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Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

Albertus Viljoen, Jean-Louis Herrmann, Oluseye K Onajole, Jozef Stec, Alan P Kozikowski, Laurent Kremer
Mycobacterium abscessus is a rapidly growing mycobacterium (RGM) causing serious infections especially among cystic fibrosis patients. Extremely limited therapeutic options against M. abscessus and a rise in infections with this mycobacterium require novel chemotherapies and a better understanding of how the bacterium causes infection. Different from most RGM, M. abscessus can survive inside macrophages and persist for long durations in infected tissues. We recently delineated differences in the infective programs followed by smooth (S) and rough (R) variants of M...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Samia Benamar, Jacques Y Bou Khalil, Caroline Blanc-Tailleur, Melhem Bilen, Lina Barrassi, Bernard La Scola
Amoeba-associated microorganisms (AAMs) are frequently isolated from water networks. In this paper, we report the isolation and characterization of Protochlamydia massiliensis, an obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacterium belonging to the Parachlamydiaceae family in the Chlamydiales order, from a cooling water tower. This bacterium was isolated on Vermamoeba vermiformis. It has a multiple range of hosts among amoeba and is characterized by a typical replication cycle of Chlamydiae with a particularity, recently shown in some chlamydia, which is the absence of inclusion vacuoles in the V...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Daniel P Miller, Justin A Hutcherson, Yan Wang, Zuzanna M Nowakowska, Jan Potempa, Deborah R Yoder-Himes, David A Scott, Marvin Whiteley, Richard J Lamont
Porphyromonas gingivalis is an important cause of serious periodontal diseases, and is emerging as a pathogen in several systemic conditions including some forms of cancer. Initial colonization by P. gingivalis involves interaction with gingival epithelial cells, and the organism can also access host tissues and spread haematogenously. To better understand the mechanisms underlying these properties, we utilized a highly saturated transposon insertion library of P. gingivalis, and assessed the fitness of mutants during epithelial cell colonization and survival in a murine abscess model by high-throughput sequencing (Tn-Seq)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Ursula Waack, Tanya L Johnson, Khalil Chedid, Chuanwu Xi, Lyle A Simmons, Harry L T Mobley, Maria Sandkvist
Nosocomial pathogens that develop multidrug resistance present an increasing problem for healthcare facilities. Due to its rapid rise in antibiotic resistance, Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most concerning gram-negative species. A. baumannii typically infects immune compromised individuals resulting in a variety of outcomes, including pneumonia and bacteremia. Using a murine model for bacteremia, we have previously shown that the type II secretion system (T2SS) contributes to in vivo fitness of A. baumannii...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Giang T Nguyen, Erin R Green, Joan Mecsas
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by NADPH oxidase play an important role in antimicrobial host defense and inflammation. Their deficiency in humans results in recurrent and severe bacterial infections, while their unregulated release leads to pathology from excessive inflammation. The release of high concentrations of ROS aids in clearance of invading bacteria. Localization of ROS release to phagosomes containing pathogens limits tissue damage. Host immune cells, like neutrophils, also known as PMNs, will release large amounts of ROS at the site of infection following the activation of surface receptors...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Qiulong Yan, Yifang Gu, Xiangchun Li, Wei Yang, Liqiu Jia, Changming Chen, Xiuyan Han, Yukun Huang, Lizhe Zhao, Peng Li, Zhiwei Fang, Junpeng Zhou, Xiuru Guan, Yanchun Ding, Shaopeng Wang, Muhammad Khan, Yi Xin, Shenghui Li, Yufang Ma
Introduction: Human gut microbiota is believed to be directly or indirectly involved in cardiovascular diseases and hypertension. However, the identification and functional status of the hypertension-related gut microbe(s) have not yet been surveyed in a comprehensive manner. Methods: Here we characterized the gut microbiome in hypertension status by comparing fecal samples of 60 patients with primary hypertension and 60 gender-, age-, and body weight-matched healthy controls based on whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Zubin Zhou, Chenhao Pan, Ye Lu, Youshui Gao, Wei Liu, Peipei Yin, Xiaowei Yu
Osteomyelitis is commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Both erythromycin and curcumin can suppress S. aureus growth, but their roles in osteomyelitis are barely studied. We aim to explore the activities of erythromycin and curcumin against chronical osteomyelitis induced by methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Chronicle implant-induced osteomyelitis was established by MRSA infection in male Wistar rats. Four weeks after bacterial inoculation, rats received no treatment, erythromycin monotherapy, curcumin monotherapy, or erythromycin plus curcumin twice daily for 2 weeks...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Peng Li, Wenlei Fan, Qinghe Li, Jie Wang, Ranran Liu, Nadia Everaert, Jie Liu, Yonghong Zhang, Maiqing Zheng, Huanxian Cui, Guiping Zhao, Jie Wen
