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Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

Antonio Luis de Oliveira Almeida Petersen, Thiers A Campos, Diana Angélica Dos Santos Dantas, Juliana de Souza Rebouças, Juliana Cruz da Silva, Juliana P B de Menezes, Fábio R Formiga, Janaina V de Melo, Giovanna Machado, Patrícia S T Veras
The current long-term treatment for leishmaniasis causes severe side effects and resistance in some cases. An evaluation of the anti-leishmanial potential of an HSP90-inhibitor, 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), demonstrated its potent effect against Leishmania spp. in vitro and in vivo . We have previously shown that 17-AAG can kill L. (L) amazonensis promastigotes with an IC50 of 65 nM and intracellular amastigote at concentrations as low as 125 nM. As this compound presents low solubility and high toxicity in human clinical trials, we prepared an inclusion complex containing hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and 17-AAG (17-AAG:HPβCD) to improve its solubility...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Yongshuai Peng, Kunlun Wang, Shanshan Zhao, Yaqun Yan, Haiyan Wang, Jichun Jing, Fuchun Jian, Rongjun Wang, Longxian Zhang, Changshen Ning
Anaplasma capra is an emerging pathogen, which can infect ruminants and humans. This study was conducted to determine the occurrence of A. capra in the blood samples of sheep and goats in China. Using nested polymerase chain reaction (nested-PCR) targeting the gltA gene and conventional PCR targeting the heat shock protein ( groEL ) gene and the major surface protein4 gene ( msp4 ), A. capra was detected in 129 (8.9%) of 1453 sheep and goat blood samples. The positive rate was higher in goats (9.4%, 89/943) than in sheep (7...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Meng-Jie Bai, Jin-Lei Wang, Hany M Elsheikha, Qin-Li Liang, Kai Chen, Lan-Bi Nie, Xing-Quan Zhu
Infection with the apicomplexan protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is an ongoing public health problem. The parasite's ability to invade and replicate within the host cell is dependent on many effectors, such as dense granule proteins (GRAs) released from the specialized organelle dense granules, into host cells. GRAs have emerged as important determinants of T. gondii pathogenesis. However, the functions of some GRAs remain undefined. In this study, we used CRISPR-Cas9 technique to disrupt 17 GRA genes ( GRA11, GRA12 bis, GRA13, GRA14, GRA20, GRA21, GRA28-31, GRA33-38 , and GRA40 ) in the virulent T...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Jin-Hyung Lee, Yong-Guy Kim, Pilju Choi, Jungyeob Ham, Jae Gyu Park, Jintae Lee
Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogen and responsible for candidiasis. C. albicans readily forms biofilms on various biotic and abiotic surfaces, and these biofilms can cause local and systemic infections. C. albicans biofilms are more resistant than its free yeast to antifungal agents and less affected by host immune responses. Transition of yeast cells to hyphal cells is required for biofilm formation and is believed to be a crucial virulence factor. In this study, six components of ginger were investigated for antibiofilm and antivirulence activities against a fluconazole-resistant C...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Eveliina Karelehto, Cosimo Cristella, Xiao Yu, Adithya Sridhar, Rens Hulsdouw, Karen de Haan, Hetty van Eijk, Sylvie Koekkoek, Dasja Pajkrt, Menno D de Jong, Katja C Wolthers
Human parechoviruses (HPeVs), a poorly studied genus within the Picornaviridae family, are classified into 19 genotypes of which HPeV1 and HPeV3 are the most often detected. HPeV1 VP1 C terminus contains an arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motif and has been shown to depend on the host cell surface αV integrins (αV ITGs) and heparan sulfate (HS) for entry. HPeV3 lacks this motif and the receptors remain unknown. HPeVs can be detected in patient nasopharyngeal and stool samples, and infection is presumed to occur after respiratory or gastro-intestinal transmission...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Iliano V Coutinho-Abreu, Jesus G Valenzuela
Sand fly salivary proteins that produce a specific antibody response in humans and animal reservoirs have been shown to be promising biomarkers of sand fly exposure. Furthermore, immunity to sand fly salivary proteins were shown to protect rodents and non-human primates against Leishmania infection. We are missing critical information regarding the divergence amongst sand fly salivary proteins from different sand fly vectors, a knowledge that will support the search of broad or specific salivary biomarkers of vector exposure and those for vaccines components against leishmaniasis...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Francisco Sierra-López, Lidia Baylón-Pacheco, Patricia Espíritu-Gordillo, Anel Lagunes-Guillén, Bibiana Chávez-Munguía, José L Rosales-Encina
