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Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

Minh-Thu Nguyen, Martine Deplanche, Mulugeta Nega, Yves Le Loir, Loulou Peisl, Friedrich Götz, Nadia Berkova
The cell cycle is an ordered set of events, leading to cell growth and division into two daughter cells. The eukaryotic cell cycle consists of interphase (G1, S, and G2 phases), followed by the mitotic phase and G0 phase. Many bacterial pathogens secrete cyclomodulins that interfere with the host cell cycle. In Staphylococcus aureus four cyclomodulins have been described so far that all represent toxins and are secreted into the culture supernatant. Here we show that the membrane-anchored lipoprotein-like proteins (Lpl), encoded on a genomic island called νSaα, interact with the cell cycle of HeLa cells...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Maoda Pang, Xiaoqin Lin, Jin Liu, Changming Guo, Shanshan Gao, Hechao Du, Chengping Lu, Yongjie Liu
Free-living protozoa affect the survival and virulence evolution of pathogens in the environment. In this study, we explored the fate of Aeromonas hydrophila when co-cultured with the bacteriovorous ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila and investigated bacterial gene expression associated with the co-culture. Virulent A. hydrophila strains were found to have ability to evade digestion in the vacuoles of this protozoan. In A. hydrophila, a total of 116 genes were identified as up-regulated following co-culture with T...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Hsing-Chun Kuo, Li-Ching Chang, Te-Chuan Chen, Ko-Chao Lee, Kam-Fai Lee, Cheng-Nan Chen, Hong-Ren Yu
Background:Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major bacterial species implicated in the progression of periodontal disease, which is recognized as a common complication of diabetes. The interleukin (IL)-1β, processed by the NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, has been identified as a target for pathogenic infection of the inflammatory response. However, the effect of P. gingivalis in a high-glucose situation in the modulation of inflammasome activation in human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) is not well-understood...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Margit Mahlapuu, Joakim Håkansson, Lovisa Ringstad, Camilla Björn
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), also known as host defense peptides, are short and generally positively charged peptides found in a wide variety of life forms from microorganisms to humans. Most AMPs have the ability to kill microbial pathogens directly, whereas others act indirectly by modulating the host defense systems. Against a background of rapidly increasing resistance development to conventional antibiotics all over the world, efforts to bring AMPs into clinical use are accelerating. Several AMPs are currently being evaluated in clinical trials as novel anti-infectives, but also as new pharmacological agents to modulate the immune response, promote wound healing, and prevent post-surgical adhesions...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Lingzhao Fang, Yali Hou, Jing An, Bingjie Li, Minyan Song, Xiao Wang, Peter Sørensen, Yichun Dong, Chao Liu, Yachun Wang, Huabin Zhu, Shengli Zhang, Ying Yu
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is problematic for lactating mammals and public health. Understanding of mechanisms by which the hosts respond to severe invasion of S. aureus remains elusive. In this study, the genome-wide expression of mRNAs and miRNAs in bovine mammary gland cells were interrogated at 24 h after intra-mammary infection (IMI) with high or low concentrations of S. aureus. Compared to the negative control quarters, 194 highly-confident responsive genes were identified in the quarters with high concentration (10(9) cfu/mL) of S...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Judy J J Ou, Amanda J Drilling, Clare Cooksley, Ahmed Bassiouni, Stephen P Kidd, Alkis J Psaltis, Peter J Wormald, Sarah Vreugde
Background:Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) small colony variants (SCVs) can survive within the host intracellular milieu and are associated with chronic relapsing infections. However, it is unknown whether host invasion rates and immune responses differ between SCVs and their wild-type counterparts. This study used a stable S. aureus SCV (WCH-SK2(SCV)) developed from a clinical isolate (WCH-SK2(WT)) in inflammation-relevant conditions. Intracellular infection rates as well as host immune responses to WCH-SK2(WT) and WCH-SK2(SCV) infections were investigated...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Ja E Claywell, Lea M Matschke, Derek J Fisher
