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Paediatrics and International Child Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426384/a-2-year-old-boy-with-circulatory-failure-owing-to-streptococcal-toxic-shock-syndrome-case-report
#1
Werner Keenswijk, Johan Vande Walle
A 2-year-old boy presented with severe hypotension and acute kidney injury after a prodrome of non-bloody diarrhoea and fever in the preceding 3 days. He had a mild Ebstein cardiac anomaly but otherwise a normal past history and growth. On examination, he looked ill, his temperature was 37.5 °C, circulation was poor, and there were several purpuric lesions on the face, hands and scrotum. Haemoglobin was 7.8 g/dL (11-14), total white cell count 27 × 10(9)/L, platelets 62 × 10(9)/L, blood urea nitrogen 20...
April 20, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421876/congenital-tuberculosis-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#2
Ching-Wen Chang, Patricia Wanping Wu, Chih-Hua Yeh, Kin-Sun Wong, Chao-Jan Wang, Chih-Chen Chang
Congenital tuberculosis is rare, even where tuberculosis (TB) is endemic. A 14-day-old girl presented with a 3-day history of fever and respiratory distress. Her mother was diagnosed with a disseminated TB infection immediately after the delivery which was confirmed by a positive TB-polymerase chain reaction (TB-PCR) and subsequent culture from ascites and sputum. The infant was separated from her mother at birth. Her chest radiograph showed bilateral miliary nodules. Congenital TB was strongly suspected because of the symptoms, signs and maternal TB history, and was confirmed by TB-PCR and culture from the gastric lavage...
April 19, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388354/haemoglobin-oxygen-saturation-leucocyte-count-and-lactate-dehydrogenase-are-predictors-of-elevated-cerebral-blood-flow-velocity-in-nigerian-children-with-sickle-cell-anaemia
#3
Oyesola Oyewole Ojewunmi, Titilope Adenike Adeyemo, Akinniyi Adediran Osuntoki, Ngozi Awa Imaga, Ajoke Idayat Oyetunji
BACKGROUND: Transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) scan, which measures blood flow velocity through the time-averaged mean of maximum velocities (TAMMVs) in the internal carotid arteries and middle cerebral arteries, is a useful screening tool for predicting stroke risk in children with sickle cell anaemia (SCA). AIM: To investigate which clinical and laboratory indices predict abnormal TCD velocity in children with SCA. METHODS: Fifty-four SCA patients with normal TCD (TAMMV < 170 cm/s), classified as negative TCD (NTCD), and 93 patients with conditional and abnormal TCD velocities (TAMMV ≥ 170 cm/s) classified as positive TCD were recruited...
April 7, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346109/assessing-process-of-paediatric-care-in-a-resource-limited-setting-a-cross-sectional-audit-of-district-hospitals-in-rwanda
#4
Celestin Hategeka, Jeannie Shoveller, Lisine Tuyisenge, Larry D Lynd
BACKGROUND: Routine assessment of quality of care helps identify deficiencies which need to be improved. While gaps in the emergency care of children have been documented across sub-Saharan Africa, data from Rwanda are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To assess the care of sick infants and children admitted to Rwandan district hospitals and the extent to which it follows currently recommended clinical practice guidelines in Rwanda. METHODS: Data were gathered during a retrospective cross-sectional audit of eight district hospitals across Rwanda in 2012/2013...
March 27, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300495/hospital-acquired-infections-in-paediatric-medical-wards-at-a-tertiary-hospital-in-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#5
Kevin B Spicer, Jennifer Green, Barnesh Dhada
BACKGROUND: Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) impact care and costs in hospitals across the globe. There are minimal data on HAIs in sub-Saharan Africa and data specific to paediatrics are especially limited. OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence of HAIs in the paediatric medical units at Grey's Hospital, a tertiary government hospital in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. METHODS: The Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) team collects data on all laboratory-confirmed infections, including from paediatric patients in two medical units (52 beds), the paediatric intensive/high-care unit (PICU, 8 beds) and the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU, 23 beds)...
