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Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238572/management-and-investigation-of-a-serratia-marcescens-outbreak-in-a-neonatal-unit-in-switzerland-the-role-of-hand-hygiene-and-whole-genome-sequencing-r1-aric-d-17-00143
#1
Walter Zingg, Isabelle Soulake, Damien Baud, Benedikt Huttner, Riccardo Pfister, Gesuele Renzi, Didier Pittet, Jacques Schrenzel, Patrice Francois
Background: Many outbreaks due to Serratia marcescens among neonates have been described in the literature but little is known about the role of whole genome sequencing in outbreak analysis and management. Methods: Between February and March 2013, 2 neonates and 2 infants previously hospitalised in the neonatal unit of a tertiary care centre in Switzerland, were found to be colonised with S. marcescens. An investigation was launched with extensive environmental sampling and neonatal screening in four consecutive point prevalence surveys between April and May 2013...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225798/30-day-readmission-antibiotics-costs-and-costs-of-delay-to-adequate-treatment-of-enterobacteriaceae-uti-pneumonia-and-sepsis-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#2
Marya D Zilberberg, Brian H Nathanson, Kate Sulham, Weihong Fan, Andrew F Shorr
Background: Enterobacteriaceae are common pathogens in pneumonia, sepsis and urinary tract infection (UTI). Though rare, carbapenem resistance (CRE) among these organisms complicates efforts to ensure adequate empiric antimicrobial therapy. In turn this negatively impacts such outcomes as mortality and hospital costs. We explored proportion of total costs represented by antibiotics, 30-day readmission rates, and per-day costs of inadequate antimicrobial coverage among patients with Enterobacteriaceae pneumonia, sepsis and/or UTI in the context of inappropriate (IET) vs...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225797/seasonal-clustering-of-sinopulmonary-mucormycosis-in-patients-with-hematologic-malignancies-at-a-large-comprehensive-cancer-center
#3
Shobini Sivagnanam, Dhruba J Sengupta, Daniel Hoogestraat, Rupali Jain, Zach Stednick, David N Fredricks, Paul Hendrie, Estella Whimbey, Sara T Podczervinski, Elizabeth M Krantz, Jeffrey S Duchin, Steven A Pergam
Background: Invasive Mucorales infections (IMI) lead to significant morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts. The role of season and climatic conditions in case clustering of IMI remain poorly understood. Methods: Following detection of a cluster of sinopulmonary IMIs in patients with hematologic malignancies, we reviewed center-based medical records of all patients with IMIs and other invasive fungal infections (IFIs) between January of 2012 and August of 2015 to assess for case clustering in relation to seasonality...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214017/morphological-bactericidal-fast-acting-effects-of-peracetic-acid-a-high-level-disinfectant-against-staphylococcus-aureus-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-biofilms-in-tubing
#4
T Chino, Y Nukui, Y Morishita, K Moriya
Background: The bactericidal effect of disinfectants against biofilms is essential to reduce potential endoscopy-related infections caused by contamination. Here, we investigated the bactericidal effect of a high-level disinfectant, peracetic acid (PAA), against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm models in vitro. Methods: S. aureus and P. aeruginosa biofilms were cultured at 35 °C for 7 days with catheter tubes. The following high-level disinfectants (HLDs) were tested: 0...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214016/genotypic-characterization-of-gentamicin-and-cephalosporin-resistant-escherichia-coli-isolates-from-blood-cultures-in-a-norwegian-university-hospital-2011-2015
#5
Øyvind Andreas Fladberg, Silje Bakken Jørgensen, Hege Vangstein Aamot
Background: Cephalosporin resistance in clinical E. coli isolates is increasing internationally. The increase has been caused by virulent and often multidrug-resistant clones, especially the extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing E. coli clone O25b-ST131. Methods: In Norway, recommended empirical treatment of sepsis consists of gentamicin and penicillin combined, or a broad-spectrum cephalosporin. To investigate if increased gentamicin and cephalosporins resistance rates in our hospital could be caused by specific clones, we conducted a retrospective study on E...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204272/novel-antibiotic-combinations-proposed-for-treatment-of-burkholderia-cepacia-complex-infections
#6
Omar M El-Halfawy, Marwa M Naguib, Miguel A Valvano
Effective strategies to manage Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are lacking. We tested combinations of clinically available antibiotics and show that moxifloxacin-ceftazidime could inhibit 16 Bcc clinical isolates at physiologically achievable concentrations. Adding low dose of colistin improved the efficacy of the combo, especially at conditions mimicking CF respiratory secretions.
