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Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

Chunhui Zhai, Wenchao Zhang, Jingchao Zhang, Luyan Z Ma, Kun Zhao
Biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa are ubiquitously found on surfaces of many medical devices, which are the major cause of hospital-acquired infections. A large amount of work has been focused on bacterial attachment on surfaces. However, how bacterial cells evolve on surfaces after their attachment is the key to get better understanding and further control of biofilm formation. In this work, by employing both single-cell- and collective-motility of cells, we characterized the bacterial surface movement on physiochemically distinct surfaces...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Mark Bonner, Manuel Fresno, Núria Gironès, Nancy Guillén, Julien Santi-Rocca
The protozoan Entamoeba gingivalis resides in the oral cavity and is frequently observed in the periodontal pockets of humans and pets. This species of Entamoeba is closely related to the human pathogen Entamoeba histolytica , the agent of amoebiasis. Although E. gingivalis is highly enriched in people with periodontitis (a disease in which inflammation and bone loss correlate with changes in the microbial flora), the potential role of this protozoan in oral infectious diseases is not known. Periodontitis affects half the adult population in the world, eventually leads to edentulism, and has been linked to other pathologies, like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Caitríona Hickey, Bettina Schaible, Scott Nguyen, Daniel Hurley, Shabarinath Srikumar, Séamus Fanning, Eric Brown, Bianca Crifo, David Matallanas, Siobhán McClean, Cormac T Taylor, Kirsten Schaffer
The factors influencing the virulence of P. aeruginosa in the development of invasive infection remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of the host microenvironment in shaping pathogen virulence and investigated the mechanisms involved. Comparing seven paired genetically indistinguishable clinical bloodstream and peripheral isolates of P. aeruginosa , we demonstrate that isolates derived from bloodstream infections are more virulent than their peripheral counterparts ( p = 0.025). Bloodstream and peripheral isolates elicited similar NF-kB responses in a THP-1 monocyte NF-kappaB reporter cell line implicating similar immunogenicity...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Fohad Mabood Husain, Iqbal Ahmad, Faez Iqbal Khan, Nasser A Al-Shabib, Mohammad Hassan Baig, Afzal Hussain, Md Tabish Rehman, Mohamed F Alajmi, Kevin A Lobb
The emergence of multi-drug resistance in pathogenic bacteria in clinical settings as well as food-borne infections has become a serious health concern. The problem of drug resistance necessitates the need for alternative novel therapeutic strategies to combat this menace. One such approach is targeting the quorum-sensing (QS) controlled virulence and biofilm formation. In this study, we first screened different fractions of Psoralea corylifolia (seed) for their anti-QS property in the Chromobacterium violaceum 12472 strain...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Theun de Groot, Ferry Hagen, Willem Vreuls, Paul E Verweij, Anuradha Chowdhary, Jacques F Meis
Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a deep tissue infection with a high mortality occurring mostly in immunocompromised patients. To investigate the pathology of patients with IA it may be important to determine the genotype of the invasive isolate of Aspergillus , however available tissues for study are often formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE). Although DNA has been successfully isolated from such tissues for species identification, genotyping of Aspergillus species on such tissues has not yet been performed...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Lucy L Furfaro, Matthew S Payne, Barbara J Chang
Increasing reports of antimicrobial resistance and limited new antibiotic discoveries and development have fuelled innovation in other research fields and led to a revitalization of bacteriophage (phage) studies in the Western world. Phage therapy mainly utilizes obligately lytic phages to kill their respective bacterial hosts, while leaving human cells intact and reducing the broader impact on commensal bacteria that often results from antibiotic use. Phage therapy is rapidly evolving and has resulted in cases of life-saving therapeutic use and multiple clinical trials...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Corinne P Oechslin, Nicole Lenz, Nicole Liechti, Sarah Ryter, Philipp Agyeman, Rémy Bruggmann, Stephen L Leib, Christian M Beuret