March 16, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281913/rapidly-progressing-facial-leishmaniasis-effective-treatment-with-liposomal-amphotericin-b-and-a-review-of-the-management-of-old-world-cutaneous-leishmaniasis
#6
Shamim Islam
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), a common condition in many parts of the world, is being increasingly encountered in non-endemic countries secondary to immigration. The clinical manifestations and course can vary substantially, with appropriate management ranging from observation for self-healing lesions to urgent treatment to prevent damaging anatomical and cosmetic sequelae. While there are now several effective medications, optimal therapy is not well defined, and decision-making can be challenged by the location of lesions and various drug issues, including availability, mode of delivery and adverse effects...
March 10, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271797/term-infants-born-at-home-in-peru-are-less-likely-to-be-hospitalised-in-the-neonatal-period-than-those-born-in-hospital
#7
Tina Lavin, David B Preen
BACKGROUND: More than 50% of women worldwide give birth at home, but little is known about home birth and subsequent neonatal hospitalisation. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to investigate home birth and neonatal hospitalisation of term neonates in Peru. METHODS: The relationship between birth setting [home - with or without skilled birth attendant (SBA), health centre, hospital] and neonatal hospitalisation (n = 1656) and incubator care (n = 1651) was investigated using data from the 2002 Young Lives Study...
March 8, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270033/influence-of-serum-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-on-the-rate-of-pain-episodes-in-nigerian-children-with-sickle-cell-anaemia
#8
Samuel Ademola Adegoke, Oyeku Akibu Oyelami, Adekunle Adekile, Maria Stella Figueiredo
BACKGROUND: In sickle cell disease (SCD), symptoms of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and chronic pain can overlap. AIM: To examine the relationship between serum vitamin D levels and the frequency of acute pain episodes. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) was assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and its influence on the number of significant pain episodes was examined by bivariate and logistic regression analyses...
March 8, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263087/protein-losing-enteropathy-in-an-infant-with-rotavirus-infection
#9
Adriana Parisi, Alessandro Cafarotti, Roberta Salvatore, Piernicola Pelliccia, Luciana Breda, Francesco Chiarelli
Protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) is a rare gastro-intestinal complication characterised by intestinal loss of proteins with consequent hypoproteinaemia and generalised oedema. Rotavirus infection associated with PLE in children has rarely been reported. A 6-month-old girl presented with diarrhoea, fever and generalised oedema. Total serum proteins were 34 g/L (61-79) and plasma albumin 16.8 g/L (40-50), serum sodium was 126 mmol/L and there was mild metabolic alkalosis (pH 7.46). Stool for alpha-1 antitrypsin was >1...
March 6, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262036/the-effect-of-simulated-flash-heating-pasteurisation-and-holder-pasteurisation-on-human-milk-oligosaccharides
#10
Brodie Daniels, Anna Coutsoudis, Chloe Autran, Kimberly Amundson Mansen, Kiersten Israel-Ballard, Lars Bode
BACKGROUND: Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) have important protective functions in human milk. A low-cost remote pasteurisation temperature-monitoring system has been designed using FoneAstra, a cell phone-based networked sensing system to monitor simulated flash heat pasteurisation. AIM: To compare the pasteurisation effect on HMOs of the FoneAstra FH method with the current Sterifeed Holder method used by human milk banks. METHODS: Donor human milk samples (n = 48) were obtained from a human milk bank and pasteurised using the two pasteurisation methods...
March 6, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222656/detection-of-%C3%AE-lactoglobulin-in-human-breast-milk-7-days-after-cow-milk-ingestion
#11
Ponpan Matangkasombut, Savitree Padungpak, Sasikanya Thaloengsok, Wasu Kamchaisatian, Cherapat Sasisakulporn, Wanlapa Jotikasthira, Suwat Benjaponpitak, Wiparat Manuyakorn
BACKGROUND: β-lactoglobulin (BLG), a major allergen in cow milk (CM) can be detected in human breast-milk (BM) and is associated with exacerbation of symptoms in breastfed infants with cow milk protein allergy (CMPA). Currently, it is not known how long lactating mothers who consume dairy products need to withhold breastfeeding. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the kinetics of BLG in BM after maternal ingestion of a single dose of CM. METHODS: Nineteen lactating mothers, four of whom had infants with CMPA, were instructed to avoid CM for 7 days before ingesting a single dose of CM and to continue to withhold CM thereafter throughout the study period...
