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Case Reports in Genetics

L Swan, G Gole, V Sabesan, J Cardinal, D Coman
Hajdu-Cheney Syndrome (HSC) is a rare multisystem disease in which the phenotype involves acro-osteolysis, severe osteoporosis, short stature, wormian bones, facial dysmorphism, central neurological abnormalities, cardiovascular defects, and polycystic kidneys. We describe an infant with severe manifestations of HCS in whom congenital glaucoma was a significant early feature, which has not been reported to date. HCS cases reported to date have involved truncating mutations in exon 34 of NOTCH2 upstream the PEST domain that lead to the development of a truncated and stable NOTCH2 protein which upregluates notch signaling...
2018: Case Reports in Genetics
Kwo Wei David Ho, Nivedita U Jerath
Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type I (HSAN I) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by distal sensory loss, pain insensitivity, and autonomic disturbances. The major underlying causes of HSAN I are point mutations in the SPTLC1 gene. Patients with mutations in the SPTLC1 genes typically exhibit dense sensory loss and incidence of lancinating pain. Although most of these mutations produce sensory loss, it is unclear which mutations would lead to the painful phenotype. In this case series, we report that the V144D mutation in SPTLC1 gene may relate to both painful and painless peripheral neuropathies...
2018: Case Reports in Genetics
James Blackburn, Dinesh Giri, Barbara Ciolka, Nicole Gossan, Mohammad Didi, George Kokai, Alison Waghorn, Matthew Jones, Senthil Senniappan
Activating mutations in thyrotropin receptor ( TSHR ) have been previously described in the context of nonautoimmune hyperthyroidism and thyroid adenomas. We describe, for the first time, a mutation in TSHR contributing to follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) in an adolescent. A 12-year-old girl presented with a right-sided neck swelling, increasing in size over the previous four weeks. Clinical examination revealed a firm, nontender thyroid nodule. Ultrasound scan of the thyroid showed a heterogeneous highly vascular mass...
2018: Case Reports in Genetics
Kameryn M Butler, Philip J Holt, Sarah S Milla, Cristina da Silva, John J Alexander, Andrew Escayg
CACNA2D2 encodes an auxiliary subunit of the voltage-dependent calcium channel. To date, there have only been two reports of individuals with early-infantile epileptic encephalopathy due to CACNA2D2 mutations. In both reports, patients were homozygous for the identified variants. Here, we report a patient with epileptic encephalopathy and cerebellar atrophy who was found to have two novel variants in the CACNA2D2 gene: c.782C>T (p.Pro261Leu) and c.3137T>C (p.Leu1046Pro), by whole-exome sequencing. The variants were shown to be inherited in trans and the unaffected parents were confirmed to be heterozygous carriers...
2018: Case Reports in Genetics
T Couture, K Amato, A DiAdamo, P Li
Jumping translocations of 1q refer to the break-off of chromosome 1q as a donor fusing to two or more recipient chromosomes. We detected jumping translocations of 1q in three patients with initial diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and later progression to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Review of literature found jumping translocations of 1q in 30 reported cases of MDS and AML. The cytogenetic findings from these 33 cases showed that seven cases had a stemline clone and 26 cases had de novo jumping translocations of 1q in which 5% of cell lineages had additional structural rearrangements...
2018: Case Reports in Genetics
Rathika Damodara Shenoy, Vijaya Shenoy, Vikram Shetty
This case series of three children reports clinical features and chromosomal abnormalities seen in a craniofacial clinic. All presented with orofacial cleft, developmental or intellectual disability, and dysmorphism. Emanuel syndrome or supernumerary der (22)t(11; 22), the prototype of complex small supernumerary marker disorders, was seen in one child. Duplication 4q27q35.2 with concomitant deletion 21q22.2q22.3 and duplication 12p13.33p13.32 with concomitant deletion 18q22.3q23 seen in the remaining two children are not reported in literature...
2018: Case Reports in Genetics
Amber Hildreth, Mark A Valasek, Irene Thung, Thomas Savides, Mamata Sivagnanam, Sonia Ramamoorthy, Sherry C Huang
Constitutional (Biallelic) Mismatch Repair Deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by numerous cancers presenting as early as the first decade of life. Biallelic germline variants in one of four mismatch repair genes ( MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, or PMS2 ) cause this devastating disease. Given the rarity of the syndrome, often-asymptomatic tumors, and overlap with neurofibromatosis-1, diagnosis is frequently unrecognized or delayed. We present a unique case of a 14-year-old female with minimal gastrointestinal symptoms diagnosed with invasive adenocarcinoma secondary to biallelic PMS2 variants...