To understand the role of miRNAs in regulating genes involved in the host response to Salmonella enteritidis (SE) infection, next generation sequencing was applied to explore the altered splenic expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) and deregulated genes in specific-pathogen-free chickens. Birds were either infected or not (controls, C) and those challenged with SE were evaluated 24 h later and separated into two groups on the basis of the severity of clinical symptoms and blood load of SE: resistant (R, SE challenged-slight clinical symptoms and <10(5) cfu / 10 μL), and susceptible (S, SE challenged-severe clinical symptoms and >10(7) cfu/10 μL)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Yalda Lucero, Amaya Oyarzún, Miguel O'Ryan, Rodrigo Quera, Nelly Espinosa, Romina Valenzuela, Daniela Simian, Elisa Alcalde, Claudio Arce, Mauricio J Farfán, Alejandra F Vergara, Iván Gajardo, Jocelyn Mendez, Jorge Carrasco, Germán Errázuriz, Mónica Gonzalez, Juan C Ossa, Eduardo Maiza, Francisco Perez-Bravo, Magdalena Castro, Magdalena Araya
HIGHLIGHTS What is already known about this subject?Celiac disease (CD) has a high clinical and histological diversity and the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain elusive.H. pylori is a bacterium that chronically infect gastric and duodenal mucosa activating both a Th1/Th17 and T-reg pathways.The role of H. pylori (and the effect of their virulence factors) in CD have not yet completely elucidated.What are the new findings?cagA+ H. pylori strains are associated to milder histological damage in infected CD patients...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Carolina Martin, Luis Leyton, Melissa Hott, Yennyfer Arancibia, Carlos Spichiger, Mark A McNiven, Felipe A Court, Margarita I Concha, Patricia V Burgos, Carola Otth
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a ubiquitous pathogen that establishes a latent persistent neuronal infection in humans. The pathogenic effects of repeated viral reactivation in infected neurons are still unknown. Several studies have reported that during HSV-1 epithelial infection, the virus could modulate diverse cell signaling pathways remodeling the Golgi apparatus (GA) membranes, but the molecular mechanisms implicated, and the functional consequences to neurons is currently unknown. Here we report that infection of primary neuronal cultures with HSV-1 triggers Src tyrosine kinase activation and subsequent phosphorylation of Dynamin 2 GTPase, two players with a role in GA integrity maintenance...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Alejandro Cabezas-Cruz, Pedro J Espinosa, Dasiel A Obregón, Pilar Alberdi, José de la Fuente
The obligate intracellular pathogen, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, is the causative agent of life-threatening diseases in humans and animals. A. phagocytophilum is an emerging tick-borne pathogen in the United States, Europe, Africa and Asia, with increasing numbers of infected people and animals every year. It is increasingly recognized that intracellular pathogens modify host cell metabolic pathways to increase infection and transmission in both vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. Recent reports have shown that amino acids are central to the host-pathogen metabolic interaction...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Jin Luo, Min-Xuan Liu, Qiao-Yun Ren, Ze Chen, Zhan-Cheng Tian, Jia-Wei Hao, Feng Wu, Xiao-Cui Liu, Jian-Xun Luo, Hong Yin, Hui Wang, Guang-Yuan Liu
Ticks are important vectors in the transmission of a broad range of micropathogens to vertebrates, including humans. Because of the role of ticks in disease transmission, identifying and characterizing the micropathogen profiles of tick populations have become increasingly important. The objective of this study was to survey the micropathogens of Hyalomma rufipes ticks. Illumina HiSeq2000 technology was utilized to perform deep sequencing of small RNAs (sRNAs) extracted from field-collected H. rufipes ticks in Gansu Province, China...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Patricia Cuellar, Elizabeth Hernández-Nava, Guillermina García-Rivera, Bibiana Chávez-Munguía, Michael Schnoor, Abigail Betanzos, Esther Orozco
During intestinal invasion, Entamoeba histolytica opens tight junctions (TJs) reflected by transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) dropping. To explore the molecular mechanisms underlying this, we studied in vitro and in vivo the damage produced by the recombinant E. histolytica cysteine protease (rEhCP112) on TJ functions and proteins. rEhCP112 reduced TEER in Caco-2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner; and EhCP112-overexpressing trophozoites provoked major epithelial injury compared to control trophozoites...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Margarita O Shleeva, Tatyana K Kondratieva, Galina R Demina, Elvira I Rubakova, Anna V Goncharenko, Alexander S Apt, Arseny S Kaprelyants
