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Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

Haifang Zhang, Yunxia Zhu, Xiaofang Xie, Min Wang, Hong Du, Shungao Xu, Ying Zhang, Mingyu Gong, Bin Ni, Huaxi Xu, Xinxiang Huang
The linear plasmid pBSSB1 mediates the flagellar phase variation in H:z66 positive Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi). The gene named stp17 (S. Typhi plasmid number 17 gene) is located on pBSSB1 and encodes the protein STP17. The expression pattern at the protein-level and function of STP17 remains unknown. In this study, the recombinant protein STP17His6 was expressed, purified and used to prepare the polyclonal anti-STP17 antibody. We detected protein-level expression of stp17 in S. Typhi and further investigated the protein expression characteristics of stp17 in different growth phases by western blot analysis...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Mária Džunková, Giuseppe D'Auria, Hua Xu, Jun Huang, Yinghua Duan, Andrés Moya, Ciarán P Kelly, Xinhua Chen
Antibiotics have significant and long-lasting impacts on the intestinal microbiota and consequently reduce colonization resistance against Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Standard therapy using antibiotics is associated with a high rate of disease recurrence, highlighting the need for novel treatment strategies that target toxins, the major virulence factors, rather than the organism itself. Human monoclonal antibodies MK-3415A (actoxumab-bezlotoxumab) to C. difficile toxin A and toxin B, as an emerging non-antibiotic approach, significantly reduced the recurrence of CDI in animal models and human clinical trials...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Leonardo A Gómez, Francisco I Alvarez, Pablo A Fernández, Manuel R Flores, Raúl E Molina, Roberto F Coloma, Angel A Oñate
Immunogenicity induced by recombinant plasmids based on the BAB1_0267 and BAB1_0270 open reading frames (ORFs) of Brucella abortus 2308 was evaluated. Bioinformatics analyses indicate that the BAB1_0267 and BAB1_0270 ORFs encode a protein with a SH3 domain and a Zn-dependent metalloproteinase, respectively. Both ORFs have important effects on intracellular survival and replication of B. abortus 2308, mediated via professional and non-professional phagocytic cells. Our results show that immunization with the recombinant plasmid based on the BAB1_0267 ORF significantly increases the production of IgG1, levels of IFN-γ and the lymphoproliferative response of splenocytes...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Suman Pradhan, Christine Pellino, Kayleigh MacMaster, Dennis Coyle, Alison A Weiss
Seizures and neurologic involvement have been reported in patients infected with Shiga toxin (Stx) producing E. coli, and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) with neurologic involvement is associated with more severe outcome. We investigated the extent of renal and neurologic damage in mice following injection of the highly potent form of Stx, Stx2a, and less potent Stx1. As observed in previous studies, Stx2a brought about moderate to acute tubular necrosis of proximal and distal tubules in the kidneys. Brain sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) appeared normal, although some red blood cell congestion was observed...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Songhui Zhai, Lijuan Hu, Lin Zhong, Yannan Guo, Liqun Dong, Ruizhen Jia, Zheng Wang
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between renal injury and reinfection that is caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and to analyze the mechanism of renal injury. Rats were repeatedly infected with RSV on days 4, 8, 14, and 28, then sacrificed and examined on day 56 after the primary infection. Renal injury was examined by transmission electron microscopy and histopathology. The F protein of RSV was detected in the renal tissue by indirect immunofluorescence. Proteinuria and urinary glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), serum levels of albumin, urea nitrogen, and creatinine, secretion of cytokines, T lymphocyte population and subsets, and dendritic cell (DC) activation state were examined...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Nídia Cangi, Jonathan L Gordon, Laure Bournez, Valérie Pinarello, Rosalie Aprelon, Karine Huber, Thierry Lefrançois, Luís Neves, Damien F Meyer, Nathalie Vachiéry
The disease, Heartwater, caused by the Anaplasmataceae E. ruminantium, represents a major problem for tropical livestock and wild ruminants. Up to now, no effective vaccine has been available due to a limited cross protection of vaccinal strains on field strains and a high genetic diversity of Ehrlichia ruminantium within geographical locations. To address this issue, we inferred the genetic diversity and population structure of 194 E. ruminantium isolates circulating worldwide using Multilocus Sequence Typing based on lipA, lipB, secY, sodB, and sucA genes...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Pedro F Soler-Lloréns, Chris R Quance, Sara D Lawhon, Tod P Stuber, John F Edwards, Thomas A Ficht, Suelee Robbe-Austerman, David O'Callaghan, Anne Keriel
