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Applied Neuropsychology. Adult

Amir Poreh, Jennifer B Levin, Max Teaford
The present study describes the development of a simplified complex figure for older adults. This new figure is based on theoretical organizational strategy models developed for the Rey Complex Figure Test and combines several new technologies for the enhancement of the data capture. The study shows that the accuracy and memory scores for the new measure correlate significantly with Trail Making Test, Five Point Test, and RBANS Complex Figure scores. The new figure's strategy scores correlate with predominantly nonverbal and to a lesser extent with verbal executive functions, supporting the construct validity of these scores and illustrating that computer-based data recording methodologies can reliably discern the multiple cognitive operations that impact performance on this and similar graphomotor measures...
September 5, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Patrick Riordan, Genessa Lahr
Performance Validity Testing has become an integral part of neuropsychological assessment, and a variety of embedded screening measures for performance validity have been proposed. Several performance validity indexes have been developed for the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status. Although the RBANS Effort Index (EI) and Effort Scale (ES) have garnered some empirical support, other research has raised questions regarding their accuracy in a number of assessment contexts. We evaluated the classification accuracy of the EI and ES against a standalone performance validity measure (Test of Memory Malingering; TOMM) in a mixed clinical patient sample...
September 5, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
El Mohamad Haj, Roy Kessels, Laurent Urso, Jean Louis Nandrino
Chunking is a mnemonic strategy that involves organizing information into appropriate units. Our article examined the use of this strategy on forward and backward span performance in Korsakoff's syndrome. Fifteen patients with Korsakoff's syndrome and 17 age-and-education matched healthy controls participated to the study. Digit span performance (both forward and backward) was tested before and after chunking training. Results demonstrated an increased performance on the forward spans after chunking training in the patients with Korsakoff's syndrome, but no beneficial effect was observed on the backward spans in these participants...
September 5, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Elbaum Tomer, Tamar Lupu, Lior Golan, Michael Wagner, Yoram Braw
Eye movements showed initial promise for the detection of deception and may be harder to consciously manipulate than conventional accuracy measures. Therefore, we integrated an eye-tracker with the Word Memory Test (WMT) and tested its usefulness for the detection of feigned cognitive impairment. As part of the study, simulators (n = 44) and honest controls (n = 41) performed WMT's immediate-recognition (IR) subtest while their eye movements were recorded. In comparison to the control group, simulators spent less time gazing at relevant stimuli, spent more time gazing at irrelevant stimuli, and had a lower saccade rate...
September 5, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Mark Burghart, Jordan Craig, Jeff Radel, Jessie Huisinga
Information processing speed is often altered following a concussion. Few portable assessments exist to evaluate simple reaction time (SRT) in hospitals and clinics. We evaluated the use of a SRT application for mobile device measurement. 27 healthy adults (age = 30.7 ± 11.5 years) completed SRT tests using a mobile device with Sway, an application for SRT testing. Participants completed computerized SRT tests using the Computerized Test of Information Processing (CTIP). Test-retest reliability was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) between Sway trials...
September 5, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Kathryn Tolle, Robert J Spencer, Valencia Montgomery, Linas A Bieliauskas
Alphabet Printing (in the forward and backward order) is a brief and highly portable test with promise as a screening measure of processing speed and simple working memory, constructs which are only minimally assessed in many of the most commonly-used cognitive screening instruments. The aim of this project was to examine the construct validity of timed Alphabet Printing in a sample of 254 Veterans with cognitive complaints and a history of possible head injury. Criterion measures included more established tests of processing speed and simple working memory, including the Trail Making Test and the Digit Span subtest from the fourth edition of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales...
September 5, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Jessica Bomyea, Sarah M Jurick, Amber V Keller, Chelsea C Hays, Elizabeth W Twamley, Amy J Jak
Self-reported traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common in combat veterans, and identification of psychiatric and neuropsychological consequences following TBI has become a priority for veteran healthcare. Given the importance of accurately capturing symptoms potentially related to TBI in VA settings, validity metrics are frequently used to evaluate both neuropsychological testing validity and the validity of symptom self-reports. The Validity-10 of the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory is one such metric that was designed to evaluate symptom over-reporting and thus identify individuals who may produce inconclusive testing profiles...