2018: Case Reports in Genetics
Nicola Laforgia, Manuela Capozza, Lucrezia De Cosmo, Antonio Di Mauro, Maria Elisabetta Baldassarre, Francesca Mercadante, Anna Laura Torella, Vincenzo Nigro, Nicoletta Resta
Congenital myopathies are a group of rare inherited diseases, defined by hypotonia and muscle weakness. We report clinical and genetic characteristics of a male preterm newborn, whose phenotype was characterized by severe hypotonia and hyporeactivity, serious respiratory distress syndrome that required mechanical ventilation, clubfoot, and other dysmorphic features. The diagnostic procedure was completed with the complete exome sequencing of the proband and of his parents and his sister, which showed new mutations in the ryanodine receptor gene (RYR1), which maps to chromosome 19q13...
2018: Case Reports in Genetics
Ivanka Dimova, Ivo Kremensky
Congenital muscle dystrophies (CMD) are genetically and clinically heterogeneous hereditary myopathies mainly with autosomal recessive type of inheritance. The most common form worldwide is considered to be merosin-deficient muscle dystrophy type 1A, called MDC1A (due to laminin- α 2 defects as a result of LAMA2 gene mutation), accounting for 30-40% of total cases of CMD. The exact molecular and clinical diagnoses, respectively, are a prerequisite for the most effective treatment; sometimes orphan drugs exist for some rare diseases...
2018: Case Reports in Genetics
Xike Wang, Yue Wu, Yuxia Cui, Nan Wang, Lasse Folkersen, Yuchuan Wang
Limb girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMDs) are a heterogeneous group of genetic myopathies leading primarily to proximal muscle weakness. It is caused by mutations at over 50 known genetic loci typically from mutations in genes encoding constituents of the sarcolemmal dystrophin complex or related functions. Herein we describe the case of two siblings with LGMD that were investigated using whole-exome sequencing followed by Sanger sequencing validation of a specific double-mutation in the TRAPPC11 gene. Further, from parental sequencing we determined the mode of transmission, a double heterozygous mutation at the maternal and paternal alleles...
2018: Case Reports in Genetics
Alejandra Del Pilar Reyes-de la Rosa, Gustavo Varela-Fascinetto, Constanza García-Delgado, Edgar Ricardo Vázquez-Martínez, Pedro Valencia-Mayoral, Marco Cerbón, Verónica Fabiola Morán-Barroso
Alagille syndrome (MIM 118450) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by paucity of intrahepatic bile ducts, chronic cholestasis, pulmonary stenosis, butterfly-like vertebrae, posterior embryotoxon, and dysmorphic facial features. Most cases are caused by JAG1 gene mutations. We report the case of a 2-year-old Mexican mestizo patient with Alagille syndrome, having exhibited jaundice and cholestatic syndrome as of three weeks of age. Sequencing analysis of the JAG1 gene revealed the novel heterozygous mutation c...
2018: Case Reports in Genetics
L Swan, D Coman
Microdeletions at 19p13.3 are rarely reported in the medical literature with significant phenotypic variability. Among the reported cases, common clinical manifestations have included developmental delay, facial dysmorphism, and hypotonia. Herein we described a child with a de novo 19p13.3 microdeletion, proximal to the reported cases of 19p13.3 microdeletion/duplication, with ocular manifestations of bilateral ocular colobomata complicated with microphthalmos and cataract, associated with short stature. This case highlights the phenotypic heterogeneity of deletions in the 19p13...
2018: Case Reports in Genetics
Ahmed Mohammad, Haytham Helmi, Paldeep S Atwal
We present a 43-year-old man with aortic root dilation, mitral valve prolapse, and marfanoid appearance, who presented with acute onset left leg pain. He underwent a Doppler ultrasound that revealed left popliteal artery aneurysm with thrombus. CT angiogram showed bilateral popliteal artery aneurysms. After repairing of his left popliteal artery aneurysm, he was sent for genetic evaluation. He was diagnosed with Marfan syndrome (MFS) based on the revised Ghent criteria and then underwent FBN1 sequencing and deletion/duplication analysis, which detected a novel pathogenic variant in gene FBN1 , denoted by c...
