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Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

Rebecca A Flaherty, Deborah L Donahue, Katelyn E Carothers, Jessica N Ross, Victoria A Ploplis, Francis J Castellino, Shaun W Lee
The bacterial pathogen Group A Streptococcus (GAS) has been shown to induce a variety of human diseases ranging in severity from pharyngitis to toxic shock syndrome and necrotizing fasciitis. GAS produces a powerful peptide toxin known as Streptolysin S (SLS). Though long recognized as a potent cytolysin, recent evidence from our lab has shown that SLS-dependent cytotoxicity is mediated through activation of the pro-inflammatory mediators p38 MAPK and NFκB. These findings led us to hypothesize that activation of p38 MAPK and NFκB signaling drive the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines which, in turn, serve as positive feedback signals to initiate cytotoxicity in infected host cells...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Shuangqi Fan, Jin Yuan, Shaofeng Deng, Yuming Chen, Baoming Xie, Keke Wu, Mengjiao Zhu, Hailuan Xu, Yunzhen Huang, Jiongfeng Yang, Yangyi Zhang, Jinding Chen, Mingqiu Zhao
Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is a classic Flavivirus that causes the acute, febrile, and highly contagious disease known as classical swine fever (CSF). Inflammasomes are molecular platforms that trigger the maturation of proinflammatory cytokines to engage innate immune defenses that are induced upon cellular infection or stress. However, the relationship between the inflammasome and CSFV infection has not been thoroughly characterized. To understand the function of the inflammasome response to CSFV infection, we infected porcine peripheral blood monocytes (PBMCs) with CSFV...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Xingzhao Ji, Na Li Sun, Xin Xue Hou, Shuai Xu, Tong Xiao Qiu, Lu Tang, Qiao He Li, Bing Xue Wang, Jun Zhen Li
The P61 protein is an immunodominant antigen of Nocardia brasiliensis that is observed in the sera from patients infected with the bacterium. However, the B-cell epitopes of N. brasiliensis are still unresolved. To identify the antigenic determinants of P61, we screened seven monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against P61 protein that was expressed in the Escherichia coli system. A series of truncated peptides of P61 were then generated and the mAbs were used to screen these peptides by Western blot analyses. Three B-cell epitopes were recognized by the P61 specific mAbs: 461-FEYWTKVDPEIGKRIEEG-478, 427-LVREVFNDAQRDRLVSNVVGGVQEPV...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Brittany N Ross, Julia N Myers, Laura A Muruato, Daniel Tapia, Alfredo G Torres
Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a disease that requires long-term treatment regimens with no assurance of bacterial clearance. Clinical isolates are intrinsically resistant to most antibiotics and in recent years, isolates have been collected that display resistance to frontline drugs. With the expanding global burden of B. pseudomallei , there is a need to identify new compounds or improve current treatments to reduce risk of relapse. Using the Pathogen Box generated by Medicines for Malaria Venture, we screened a library of 400 compounds for bacteriostatic or bactericidal activity against B...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Eduardo Ontoria, Yasmina E Hernández-Santana, Ana C González-García, Manuel C López, Basilio Valladares, Emma Carmelo
Leishmania spp. is a protozoan parasite that affects millions of people around the world. At present, there is no effective vaccine to prevent leishmaniases in humans. A major limitation in vaccine development is the lack of precise understanding of the particular immunological mechanisms that allow parasite survival in the host. The parasite-host cell interaction induces dramatic changes in transcriptome patterns in both organisms, therefore, a detailed analysis of gene expression in infected tissues will contribute to the evaluation of drug and vaccine candidates, the identification of potential biomarkers, and the understanding of the immunological pathways that lead to protection or progression of disease...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Yousef Maali, Cédric Badiou, Patrícia Martins-Simões, Elisabeth Hodille, Michele Bes, François Vandenesch, Gérard Lina, Alan Diot, Frederic Laurent, Sophie Trouillet-Assant
Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is responsible for severe and necrotizing infections in humans and dogs. Contrary to S. aureus , the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in this virulence are incompletely understood. We previously showed the intracellular cytotoxicity induced after internalization of S. pseudintermedius . Herein, we aimed to identify the virulence factors responsible for this cytotoxic activity. After addition of filtered S. pseudintermedius supernatants in culture cell media, MG63 cells, used as representative of non-professional phagocytic cells (NPPc), released a high level of LDH, indicating that the cytotoxicity was mainly mediated by secreted factors...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Fariborz Bahrami, Ali M Harandi, Sima Rafati