February 22, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222654/is-coronary-arteritis-a-feature-in-secondary-haemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis
#12
Beng Teong See, Ke Xin Yip, Hak Lee Ang
Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is rare. Although Kawasaki disease (KD) has been reported as a precursor to HLH, coronary arteritis occurring at the onset of secondary HLH, not in association with KD, has not been reported. An 8-year-old girl presented with virus-induced secondary HLH associated with a giant aneurysm and ectasia of the coronary arteries which was detected incidentally at onset of the disease. She did not fulfill the criteria for diagnosis of KD. The coronary lesions improved after 6 months of treatment with dexamethasone and etoposide...
February 22, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176613/erratum
#13
P Burford
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162087/antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-uropathogens-isolated-from-cambodian-children
#14
Catrin E Moore, Christopher M Parry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162058/prevalence-of-epilepsy-in-74-949-school-children-in-khartoum-state-sudan
#15
Inaam N Mohamed, Maha A Elseed, Ahlam A Hamed, Manar E Abdel-Rahman, Sarah M El-Sadig, Ilham M Omer, Abdelgadir H Osman, Ammar E Ahmed, Zein A Karrar, Mustafa A Salih
BACKGROUND: Data on childhood epilepsy in Sudan are scarce and the only published study on its prevalence was published in 1983. This study aimed to determine the current prevalence of epilepsy in school children in Khartoum State. METHODS: This is an analytical population-based, cross-sectional study conducted in Khartoum State, Sudan. The study included students in the basic (primary) schools aged 6-14 years. Simple random sampling was used to draw a cluster of four of the seven localities comprising Khartoum State...
February 6, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162052/adjunctive-therapy-for-severe-hypoxic-pneumonia-in-hiv-infected-and-hiv-exposed-children-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#16
P Goussard, R P Gie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162051/henoch-schonlein-purpura-post-streptococcal-glomerulonephritis-and-acute-rheumatic-carditis-after-group-a-%C3%AE-haemolytic-streptococcal-infection
#17
Seçil Arslansoyu Çamlar, Alper Soylu, İpek Akil, Mehtat Ünlü, Şenol Coşkun, Pelin Ertan, Salih Kavukçu
Besides association with acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and acute glomerulonephritis (APSGN), in up to 40% of cases, Group A β-haemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) infections are also implicated as a trigger for Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP). A 7-year-old girl with GABHS throat infection who developed HSP, APSGN and rheumatic carditis is reported. She presented with palpable purpura and arthritis in both ankles and later developed carditis characterised by mitral/aortic regurgitation and glomerulonephritis characterised by mixed nephritic/nephrotic syndrome...
February 6, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152666/provision-of-critical-care-services-to-hiv-infected-children-in-an-era-of-advanced-intensive-care-and-availability-of-combined-antiretroviral-therapy
#18
Prakash M Jeena, Miriam Adhikari
Intensive care facilities are always in demand in the public sector and there is constant competition for beds. Appropriate allocation of children to these resources is based on the ethical principles of distributive justice and beneficence that is determined on the presumed short-term outcome of the acute illness, long-term outcome of the underlying chronic disease and the overall demand for these facilities. At the onset of the HIV epidemic in South Africa, HIV-infected children were refused admission to the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) on the basis of poor ICU outcomes and the lack of provision of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) for survivors...
February 3, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145154/effect-of-impaired-ambulation-and-anti-epileptic-drug-intake-on-vitamin-d-status-of-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#19
Anju Seth, Satinder Aneja, Ritu Singh, Ritu Majumdar, Neera Sharma, Muthuselvan Gopinath
BACKGROUND: Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are vulnerable to developing vitamin D deficiency. There is little information on the prevalence and severity of vitamin D deficiency in these patients. OBJECTIVE: To study vitamin D status in children with CP with special reference to their intake of anti-epileptic drugs (AED) and ambulatory status. METHODS: The relative effects of AED use and ambulatory status on the vitamin D status of 120 children with CP aged 2-10 years were examined in this observational study...
February 1, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263089/good-quality-research-a-vital-step-in-improving-outcomes-in-paediatric-intensive-care-units-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#20
Elizabeth C George
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
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