2018: Case Reports in Genetics
Antoneicka L Harris, Patrick R Blackburn, John E Richter, Jennifer M Gass, Thomas R Caulfield, Ahmed N Mohammad, Paldeep S Atwal
Chronic urticaria is a common condition characterized by recurrent hives lasting several weeks or months and is usually idiopathic. Approximately half of the individuals with chronic urticaria will present with episodes of angioedema that can be severe and debilitating. In this report, we describe a 47-year-old Hispanic male who presented initially for an evaluation of chronic hives following hospitalization due to hive-induced anaphylaxis. The individual had a history significant for urticaria and angioedema beginning in his early 30s...
2018: Case Reports in Genetics
Sabrina C Burn, Kali Swift, Maria Palmquist
The occurrence of simultaneous de novo chromosomal aberrations is extremely rare. Here, we describe two, previously unreported, simultaneous de novo interstitial duplications of chromosomes 7p and 15q. Amniocentesis was completed for a healthy gravida 4 para 3 woman due to her advanced maternal age and concurrent ultrasound findings of partial vermian agenesis, choroid-plexus cysts, and hypoplastic nasal bone. Cytogenetic analysis of cultured amniocytes by conventional chromosome analysis, comparative genomic hybridization, and fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed two interstitial duplications of the chromosomal regions 7p22...
2018: Case Reports in Genetics
Julie R Whittington, Aaron T Poole, Eryn H Dutta, Mary B Munn
Background. A novel mutation in the ACTG2 gene is described in a pregnant patient followed up for chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction (CIPO) during pregnancy and her fetus with megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS). Case. 24-year-old gravida 1 para 1 with CIPO and persistent nausea and vomiting in pregnancy, admitted at 28 weeks of gestation. Ultrasound revealed a fetus measuring greater than the 95th percentile, polyhydramnios, and megacystis. At delivery, the newborn was noted to have an enlarged bladder, microcolon, and intolerance of oral intake...
2017: Case Reports in Genetics
Ozgul Bulut, Zeynep Ince, Umut Altunoglu, Sukran Yildirim, Asuman Coban
Schinzel-Giedion syndrome (SGS) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder that results in facial dysmorphism, multiple congenital anomalies, and an increased risk of malignancy. Recently, using exome sequencing, de novo heterozygous mutations in the SETBP1 gene have been identified in patients with SGS. Most affected individuals do not survive after childhood because of the severity of this disorder. Here, we report SETBP1 mutation confirmed by molecular analysis in a case of SGS with congenital megacalycosis.
2017: Case Reports in Genetics
Samuel Bloor, Dinesh Giri, Mohammed Didi, Senthil Senniappan
B3GAT3 , encoding β -1,3-glucuronyltransferase 3, has an important role in proteoglycan biosynthesis. Homozygous B3GAT3 mutations have been associated with short stature, skeletal deformities, and congenital heart defects. We describe for the first time a novel heterozygous splice site mutation in B3GAT3 contributing to severe short stature, growth hormone (GH) deficiency, recurrent ketotic hypoglycaemia, facial dysmorphism, and congenital heart defects. A female infant, born at 34 weeks' gestation to nonconsanguineous Caucasian parents with a birth weight of 1...
2017: Case Reports in Genetics
Michael Zech, Katharina Poustka, Sylvia Boesch, Riccardo Berutti, Tim M Strom, Wolfgang Grisold, Werner Poewe, Juliane Winkelmann
SOX5 encodes a conserved transcription factor implicated in cell-fate decisions of the neural lineage. SOX5 haploinsufficiency induced by larger genomic deletions has been linked to a recognizable pediatric syndrome combining developmental delay with intellectual disability, mild dysmorphism, inadequate behavior, and variable additional features including motor disturbances. In contrast to SOX5 -involving deletions, examples of pathogenic SOX5 small coding variations are sparse in the literature and have been described only in singular cases with phenotypic abnormalities akin to those seen in the SOX5 microdeletion syndrome...
2017: Case Reports in Genetics
Inusha Panigrahi, Savita Bhunwal, Harish Varma, Simranjeet Singh
A 5-year-old boy presented with recurrent episodes of fever, feeding problems, lethargy, from the age of 11 months, and poor weight gain. He was admitted and evaluated for metabolic causes and diagnosed as having methylmalonic acidemia (MMA). He was treated with vit B12 and carnitine supplements and has been on follow-up for the last 3 years. Mutation analysis by next generation sequencing (NGS), supplemented with Sanger sequencing, revealed two novel variants in the MUT gene responsible for MMA in exon 5 and exon 3, respectively...
2017: Case Reports in Genetics
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