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Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780750/the-luxs-ai-2-quorum-sensing-system-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-is-required-to-cause-disease-and-to-regulate-virulence-and-metabolism-related-genes-in-a-rat-model-of-middle-ear-infection
#1
Mukesh K Yadav, Jorge E Vidal, Yoon Y Go, Shin H Kim, Sung-Won Chae, Jae-Jun Song
Objective: Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizes the nasopharynx of children, and from nasopharynx it could migrate to the middle ear and causes acute otitis media (AOM). During colonization and AOM, the pneumococcus forms biofilms. In vitro biofilm formation requires a functional LuxS/AI-2 quorum-sensing system. We investigated the role of LuxS/AI-2 signaling in pneumococcal middle ear infection, and identified the genes that are regulated by LuxS/AI-2 during pneumococcal biofilm formation. Methods: Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 wild-type and an isogenic D39Δ luxS strain were utilized to evaluate in vitro biofilm formation, and in vivo colonization and epithelial damage using a microtiter plate assay and a rat model of pneumococcal middle ear infection, respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780749/-rhipicephalus-bursa-sialotranscriptomic-response-to-blood-feeding-and-babesia-ovis-infection-identification-of-candidate-protective-antigens
#2
Sandra Antunes, Joana Couto, Joana Ferrolho, Fábio Rodrigues, João Nobre, Ana S Santos, M Margarida Santos-Silva, José de la Fuente, Ana Domingos
Ticks are among the most prevalent blood-feeding arthropods, and they act as vectors and reservoirs for numerous pathogens. Sialotranscriptomic characterizations of tick responses to blood feeding and pathogen infections can offer new insights into the molecular interplay occurring at the tick-host-pathogen interface. In the present study, we aimed to identify and characterize Rhipicephalus bursa salivary gland (SG) genes that were differentially expressed in response to blood feeding and Babesia ovis infection...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774204/non-canonical-activities-of-hog1-control-sensitivity-of-candida-albicans-to-killer-toxins-from-debaryomyces-hansenii
#3
Ana Morales-Menchén, Federico Navarro-García, José P Guirao-Abad, Elvira Román, Daniel Prieto, Ioana V Coman, Jesús Pla, Rebeca Alonso-Monge
Certain yeasts secrete peptides known as killer toxins or mycocins with a deleterious effect on sensitive yeasts or filamentous fungi, a common phenomenon in environmental species. In a recent work, different Debaryomyces hansenii ( Dh ) strains isolated from a wide variety of cheeses were identified as producing killer toxins active against Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis . We have analyzed the killer activity of these toxins in C. albicans mutants defective in MAPK signaling pathways and found that the lack of the MAPK Hog1 (but not Cek1 or Mkc1) renders cells hypersensitive to Dh mycocins while mutants lacking other upstream elements of the pathway behave as the wild type strain...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774203/small-rho-gtpases-and-the-effector-vipa-mediate-the-invasion-of-epithelial-cells-by-filamentous-legionella-pneumophila
#4
Akriti Prashar, María Eugenia Ortiz, Stefanie Lucarelli, Elizabeth Barker, Zohreh Tabatabeiyazdi, Feras Shamoun, Deepa Raju, Costin Antonescu, Cyril Guyard, Mauricio R Terebiznik
Legionella pneumophila (Lp) exhibits different morphologies with varying degrees of virulence. Despite their detection in environmental sources of outbreaks and in respiratory tract secretions and lung autopsies from patients, the filamentous morphotype of Lp remains poorly studied. We previously demonstrated that filamentous Lp invades lung epithelial cells (LECs) and replicates intracellularly in a Legionella containing vacuole. Filamentous Lp activates β1integrin and E-cadherin receptors at the surface of LECs leading to the formation of actin-rich cell membrane structures we termed hooks and membrane wraps...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765911/immunization-with-skp-delivered-on-outer-membrane-vesicles-protects-mice-against-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli-challenge
#5
Michael P Hays, Diane Houben, Yang Yang, Joen Luirink, Philip R Hardwidge
Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are promising vaccine components because they combine antigen and adjuvant in a single formulation. Detoxified Salmonella enterica strains that express penta-acylated lipid A retain OMV immunogenicity but with reduced reactogenicity. We have previously shown that a recombinant form of the enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) 17 kilodalton protein (Skp) protects mice in a pulmonary challenge model, when fused to the glutathione-S-transferase (GST) epitope and combined with cholera toxin...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765910/a-promising-ifn-deficient-system-to-manufacture-ifn-sensitive-influenza-vaccine-virus
