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Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

Jingxuan Chen, Hongqiang Du, Shuang Cui, Tong Liu, Guang Yang, Huaping Sun, Weiwei Tao, Baoping Jiang, Li Yu, Fuping You
E. fischeriana has long been used as a traditional Chinese medicine. Recent studies reported that some compounds of E. fischeriana exhibited antimicrobial and immune enhance activity. Innate immune system is essential for the immune surveillance of inner and outer threats, initial host defense responses and immune modulation. The role of natural drug compounds, including E. fischeriana, in innate immune regulation is largely unknown. Here we demonstrated that E. fischeriana compound Dpo is involved in antiviral signaling...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Hong-Li Li, Lan Lu, Xiao-Shuang Wang, Li-Yue Qin, Ping Wang, Shui-Ping Qiu, Hui Wu, Fei Huang, Bei-Bei Zhang, Hai-Lian Shi, Xiao-Jun Wu
Disturbed homeostasis of gut microbiota has been suggested to be closely associated with 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) induced mucositis. However, current knowledge of the overall profiles of 5-Fu-disturbed gut microbiota is limited, and so far there is no direct convincing evidence proving the causality between 5-Fu-disturbed microbiota and colonic mucositis. In mice, in agreement with previous reports, 5-Fu resulted in severe colonic mucositis indicated by weight loss, diarrhea, bloody stool, shortened colon, and infiltration of inflammatory cells...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Athmanya K Eshwar, Claudia Guldimann, Anna Oevermann, Taurai Tasara
Cold shock-domain family proteins (Csps) are highly conserved nucleic acid binding proteins regulating the expression of various genes including those involved in stress resistance and virulence in bacteria. We show here that Csps are involved in virulence, cell aggregation and flagella-based extracellular motility of Listeria monocytogenes. A L. monocytogenes mutant deleted in all three csp genes (ΔcspABD) is attenuated with respect to human macrophage infection as well as virulence in a zebrafish infection model...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Guo-Hong Li, Zhi-Jie Ning, Yi-Ming Liu, Xiao-Hong Li
Dengue counts among the most commonly encountered arboviral diseases, representing the fastest spreading tropical illness in the world. It is prevalent in 128 countries, and each year >2.5 billion people are at risk of dengue virus infection worldwide. Neurological signs of dengue infection are increasingly reported. In this review, the main neurological complications of dengue virus infection, such as central nervous system (CNS), peripheral nervous system, and ophthalmic complications were discussed according to clinical features, treatment and possible pathogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Alhejandra Álvarez, Felipe Uribe, Jimena Canales, Cristóbal Romero, Andrea Soza, María A Peña, Marcelo Antonelli, Oscar Almarza, Oscar Cerda, Héctor Toledo
In order to establish infection, bacterial pathogens modulate host cellular processes by using virulence factors, which are delivered from the bacteria to the host cell leading to cellular reprogramming. In this context, several pathogens regulate the ubiquitin proteasome system in order to regulate the cellular effectors required for their successful colonization and persistance. In this study, we investigated how Helicobacter pylori affect the ubiquitination of the host proteins to achieve the adherence to the cells, using AGS gastric epithelial cells cultured with H...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Sandra Appelt, Klaus Heuner
The Legionella genus comprises more than 60 species. In particular, Legionella pneumophila is known to cause severe illnesses in humans. Legionellaceae are ubiquitous inhabitants of aquatic environments. Some Legionellaceae are motile and their motility is important to move around in habitats. Motility can be considered as a potential virulence factor as already shown for various human pathogens. The genes of the flagellar system, regulator and structural genes, are structured in hierarchical levels described as the flagellar regulon...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Yi-Qing Li, Yun-Fei Chen, Yi-Ping Dang, Yao Wang, Zhen-Zhong Shang, Qian Ma, Yu-Jie Wang, Juan Zhang, Lei Luo, Quan-Qiang Li, Lei Zhao
The IL-13Rα1 signaling pathway and M2 macrophages play crucial roles in schistosome egg-induced hepatic fibrosis via the expression of pro-fibrotic molecules. This study aims to investigate the inhibitory effect and mechanism of action of corilagin on schistosome egg-induced hepatic fibrosis via the IL-13Rα1 signaling pathway in M2 macrophages in vitro and in vivo. The mRNA and protein expression of IL-13Rα1, PPARγ, KLF4, SOCS1, STAT6, p-STAT6, and TGF-β was measured in vitro with corilagin treatment after IL-13 stimulation and in vivo corilagin treatment after effectively killing the adult schistosomes in schistosome-infected mice...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Song Lin Chua, Yang Liu, Yingying Li, Hui Jun Ting, Gurjeet S Kohli, Zhao Cai, Pipob Suwanchaikasem, Kelvin Kau Kit Goh, Sean Pin Ng, Tim Tolker-Nielsen, Liang Yang, Michael Givskov
Cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is an intracellular secondary messenger which controls the biofilm life cycle in many bacterial species. High intracellular c-di-GMP content enhances biofilm formation via the reduction of motility and production of biofilm matrix, while low c-di-GMP content in biofilm cells leads to increased motility and biofilm dispersal. While the effect of high c-di-GMP levels on bacterial lifestyles is well studied, the physiology of cells at low c-di-GMP levels remains unclear. Here, we showed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells with high and low intracellular c-di-GMP contents possessed distinct transcriptome profiles...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Jourdan A Andersson, Jian Sha, Tatiana E Erova, Eric C Fitts, Duraisamy Ponnusamy, Elena V Kozlova, Michelle L Kirtley, Ashok K Chopra
Earlier, we reported the identification of new virulence factors/mechanisms of Yersinia pestis using an in vivo signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) screening approach. From this screen, the role of rbsA, which encodes an ATP-binding protein of ribose transport system, and vasK, an essential component of the type VI secretion system (T6SS), were evaluated in mouse models of plague and confirmed to be important during Y. pestis infection. However, many of the identified genes from the screen remained uncharacterized...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Ranjith Kumar Manoharan, Jin-Hyung Lee, Yong-Guy Kim, Jintae Lee
Candida albicans is one of the most common pathogen causes fungal infections. This opportunistic pathogen can form biofilms comprised of yeast, hyphae and pseudo hyphal elements, and the hyphal form C. albicans considered as probable virulence factor. We investigated the antibiofilm activities of 13 quinones and anthraquinones related compounds against C. albicans biofilms by using crystal violet and 2,3-bis (2-Methoxy-4-Nitro-5-Sulfo-phenyl)-2H-Tetrazolium-5-Carboxanilide (XTT) reduction assays to assess inhibitions of biofilm growth...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Zuzana Krocova, Ales Macela, Klara Kubelkova
The intracellular bacterial pathogen Francisella tularensis causes serious infectious disease in humans and animals. Moreover, F. tularensis, a highly infectious pathogen, poses a major concern for the public as a bacterium classified under Category A of bioterrorism agents. Unfortunately, research has so far failed to develop effective vaccines, due in part to the fact that the pathogenesis of intracellular bacteria is not fully understood and in part to gaps in our understanding of innate immune recognition processes leading to the induction of adaptive immune response...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Manli Wu, Haoxin Zhao, Min Li, Yan Yue, Sidong Xiong, Wei Xu
Induction of specific humoral and cellular immunity in the lung airways is proposed to be critical for vaccine protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb). To facilitate airway delivery and antigen targeting to the antigen presenting cells in the alveoli, we employed mannosylated chitosan (MCS) to formulate a multi-T-epitope DNA vaccine, pPES, as an intranasal TB vaccine. MCS-DNA nanoparticles appeared spherical with the average particle sizes as 400 nm. HSP65-specific bronchoalveolar lavage fluid SIgA level was significantly elevated by 4 doses of MCS-pPES intranasal immunization as compared to chitosan (CS)-DNA and BCG vaccine...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Lu Liu, Meiping Ye, Xiaobin Li, Jun Li, Zixin Deng, Yu-Feng Yao, Hong-Yu Ou
The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a class of sophisticated cell contact-dependent apparatus with anti-eukaryotic or anti-bacterial function. Klebsiella pneumoniae is one of the most common bacterial pathogens with resistance to the carbapenem antibiotics. However, little is known about the antibacterial T6SS in K. pneumoniae. Using core-component protein searches, we identified a putative T6SS gene cluster on the chromosome of the carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae (CRKP) strain HS11286. Intraspecies and interspecies competition assays revealed an antibacterial function of the HS11286 T6SS...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Roberta Esposito, Silvana Morello, Megi Vllahu, Daniela Eletto, Amalia Porta, Alessandra Tosco