Chlamydia are Gram negative bacterial pathogens responsible for disease in humans and economically important domesticated animals. As obligate intracellular bacteria, they must gain entry into a host cell where they propagate within a parasitophorous organelle that serves as an interactive interface between the bacterium and the host. Nutrient acquisition, growth, and evasion of host defense mechanisms occur from this location. In addition to these cellular and bacterial dynamics, Chlamydia differentiate between two morphologically distinct forms, the elementary body and reticulate body, that are optimized for either extracellular or intracellular survival, respectively...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Ulvi K Gursoy, Eija Könönen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Min Feng, Sujie Guo, Shengtao Fan, Xiaofeng Zeng, Ying Zhang, Yun Liao, Jianbin Wang, Ting Zhao, Lichun Wang, Yanchun Che, Jingjing Wang, Na Ma, Longding Liu, Lei Yue, Qihan Li
The pathological manifestations of fatal cases of human hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) are characterized by inflammatory damage to the central nervous system (CNS). Here, the dynamic distribution of EV71 in the CNS and the subsequent pathological characteristics within different regions of neonatal rhesus macaque brain tissue were studied using a chimeric EV71 expressing green fluorescence protein. The results were compared with brain tissue obtained from the autopsies of deceased EV71-infected HFMD patients...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Nicolas Studer, Lyne Desharnais, Markus Beutler, Sandrine Brugiroux, Miguel A Terrazos, Laure Menin, Christian M Schürch, Kathy D McCoy, Sarah A Kuehne, Nigel P Minton, Bärbel Stecher, Rizlan Bernier-Latmani, Siegfried Hapfelmeier
Bile acids, important mediators of lipid absorption, also act as hormone-like regulators and as antimicrobial molecules. In all these functions their potency is modulated by a variety of chemical modifications catalyzed by bacteria of the healthy gut microbiota, generating a complex variety of secondary bile acids. Intestinal commensal organisms are well-adapted to normal concentrations of bile acids in the gut. In contrast, physiological concentrations of the various intestinal bile acid species play an important role in the resistance to intestinal colonization by pathogens such as Clostridium difficile...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Kunlong Yang, Qiuping Qin, Yinghang Liu, Limei Zhang, Linlin Liang, Huahui Lan, Chihao Chen, Yunchao You, Feng Zhang, Shihua Wang
Aspergillus flavus is one of the most important opportunistic pathogens of crops and animals. The carcinogenic mycotoxin, aflatoxins produced by this pathogen cause a health problem to human and animals. Since cyclic AMP signaling controls a range of physiological processes, like fungal development and infection when responding to extracellular stimuli in fungal pathogens, in this study, we investigated the function of adenylate cyclase, a core component of cAMP signaling, in aflatoxins biosynthesis and virulence on plant seeds in A...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Subbarao V Ravva, Chester Z Sarreal, Michael B Cooley
We previously reported that the strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157) that survived longer in austere soil environment lacked expression of curli, a fitness trait linked with intestinal colonization. In addition, the proportion of curli-positive variants of EcO157 decreased with repeated soil exposure. Here we evaluated 84 and 176 clinical strains from outbreaks and sporadic infections in the US, plus 211 animal fecal and environmental strains for curli expression. These shiga-toxigenic strains were from 328 different genotypes, as characterized by multi-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA)...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Saugata Mahapatra, Brandi Gallaher, Sydni Caet Smith, Joseph G Graham, Daniel E Voth, Edward I Shaw
Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q fever and an obligate intracellular pathogen in nature that survives and grows in a parasitophorous vacuole (PV) within eukaryotic host cells. C. burnetii promotes intracellular survival by subverting apoptotic and pro-inflammatory signaling pathways that are typically regulated by nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB). We and others have demonstrated that C. burnetii NMII proteins inhibit expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and induce expression of anti-apoptotic genes during infection...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
XiaoHui Sem, Giang T T Le, Alrina S M Tan, Gloria Tso, Marina Yurieva, Webber W P Liao, Josephine Lum, Kandhadayar G Srinivasan, Michael Poidinger, Francesca Zolezzi, Norman Pavelka
Candida albicans is responsible for ~400,000 systemic fungal infections annually, with an associated mortality rate of 46-75%. The human gastrointestinal (GI) tract represents the largest natural reservoir of Candida species and is a major source of systemic fungal infections. However, the factors that control GI colonization by Candida species are not completely understood. We hypothesized that the fungal cell wall would play an important role in determining the competitive fitness of Candida species in the mammalian GI tract...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Lin-Feng Cheng, Fang Wang, Liang Zhang, Lan Yu, Wei Ye, Zi-Yu Liu, Qi-Kang Ying, Xing-An Wu, Zhi-Kai Xu, Fang-Lin Zhang