#6
Can Chen, Wenhui Fan, Jing Li, Weinan Zheng, Shuang Zhang, Limin Yang, Di Liu, Wenjun Liu, Lei Sun
Interferon (IFN)-sensitive and replication-incompetent influenza viruses are likely to be the alternatives to inactivated and attenuated virus vaccines. Some IFN-sensitive influenza vaccine candidates with modified non-structural protein 1 (NS1) are highly attenuated in IFN-competent hosts but induce robust antiviral immune responses. However, little research has been done on the manufacturability of these IFN-sensitive vaccine viruses. Here, RIG-I-knockout 293T cells were used to package the IFN-sensitive influenza A/WSN/33 (H1N1) virus expressing the mutant NS1 R38A/K41A...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765909/shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-infection-in-j%C3%A3-nk%C3%A3-ping-county-sweden-occurrence-and-molecular-characteristics-in-correlation-with-clinical-symptoms-and-duration-of-stx-shedding
#7
Xiangning Bai, Sara Mernelius, Cecilia Jernberg, Ing-Marie Einemo, Stefan Monecke, Ralf Ehricht, Sture Löfgren, Andreas Matussek
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) cause bloody diarrhea (BD), hemorrhagic colitis (HC), and even hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). In Nordic countries, STEC are widely spread and usually associated with gastrointestinal symptoms and HUS. The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of STEC in Swedish patients over 10 years of age from 2003 through 2015, and to analyze the correlation of critical STEC virulence factors with clinical symptoms and duration of stx shedding. Diarrheal stool samples were screened for presence of stx by real-time PCR...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765908/the-subgingival-microbiome-of-periodontal-pockets-with-different-probing-depths-in-chronic-and-aggressive-periodontitis-a-pilot-study
#8
Meng Shi, Yiping Wei, Wenjie Hu, Yong Nie, Xiaolei Wu, Ruifang Lu
Periodontitis is a kind of infectious disease initiated by colonization of subgingival periodontal pathogens, which cause destruction of tooth-supporting tissues, and is a predominant threat to oral health as the most common cause of loss of teeth. The aim of this pilot study was to characterize the subgingival bacterial biodiversity of periodontal pockets with different probing depths in patients with different forms of periodontitis. Twenty-one subgingival plaque samples were collected from three patients with chronic periodontitis (ChP), three patients with aggressive periodontitis (AgP) and three periodontally healthy subjects (PH)...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755959/pvdq-quorum-quenching-acylase-attenuates-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-virulence-in-a-mouse-model-of-pulmonary-infection
#9
Putri D Utari, Rita Setroikromo, Barbro N Melgert, Wim J Quax
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the predominant pathogen in pulmonary infections associated with cystic fibrosis. Quorum sensing (QS) systems regulate the production of virulence factors and play an important role in the establishment of successful P. aeruginosa infections. Inhibition of the QS system (termed quorum quenching) renders the bacteria avirulent thus serving as an alternative approach in the development of novel antibiotics. Quorum quenching in Gram negative bacteria can be achieved by preventing the accumulation of N -acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) signaling molecule via enzymatic degradation...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755958/gut-microbiota-contributes-to-resistance-against-pneumococcal-pneumonia-in-immunodeficient-rag-mice
#10
Krysta M Felix, Ivan A Jaimez, Thuy-Vi V Nguyen, Heqing Ma, Walid A Raslan, Christina N Klinger, Kristian P Doyle, Hsin-Jung J Wu
Streptococcus pneumoniae causes infection-related mortality worldwide. Immunocompromised individuals, including young children, the elderly, and those with immunodeficiency, are especially vulnerable, yet little is known regarding S. pneumoniae- related pathogenesis and protection in immunocompromised hosts. Recently, strong interest has emerged in the gut microbiota's impact on lung diseases, or the "gut-lung axis." However, the mechanisms of gut microbiota protection against gut-distal lung diseases like pneumonia remain unclear...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755957/molecular-targets-related-drug-resistance-mechanisms-in-mdr-xdr-and-tdr-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-strains
