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Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

Elizabeth Copeland, Katherine Leonard, Richard Carney, Justin Kong, Martin Forer, Yuresh Naidoo, Brian G G Oliver, Justin R Seymour, Stephen Woodcock, Catherine M Burke, Nicholas W Stow
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is an inflammatory condition that affects up to 12% of the human population in developed countries. Previous studies examining the potential role of the sinus bacterial microbiota within CRS infections have found inconsistent results, possibly because of inconsistencies in sampling strategies. The aim of this study was to determine whether the sinus microbiome is altered in CRS and additionally if the middle meatus is a suitable representative site for sampling the sinus microbiome...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Brijesh Kumar, John L Sorensen, Silvia T Cardona
Burkholderia cenocepacia is an opportunistic bacterium that can thrive in different environments, including the amino acid-rich mucus of the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung. B. cenocepacia responds to the nutritional conditions that mimic the CF sputum by increasing flagellin expression and swimming motility. Individual amino acids also induce swimming but not flagellin expression. Here, we show that modulation of the second messenger cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) levels by the PAS-containing c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase, BCAL1069 (CdpA), regulates the swimming motility of B...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Winnie-Pui-Pui Liew, Sabran Mohd-Redzwan
The secondary metabolites produced by fungi known as mycotoxins, are capable of causing mycotoxicosis (diseases and death) in human and animals. Contamination of feedstuffs as well as food commodities by fungi occurs frequently in a natural manner and is accompanied by the presence of mycotoxins. The occurrence of mycotoxins' contamination is further stimulated by the on-going global warming as reflected in some findings. This review comprehensively discussed the role of mycotoxins (trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins, ochratoxins, and aflatoxins) toward gut health and gut microbiota...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Scot P Ouellette
Chlamydia is an obligate intracellular bacterium and, as such, has significantly reduced its genome size and content. Although recent advances have allowed for transformation of C. trachomatis with an exogenous plasmid, genetic manipulation of Chlamydia remains challenging. In particular, the ability to create conditional knockouts has not been developed. This is particularly important given the likelihood that most genes within the small genome of Chlamydia may be essential. Here, I describe the feasibility of using CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) based on the catalytically inactive Cas9 variant (dCas9) of Staphylococcus aureus to inducibly, and reversibly, repress gene expression in C...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Kirill V Korneev, Anna N Kondakova, Ekaterina N Sviriaeva, Nikita A Mitkin, Angelo Palmigiano, Andrey A Kruglov, Georgy B Telegin, Marina S Drutskaya, Luisa Sturiale, Domenico Garozzo, Sergei A Nedospasov, Yuriy A Knirel, Dmitry V Kuprash
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) initiates immune response against Gram-negative bacteria upon specific recognition of lipid A moiety of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the major component of their cell wall. Some natural differences between LPS variants in their ability to interact with TLR4 may lead to either insufficient activation that may not prevent bacterial growth, or excessive activation which may lead to septic shock. In this study we evaluated the biological activity of LPS isolated from pathogenic strain of Campylobacter jejuni , the most widespread bacterial cause of foodborne diarrhea in humans...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Benjamin B A Raymond, Ranya Madhkoor, Ina Schleicher, Cord C Uphoff, Lynne Turnbull, Cynthia B Whitchurch, Manfred Rohde, Matthew P Padula, Steven P Djordjevic
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae , an agriculturally important porcine pathogen, disrupts the mucociliary escalator causing ciliostasis, loss of cilial function, and epithelial cell death within the porcine lung. Losses to swine production due to growth rate retardation and reduced feed conversion efficiency are severe, and antibiotics are used heavily to control mycoplasmal pneumonia. Notably, little is known about the repertoire of host receptors that M. hyopneumoniae targets to facilitate colonization. Here we show, for the first time, that actin exists extracellularly on porcine epithelial monolayers (PK-15) using surface biotinylation and 3D-Structured Illumination Microscopy (3D-SIM), and that M...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Xiujuan Zhang, Yuanmei Zhu, Hao Hu, Senyan Zhang, Pengfei Wang, Huihui Chong, Jinsheng He, Xinquan Wang, Yuxian He