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an immune-mediated skin pathology caused mainly by Leishmania ( L .) major, Leishmania tropica, Leishmania braziliensis, L. mexicana , and L. amazonensis . The burden of CL in terms of morbidity and social stigmas are concentrated on certain developing countries in Asia, Africa, and South America. People with asymptomatic CL represent a large proportion of the infected individuals in the endemic areas who exhibit no lesion and can control the infection by as yet not fully understood mechanisms...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Mengjiao Guo, Rong Li, Qianqian Xiao, Xiuxiu Fan, Ning Li, Yingli Shang, Liangmeng Wei, Tongjie Chai
Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2), a member of the NOD-like receptors (NLRs) family that is well-known to play a key role in innate immune responses and is involved in innate antibacterial responses. In this study, rabbit NOD2 (rNOD2) was cloned from rabbit kidney (RK) cells. It was distributed in various tissues, and the highest level of rNod2 was detected in spleen. Moreover, the expression of rNod2 was significantly upregulated in the heart, liver, and spleen induced by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC)...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Liming Jiang, Dehong Ma, Chao Ye, Lihua Li, Xiaoman Li, Jiajia Yang, Yujiao Zhao, Juemin Xi, Xiaodan Wang, Junying Chen, Yue Pan, Xiyun Shan, Qiangming Sun
In 2015, a dengue outbreak with 1,067 reported cases occurred in Xishuangbanna, a city in China that borders Burma and Laos. To characterize the virus, the complete genome sequence was obtained and phylogenetic, mutation, substitution and recombinant analyses were performed. DENV-NS1 positive serum samples were collected from dengue fever patients, and complete genome sequences were obtained through RT-qPCR from these serum samples. Phylogenetic trees were then constructed by maximum likelihood phylogeny test (MEGA7...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
José A Guijarro, Ana I García-Torrico, Desirée Cascales, Jessica Méndez
Finding the keys to understanding the infectious process of Yersinia ruckeri was not a priority for many years due to the prompt development of an effective biotype 1 vaccine which was used mainly in Europe and USA. However, the gradual emergence of outbreaks in vaccinated fish, which have been reported since 2003, has awakened interest in the mechanism of virulence in this pathogen. Thus, during the last two decades, a large number of studies have considerably enriched our knowledge of many aspects of the pathogen and its interaction with the host...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Jamie L Everman, Lia Danelishvili, Lucero G Flores, Luiz E Bermudez
Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne's disease, chronic and ultimately fatal enteritis that affects ruminant populations worldwide. One mode of MAP transmission is oral when young animals ingest bacteria from the collostrum and milk of infected dams. The exposure to raw milk has a dramatic impact on MAP, resulting in a more invasive and virulent phenotype. The MAP1203 gene is upregulated over 28-fold after exposure of the bacterium to milk. In this study, the role of MAP1203 in binding and invasion of the bovine epithelial cells was investigated...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Henan Li, Hua Gao, Han Meng, Qi Wang, Shuguang Li, Hongbin Chen, Yongjun Li, Hui Wang
Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) is a comprehensive approach for sequence-based identification of pathogenic microbes. However, reports on the use of mNGS in pulmonary infection applied to lung biopsy tissues remain scarce. In this study, we applied mNGS to detect the presence of pathogenic microbes in lung biopsy tissues from 20 patients with pulmonary disorders indicating possible infection. We applied a new data management for identifying pathogen species based on mNGS data. We determined the thresholds for the unique reads and relative abundance required to identify the infectious pathogens...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Moisés Martínez-Castillo, Judith Pacheco-Yepez, Nadia Flores-Huerta, Paula Guzmán-Téllez, Rosa A Jarillo-Luna, Luz M Cárdenas-Jaramillo, Rafael Campos-Rodríguez, Mineko Shibayama
Over the past 20 years, gastrointestinal infections in developing countries have been a serious health problem and are the second leading cause of morbidity among all age groups. Among pathogenic protozoans that cause diarrheal disease, the parasite Entamoeba histolytica produces amebic colitis as well as the most frequent extra-intestinal lesion, an amebic liver abscess (ALA). Usually, intestinal amebiasis and ALA are treated with synthetic chemical compounds (iodoquinol, paromomycin, diloxanide furoate, and nitroimidazoles)...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Xinwei Feng, Junfeng Lu, Zitian He, Yidan Wang, Fangfang Qi, Rongbiao Pi, Ge Zhang