TFF1, a mucin-associated secreted peptide of gastric mucous cells, is known as a protective agent for stomach epithelium under different stimuli, but its role upon Helicobacter infection is still not clear. In this paper we characterized TFFs expression, with particular attention to TFF1, under Helicobacter infection in gastric cell lines. A mouse model was used to distinguish TFF1 mRNA expression between acute and chronic stages of Helicobacter infection. Our results show that TFF1 expression is induced in infected cells; in addition, the inflammatory response upon Helicobacter infection is inversely associated to pre-existing TFF1 protein levels...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Agustín Estrada-Peña, José de la Fuente
Ticks, pathogens, and vertebrates interact in a background of environmental features that regulate the densities of ticks and vertebrates, affecting their contact rates and thence the circulation of the pathogens. Regional scale studies are invaluable sources of information about the regulation of these interactions, but a large-scale analysis of the interaction of communities of ticks, hosts, and the environment has been never modeled. This study builds on network analysis, satellite-derived climate and vegetation, and environmental modeling, quantifying the interactions between the tick Ixodes ricinus and the transmitted bacteria of the complex Borrelia burgdorferi s...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Christoph Castellani, Georg Singer, Karl Kashofer, Andrea Huber-Zeyringer, Christina Flucher, Margarita Kaiser, Holger Till
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are the standard therapy for gastroesophageal reflux disease. In adults, PPI treatment is associated with Clostridium difficile infections (CDI). In contrast to adults the microbiome of infants develops from sterility at birth toward an adult-like profile in the first years of life. The effect of PPIs on this developing microbiome has never been studied. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of oral PPIs on the fecal microbiome in infants with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
M Hema, Sahana Vasudevan, P Balamurugan, S Adline Princy
Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative pathogen which causes acute diarrhoeal disease, cholera by the expression of virulence genes through quorum sensing (QS) mechanism. The QS circuit of V. cholerae is controlled by the global quorum regulator, LuxO, which at low cell density (LCD) state produces major virulence factors such as, toxin co-regulated pilus (TCP) and cholera toxin (CT) to mediate infection. On the contrary, at the high cell density (HCD) state the virulent genes are downregulated and the vibrios are detached from the host intestinal epithelial cells, promoted by HapA protease...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Jun Weng, Yang Li, Lei Cai, Ting Li, Gongze Peng, Chaoyi Fu, Xu Han, Haiyan Li, Zesheng Jiang, Zhi Zhang, Jiang Du, Qing Peng, Yi Gao
Background/Aims: The use of antibiotics to eliminate Mycoplasma contamination has some serious limitations. Mycoplasma contamination can be eliminated by intraperitoneal injection of BALB/c mice with contaminated cells combined with screening monoclonal cells. However, in vivo passage in mice after injection with contaminated cells requires a long duration (20-54 days). Furthermore, it is important to monitor for cross-contamination of mouse and human cells, xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) infection, and altered cell function after the in vivo treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Pablo Gallardo, Mariana Izquierdo, Roberto M Vidal, Nayaret Chamorro-Veloso, Ramon Rosselló-Móra, Miguel O'Ryan, Mauricio J Farfán
Background: Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) strains are a major cause of diarrhea in children under 5 years of age worldwide. DEC pathogenicity relies on the interaction of bacteria with environmental factors, including the host's resident gut microbiota. Previous reports have shown changes in the gut microbiota's composition during episodes of diarrhea, which may increase the pathogenicity of DEC strains. More intense and detailed identification of microbiota strains specifically associated with DEC infections and disease is needed to pinpoint their role in DEC pathogenicity...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Suman Asalla, Krishnaveni Mohareer, Sharmistha Banerjee
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) infection manifests into tuberculosis (TB) in a small fraction of the infected population that comprises the TB susceptible group. Identifying the factors potentiating susceptibility to TB persistence is one of the prime agenda of TB control programs. Recently, WHO recognized diabetes as a risk factor for TB disease progression. The closely related pathological state of metabolic imbalance, dyslipidemia, is yet another emerging risk factor involving deregulation in host immune responses...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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