The etiologic cause of encephalitis, meningitis or meningo-encephalitis is unknown in up to 70% of cases. Clinical shotgun metagenomics combined with host depletion is a promising technique to identify infectious etiologies of central nervous system (CNS) infections. We developed a straightforward eukaryotic host nucleic acid depletion method that preserves intact viruses and bacteria for subsequent shotgun metagenomics screening of clinical samples, focusing on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). A surrogate CSF sample for a CNS infection paradigm was used to evaluate the proposed depletion method consisting of selective host cell lysis, followed by enzymatic degradation of the liberated genomic DNA for final depletion with paramagnetic beads...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Gregory R Young, Darren L Smith, Nicholas D Embleton, Janet Elizabeth Berrington, Edward C Schwalbe, Stephen Paul Cummings, Christopher J van der Gast, Clare Lanyon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Ignasi Azagra-Boronat, Malén Massot-Cladera, Karen Knipping, Belinda Van't Land, Bernd Stahl, Johan Garssen, Maria José Rodríguez-Lagunas, Àngels Franch, Margarida Castell, Francisco J Pérez-Cano
Rotavirus (RV) is considered to be the most common cause of gastroenteritis among infants aged less than 5 years old. Human milk bioactive compounds have the ability to modulate the diarrheic process caused by several intestinal pathogens. This study aimed to evaluate the potential protective role of a specific human milk oligosaccharide, 2'-fucosyllactose (2'-FL), a mixture of the prebiotic short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides and long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides 9:1 (GOS/FOS) and their combination (2'-FL+GOS/FOS) on RV-induced diarrhea in suckling rats...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Anastasios D Tsaousis, Karleigh A Hamblin, Catherine R Elliott, Luke Young, Alicia Rosell-Hidalgo, Campbell W Gourlay, Anthony L Moore, Mark van der Giezen
Blastocystis is the most common eukaryotic microbe in the human gut. It is linked to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but its role in disease has been contested considering its widespread nature. This organism is well-adapted to its anoxic niche and lacks typical eukaryotic features, such as a cytochrome-driven mitochondrial electron transport. Although generally considered a strict or obligate anaerobe, its genome encodes an alternative oxidase. Alternative oxidases are energetically wasteful enzymes as they are non-protonmotive and energy is liberated in heat, but they are considered to be involved in oxidative stress protective mechanisms...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Magdalena Franco, Patrik M D'haeseleer, Steven S Branda, Megan J Liou, Yasmeen Haider, Brent W Segelke, Sahar H El-Etr
Burkholderia pseudomallei and B. mallei are the causative agents of melioidosis and glanders, respectively, and are often fatal to humans and animals. Owing to the high fatality rate, potential for spread by aerosolization, and the lack of efficacious therapeutics, B. pseudomallei and B. mallei are considered biothreat agents of concern. In this study, we investigate the proteome of Burkholderia thailandensis , a closely related surrogate for the two more virulent Burkholderia species, during infection of host cells, and compare to that of B...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Shruthi Krishnamurthy, Jeroen P J Saeij
After invasion, Toxoplasma resides in a parasitophorous vacuole (PV) that is surrounded by the PV membrane (PVM). Once inside the PV, tachyzoites secrete dense granule proteins (GRAs) of which some, such as GRA16 and GRA24, are transported beyond the PVM likely via a putative translocon. However, once tachyzoites convert into bradyzoites within cysts, it is not known if secreted GRAs can traffic beyond the cyst wall membrane. We used the tetracycline inducible system to drive expression of HA epitope tagged GRA16 and GRA24 after inducing stage conversion and show that these proteins are not secreted beyond the cyst wall membrane...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Vasundhra Bhandari, Shalini Chakraborty, Umarani Brahma, Paresh Sharma
There has been an alarming increase in infections caused by antimicrobial-resistant pathogens. These infections are responsible for more than half a million deaths globally each year. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the deadliest bacterial pathogen responsible for nosocomial and community acquired infections. The open-access Pathogen Box (PBox) provides a potential platform to identify new treatment options against antibiotic-resistant bacteria by repurposing it. In this study, we have screened the PBox library comprised of ~400 compounds to identify novel anti-staphylococcal compounds...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Pengpeng Xiao, Chenghui Li, Ying Zhang, Jicheng Han, Xiaofang Guo, Lv Xie, Mingyao Tian, Yiquan Li, Maopeng Wang, Hao Liu, Jingqiang Ren, Hongning Zhou, Huijun Lu, Ningyi Jin
We collected 8,700 mosquitoes in three sites in China, which belonged to seven species. Their viromes were tested using metagenomic sequencing and bioinformatic analysis. The abundant viral sequences were detected and annotated belonging to more than 50 viral taxonomic families. The results were verified by PCR, followed by phylogenetic analysis. In the present study, we identified partial viral genes of dengue virus (DENV), a novel circovirus (CCV), densovirus (DNV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and Wuhan mosquito virus (WMV) in mosquitoes...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Tania Cebrero-Cangueiro, Rocío Álvarez-Marín, Gema Labrador-Herrera, Younes Smani, Elisa Cordero-Matía, Jerónimo Pachón, María Eugenia Pachón-Ibáñez