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204271/genome-sequencing-and-analysis-of-the-first-spontaneous-nanosilver-resistant-bacterium-proteus-mirabilis-strain-scdr1
#7
Amr T M Saeb, Khalid A Al-Rubeaan, Mohamed Abouelhoda, Manojkumar Selvaraju, Hamsa T Tayeb
Background: P. mirabilis is a common uropathogenic bacterium that can cause major complications in patients with long-standing indwelling catheters or patients with urinary tract anomalies. In addition, P. mirabilis is a common cause of chronic osteomyelitis in Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) patients. We isolated P. mirabilis SCDR1 from a Diabetic ulcer patient. We examined P. mirabilis SCDR1 levels of resistance against Nanosilver colloids, the commercial Nanosilver and silver containing bandages and commonly used antibiotics...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177048/impact-of-single-room-design-on-the-spread-of-multi-drug-resistant-bacteria-in-an-intensive-care-unit
#8
Teysir Halaby, Nashwan Al Naiemi, Bert Beishuizen, Roel Verkooijen, José A Ferreira, Rob Klont, Christina Vandenbroucke-Grauls
Background: Cross-transmission of nosocomial pathogens occurs frequently in intensive care units (ICU). The aim of this study was to investigate whether the introduction of a single room policy resulted in a decrease in transmission of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria in an ICU. Methods: We performed a retrospective study covering two periods: between January 2002 and April 2009 (old-ICU) and between May 2009 and March 2013 (new-ICU, single-room). These periods were compared with respect to the occurrence of representative MDR Gram-negative bacteria...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177047/virucidal-efficacy-of-peracetic-acid-for-instrument-disinfection
#9
Britta Becker, Florian H H Brill, Daniel Todt, Eike Steinmann, Johannes Lenz, Dajana Paulmann, Birte Bischoff, Jochen Steinmann
Background: Various peracetic-acid (PAA)-based products for processing flexible endoscopes on the market are often based on a two-component system including a cleaning step before the addition of PAA as disinfectant. The peracetic acid concentrations in these formulations from different manufacturers are ranging from 400 to 1500 ppm (part per million). These products are used at temperatures between 20 °C and 37 °C. Since information on the virus-inactivating properties of peracetic acid at different concentrations and temperature is missing, it was the aim of the study to evaluate peracetic acid solutions against test viruses using the quantitative suspension test, EN 14476...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167743/prevalence-and-characteristics-of-st131-clone-among-unselected-clinical-escherichia-coli-in-a-chinese-university-hospital
#10
Bin Li, Yanfang Lu, Fangjun Lan, Qingwen He, Chen Li, Yingping Cao
Background: Escherichia coli clinical sequence type 131 (ST131) has emerged as an extensively antimicrobial resistant E. coli clonal group in recent years throughout the world. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and molecular characteristics of ST131 among unselected E. coli clinical isolates in a Chinese university hospital. Methods: Seven hundred consecutive E. coli isolates were collected at a Chinese university hospital between 2014 and 2015...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163940/sub-minimum-inhibitory-concentration-of-rifampin-a-potential-risk-factor-for-resuscitation-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#11
Shahin Pourazar Dizaji, Alireza Taala, Morteza Masoumi, Nayereh Ebrahimzadeh, Abolfazl Fateh, Seyed Davar Siadat, Farzam Vaziri
Background: Mycobacterium tuberculosis possesses five resuscitation-promoting factors, Rpf A to E, which are required for the resuscitation of dormancy in mycobacteria. This study explores the transcriptional profile of all five rpfs of M. tuberculosis, in response to sub-MIC concentration of rifampin, in multidrug and mono-rifampin resistant clinical isolates. Methods: Thirteen multidrug and two rifampin mono resistant clinical isolates were analyzed. Drug susceptibility testing and determination of MIC were performed...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163939/infection-prevention-and-control-measures-and-tools-for-the-prevention-of-entry-of-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-into-healthcare-settings-guidance-from-the-european-centre-for-disease-prevention-and-control
#12
A P Magiorakos, K Burns, J Rodríguez Baño, M Borg, G Daikos, U Dumpis, J C Lucet, M L Moro, E Tacconelli, G Skov Simonsen, E Szilágyi, A Voss, J T Weber
Background: Infections with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are increasingly being reported from patients in healthcare settings. They are associated with high patient morbidity, attributable mortality and hospital costs. Patients who are "at-risk" may be carriers of these multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (MDR-E).The purpose of this guidance is to raise awareness and identify the "at-risk" patient when admitted to a healthcare setting and to outline effective infection prevention and control measures to halt the entry and spread of CRE...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158893/evaluation-of-a-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-bacteremia-cluster-in-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-recipients-using-whole-genome-sequencing
#13
Stefanie Kampmeier, Mike H Pillukat, Aleksandra Pettke, Annelene Kossow, Evgeny A Idelevich, Alexander Mellmann
Background: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ubiquitously occurs in the hospital environment. This opportunistic pathogen can cause severe infections in immunocompromised hosts such as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients. Between February and July 2016, a cluster of four patients on the HSCT unit suffered from S. maltophilia bloodstream infections (BSI). Methods: For epidemiological investigation we retrospectively identified the colonization status of patients admitted to the ward during this time period and performed environmental monitoring of shower heads, shower outlets, washbasins and toilets in patient rooms...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152233/inappropriate-use-of-antibiotics-among-communities-of-gondar-town-ethiopia-a-threat-to-the-development-of-antimicrobial-resistance