The deep hydrophobic pocket of HIV-1 gp41 has been considered a drug target, but short-peptides targeting this site usually lack potent antiviral activity. By applying the M-T hook structure, we previously generated highly potent short-peptide fusion inhibitors that specifically targeted the pocket site, such as MT-SC22EK, HP23L, and LP-11. Here, the crystal structures of HP23L and LP-11 bound to the target mimic peptide N36 demonstrated the critical intrahelical and interhelical interactions, especially verifying that the hook-like conformation was finely adopted while the methionine residue was replaced by the oxidation-less prone residue leucine, and that addition of an extra glutamic acid significantly enhanced the binding and inhibitory activities...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Manuel R Gonzalez, Verena Ducret, Sara Leoni, Betty Fleuchot, Paris Jafari, Wassim Raffoul, Lee A Applegate, Yok-Ai Que, Karl Perron
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a severe opportunistic pathogen and is one of the major causes of hard to treat burn wound infections. Herein we have used an RNA-seq transcriptomic approach to study the behavior of P. aeruginosa PAO1 growing directly on human burn wound exudate. A chemical analysis of compounds used by this bacterium, coupled with kinetics expression of central genes has allowed us to obtain a global view of P. aeruginosa physiological and metabolic changes occurring while growing on human burn wound exudate...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Arwa Abu Khweek, Amal O Amer
Legionella pneumophila ( L. pneumophila ) is an opportunistic waterborne pathogen and the causative agent for Legionnaires' disease, which is transmitted to humans via inhalation of contaminated water droplets. The bacterium is able to colonize a variety of man-made water systems such as cooling towers, spas, and dental lines and is widely distributed in multiple niches, including several species of protozoa In addition to survival in planktonic phase, L. pneumophila is able to survive and persist within multi-species biofilms that cover surfaces within water systems...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Jin-Xin Zheng, Zhi-Wei Lin, Chen Chen, Zhong Chen, Fo-Jun Lin, Yang Wu, Si-Yu Yang, Xiang Sun, Wei-Ming Yao, Duo-Yun Li, Zhi-Jian Yu, Jia-Lin Jin, Di Qu, Qi-Wen Deng
Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia biofilm traits and distribution characteristics have not been clarified. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and characteristics of K. pneumoniae bacteremia biofilm formation (BF) and to explore the virulence factors associated with K. pneumoniae BF. A total of 250 K. pneumoniae bacteremia isolates were collected from patients in Shenzhen and Shanghai, China. Virulence genes in their genomes were detected by PCR. The isolates were subjected to multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and clonal complex (CC) classification based on housekeeping genes...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Leah Schwiesow, Erin Mettert, Yahan Wei, Halie K Miller, Natalia G Herrera, David Balderas, Patricia J Kiley, Victoria Auerbuch
Despite the mammalian host actively sequestering iron to limit pathogenicity, heme (or hemin when oxidized) and hemoproteins serve as important sources of iron for many bloodborne pathogens. The HmuRSTUV hemin uptake system allows Yersinia species to uptake and utilize hemin and hemoproteins as iron sources. HmuR is a TonB-dependent outer membrane receptor for hemin and hemoproteins. HmuTUV comprise a inner membrane ABC transporter that transports hemin and hemoproteins from the periplasmic space into the bacterial cytoplasm, where it is degraded by HmuS...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Na Zhao, Supen Wang, Hongyi Li, Shelan Liu, Meng Li, Jing Luo, Wen Su, Hongxuan He
The migration of wild birds plays an important role in the transmission and spread of H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, posing a severe risk to animal and human health. Substantial evidence suggests that altered gut microbial community is implicated in the infection of respiratory influenza virus. However, the influence of H5N1 infection in gut microbiota of migratory birds remains unknown. In January 2015, a novel recombinant H5N1 virus emerged and killed about 100 migratory birds, mainly including whooper swans in Sanmenxia Reservoir Area of China...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Chao Wang, Zhongyang Yu, Xiaochen Shi, Xudong Tang, Yang Wang, Xueyan Wang, Yanan An, Shulin Li, Yan Li, Xuefei Wang, Wenjing Luan, Zhaobin Chen, Mingyuan Liu, Lu Yu
