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Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451522/ureaplasma-species-multiple-banded-antigen-mba-variation-is-associated-with-the-severity-of-inflammation-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-in-human-placentae
#1
Emma L Sweeney, Suhas G Kallapur, Simone Meawad, Tate Gisslen, Sally-Anne Stephenson, Alan H Jobe, Christine L Knox
Background: The multiple banded antigen (MBA), a surface-exposed lipoprotein, is a proposed virulence factor of Ureaplasma spp. We previously demonstrated that the number of Ureaplasma parvum MBA size variants in amniotic fluid was inversely proportional to the severity of chorioamnionitis in experimentally infected pregnant sheep. However, the effect of ureaplasma MBA size variation on inflammation in human pregnancies has not been reported. Methods: Ureaplasmas isolated from the chorioamnion of pregnant women from a previous study (n = 42) were speciated/serotyped and MBA size variation was demonstrated by PCR and western blot...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451521/t3ss-independent-uptake-of-the-short-trip-toxin-related-recombinant-nlec-effector-of-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli-leads-to-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-p65-cleavage
#2
Anne-Sophie Stolle, Stefanie Norkowski, Britta Körner, Jürgen Schmitz, Lena Lüken, Maj Frankenberg, Christian Rüter, M Alexander Schmidt
Effector proteins secreted by the type 3 secretion system (T3SS) of pathogenic bacteria have been shown to precisely modulate important signaling cascades of the host for the benefit of the pathogens. Among others, the non-LEE encoded T3SS effector protein NleC of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a Zn-dependent metalloprotease and suppresses innate immune responses by directly targeting the NF-κB signaling pathway. Many pathogenic bacteria release potent bacterial toxins of the A-B type, which-in contrast to the direct cytoplasmic injection of T3SS effector proteins-are released first into the environment...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447026/genome-dynamics-of-escherichia-coli-during-antibiotic-treatment-transfer-loss-and-persistence-of-genetic-elements-in-situ-of-the-infant-gut
#3
Andreas Porse, Heidi Gumpert, Jessica Z Kubicek-Sutherland, Nahid Karami, Ingegerd Adlerberth, Agnes E Wold, Dan I Andersson, Morten O A Sommer
Elucidating the adaptive strategies and plasticity of bacterial genomes in situ is crucial for understanding the epidemiology and evolution of pathogens threatening human health. While much is known about the evolution of Escherichia coli in controlled laboratory environments, less effort has been made to elucidate the genome dynamics of E. coli in its native settings. Here, we follow the genome dynamics of co-existing E. coli lineages in situ of the infant gut during the first year of life. One E. coli lineage causes a urinary tract infection (UTI) and experiences several alterations of its genomic content during subsequent antibiotic treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443249/francisella-tularensis-susceptibility-to-antibiotics-a-comprehensive-review-of-the-data-obtained-in-vitro-and-in-animal-models
#4
REVIEW
Yvan Caspar, Max Maurin
The antibiotic classes that are recommended for tularaemia treatment are the aminoglycosides, the fluoroquinolones and the tetracyclines. However, cure rates vary between 60 and 100% depending on the antibiotic used, the time to appropriate antibiotic therapy setup and its duration, and the presence of complications, such as lymph node suppuration. Thus, antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) of F. tularensis strains remains of primary importance for detection of the emergence of antibiotic resistances to first-line drugs, and to test new therapeutic alternatives...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443248/shiga-toxin-subtypes-of-non-o157-escherichia-coli-serogroups-isolated-from-cattle-feces
#5
Pragathi B Shridhar, Chris Siepker, Lance W Noll, Xiaorong Shi, T G Nagaraja, Jianfa Bai
Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are important foodborne pathogens responsible for human illnesses. Cattle are a major reservoir that harbor the organism in the hindgut and shed in the feces. Shiga toxins (Stx) are the primary virulence factors associated with STEC illnesses. The two antigenically distinct Stx types, Stx1 and Stx2, encoded by stx1 and stx2 genes, share approximately 56% amino acid sequence identity. Genetic variants exist within Stx1 and Stx2 based on differences in amino acid composition and in cytotoxicity...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443247/evaluation-of-a-new-ifn-%C3%AE-release-assay-for-rapid-diagnosis-of-active-tuberculosis-in-a-high-incidence-setting