#11
REVIEW
H M Adnan Hameed, Md Mahmudul Islam, Chiranjibi Chhotaray, Changwei Wang, Yang Liu, Yaoju Tan, Xinjie Li, Shouyong Tan, Vincent Delorme, Wing W Yew, Jianxiong Liu, Tianyu Zhang
Tuberculosis (TB) is a formidable infectious disease that remains a major cause of death worldwide today. Escalating application of genomic techniques has expedited the identification of increasing number of mutations associated with drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis . Unfortunately the prevalence of bacillary resistance becomes alarming in many parts of the world, with the daunting scenarios of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) and total drug-resistant tuberculosis (TDR-TB), due to number of resistance pathways, alongside some apparently obscure ones...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740544/establishment-of-a-host-to-host-transmission-model-for-mycobacterium-avium-subsp-hominissuis-using-caenorhabditis-elegans-and-identification-of-colonization-associated-genes
#12
Luiz E Bermudez, Sasha J Rose, Jamie L Everman, Navid R Ziaie
Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis ( M. avium ) is a member of the non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), and is a common cause of lung infection in patients with chronic NTM lung conditions. M. avium is an environmental bacterium believed to be transmitted from environmental sources. In this work we used a recently developed model in Caenorhabditis elegans to ask whether M. avium can be transmitted from host-to-host, and the bacterial genes associated with host colonization. Infection of C. elegans was carried out by placing the nematode in cultured with M...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740543/quorum-sensing-signaling-and-quenching-in-the-multidrug-resistant-pathogen-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia
#13
REVIEW
Pol Huedo, Xavier Coves, Xavier Daura, Isidre Gibert, Daniel Yero
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an opportunistic Gram-negative pathogen with increasing incidence in clinical settings. The most critical aspect of S. maltophilia is its frequent resistance to a majority of the antibiotics of clinical use. Quorum Sensing (QS) systems coordinate bacterial populations and act as major regulatory mechanisms of pathogenesis in both pure cultures and poly-microbial communities. Disruption of QS systems, a phenomenon known as Quorum Quenching (QQ), represents a new promising paradigm for the design of novel antimicrobial strategies...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740542/the-francisella-type-vi-secretion-system
#14
REVIEW
Daniel L Clemens, Bai-Yu Lee, Marcus A Horwitz
Francisella tularensisis subsp. tularensis is an intracellular bacterial pathogen and the causative agent of the life-threatening zoonotic disease tularemia. The Francisella Pathogenicity Island encodes a large secretion apparatus, known as a Type VI Secretion System (T6SS), which is essential for Francisella to escape from its phagosome and multiply within host macrophages and to cause disease in animals. The T6SS, found in one-quarter of Gram-negative bacteria including many highly pathogenic ones, is a recently discovered secretion system that is not yet fully understood...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740541/anti-biofilm-properties-of-the-fecal-probiotic-lactobacilli-against-vibrio-spp
#15
Sumanpreet Kaur, Preeti Sharma, Namarta Kalia, Jatinder Singh, Sukhraj Kaur
Diarrheal disease caused by Vibrio cholerae is endemic in developing countries including India and is associated with high rate of mortality especially in children. V. cholerae is known to form biofilms on the gut epithelium, and the biofilms once formed are resistant to the action of antibiotics. Therefore agents that prevent the biofilm formation and disperse the preformed biofilms are associated with therapeutic benefits. The use of antibiotics for the treatment of cholera is associated with side effects such as gut dysbiosis due to depletion of gut microflora, and the increasing problem of antibiotic resistance...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732320/activation-of-host-ire1%C3%AE-dependent-signaling-axis-contributes-the-intracellular-parasitism-of-brucella-melitensis
#16
Aseem Pandey, Furong Lin, Ana L Cabello, Luciana F da Costa, Xuehuan Feng, Hui-Qiang Feng, Ming-Zhe Zhang, Takao Iwawaki, Allison Rice-Ficht, Thomas A Ficht, Paul de Figueiredo, Qing-Ming Qin