Enterobacteriaceae cause different types of community- and hospital-acquired infections. Moreover, the spread of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae is a public health problem and the World Health Organization pointed them among the pathogens in which the search of new antibiotics is critical. The objective of this study was to analyze the in vitro activity of pentamidine alone and in combination with gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin, tigecycline, rifampicin, or doripenem against eight clinical strains of carbapenemase-producing and/or colistin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae: five carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae , one carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli , and two colistin-resistant Enterobacter cloacae ...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Michelle L Pleet, Heather Branscome, Catherine DeMarino, Daniel O Pinto, Mohammad Asad Zadeh, Myosotys Rodriguez, Ilker Kudret Sariyer, Nazira El-Hage, Fatah Kashanchi
Autophagy, a highly conserved process, serves to maintain cellular homeostasis in response to an extensive variety of internal and external stimuli. The classic, or canonical, pathway of autophagy involves the coordinated degradation and recycling of intracellular components and pathogenic material. Proper regulation of autophagy is critical to maintain cellular health, as alterations in the autophagy pathway have been linked to the progression of a variety of physiological and pathological conditions in humans, namely in aging and in viral infection...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Pengpeng Xiao, Jicheng Han, Ying Zhang, Chenghui Li, Xiaofang Guo, Shubo Wen, Mingyao Tian, Yiquan Li, Maopeng Wang, Hao Liu, Jingqiang Ren, Hongning Zhou, Huijun Lu, Ningyi Jin
More than 6,000 mosquitoes of six species from six sites were collected and tested for their virome using metagenomics sequencing and bioinformatic analysis. The identified viral sequences belonged to more than 50 viral families. The results were verified by PCR of selected viruses in all mosquitoes, followed by phylogenetic analysis. In the present study, we identified the partial dengue virus (DENV), Zika virus (ZIKV), and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) sequences in mosquitoes. Metagenomic analysis and the PCR amplification revealed three DENV sequences, one of which encodes a partial envelope protein...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Enrique Gonzalez Rivas, Cecilia Ximenez, Miriam Enriqueta Nieves-Ramirez, Patricia Moran Silva, Oswaldo Partida-Rodríguez, Eric Hernandez Hernandez, Liliana Rojas Velázquez, Angelica Serrano Vázquez, Ulises Magaña Nuñez
Calreticulin (CRT) is a highly conserved protein in the endoplasmic reticulum that plays important roles in the regulation of key cellular functions. Little is known about the participation of E. histolytica CRT ( Eh CRT) in the processes of pathogenicity or in the modulation of the host immune response. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of CRT in the proliferation and the cytokine profile in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with amebic liver abscess (ALA) during the acute phase (AP-ALA) of the disease compared to patients during the resolution phase (R-ALA)...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Ahmed A Al-Qahtani, Mashael R Al-Anazi, Nyla Nazir, Ayman A Abdo, Faisal M Sanai, Waleed K Al-Hamoudi, Khalid A Alswat, Hamad I Al-Ashgar, Mohammed Q Khan, Ali Albenmousa, Ahmed El-Shamy, Salah K Alanazi, Damian Dela Cruz, Marie Fe F Bohol, Mohammed N Al-Ahdal
Viral mutations acquired during the course of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection are known to be associated with the progression and severity of HBV-related liver disease. This study of HBV-infected Saudi Arabian patients aimed to identify amino acid substitutions within the precore/core (preC/C) region of HBV, and investigate their impact on disease progression toward hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Patients were categorized according to the severity of their disease, and were divided into the following groups: inactive HBV carriers, active HBV carriers, liver cirrhosis patients, and HCC patients...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Cristian Rocha-Roa, Diego Molina, Néstor Cardona
Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most successful parasites due to its ability to infect a wide variety of warm-blooded animals. It is estimated that one-third of the world's population is latently infected. The generic therapy for toxoplasmosis has been a combination of antifolates such as pyrimethamine or trimethoprim with either sulfadiazine or antibiotics such as clindamycin with a combination with leucovorin to prevent hematologic toxicity. This therapy shows limitations such as drug intolerance, low bioavailability or drug resistance by the parasite...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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