September 5, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Megan Udala, Jeneya Clark, Harry Miller, Damian Leitner, Maya Libben
The current study examined psychopathology and neuropsychological test performance in a traumatic brain injury (TBI) patient sample. Previous research has found that the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory - Second Edition (MMPI-2) indices of psychological disturbance were related to specific neuropsychological tests of attention and memory. Furthermore, higher scores on clinical scale 2 (Depression) and higher scores on the content scales of Fears and Bizarre Mentation of the MMPI-2 were related to poorer performance in, most notably, Attention and List Learning factors...
September 5, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Thomas R Wodushek, Christopher H Domen
Utility of standalone and embedded performance validity tests (PVTs) as well as the decision-making algorithms used to reach clinical conclusions about credible and noncredible performance can be population specific. To better understand PVT utility in Parkinson's disease candidates for deep brain stimulation (DBS) we present on two aims: 1) establishing the frequency data of below-criterion responding for the Medical Symptom Validity Test and three embedded PVTs in a sample of 47 patients with Parkinson's disease, and 2) comparing the efficacy of two models for clinical-decision making regarding noncredible performance...
September 5, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
James E Sweeney, Heather P Slade
Sweeney and Johnson found that individuals that sustained mild traumatic brain injury without impact to the head (Nonimpact) demonstrated significantly slower performance than participants that suffered mild traumatic brain injury with impact to the head and normal controls on the Tactile Form Recognition Test (TFR). The current study explored the spatial cognition of three groups of Nonimpact participants classified as Deficient, Perfectly Normal, and Normal on the basis of TFR response time. Dependent variables consisted of neuropsychological tests requiring tactile- and/or visual-spatial perception and memory...
September 5, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Isabel Pavão Martins, Carolina Maruta, Joana Morgado, Clara Loureiro, Joana Tavares, Vanda Freitas, Nuno Lunet, Pedro Viana, Paulo Marques
We aimed to identify the early predictors of cognitive decline, and primary care physicians' (PCP) ability to diagnose cognitively impaired subjects, in a cohort of individuals recruited in primary care centers. Independent adults, aged ≥50 years at inception, with an overall low level of education, undertook a prospective clinical and cognitive evaluation targeting memory, attention and executive functions. At follow-up subjects were classified as cognitively normal (CN) or impaired (CI). Of 275 subjects (70...
September 5, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Alessandra Onida, Antonella Di Vita, Filippo Bianchini, Diego Rivera, Alejandra Morlett-Paredes, Cecilia Guariglia, Juan Carlos Arango-Lasprilla
The purpose of this study was to analyze the characteristics of individuals working in the field of neuropsychology in Italy, as part of a larger study examining the practice of neuropsychology across various countries. They were asked about their background, professional training, current work situation, types of assessment, preferred diagnostic procedures, as well as the rehabilitation techniques, their targeted populations, teaching responsibilities, and research activities. A total of 154 professionals completed an online survey from April 28, 2016 through June 30, 2016...
September 5, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Anny Reyes, Vanessa LaBode-Richman, Lilian Salinas, William B Barr
Several methods for identifying suboptimal effort on Spanish neuropsychological assessment have been established. The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine whether recognition data from the WHO-AVLT could be employed for determination of malingering in a Spanish-speaking sample. Sixteen subjects in litigation, 25 neurological patients, and 14 healthy controls completed neuropsychological testing. All subjects completed the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM). Inclusion criteria for neurological patients and controls included performance above the standard TOMM cutoff...