#6
Gen Li, Feng Li, Hui-Min Zhao, Han-Li Wen, Hai-Cong Li, Chun-Ling Li, Ping Ji, Peng Xu, Kang Wu, Zhi-Dong Hu, Shui-Hua Lu, Douglas B Lowrie, Jian-Xin Lv, Xiao-Yong Fan
Blood-based interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) release assays (IGRAs) have been proven to be useful in the diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. However, IGRAs have not been recommended for clinical practice in most low-income settings due to cost-intensive limitations and shortage of clinical data available. The established T-SPOT. TB assay containing Mtb-specific antigens ESAT-6 and CFP10 are widely used for immunodiagonsis of Mtb infection, but the high cost is one of the restricting factors against its clinical application in the developing countries...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443246/genetic-and-dietary-iron-overload-differentially-affect-the-course-of-salmonella-typhimurium-infection
#7
Manfred Nairz, Andrea Schroll, David Haschka, Stefanie Dichtl, Piotr Tymoszuk, Egon Demetz, Patrizia Moser, Hubertus Haas, Ferric C Fang, Igor Theurl, Günter Weiss
Genetic and dietary forms of iron overload have distinctive clinical and pathophysiological features. HFE-associated hereditary hemochromatosis is characterized by overwhelming intestinal iron absorption, parenchymal iron deposition, and macrophage iron depletion. In contrast, excessive dietary iron intake results in iron deposition in macrophages. However, the functional consequences of genetic and dietary iron overload for the control of microbes are incompletely understood. Using Hfe(+/+) and Hfe(-/-) mice in combination with oral iron overload in a model of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection, we found animals of either genotype to induce hepcidin antimicrobial peptide expression and hypoferremia following systemic infection in an Hfe-independent manner...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439502/ambroxol-hydrochloride-combined-with-fluconazole-reverses-the-resistance-of-candida-albicans-to-fluconazole
#8
Xiuyun Li, Yuanhao Zhao, Xin Huang, Cuixiang Yu, Yilei Yang, Shujuan Sun
In this study, we found that ambroxol hydrochloride (128 μg/mL) exhibits synergistic antifungal effects in combination with fluconazole (2 μg/mL) against resistant planktonic Candida albicans (C. albicans) cells. This combination also exhibited synergistic effects against resistant C. albicans biofilms in different stages (4, 8, and 12 h) according to the microdilution method. In vitro data were further confirmed by the success of this combination in treating Galleria mellonella infected by resistant C. albicans...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439501/the-cell-biology-of-the-trichosporon-host-interaction
#9
REVIEW
Cláudio Duarte-Oliveira, Fernando Rodrigues, Samuel M Gonçalves, Gustavo H Goldman, Agostinho Carvalho, Cristina Cunha
Fungi of the genus Trichosporon are increasingly recognized as causative agents of superficial and invasive fungal disease in humans. Although most species are considered commensals of the human skin and gastrointestinal tract, these basidiomycetes are an increasing cause of fungal disease among immunocompromised hosts, such as hematological patients and solid organ transplant recipients. The initiation of commensal or pathogenic programs by Trichosporon spp. involves the adaptation to the host microenvironment and its immune system...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439500/chronic-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-exacerbates-secondary-polymicrobial-sepsis
#10
Maria C Souza, Denise M Fonseca, Alexandre Kanashiro, Luciana Benevides, Tiago S Medina, Murilo S Dias, Warrison A Andrade, Giuliano Bonfá, Marcondes A B Silva, Aline Gozzi, Marcos C Borges, Ricardo T Gazzinelli, José C Alves-Filho, Fernando Q Cunha, João S Silva
Sepsis is a severe syndrome that arises when the host response to an insult is exacerbated, leading to organ failure and frequently to death. How a chronic infection that causes a prolonged Th1 expansion affects the course of sepsis is unknown. In this study, we showed that mice chronically infected with Toxoplasma gondii were more susceptible to sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Although T. gondii-infected mice exhibited efficient control of the bacterial burden, they showed increased mortality compared to the control groups...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439499/tick-pathogen-interactions-and-vector-competence-identification-of-molecular-drivers-for-tick-borne-diseases