Triclosan (TCS) is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent, whose well-known antibacterial mechanism is inhibiting lipid synthesis. Autophagy, an innate immune response, is an intracellular process that delivers the cargo including pathogens to lysosomes for degradation. In this study, we first demonstrated that TCS induced autophagy in a dose-dependent manner in non-phagocytic cells (HeLa) and in macrophages (Raw264.7) and in vivo . The western blot results also revealed that TCS induced autophagy via the AMPK/ULK1 and JNK/ERK/p38 pathways independent of mTOR...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Victoria C Ewan, William D K Reid, Mark Shirley, A John Simpson, Steven P Rushton, William G Wade
Respiratory tract infections are the commonest nosocomial infections, and occur predominantly in frailer, older patients with multiple comorbidities. The oropharyngeal microbiota is the major reservoir of infection. This study explored the relative contributions of time in hospital and patient demographics to the community structure of the oropharyngeal microbiota in older patients with lower limb fracture. We collected 167 throat swabs from 53 patients (mean age 83) over 14 days after hospitalization, and analyzed these using 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Mirko Faber, Klaus Heuner, Daniela Jacob, Roland Grunow
Tularemia, also known as "rabbit fever," is a zoonosis caused by the facultative intracellular, gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis . Infection occurs through contact with infected animals (often hares), arthropod vectors (such as ticks or deer flies), inhalation of contaminated dust or through contaminated food and water. In this review, we would like to provide an overview of the current epidemiological situation in Germany using published studies and case reports, an analysis of recent surveillance data and our own experience from the laboratory diagnostics, and investigation of cases...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Lingzhi Zhang, Zhiwei Jiang, Shan Fang, Yajun Huang, Dahai Yang, Qiyao Wang, Yuanxing Zhang, Qin Liu
Many bacterial pathogens inject effectors directly into host cells to target a variety of host cellular processes and promote bacterial dissemination and survival. Identifying the bacterial effectors and elucidating their functions are central to understanding the molecular pathogenesis of these pathogens. Edwardsiella piscicida is a pathogen with a wide host range, and very few of its effectors have been identified to date. Here, based on the genes significantly regulated by macrophage infection, we identified 25 intracellular translocation-positive candidate effectors, including all five previously reported effectors, namely EseG, EseJ, EseH, EseK, and EvpP...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Miguel A Martín-Acebes, Juan-Carlos Saiz, Nereida Jiménez de Oya
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Stefanie Hoffmann, Steffi Walter, Anne-Kathrin Blume, Stephan Fuchs, Christiane Schmidt, Annemarie Scholz, Roman G Gerlach
The quantification of bacteria in cell culture infection models is of paramount importance for the characterization of host-pathogen interactions and pathogenicity factors involved. The standard to enumerate bacteria in these assays is plating of a dilution series on solid agar and counting of the resulting colony forming units (CFU). In contrast, the virtual colony count (VCC) method is a high-throughput compatible alternative with minimized manual input. Based on the recording of quantitative growth kinetics, VCC relates the time to reach a given absorbance threshold to the initial cell count using a series of calibration curves...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Erik A Karlsson, Stacey Schultz-Cherry, Jason W Rosch
Acute respiratory infections are a leading cause of death worldwide. Clinical data is conflicted regarding whether statins improve outcomes for pneumonia. Potential confounding factors including specific etiology of pneumonia as well as obesity could potentially mask protective benefit. Obesity is a risk factor for high cholesterol, the main target for statin therapy. We demonstrate that statin intervention conferred no protective benefit in the context of wild-type mice regardless of infectious agent. Statin intervention conferred either a protective benefit, during influenza infection, or detrimental effect, in the case of pneumococcal infection, in obese animals...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Wenzhen Lin, Wenxin Jiang, Xuchen Hu, Li Gao, Dongmei Ai, Hongfei Pan, Chenguang Niu, Keyong Yuan, Xuedong Zhou, Changen Xu, Zhengwei Huang
Pregnancy is a physiological process with pronounced hormonal fluctuations in females, and relatively little is known regarding how pregnancy influences the ecological shifts of supragingival microbiota. In this study, supragingival plaques and salivary hormones were collected from 11 pregnant women during pregnancy (P1, ≤14 weeks; P2, 20-25 weeks; P3, 33-37 weeks) and the postpartum period (P4, 6 weeks after childbirth). Seven non-pregnant volunteers were sampled at the same time intervals. The microbial genetic repertoire was obtained by 16S rDNA sequencing...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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