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Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468055/comparison-of-governance-approaches-for-the-control-of-antimicrobial-resistance-analysis-of-three-european-countries
#1
REVIEW
Gabriel Birgand, Enrique Castro-Sánchez, Sonja Hansen, Petra Gastmeier, Jean-Christophe Lucet, Ewan Ferlie, Alison Holmes, Raheelah Ahmad
Policy makers and governments are calling for coordination to address the crisis emerging from the ineffectiveness of current antibiotics and stagnated pipe-line of new ones - antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Wider contextual drivers and mechanisms are contributing to shifts in governance strategies in health care, but are national health system approaches aligned with strategies required to tackle antimicrobial resistance? This article provides an analysis of governance approaches within healthcare systems including: priority setting, performance monitoring and accountability for AMR prevention in three European countries: England, France and Germany...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468054/in-vitro-activity-of-ivermectin-against-staphylococcus-aureus-clinical-isolates
#2
Shoaib Ashraf, Umer Chaudhry, Ali Raza, Debasri Ghosh, Xin Zhao
Background: Ivermectin is an endectocide against many parasites. Though being a macrocyclic lactone, its activity against bacteria has been less known, possibly due to the fact that micromolar concentrations at tissue levels are required to achieve a therapeutic effect. Among pathogenic bacteria of major medical significance, Staphylococcus aureus cause a number of diseases in a wide variety of hosts including humans and animals. It has been attributed as one of the most pathogenic organisms...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468053/apsic-guidelines-for-disinfection-and-sterilization-of-instruments-in-health-care-facilities
#3
Moi Lin Ling, Patricia Ching, Ammar Widitaputra, Alison Stewart, Nanthipha Sirijindadirat, Le Thi Anh Thu
Background: The Asia Pacific Society of Infection Control launched its revised Guidelines for Disinfection and Sterilization of Instruments in Health Care Facilities in February 2017. This document describes the guidelines and recommendations for the reprocessing of instruments in healthcare setting. It aims to highlight practical recommendations in a concise format designed to assist healthcare facilities at Asia Pacific region in achieving high standards in sterilization and disinfection...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468052/prevalence-of-staphylococcus-spp-nasal-colonization-among-doctors-of-podiatric-medicine-and-associated-risk-factors-in-spain
#4
Sheila de Benito, Luis Alou, Ricardo Becerro-de-Bengoa-Vallejo, Marta Elena Losa-Iglesias, María Luisa Gómez-Lus, Luis Collado, David Sevillano
Background: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of methicillin-susceptible and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and MRSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) nasopharyngeal carriage among Doctors of Podiatric Medicine (Podiatrists) and to determine the potential risk factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2016-2017 among 239 podiatrists in Spain. The presence of MSSA, MRSA, and MRSE was determined by microbiological analysis of nasal exudate and antimicrobial susceptibility was determined...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468051/the-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-of-doctors-regarding-antibiotic-resistance-at-a-tertiary-care-institution-in-the-caribbean
#5
Alison Nicholson, Ingrid Tennant, Livingston White, Camille-Ann Thoms-Rodriguez, Loraine Cook, Stephen Johnson, Tamara Thompson, Jasper Barnett, Lundie Richards
Background: Antibiotic resistance (ABR) is a serious threat that requires coordinated global intervention to prevent its spread. There is limited data from the English-speaking Caribbean. Methods: As part of a national programme to address antibiotic resistance in Jamaica, a survey of the knowledge, attitudes and antibiotic prescribing practices of Jamaican physicians was conducted using a 32-item self-administered questionnaire. Results: Of the eight hundred physicians targeted, 87% responded...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456841/successful-treatment-of-extensively-drug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-ventriculitis-with-polymyxin-b-and-tigecycline-a-case-report
#6
Wei Guo, Shao-Chun Guo, Min Li, Li-Hong Li, Yan Qu
Background: Acinetobacter baumannii nosocomial ventriculitis/meningitis, especially those due to drug-resistant strains, has substantially increased over recent years. However, limited therapeutic options exist for the Acinetobacter baumannii ventriculitis/meningitis because of the poor penetration rate of most antibiotics through the blood-brain barrier. Case presentation: A 57-year-old male patient developed ventriculitis from an extensively drug-resistant strain of Acinetobacter baumannii after the decompressive craniectomy for severe traumatic brain injury...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456840/mixed-methods-evaluation-of-the-impact-of-a-short-term-training-program-on-sterile-processing-knowledge-practice-and-attitude-in-three-hospitals-in-benin
#7
Olive Fast, Christina Fast, Dan Fast, Suzanne Veltjens, Zouliha Salami, Michelle White
Background: Proper sterile processing is fundamental to safe surgical practice and optimal patient outcomes. Sterile processing practices in low and middle-income countries often fall short of recommended standards. The impact of education and training on sterile processing practices in low and middle-income countries is unknown. We designed a sterile processing education course, including mentoring, and aimed to evaluate the impact on participants' personal knowledge, skills, and practices...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449938/molecular-characteristics-and-successful-management-of-a-respiratory-syncytial-virus-outbreak-among-pediatric-patients-with-hemato-oncological-disease