Brucella are highly infectious bacterial pathogens responsible for brucellosis, a frequent worldwide zoonosis. The Brucella genus has recently expanded from 6 to 11 species, all of which were associated with mammals; The natural host range recently expanded to amphibians after some reports of atypical strains from frogs. Here we describe the first in depth phenotypic and genetic characterization of a Brucella strains isolated from a frog. Strain B13-0095 was isolated from a Pac-Man frog (Ceratophyrus ornate) at a veterinary hospital in Texas and was initially misidentified as Ochrobactrum anthropi...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Cher-Pheng Ooi, Sarah Schuster, Christelle Cren-Travaillé, Eloise Bertiaux, Alain Cosson, Sophie Goyard, Sylvie Perrot, Brice Rotureau
Trypanosoma vivax is the most prevalent trypanosome species in African cattle. It is thought to be transmitted by tsetse flies after cyclical development restricted to the vector mouthparts. Here, we investigated the kinetics of T. vivax development in Glossina morsitans morsitans by serial dissections over 1 week to reveal differentiation and proliferation stages. After 3 days, stable numbers of attached epimastigotes were seen proliferating by symmetric division in the cibarium and proboscis, consistent with colonization and maintenance of a parasite population for the remaining lifespan of the tsetse fly...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Laam Li, Sébastien P Faucher
The water-borne pathogen Legionella pneumophila (Lp) strongly expresses the lpg1659 gene in water. This gene encodes a hypothetical protein predicted to be a membrane protein using in silico analysis. While no conserved domains were identified in Lpg1659, similar proteins are found in many Legionella species and other aquatic bacteria. RT-qPCR showed that lpg1659 is positively regulated by the alternative sigma factor RpoS, which is essential for Lp to survive in water. These observations suggest an important role of this novel protein in the survival of Lp in water...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Faidad Khan, Xueqing Wu, Gideon L Matzkin, Mohsin A Khan, Fuminori Sakai, Jorge E Vidal
Staphylococcus aureus (Sau) strains are a main cause of disease, including nosocomial infections which have been linked to the production of biofilms and the propagation of antibiotic resistance strains such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A previous study found that Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) strains kill planktonic cultures of Sau strains. In this work, we have further evaluated in detail the eradication of Sau biofilms and investigated ultrastructural interactions of the biofilmicidal effect...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Aminat T Oki, Bernice Huang, Andrea R Beyer, Levi J May, Hilary K Truchan, Naomi J Walker, Nathan L Galloway, Dori L Borjesson, Jason A Carlyon
Anaplasma phagocytophilum, a member of the family Anaplasmataceae and the obligate intracellular bacterium that causes granulocytic anaplasmosis, resides in a host cell-derived vacuole. Bacterial proteins that localize to the A. phagocytophilum-occupied vacuole membrane (AVM) are critical host-pathogen interfaces. Of the few bacterial AVM proteins that have been identified, the domains responsible for AVM localization and the host cell pathways that they co-opt are poorly defined. APH0032 is an effector that is expressed and localizes to the AVM late during the infection cycle...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Punsiri M Colonne, Caylin G Winchell, Daniel E Voth
Intracellular bacterial pathogens replicate within eukaryotic cells and display unique adaptations that support key infection events including invasion, replication, immune evasion, and dissemination. From invasion to dissemination, all stages of the intracellular bacterial life cycle share the same three-dimensional cytosolic space containing the host cytoskeleton. For successful infection and replication, many pathogens hijack the cytoskeleton using effector proteins introduced into the host cytosol by specialized secretion systems...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Paola Mora-Uribe, Camila Miranda-Cárdenas, Pablo Castro-Córdova, Fernando Gil, Iván Calderón, Juan A Fuentes, Paula I Rodas, Saeed Banawas, Mahfuzur R Sarker, Daniel Paredes-Sabja
Clostridium difficile is the causative agent of the most frequently reported nosocomial diarrhea worldwide. The high incidence of recurrent infection is the main clinical challenge of C. difficile infections (CDI). Formation of C. difficile spores of the epidemic strain R20291 has been shown to be essential for recurrent infection and transmission of the disease in a mouse model. However, the underlying mechanisms of how these spores persist in the colonic environment remains unclear. In this work, we characterized the adherence properties of epidemic R20291 spores to components of the intestinal mucosa, and we assessed the role of the exosporium integrity in the adherence properties by using cdeC mutant spores with a defective exosporium layer...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Xiaopeng Zhang, Weilong Shang, Jizhen Yuan, Zhen Hu, Huagang Peng, Junmin Zhu, Qiwen Hu, Yi Yang, Hui Liu, Bei Jiang, Yinan Wang, Shu Li, Xiaomei Hu, Xiancai Rao
Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) has been demonstrated to be of importance in Staphylococcus aureus related diseases, such as atopic dermatitis (AD). Dysregulated apoptosis in AD is remarkable, and SEB can induce apoptosis of various cell types. However, the mechanisms by which SEB induces apoptosis and influences disease processes remain unclear. In this study, the recombinant SEB-induced THP-1 monocyte apoptosis was demonstrated in the absence of preliminary cell activation in a time- and dose-dependent manner...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Shantanu Bhatt, Marisa Egan, Valerie Jenkins, Sarah Muche, Jihad El-Fenej
Enterohemorrhagic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli are gastrointestinal pathogens that disrupt the intestinal microvilli to form attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions on infected cells and cause diarrhea. This pathomorphological trait is encoded within the pathogenicity island locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). The LEE houses a type 3 secretion system (T3SS), which upon assembly bridges the bacterial cytosol to that of the host and enables the bacterium to traffic dozens of effectors into the host where they hijack regulatory and signal transduction pathways and contribute to bacterial colonization and disease...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Max R Schroeder, David S Stephens
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common commensal and an opportunistic pathogen. Suspected pneumococcal upper respiratory infections and pneumonia are often treated with macrolide antibiotics. Macrolides are bacteriostatic antibiotics and inhibit protein synthesis by binding to the 50S ribosomal subunit. The widespread use of macrolides is associated with increased macrolide resistance in S. pneumoniae, and the treatment of pneumococcal infections with macrolides may be associated with clinical failures. In S...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
J Stephen Dumler, Sara H Sinclair, Valeria Pappas-Brown, Amol C Shetty
Anaplasma phagocytophilum, an obligate intracellular prokaryote, infects neutrophils, and alters cardinal functions via reprogrammed transcription. Large contiguous regions of neutrophil chromosomes are differentially expressed during infection. Secreted A. phagocytophilum effector AnkA transits into the neutrophil or granulocyte nucleus to complex with DNA in heterochromatin across all chromosomes. AnkA binds to gene promoters to dampen cis-transcription and also has features of matrix attachment region (MAR)-binding proteins that regulate three-dimensional chromatin architecture and coordinate transcriptional programs encoded in topologically-associated chromatin domains...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Hannes Breddermann, Karin Schnetz
LeuO is a conserved and pleiotropic transcription regulator, antagonist of the nucleoid-associated silencer protein H-NS, and important for pathogenicity and multidrug resistance in Enterobacteriaceae. Regulation of transcription of the leuO gene is complex. It is silenced by H-NS and its paralog StpA, and it is autoregulated. In addition, in Escherichia coli leuO is antagonistically regulated by the heterodimeric transcription regulator BglJ-RcsB and by LeuO. BglJ-RcsB activates leuO, while LeuO inhibits activation by BglJ-RcsB...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
José de la Fuente, Robert M Waterhouse, Daniel E Sonenshine, R Michael Roe, Jose M Ribeiro, David B Sattelle, Catherine A Hill
As tick-borne diseases are on the rise, an international effort resulted in the sequence and assembly of the first genome of a tick vector. This result promotes research on comparative, functional and evolutionary genomics and the study of tick-host-pathogen interactions to improve human, animal and ecosystem health on a global scale.
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Qingchang Hu, Yabo Zhao, Zaiwei Wang, Yue Hou, Dingren Bi, Jianjun Sun, Xiuli Peng
Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), one of the most pathogenic Mycoplasmas, can cause chronic respiratory disease (CRD) in chickens. It has been suggested that micro-ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) are involved in microbial pathogenesis. However, little is known about the roles of miRNAs in MG infection. Previously, we found by deep sequencing that gga-miR-19a was significantly up-regulated in the lungs of MG-infected chicken embryos. In this work, we confirmed that gga-miR-19a was up-regulated in both MG-infected chicken embryonic lungs and MG-infected DF-1 (chicken embryo fibroblast) cells...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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