#11
REVIEW
José de la Fuente, Sandra Antunes, Sarah Bonnet, Alejandro Cabezas-Cruz, Ana G Domingos, Agustín Estrada-Peña, Nicholas Johnson, Katherine M Kocan, Karen L Mansfield, Ard M Nijhof, Anna Papa, Nataliia Rudenko, Margarita Villar, Pilar Alberdi, Alessandra Torina, Nieves Ayllón, Marie Vancova, Maryna Golovchenko, Libor Grubhoffer, Santo Caracappa, Anthony R Fooks, Christian Gortazar, Ryan O M Rego
Ticks and the pathogens they transmit constitute a growing burden for human and animal health worldwide. Vector competence is a component of vectorial capacity and depends on genetic determinants affecting the ability of a vector to transmit a pathogen. These determinants affect traits such as tick-host-pathogen and susceptibility to pathogen infection. Therefore, the elucidation of the mechanisms involved in tick-pathogen interactions that affect vector competence is essential for the identification of molecular drivers for tick-borne diseases...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428950/endogenous-and-exogenous-kdpf-peptide-increases-susceptibility-of-mycobacterium-bovis-bcg-to-nitrosative-stress-and-reduces-intramacrophage-replication
#12
Mariana Rosas Olvera, Eric Vivès, Virginie Molle, Anne-Béatrice Blanc-Potard, Laila Gannoun-Zaki
Emerging antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria like Mycobacterium sp., poses a threat to human health and therefore calls for the development of novel antibacterial strategies. We have recently discovered that bacterial membrane peptides, such as KdpF, possess anti-virulence properties when overproduced in pathogenic bacterial species. Overproduction of the KdpF peptide in Mycobacterium bovis BCG decreased bacterial replication within macrophages, without presenting antibacterial activity. We propose that KdpF functions as a regulatory molecule and interferes with bacterial virulence, potentially through interaction with the PDIM transporter MmpL7...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428949/p2x1-p2x4-and-p2x7-receptor-knock-out-mice-expose-differential-outcome-of-sepsis-induced-by-%C3%AE-haemolysin-producing-escherichia-coli
#13
Anne-Sofie Greve, Marianne Skals, Steen K Fagerberg, Wulf Tonnus, Svend Ellermann-Eriksen, Richard J Evans, Andreas Linkermann, Helle A Praetorius
α-haemolysin (HlyA)-producing Escherichia coli commonly inflict severe urinary tract infections, including pyelonephritis, which comprises substantial risk for sepsis. In vitro, the cytolytic effect of HlyA is mainly mediated by ATP release through the HlyA pore and subsequent P2X1/P2X7 receptor activation. This amplification of the lytic process is not unique to HlyA but is observed by many other pore-forming proteins including complement-induced haemolysis. Since free hemoglobin in the blood is known to be associated with a worse outcome in sepsis one could speculate that inhibition of P2X receptors would ameliorate the course of sepsis...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428948/understanding-the-entanglement-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-nets-in-cystic-fibrosis
#14
REVIEW
Saira R Martínez-Alemán, Lizbeth Campos-García, José P Palma-Nicolas, Romel Hernández-Bello, Gloria M González, Alejandro Sánchez-González
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the gene that codes for the CF trans-membrane conductance regulator. These mutations result in abnormal secretions viscous airways of the lungs, favoring pulmonary infection and inflammation in the middle of neutrophil recruitment. Recently it was described that neutrophils can contribute with disease pathology by extruding large amounts of nuclear material through a mechanism of cell death known as Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs) into the airways of patients with CF...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424761/sequencing-of-blaimp-carrying-incn2-plasmids-and-comparative-genomics-of-incn2-plasmids-harboring-class-1-integrons
#15
Xiaoyuan Jiang, Zhe Yin, Xiuyun Yin, Haihong Fang, Qiang Sun, Yigang Tong, Yuanhong Xu, Defu Zhang, Jiao Feng, Weijun Chen, Yajun Song, Jinglin Wang, Shuiping Chen, Dongsheng Zhou
This work presents the complete nucleotide sequences of p0801-IMP from Klebsiella pneumoniae, p7121-IMP from K. oxytoca, and p17285-IMP from Citrobacter freundii, which are recovered from three different cases of nosocomial infection. These three plasmids represent the first fully sequenced blaIMP-carrying IncN2 plasmids. Further comparative genomics analysis of all the five integron-carrying IncN2 plasmids p0801-IMP, p7121-IMP, p17285-IMP, pJIE137, and p34983-59.134kb indicates that they possess conserved IncN2 backbones with limited genetic variations with respect to gene content and organization...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421170/porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-infection-induces-stress-granule-formation-depending-on-protein-kinase-r-like-endoplasmic-reticulum-kinase-perk-in-marc-145-cells