A safe and effective Hantaan virus (HTNV) vaccine is highly desirable because HTNV causes an acute and often fatal disease (hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, HFRS). Since the immunity of the inactivated vaccine is weak and the safety is poor, HTNV virus-like particles (VLPs) offer an attractive and safe alternative. These particles lack the viral genome but are perceived by the immune system as virus particles. We hypothesized that adding immunostimulatory signals to VLPs would enhance their efficacy. To accomplish this enhancement, we generated chimeric HTNV VLPs containing glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or CD40 ligand (CD40L) and investigated their biological activity in vitro...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Shuxin Zhou, An Zhang, Hongping Yin, Weihua Chu
Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell density dependent process that enables bacteria to communicate with each other based on the production, secretion and sensing of the auto-inducer molecules and then subsequently regulate virulence associated gene expression. Interrupting quorum sensing may represent a novel alternative approach to combat bacterial pathogen. Several bacteria can produce quorum quenching (QQ) enzymes. However, the role of QQ bacteria in shaping the microbiota and the level of N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs, a prevalent type of QS molecules) producing bacteria remains largely unknown...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Yuhao Dong, Jin Liu, Maoda Pang, Hechao Du, Nannan Wang, Furqan Awan, Chengping Lu, Yongjie Liu
The growth-stimulating effects of catecholamine stress hormones have been demonstrated in many pathogens. However, catecholamine-induced growth and its underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood in Aeromonas hydrophila. The present study sought to demonstrate that norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (Epi), dopamine (Dopa), and L-dopa stimulate the growth of A. hydrophila in iron-restricted media containing serum. NE exhibited the strongest growth stimulation, which could be blocked by adrenergic antagonists...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Yongyong Cui, Deming Zhao, Srinand Sreevatsan, Chunfa Liu, Wei Yang, Zhiqi Song, Lifeng Yang, Paul Barrow, Xiangmei Zhou
Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) is highly adapted to macrophages and has developed multiple mechanisms to resist intracellular assaults. However, the host cells in turn deploy a multipronged defense mechanism to control bacterial infection. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis is one such primary defense mechanism. However, the role of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) between ER stress and apoptosis during M. bovis infection is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that M. bovis effectively induced apoptosis in murine macrophages...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Michael P Hays, Amit Kumar, Francisco J Martinez-Becerra, Philip R Hardwidge
Achieving cross-protective efficacy against multiple bacterial strains or serotypes is an important goal of vaccine design. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an important cause of diarrheal disease in underdeveloped nations. We have been interested in identifying and characterizing ETEC antigens that generate protective immune responses independent of ETEC colonization factor (CF) expression. Our previous studies used proteomics to identify the ETEC MipA, Skp, and ETEC_2479 proteins as effective in protecting mice from homologous challenge with ETEC H10407 using a pulmonary inoculation model...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Elisabeth Hodille, Charlotte Cuerq, Cédric Badiou, Françoise Bienvenu, Jean-Paul Steghens, Régine Cartier, Michèle Bes, Anne Tristan, Adriana Plesa, Vien T M Le, Binh A Diep, Gérard Lina, Oana Dumitrescu
Mast cells are located at host interfaces, such as the skin, and contribute to the first-line defense against pathogens by releasing soluble mediators, including those that induce itching and scratching behavior. Here, we show that delta-hemolysin (Hld) and phenol soluble modulins (PSMs) PSMα1 and PSMα3, but not alpha-hemolysin (Hla) or Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), induce dose-dependent tryptase, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release by the HMC-1 human mast cell line. Using supernatants from isogenic strains, we verified that tryptase and LDH release was Hld- and PSMα-dependent...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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