#8
Claas Baier, Sibylle Haid, Andreas Beilken, Astrid Behnert, Martin Wetzke, Richard J P Brown, Corinna Schmitt, Ella Ebadi, Gesine Hansen, Thomas F Schulz, Thomas Pietschmann, Franz-Christoph Bange
Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is responsible for upper and lower respiratory tract infection in adults and children. Especially immunocompromised patients are at high risk for a severe course of infection, and mortality is increased. Moreover RSV can spread in healthcare settings and can cause outbreaks. Herein we demonstrate the successful control and characteristics of a RSV outbreak that included 8 patients in our Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology. Methods: We performed an epidemiologic investigation and a molecular analysis of the outbreak strains...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441201/leech-management-before-application-on-patient-a-nationwide-survey-of-practices-in-french-university-hospitals
#9
Delphine Grau, Raphaël Masson, Maxime Villiet, Brigitte Lamy
Background: Leech therapy in plastic/reconstructive microsurgery significantly improves a successful outcome of flap salvage but the drawback is a risk of severe infection that results in a drop of the salvage rates from 70-80% to below 30%. We report the results of a national survey conducted in all the French university hospitals to assess the current extent of use of leech for medical practices in the hospital and to investigate maintenance, delivery practices and prevention of the risk of infection...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435265/prevalence-and-molecular-characterization-of-oqxab-in-clinical-escherichia-coli-isolates-from-companion-animals-and-humans-in-henan-province-china
#10
Baoguang Liu, Hua Wu, Yajun Zhai, Zhipei He, Huarun Sun, Tian Cai, Dandan He, Jianhua Liu, Shanmei Wang, Yushan Pan, Li Yuan, Gongzheng Hu
Background: The plasmid-encoded multidrug efflux pump oqxAB confers bacterial resistance primarily to olaquindox, quinolones, and chloramphenicol. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of oqxAB among Escherichia coli isolates from dogs, cats, and humans in Henan, China and the susceptibilities of E. coli isolates to common antibiotics. Methods: From 2012 to 2014, a total of 600 samples which included 400 rectal samples and 200 clinical human specimens were tested for the presence of E...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423192/synergistic-effect-of-eugenol-with-colistin-against-clinical-isolated-colistin-resistant-escherichia-coli-strains
#11
Yi-Ming Wang, Ling-Cong Kong, Jie Liu, Hong-Xia Ma
Background: Bacterial infections have become more challenging to treat due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria. Combined antibiotics prove to be a relatively effective method to control such resistant strains. This study aim to investigate synergistic activity of eugenol combined with colistin against a collection of clinical isolated Escherichia coli (E.coli) strains, and to evaluate potential interaction. Methods: Antimicrobial susceptibility, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) of the bacteria were determined by disk diffusion assay, broth microdilution method and checkerboard assay, respectively...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423191/bioaerosol-concentrations-generated-from-toilet-flushing-in-a-hospital-based-patient-care-setting
#12
Samantha D Knowlton, Corey L Boles, Eli N Perencevich, Daniel J Diekema, Matthew W Nonnenmann
Background: In the United States, 1.7 million immunocompromised patients contract a healthcare-associated infection, annually. These infections increase morbidity, mortality and costs of care. A relatively unexplored route of transmission is the generation of bioaerosols during patient care. Transmission of pathogenic microorganisms may result from inhalation or surface contamination of bioaerosols. The toilet flushing of patient fecal waste may be a source of bioaerosols. To date, no study has investigated bioaerosol concentrations from flushing fecal wastes during patient care...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423190/antibiotic-use-in-a-tertiary-healthcare-facility-in-ghana-a-point-prevalence-survey
#13
Appiah-Korang Labi, Noah Obeng-Nkrumah, Edmund Tetteh Nartey, Stephanie Bjerrum, Nii Armah Adu-Aryee, Yaw Adjei Ofori-Adjei, Alfred E Yawson, Mercy J Newman
Background: The global rise and spread of antibiotic resistance is limiting the usefulness of antibiotics in the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases. The use of antibiotic stewardship programs guided by local data on prescribing practices is a useful strategy to control and reduce antibiotic resistance. Our objective in this study was to determine the prevalence and indications for use of antibiotics at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital Accra, Ghana. Methods: An antibiotic point prevalence survey was conducted among inpatients of the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital between February and March 2016...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410782/in-vitro-studies-of-the-antibacterial-activity-of-copaifera-spp-oleoresins-sodium-hypochlorite-and-peracetic-acid-against-clinical-and-environmental-isolates-recovered-from-a-hemodialysis-unit
#14
Rosimara Gonçalves Leite Vieira, Thaís da Silva Moraes, Larissa de Oliveira Silva, Thamires Chiquini Bianchi, Rodrigo Cassio Sola Veneziani, Sérgio Ricardo Ambrósio, Jairo Kenupp Bastos, Regina Helena Pires, Carlos Henrique Gomes Martins