September 5, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Alfredo Ardila
Acquired brain pathology can be associated with diverse psychiatric manifestations. Three major types of psychiatric disorders potentially found in cases of acquired brain pathology are examined: (1) psychosis, (2) mood disorders, and (3) personality disorders with special emphasis in so-called "acquired psychopathy." Two types of psychotic manifestations are reviewed: (a) Schizophrenia-like psychosis; (b) Other delusional disorder, specifically, somatoparaphrenia and delusional misidentification syndromes, which include reduplicative paramnesias, Capgras syndrome, Frégoli syndrome, and "doubles of the self-syndrome...
September 5, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Rosaria De Luca, Michele Torrisi, Adriana Piccolo, Giovanni Bonfiglio, Provvidenza Tomasello, Antonino Naro, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
Cognitive impairment, as well as mood and anxiety disorders, occur frequently in patients following stroke. Aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a combined rehabilitative treatment using conventional relaxation and respiratory techniques, in a specific rehabilitative virtual environment (by using Bts-Nirvana). A 58-year-old woman, affected by hemorrhagic stroke, underwent two different rehabilitation trainings, including either standard relaxation techniques alone in a common clinical setting or the same psychological approach in a semi-immersive virtual environment with an augmented sensorial (audio-video) and motor feedback (sensory motor-interaction)...
November 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
John W DenBoer
Dementia is a growing world-wide phenomenon, impacting more than six million people in the United States. Despite its high projected prevalence, it is a significantly under-estimated phenomena, with estimates ranging from 15 to 25% of the current U.S. POPULATION: The effect of the aging of the population and significant increase in life expectancy has combined to catapult dementia into the range of one of world's most alarming healthcare problems. Diverse and emerging literature in the area of cognitive prevention/intervention for mild cognitive impairment (MCI)/early stage dementia will be reviewed...
November 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Jorge Oliveira, Pedro Gamito, Daniyal M Alghazzawi, Habib M Fardoun, Pedro J Rosa, Tatiana Sousa, Luís Felipe Picareli, Diogo Morais, Paulo Lopes
This investigation sought to understand whether performance in naturalistic virtual reality tasks for cognitive assessment relates to the cognitive domains that are supposed to be measured. The Shoe Closet Test (SCT) was developed based on a simple visual search task involving attention skills, in which participants have to match each pair of shoes with the colors of the compartments in a virtual shoe closet. The interaction within the virtual environment was made using the Microsoft Kinect. The measures consisted of concurrent paper-and-pencil neurocognitive tests for global cognitive functioning, executive functions, attention, psychomotor ability, and the outcomes of the SCT...
November 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
David P Sheppard, Steven Paul Woods, Marizela Verduzco
Among individuals living with HIV disease, approximately 60% experience problems with everyday functioning. The present study investigated the utility of the UCSD Performance-based Skills Assessment-Brief Version (UPSA-B) as a measure of functional capacity in HIV. We utilized a cross-sectional three-group design comparing individuals with HIV- associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) (HIV + HAND+; n = 27), HIV+ neurocognitively normal individuals (HIV + HAND-; n = 51), and an HIV- comparison group (HIV-; n = 28) with broadly comparable demographics and non-HIV comorbidities...
November 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
T Lupu, T Elbaum, M Wagner, Y Braw
Response time (RT) is a less obvious outcome measure than conventional accuracy measures used in performance validity tests (PVTs). It is also under less conscious control and is affected by cognitive processes associated with deception. Studies that assessed the utility of RT for the detection of feigned cognitive impairment are however numbered. Moreover, RT variability was not assessed in a clinically used PVT. In the current study, we assessed the utility of RT measures for the detection of feigned cognitive impairment in the Word Memory Test (WMT)...
November 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Brigitta Malagurski, Vojislava Bugarski Ignjatović, Daniela Marić, Željka Nikolašević, Ljiljana Mihić, Snežana Brkić
The advent of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) has prolonged the life expectancy of HIV + individuals and decreased the incidence of HIV-associated dementia. However, milder forms of neurocognitive impairment remain common and are often associated with poor daily functioning and lower medication adherence. This paper presents a research aimed at exploring the cognitive status differences between HIV + subjects (N = 39) on cART therapy and a group of demographically comparable healthy subjects (N = 39) in Serbia...
November 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
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