Entamoeba histolytica , the causal agent of human amoebiasis, has two morphologically different phases: a resistant cyst and a trophozoite responsible for the invasion of the host tissues such as the colonic mucosa and the intestinal epithelium. During in vitro migration, trophozoites usually produce protuberances such as pseudopods and rarely filopodia, structures that have been observed in the interaction of trophozoites with human colonic epithelial tissue. To study the different membrane projections produced by the trophozoites, including pseudopods, filopodia, uropods, blebs, and others, we designed an induction system using erythrocyte extract or fibronectin (FN) in micropatterned grill lines (each micro-line containing multiple micro-portions of FN or erythrocyte extract) on which the trophozoites were placed in culture for migration assays...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Lucía Fernández, Diana Gutiérrez, Ana Rodríguez, Pilar García
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Emanuela Marini, Gloria Magi, Gianna Ferretti, Tiziana Bacchetti, Angelica Giuliani, Armanda Pugnaloni, Maria Rita Rippo, Bruna Facinelli
Anti-virulence strategies are being explored as a novel approach to combat pathogens. Such strategies include inhibition of surface adhesion, tissue invasion, toxin production, and/or interference with the gene regulation of other virulence traits. Listeria monocytogenes , the causative agent of listeriosis, is a facultative intracellular food pathogen characterized by a wide distribution in the environment. Its ability to persist within biofilms and to develop resistance to sanitizers is the cause of significant problems in food processing plants and of steep costs for the food industry...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Ivan Best, Angela Privat-Maldonado, María Cruz, Mirko Zimic, Rachel Bras-Gonçalves, Jean-Loup Lemesre, Jorge Arévalo
Clinical manifestations of American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis (ATL) include cutaneous (CL) and mucous forms (ML); however, there are asymptomatic individuals who despite being infected do not present any clinical manifestations. This study characterized the cell-mediated immunity of travelers who lived in the Andean highlands of Cusco, free of leishmaniasis transmission, which eventually visited leishmaniasis endemic in the Amazonian basin and returned home without any clinical signs of the disease. Their immune response was compared with CL and ML patients who acquired the disease during their stage in the same region...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Huynh T Hop, Lauren T Arayan, Tran X N Huy, Alisha W B Reyes, Son H Vu, WonGi Min, Hu J Lee, Man H Rhee, Hong H Chang, Suk Kim
The cellular oncogene c-Fos (c-Fos) is a component of activator protein 1 (AP1), a master transcriptional regulator of cells. The suppression of c-Fos signaling by siRNA treatment resulted in significant induction of TLR4, which subsequently activates p38 and ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and enhances F-actin polymerization, leading to an increase in B. abortus phagocytosis. During B. abortus infection, c-Fos signaling is induced, which activates the downstream innate-immunity signaling cascade for bacterial clearance...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Natayme R Tartaglia, Koen Breyne, Evelyne Meyer, Chantal Cauty, Julien Jardin, Denis Chrétien, Aurélien Dupont, Kristel Demeyere, Nadia Berkova, Vasco Azevedo, Eric Guédon, Yves Le Loir
Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen responsible for bovine mastitis, the most common and costly disease affecting dairy cattle. S. aureus naturally releases extracellular vesicles (EVs) during its growth. EVs play an important role in the bacteria-bacteria and bacteria-host interactions and are notably considered as nanocarriers that deliver virulence factors to the host tissues. Whether EVs play a role in a mastitis context is still unknown. In this work, we showed that S. aureus Newbould 305 (N305), a bovine mastitis isolate, has the ability to generate EVs in vitro with a designated protein content...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Kai-Che Wei, Mei-Shu Huang, Tsung-Hsien Chang
During the epidemic of the dengue virus (DENV) infection in Taiwan in 2014 and 2015, we observed an abnormally high frequency of increased scalp hair shedding in infected individuals that could not be explained by telogen effluvium. In this study, the mechanism of hair loss caused by DENV was explored. Human hair follicle dermal papilla cells (HFDPCs) are essential for hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling. Thus, we established an in vitro DENV infection model in HFDPCs. On immunofluorescence analysis, HFDPCs that were susceptible to DENV infection responded to type I interferon (IFN) treatment, and the cells showed antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) effect...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Aaron T Butt, Mark S Thomas
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fcimb.2017.00460.].
