strategies to the current United State's guidelines for the prevention of surgical site infections. It is known that Staphylococcus aureus , including Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), carriers are at a higher risk for the development of infections and they can easily transmit the organism. The carriage rate of Staph. aureus in the general population approximates 33%. The CDC estimates the carriage rate of MRSA in the United States is approximately 2%...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Aina Gomila, Evelyn Shaw, Jordi Carratalà, Leonard Leibovici, Cristian Tebé, Irith Wiegand, Laura Vallejo-Torres, Joan M Vigo, Stephen Morris, Margaret Stoddart, Sally Grier, Christiane Vank, Nienke Cuperus, Leonard Van den Heuvel, Noa Eliakim-Raz, Cuong Vuong, Alasdair MacGowan, Ibironke Addy, Miquel Pujol
Background: Patients with complicated urinary tract infections (cUTIs) frequently receive broad-spectrum antibiotics. We aimed to determine the prevalence and predictive factors of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria in patients with cUTI. Methods: This is a multicenter, retrospective cohort study in south and eastern Europe, Turkey and Israel including consecutive patients with cUTIs hospitalised between January 2013 and December 2014. Multidrug-resistance was defined as non-susceptibility to at least one agent in three or more antimicrobial categories...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Yeshwondm Mamuye GebreSilasie, Kassu Desta Tullu, Addisu Gize Yeshanew
Background: Diarrheal illness remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among children under 5 years of age worldwide, especially in developing countries. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) is the major cause of gastroenteritis in children in the developing world and is associated with high resistance levels to antibiotics. The aims of this study were to isolate and determine susceptibility patterns of DEC among children under 5 years of age with acute diarrhea and to assess maternal knowledge, attitude and practice towards childhood diarrhea...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Jannicke Slettli Wathne, Lars Kåre Selland Kleppe, Stig Harthug, Hege Salvesen Blix, Roy M Nilsen, Esmita Charani, Ingrid Smith
Background: There is limited evidence from multicenter, randomized controlled studies to inform planning and implementation of antibiotic stewardship interventions in hospitals. Methods: A cluster randomized, controlled, intervention study was performed in selected specialities (infectious diseases, pulmonary medicine and gastroenterology) at three emergency care hospitals in Western Norway. Interventions applied were audit with feedback and academic detailing. Implementation strategies included co-design of interventions with stakeholders in local intervention teams and prescribers setting local targets for change in antibiotic prescribing behaviour...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Miranda Suchomel, Markus Brillmann, Ojan Assadian, Karen J Ousey, Elisabeth Presterl
Background: The risk of SSI increases in the presence of foreign materials and may be caused by organisms with low pathogenicity, such as skin flora derived from hands of surgical team members in the event of a glove breach. Previously, we were able to demonstrate that a novel antimicrobial surgical glove coated chlorhexidine-digluconate as the active ingredient on its inner surface was able to suppress surgeons' hand flora during operative procedures by a magnitude of 1.7 log10 cfu/mL...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Qiang Zhu, Yan Yue, Lichen Zhu, Jiewei Cui, Minghui Zhu, Liangan Chen, Zhen Yang, Zhixin Liang
Background: Gram-positive bacterial bloodstream infections (BSIs) are serious diseases associated with high morbidity and mortality. The following study examines the incidence, clinical characteristics and microbiological features, drug resistance situations and mortality associated with Gram-positive BSIs at a large Chinese tertiary-care hospital in Beijing, China. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of patients with Gram-positive BSIs was performed between January 1, 2011, and June 31, 2017, at the Chinese People' s Liberation Army General Hospital...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Sri Harminda Pahm Hartantyo, Man Ling Chau, Laurent Fillon, Ahmad Zhafir Bin Mohamad Ariff, Joanne Su Lin Kang, Kyaw Thu Aung, Ramona Alikiiteaga Gutiérrez
An analysis of 186 diagnostic reports collected from a veterinary clinic in Singapore between 2014 to 2016 showed that sick companion animals can carry bacteria that are of significance to human health. Among the 186 specimens submitted, 82 showed polymicrobial growth (45%, 82/186) and in total, 359 bacteria were isolated. Of the 359 bacteria reported, 45% (162/359) were multi-drug resistant and 18% (66/359) were extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase species. Resistance to broad-spectrum antibiotics were also observed among individual species...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Ksenia Szymanek-Majchrzak, Andrzej Mlynarczyk, Grazyna Mlynarczyk
Background: Vancomycin is still one of the most commonly used drug for treatment of severe methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. Vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) strains are a serious danger for public health. This study aimed to characterize healthcare-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) strains, resistant to at least one of glycopeptide antibiotics: vancomycin (VRSA) and/or teicoplanin (TRSA), isolated at three Warsaw hospitals over a period of 17-years (1991-2007)...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
A M Morris, E Rennert-May, B Dalton, N Daneman, L Dresser, S Fanella, J Grant, Y Keynan, N Le Saux, J McDonald, Y Shevchuk, D Thirion, J M Conly
Background: Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) have been shown to reduce inappropriate antimicrobial use and its consequences. However, these programs lack legislative requirements in many places and it can be difficult to determine what human resources are required for these programs and how to create a business case to present to hospital administrators for program funding. The objectives of the current paper were to review legislative requirements and outline human resource requirements for ASPs, and to create a base business case for ASPs...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
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