Both pathogenic and non-pathogenic Mycobacteria can induce the differentiation of immune cells into dendritic cells (DC) or DC-like cells. In addition, pathogenic Mycobacteria is found to stimulate cell differentiation in the nerves system. Whether non-pathogenic Mycobacteria interacts with nerve cells remains unknown. In this study, we found that co-incubation with fast-growing Mycobacteria smegmatis induced neuron-like morphological changes of PC12 and C17.2 cells. Moreover, the M. smegmatis culture supernatant which was ultrafiltrated through a membrane with a 10 kDa cut-off, induced neurite outgrowth and differentiation in an autophagy-independent pathway in PC12 and C17...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Binyou Li, Qi Huang, Ailian Cui, Xueling Liu, Bo Hou, Liyuan Zhang, Mei Liu, Xianrong Meng, Shaowen Li
Our previous study showed that the inactivation of the efflux pump TolC could abolish biofilm formation and curli production of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) strain PPECC42 under hyper-osmotic conditions. In this study we investigated the role of OmpX in biofilm formation and curli production of ExPEC PPECC42. Our data showed that OmpX disruption or overexpression didn't significantly affect the biofilm formation and curli production of the wild-type strain. However, in the tolC -deleted mutant, overexpressing OmpX suppressed the effect of TolC inactivation on ExPEC biofilm formation and curli production under hyper-osmotic growth conditions...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Lixing Huang, Wenjia Liu, Qingling Jiang, Yanfei Zuo, Yongquan Su, Lingmin Zhao, Yingxue Qin, Qingpi Yan
Pseudomonas plecoglossicida is a facultative pathogen that is associated with diseases of multiple fish, mainly at 15-20°C. Although fish disease caused by P. plecoglossicida has led to significant economic losses, the mechanisms of the temperature-dependent virulence are unclear. Here, we identify potential pathogenicity mechanisms and demonstrate the direct regulation of several virulence factors by temperature with transcriptomic and proteomic analyses, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), RNAi, pyoverdine (PVD) quantification, the chrome azurol S (CAS) assay, growth curve measurements, a biofilm assay, and artificial infection...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Woo Sik Kim, Min-Kyoung Shin, Sung Jae Shin
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative pathogen of chronic granulomatous enteropathy (Johne's disease) in animals, and has been focused on its association with various autoimmune diseases in humans, including Crohn's disease. The discovery of novel mycobacterial antigens and exploring their role in host immunity can contribute to the advancement of effective defense strategies including vaccines and diagnostic tools. In a preliminary study, we identified cellular extract proteins of MAP that strongly react with the blood of patients with Crohn's disease...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Juan C Ossa, Dominique Yáñez, Romina Valenzuela, Pablo Gallardo, Yalda Lucero, Mauricio J Farfán
Introduction: Compared to bovine formula (BF), breast milk (BM) has unique properties. In the newborn intestine, there is a homeostatic balance between the counterparts of the immune system, which allows a physiological inflammation, modulated by the gut microbiota. Many studies have attempted to understand the effect of BF vs. BM, and the changes in the gut microbiota, but few also focus on intestinal inflammation. Methods: We conducted a cohort study of newborn infants during their first 3 months. In stool samples taken at 1 and 3 months (timepoints T1 and T3), we quantified calprotectin, IL-8 and α1-antitrypsin by ELISA and we evaluated the expression of IL8 and IL1 β genes by RT-qPCR...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
R Ayana, Preeti Yadav, Rajesh Kumari, Dandugudumula Ramu, Swati Garg, Soumya Pati, Shailja Singh
Palmitoylation has been recently identified as an important post-translational rheostat for controlling protein function in eukaryotes. However, the molecular machinery underlying palmitoylation remains unclear in the neglected tropical parasite, Leishmania donovani . Herein, we have identified a catalog of 20 novel palmitoyl acyltransferases (PATs) and characterized the promastigote-specific PAT (LdPAT4) containing the canonical Asp-His-His-Cys (DHHC) domain. Immunofluorescence analysis using in-house generated LdPAT4-specific antibody demonstrated distinct expression of LdPAT4 in the flagellar pocket of promastigotes...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Gemma Agustí, Francesc Codony
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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