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Showgy Y Ma'ayeh, Livia Knörr, Karin Sköld, Alexandra Garnham, Brendan R E Ansell, Aaron R Jex, Staffan G Svärd
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fcimb.2018.00244.].
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Esther Weiss, Sabrina Ziegler, Mirjam Fliesser, Anna-Lena Schmitt, Kerstin Hünniger, Oliver Kurzai, Charles-Oliver Morton, Hermann Einsele, Juergen Loeffler
Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is an infectious disease caused by the fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus that mainly affects immunocompromised hosts. To investigate immune cell cross-talk during infection with A. fumigatus , we co-cultured natural killer (NK) cells and dendritic cells (DC) after stimulation with whole fungal structures, components of the fungal cell wall, fungal lysate or ligands for distinct fungal receptors. Both cell types showed activation after stimulation with fungal components and were able to transfer activation signals to the counterpart not stimulated cell type...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Muhammad A B Shabbir, Yanping Tang, Zihui Xu, Mingyue Lin, Guyue Cheng, Menghong Dai, Xu Wang, Zhengli Liu, Zonghui Yuan, Haihong Hao
Campylobacter jejuni is considered as the leading cause of gastroenteritis all over the world. This bacterium has the CRISPR- cas9 system, which is used as a gene editing technique in different organisms. However, its role in bacterial virulence has just been discovered; that discovery, however, is just the tip of the iceberg. The purpose of this study is to find out the relationship between cas9 and virulence both phenotypically and genotypically in C . jejuni NCTC11168. Understanding both aspects of this relationship allows for a much deeper understanding of the mechanism of bacterial pathogenesis...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Corin V White, Michael A Herman
The bacterivorous nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is an excellent model for the study of innate immune responses to a variety of bacterial pathogens, including the emerging nosocomial bacterial pathogen Stenotrophomonas maltophilia . The study of this interaction has ecological and medical relevance as S. maltophilia is found in association with C. elegans and other nematodes in the wild and is an emerging opportunistic bacterial pathogen. We identified 393 genes that were differentially expressed when exposed to virulent and avirulent strains of S...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Jie Tong, Yuguang Fu, Fandan Meng, Nadine Krüger, Peter Valentin-Weigand, Georg Herrler
In the complex microenvironment of the human respiratory tract, different kinds of microorganisms may synergistically interact with each other resulting in viral-bacterial co-infections that are often associated with more severe diseases than the respective mono-infections. Human respiratory paramyxoviruses, for example parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3), are common causes of respiratory diseases both in infants and a subset of adults. HPIV3 recognizes sialic acid (SA)-containing receptors on host cells. In contrast to human influenza viruses which have a preference for α2,6-linked sialic acid, HPIV3 preferentially recognize α2,3-linked sialic acids...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Gretchen M Ehrenkaufer, Susmitha Suresh, David Solow-Cordero, Upinder Singh
Neglected tropical diseases, especially those caused by parasites, are significantly underserved by current drug development efforts, mostly due to the high costs and low economic returns. One method for lowering the costs of drug discovery and development for these diseases is to repurpose drugs developed for other indications. Here, we present the results of a screen of five repurposed drug libraries to identify potential new lead compounds to treat amebiasis, a disease that affects tens of millions of people and causes ~100,000 deaths annually...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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