#16
Yanrong Zhou, Liurong Fang, Dang Wang, Kaimei Cai, Huanchun Chen, Shaobo Xiao
Stress granules (SGs) are sites of mRNA storage that are formed in response to various conditions of stress, including viral infections. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an Arterivirus that has been devastating the swine industry worldwide since the late 1980s. In this study, we found that infection of PRRSV strain WUH3 (genotype 2 PRRSV) induced stable formation of robust SGs in MARC-145 cells, as demonstrated by the recruitment of marker proteins of SGs, including TIA1, G3BP1, and eIF3η...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421169/high-prevalence-of-virulence-genes-in-specific-genotypes-of-atypical-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#17
Yanmei Xu, Xiangning Bai, Yujuan Jin, Bin Hu, Hong Wang, Hui Sun, Ruyue Fan, Shanshan Fu, Yanwen Xiong
Atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC) strains are emerging enteropathogens that have been detected worldwide. A collection of 228 aEPEC strains (121 from diarrheal patients, 27 from healthy carriers, 47 from animals and 33 from raw meats) were investigated for serotypes, virulence gene profiles and phylogenetic relationships. Sixty-six O serogroups were identified. Serogroup O51 was the most prevalent, followed by O119, O26 and O76. For the 20 virulence genes detected, statistically significant differences were observed in the overall prevalence of efa1 (lifA), nleB, nleE, set/ent, paa, and ehxA genes among strains from diarrheal patients, healthy carriers, animals and raw meats, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421168/contribution-of-the-a-baumannii-a1s_0114-gene-to-the-interaction-with-eukaryotic-cells-and-virulence
#18
Soraya Rumbo-Feal, Astrid Pérez, Theresa A Ramelot, Laura Álvarez-Fraga, Juan A Vallejo, Alejandro Beceiro, Emily J Ohneck, Brock A Arivett, María Merino, Steven E Fiester, Michael A Kennedy, Luis A Actis, Germán Bou, Margarita Poza
Genetic and functional studies showed that some components of the Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 17978 A1S_0112-A1S_0119 gene cluster are critical for biofilm biogenesis and surface motility. Recently, our group has shown that the A1S_0114 gene was involved in biofilm formation, a process related with pathogenesis. Confirming our previous results, microscopy images revealed that the ATCC 17978 Δ0114 derivative lacking this gene was unable to form a mature biofilm structure. Therefore, other bacterial phenotypes were analyzed to determine the role of this gene in the pathogenicity of A...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421167/iron-and-virulence-in-francisella-tularensis
#19
REVIEW
Girija Ramakrishnan
Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia, is a Gram-negative bacterium that infects a variety of cell types including macrophages, and propagates with great efficiency in the cytoplasm. Iron, essential for key enzymatic and redox reactions, is among the nutrients required to support this pathogenic lifestyle and the bacterium relies on specialized mechanisms to acquire iron within the host environment. Two distinct pathways for iron acquisition are encoded by the F. tularensis genome- a siderophore-dependent ferric iron uptake system and a ferrous iron transport system...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421166/in-vivo-and-in-vitro-interactions-between-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-staphylococcus-spp
#20
REVIEW
An Hotterbeekx, Samir Kumar-Singh, Herman Goossens, Surbhi Malhotra-Kumar
The significance of polymicrobial infections is increasingly being recognized especially in a biofilm context wherein multiple bacterial species-including both potential pathogens and members of the commensal flora-communicate, cooperate, and compete with each other. Two important bacterial pathogens that have developed a complex network of evasion, counter-inhibition, and subjugation in their battle for space and nutrients are Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Their strain- and environment-specific interactions, for instance in the cystic fibrosis lung or in wound infections, show severe competition that is generally linked to worse patient outcomes...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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