Brucella spp. are intracellular vacuolar pathogens that causes brucellosis, a worldwide zoonosis of profound importance. We previously demonstrated that the activity of host unfolded protein response (UPR) sensor IRE1α (inositol-requiring enzyme 1) and ER-associated autophagy confer susceptibility to Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus intracellular replication. However, the mechanism by which host IRE1α regulates the pathogen intracellular lifestyle remains elusive. In this study, by employing a diverse array of molecular approaches, including biochemical analyses, fluorescence microscopy imaging, and infection assays using primary cells derived from Ern1 (encoding IRE1) conditional knockout mice, we address this gap in our understanding by demonstrating that a novel IRE1α to ULK1, an important component for autophagy initiation, signaling axis confers susceptibility to Brucella intracellular parasitism...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707522/early-lymphocyte-loss-and-increased-granulocyte-lymphocyte-ratio-predict-systemic-spread-of-streptococcus-pyogenes-in-a-mouse-model-of-acute-skin-infection
#17
Torsten G Loof, Aaqib Sohail, Mahmoud M Bahgat, Aravind Tallam, Haroon Arshad, Manas K Akmatov, Marina C Pils, Ulrike Heise, Andreas Beineke, Frank Pessler
Background: Group A streptococci may induce lymphopenia, but the value of lymphocyte loss as early biomarkers for systemic spread and severe infection has not been examined systematically. Methods: We evaluated peripheral blood cell indices as biomarkers for severity and spread of infection in a mouse model of Streptococcus pyogenes skin infection, using two isolates of greatly differing virulence. Internal organs were examined histologically. Results: After subcutaneous inoculation, strain AP1 disseminated rapidly to peripheral blood and internal organs, causing frank sepsis...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696134/lethal-zika-virus-disease-models-in-young-and-older-interferon-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-receptor-knock-out-mice
#18
Andrea Marzi, Jackson Emanuel, Julie Callison, Kristin L McNally, Nicolette Arndt, Spencer Chadinha, Cynthia Martellaro, Rebecca Rosenke, Dana P Scott, David Safronetz, Stephen S Whitehead, Sonja M Best, Heinz Feldmann
The common small animal disease models for Zika virus (ZIKV) are mice lacking the interferon responses, but infection of interferon receptor α/β knock out (IFNAR-/- ) mice is not uniformly lethal particularly in older animals. Here we sought to advance this model in regard to lethality for future countermeasure efficacy testing against more recent ZIKV strains from the Asian lineage, preferably the American sublineage. We first infected IFNAR-/- mice subcutaneously with the contemporary ZIKV-Paraiba strain resulting in predominantly neurological disease with ~50% lethality...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692981/-francisella-tularensis-d-ala-d-ala-carboxypeptidase-dacd-is-involved-in-intracellular-replication-and-it-is-necessary-for-bacterial-cell-wall-integrity
#19
Petra Spidlova, Pavla Stojkova, Vera Dankova, Iva Senitkova, Marina Santic, Dominik Pinkas, Vlada Philimonenko, Jiri Stulik
D-alanyl-D-alanine carboxypeptidase, product of dacD gene in Francisella , belongs to penicillin binding proteins (PBPs) and is involved in remodeling of newly synthetized peptidoglycan. In E. coli , PBPs are synthetized in various growth phases and they are able to substitute each other to a certain extent. The DacD protein was found to be accumulated in fraction enriched in membrane proteins from severely attenuated dsbA deletion mutant strain. It has been presumed that the DsbA is not a virulence factor by itself but that its substrates, whose correct folding and topology are dependent on the DsbA oxidoreductase and/or isomerase activities, are the primary virulence factors...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686974/sirt6-acts-as-a-negative-regulator-in-dengue-virus-induced-inflammatory-response-by-targeting-the-dna-binding-domain-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-p65
#20
Pengcheng Li, Yufei Jin, Fei Qi, Fangyi Wu, Susu Luo, Yuanjiu Cheng, Ruth R Montgomery, Feng Qian
Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne single-stranded RNA virus causing human disease with variable severity. The production of massive inflammatory cytokines in dengue patients has been associated with dengue disease severity. However, the regulation of these inflammatory responses remains unclear. In this study, we report that SIRT6 is a negative regulator of innate immune responses during DENV infection. Silencing of Sirt6 enhances DENV-induced proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production. Overexpression of SIRT6 inhibits RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) and Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) mediated NF-κB activation...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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