Earlier we demonstrated that the adenylyl cyclase (AC) encoded by the MSMEG_4279 gene plays a key role in the resuscitation and growth of dormant Mycobacterium smegmatis and that overexpression of this gene leads to an increase in intracellular cAMP concentration and prevents the transition of M. smegmatis from active growth to dormancy in an extended stationary phase accompanied by medium acidification. We surmised that the homologous Rv2212 gene of M. tuberculosis (Mtb), the main cAMP producer, plays similar physiological roles by supporting, under these conditions, the active state and reactivation of dormant bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Shivani Pasricha, James I MacRae, Hwa H Chua, Jenny Chambers, Kylie J Boyce, Malcolm J McConville, Alex Andrianopoulos
Fungal infections are an increasing public health problem, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. While these pathogenic fungi show polyphyletic origins with closely related non-pathogenic species, many undergo morphological transitions to produce pathogenic cell types that are associated with increased virulence. However, the characteristics of these pathogenic cells that contribute to virulence are poorly defined. Talaromyces marneffei grows as a non-pathogenic hyphal form at 25°C but undergoes a dimorphic transition to a pathogenic yeast form at 37°C in vitro and following inhalation of asexual conidia by a host...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Gisela Canedo-Marroquín, Orlando Acevedo-Acevedo, Emma Rey-Jurado, Juan M Saavedra, Margarita K Lay, Susan M Bueno, Claudia A Riedel, Alexis M Kalergis
The Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (hRSV) is a major cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) and high rates of hospitalizations in children and in the elderly worldwide. Symptoms of hRSV infection include bronchiolitis and pneumonia. The lung pathology observed during hRSV infection is due in part to an exacerbated host immune response, characterized by immune cell infiltration to the lungs. HRSV is an enveloped virus, a member of the Pneumoviridae family, with a non-segmented genome and negative polarity-single RNA that contains 10 genes encoding for 11 proteins...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Marta Nieckarz, Adrianna Raczkowska, Karolina Jaworska, Ewa Stefańska, Karolina Skorek, Dorota Stosio, Katarzyna Brzostek
Oligogalacturonide (OGA)-specific porins of the KdgM family have previously been identified and characterized in enterobacterial plant pathogens. We found that deletion of the gene encoding response regulator OmpR causes the porin KdgM2 to become one of the most abundant proteins in the outer membrane of the human enteropathogen Yersinia enterocolitica. Reporter gene fusion and real-time PCR analysis confirmed that the expression of kdgM2 is repressed by OmpR. We also found that kdgM2 expression is subject to negative regulation by KdgR, a specific repressor of genes involved in the uptake and metabolism of pectin derivatives in plant pathogens...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Marjorie Pizarro-Guajardo, Fernando Díaz-González, Manuel Álvarez-Lobos, Daniel Paredes-Sabja
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) are the leading cause of world-wide nosocomial acquired diarrhea. The current main clinical challenge in CDI is the elevated rate of infection recurrence that may reach up to 30% of the patients, which has been associated to the formation of dormant spores during the infection. We sought to characterize the effects of oral administration of specific anti-spore IgY in mouse models of CDI and recurrent CDI. The specificity of anti-spore IgY was evaluated in vitro. In both, initiation mouse model and recurrence mouse model, we evaluated the prophylactic and therapeutic effect of anti-spore IgY, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Jiaru Yang, Xinlin Han, Aihua Liu, Xiyuan Bai, Cuiping Xu, Fukai Bao, Shi Feng, Lvyan Tao, Mingbiao Ma, Yun Peng
Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic infectious disease that has been threatening public health for many centuries. The clinical diagnostic procedure for TB is time-consuming and laborious. In the last 20 years, real-time fluorescence-based quantitative PCR (real-time PCR) has become a better alternative for TB diagnosis in clinics due to its sensitivity and specificity. Recently, digital droplet PCR (ddPCR) has been developed, and it might be an ideal alternative to conventional real-time PCR for microorganism detection...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Alexandra M Young, Amy E Palmer
Intracellular bacterial pathogens like Salmonella enterica use secretion systems, such as the Type III Secretion System, to deliver virulence factors into host cells in order to invade and colonize these cells. Salmonella virulence factors include a suite of effector proteins that remodel the host cell to facilitate bacterial internalization, replication, and evasion of host immune surveillance. A number of diverse and innovative approaches have been used to identify and characterize the role of effector proteins during infection...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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