Background: Patients submitted to hemodialysis therapy are more susceptible to infection, especially to infection by Gram-positive bacteria. Various research works have attempted to discover new antimicrobial agents from plant extracts and other natural products. Methods: The present study aimed to assess the antibacterial activities of Copaifera duckei, C. reticulata, and C. oblongifolia oleoresins; sodium hypochlorite; and peracetic acid against clinical and environmental isolates recovered from a Hemodialysis Unit...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387347/the-efficacy-of-ampicillin-compared-with-ceftriaxone-on-preventing-cesarean-surgical-site-infections-an-observational-prospective-cohort-study
#15
Srisuda Assawapalanggool, Nongyao Kasatpibal, Supatra Sirichotiyakul, Rajin Arora, Watcharin Suntornlimsiri, Anucha Apisarnthanarak
Background: Cesarean surgical site infections (SSIs) can be prevented by proper preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis. Differences in antibiotic selection in clinical practice exist according to obstetricians' preferences despite clear guidelines on preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of ampicillin and ceftriaxone in preventing cesarean SSIs. Methods: The observational prospective cohort study was conducted at a tertiary hospital in Thailand from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2012...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387346/drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-saudi-arabia-an-analysis-of-surveillance-data%C3%A2-2014-2015
#16
Maha Al Ammari, Abdulrahman Al Turaiki, Mohammed Al Essa, Abdulhameed M Kashkary, Sara A Eltigani, Anwar E Ahmed
Background: There is limited data that investigates the national rates of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) in Saudi Arabia.This study aimed to estimate the rates of multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB), and monoresistance (MR) in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on all TB cases reported to the National TB Control and Prevention Program (NTCPP) registry at the Saudi Ministry of Health between January 1, 2014 and December 31, 2015...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387345/higher-third-generation-cephalosporin-prescription-proportion-is-associated-with-lower-probability-of-reducing-carbapenem-use-a-nationwide-retrospective-study
#17
Allison Muller, Xavier Bertrand, Anne-Marie Rogues, Muriel Péfau, Serge Alfandari, Rémy Gauzit, Catherine Dumartin, Houssein Gbaguidi-Haore
Background: The ongoing extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) pandemic has led to an increasing carbapenem use, requiring release of guidelines for carbapenem usage in France in late 2010. We sought to determine factors associated with changes in carbapenem use in intensive care units (ICUs), medical and surgical wards between 2009 and 2013. Methods: This ward-level multicentre retrospective study was based on data from French antibiotic and multidrug-resistant bacteria surveillance networks in healthcare facilities...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387344/antimicrobial-effect-of-copper-alloys-on-acinetobacter-species-isolated-from-infections-and-hospital-environment
#18
Anna Różańska, Agnieszka Chmielarczyk, Dorota Romaniszyn, Grzegorz Majka, Małgorzata Bulanda
Background: An increased proportion of Gram-negative bacteria have recently been reported among etiologic agents of infection. In Poland, Acinetobacter baumannii is a big problem for hospitals, especially intensive care units. Touch surfaces made from materials with antimicrobial properties, especially copper alloys, are recommended as a supplementary method of increasing biological safety in the hospital environment. Aim of the study: The objective of this study is to determine the susceptibility to selected copper alloys of three clinical Acinetobacter baumannii strains, one Acinetobacter lwoffi and an A...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387343/multi-drug-resistant-acinetobacter-species-a-seven-year-experience-from-a-tertiary-care-center-in-lebanon
#19
Zeina A Kanafani, Nada Zahreddine, Ralph Tayyar, Jad Sfeir, George F Araj, Ghassan M Matar, Souha S Kanj
Background: Acinetobacter species have become increasingly common in the intensive care units (ICU) over the past two decades, causing serious infections. At the American University of Beirut Medical Center, the incidence of multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDR-Ab) infections in the ICU increased sharply in 2007 by around 120%, and these infections have continued to cause a serious problem to this day. Methods: We conducted a seven-year prospective cohort study between 2007 and 2014 in the ICU...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387342/efficacy-of-intravenous-plus-intrathecal-intracerebral-ventricle-injection-of-polymyxin-b-for-post-neurosurgical-intracranial-infections-due-to-mdr-xdr-acinectobacter-baumannii-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#20
Sijun Pan, Xiaofang Huang, Yesong Wang, Li Li, Changyun Zhao, Zhongxiang Yao, Wei Cui, Gensheng Zhang
Background: Post-neurosurgical intracranial infections caused by multidrug-resistant or extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii are difficult to treat and associated with high mortality. In this study, we analyzed the therapeutic efficacy of intravenous combined with intrathecal/intracerebral ventricle injection of polymyxin B for this type of intracranial infection. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted from January 2013 to September 2017 at the Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine (Hangzhou,China) and included 61 cases for which cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures were positive for multidrug-resistant or extensively drug-resistant A...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
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