#14
Daniel Asfaw Erku, Abebe Basazn Mekuria, Sewunet Admasu Belachew
Background: The emergence of antimicrobial resistance, the main cause of morbidity and mortality from otherwise treatable infections, is largely attributed to the inappropriate use of antimicrobials. However, data on the extent of inappropriate use of antibiotics in the community is scarce in Ethiopia. The aim of present study is to document the extent of inappropriate use of antibiotics and its associated factors among the communities of Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods: A community based cross-sectional survey was conducted on a total of 650 participants in Gondar town, northwest Ethiopia from December 1, 2016 to January 30, 2017...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142744/-who-has-to-do-it-at-the-end-of-the-day-programme-officials-or-hospital-authorities-airborne-infection-control-at-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-dr-tb-centres-of-karnataka-india-a-mixed-methods-study
#15
Kibballi Madhukeshwar Akshaya, Hemant Deepak Shewade, Ottapura Prabhakaran Aslesh, Sharath Burugina Nagaraja, Abhay Subashrao Nirgude, Anil Singarajipura, Anil G Jacob
Background: Drug resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) centers admit patients with DR-TB for initiation of treatment and thereby concentrate the patients under one setting. It becomes imperative to assess the compliance of DR-TB centres to national airborne infection control (AIC) guidelines and explore the provider perspectives into reasons for unsatisfactory compliance. Methods: This mixed methods study (triangulation design) was carried out across all the six DR-TB centers of Karnataka state, India, between November 2016 and April 2017...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142743/anti-candida-activity-of-antimicrobial-impregnated-central-venous-catheters
#16
L Cobrado, A Silva-Dias, M M Azevedo, A Rodrigues
Background: Whenever the rate of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) remains high even after the implementation of preventive strategies, the use of chlorhexidine/silver sulfadiazine (CSS) or minocycline/rifampin (MR)-impregnated central venous catheters (CVCs) is currently recommended. Nevertheless, the efficacy of such CVCs against Candida albicans and other emerging non-albicans spp. has been insufficiently studied. This study aims to compare the activity of CSS and MR-impregnated CVCs against the yeasts most frequently isolated from CLABSIs...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093813/a-twenty-four-hour-observational-study-of-hand-hygiene-compliance-among-health-care-workers-in-debre-berhan-referral-hospital-ethiopia
#17
Tufa Kolola, Takele Gezahegn
Background: Hand hygiene (HH) is recognized as the single most effective strategy for preventing health care-associated infections. In developing countries, data on hand hygiene compliance is available only for few health-care facilities. This study aimed to assess hand hygiene compliance among health-care workers in Debre Berhan referral hospital, Ethiopia. Methods: This study employed the WHO hand hygiene observation method. Direct observation of the health care workers (HCWs) was conducted using an observation record form in five different wards...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093812/-first-person-view-of-pathogen-transmission-and-hand-hygiene-use-of-a-new-head-mounted-video-capture-and-coding-tool
#18
Lauren Clack, Manuela Scotoni, Aline Wolfensberger, Hugo Sax
Background: Healthcare workers' hands are the foremost means of pathogen transmission in healthcare, but detailed hand trajectories have been insufficiently researched so far. We developed and applied a new method to systematically document hand-to-surface exposures (HSE) to delineate true hand transmission pathways in real-life healthcare settings. Methods: A head-mounted camera and commercial coding software were used to capture ten active care episodes by eight nurses and two physicians and code HSE type and duration using a hierarchical coding scheme...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090091/cost-effectiveness-of-ceftolozane-tazobactam-plus-metronidazole-versus-piperacillin-tazobactam-as-initial-empiric-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-complicated-intra-abdominal-infections-based-on-pathogen-distributions-drawn-from-national-surveillance-data-in-the
#19
Vimalanand S Prabhu, Joseph S Solomkin, Goran Medic, Jason Foo, Rebekah H Borse, Teresa Kauf, Benjamin Miller, Shuvayu S Sen, Anirban Basu
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among gram-negative pathogens in complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs) has increased. In the absence of timely information on the infecting pathogens and their susceptibilities, local or regional epidemiology may guide initial empirical therapy and reduce treatment failure, length of stay and mortality. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of ceftolozane/tazobactam + metronidazole compared with piperacillin/tazobactam in the treatment of hospitalized US patients with cIAI at risk of infection with resistant pathogens...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075483/extended-spectrum-and-metalo-beta-lactamase-producing-airborne-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-acinetobacter-baumanii-in-restricted-settings-of-a-referral-hospital-a-neglected-condition
#20
Fithamlak Bisetegen Solomon, Fiseha Wadilo, Efrata Girma Tufa, Meseret Mitiku
BACKGROUND: Frequently encountered multidrug-resistant bacterial isolates of P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii are common and prevalent in a hospital environment. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and pattern of antibiotic resistance, extended spectrum and metallo beta-lactamase producing P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii isolates from restricted settings of indoor air hospital environment. METHODS: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Wolaita Sodo University Teaching and referral Hospital, Ethiopia from December 1/2015 to April 30/2015...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
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