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Paediatrics and International Child Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914167/nephrotic-syndrome-in-infants-and-children-pathophysiology-and-management
#1
Mallory L Downie, Claire Gallibois, Rulan S Parekh, Damien G Noone
Nephrotic syndrome is defined by nephrotic-range proteinuria (≥40 mg/m(2)/hour or urine protein/creatinine ratio ≥200 mg/mL or 3+ protein on urine dipstick), hypoalbuminaemia (<25 g/L) and oedema. This review focuses on the classification, epidemiology, pathophysiology, management strategies and prognosis of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome of childhood, and includes a brief overview of the congenital forms.
September 15, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891413/post-infectious-glomerulonephritis
#2
Ramnath Balasubramanian, Stephen D Marks
Post-infectious glomerulonephritis (PIGN) is one of the most common causes of acute glomerulonephritis in children. Although post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN) is still common, there is a wide spectrum of causative agents of PIGN. Non-streptococcal organisms are emerging as the main aetiological agents in high-income countries. Nephritis-associated plasmin receptor (NAPlr) and streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SPeB) are the two common antigens implicated in the pathogenesis of PSGN. Both NAPlr and SPeB activate the alternative complement pathway, resulting in low serum complement levels, and have an affinity to plasmin and glomerular proteins...
September 11, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884631/takotsubo-cardiomyopathy-associated-with-paragonimiasis-westermani
#3
Ryouhei Matsuoka, Jun Muneuchi, Yusaku Nagatomo, Daisuke Shimizu, Seigo Okada, Chiaki Iida, Hiromitsu Shirouzu, Mamie Watanabe, Yasuhiko Takahashi, Haruhiko Maruyama
An 11-year-old boy collapsed during morning assembly at his junior high school. The automated external defibrillator detected ventricular fibrillation and provided shock delivery. He was successfully resuscitated and reverted to sinus rhythm. Electrocardiography showed ST-T elevation in the precordial leads. Echocardiography and angiography demonstrated akinesia of the apex and mid-wall of the left ventricle with preserved contraction of the basal segments, which suggested Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. The patient and his family had often eaten uncooked crab, and his father had a past history of infection with Paragonimiasis westermani...
September 8, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805146/deafness-and-hearing-aids-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#4
Bradley McPherson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 14, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805143/a-pre-term-infant-of-32-weeks-gestation-with-congenital-tuberculosis-treated-successfully-with-antituberculosis-chemotherapy
#5
Xiaoyi Fang, Ruizhi Mai, Jizhong Guo, Niyang Lin
An infant of 32 weeks gestation was separated from her mother at birth for treatment of hyaline membrane disease and, on recovery, was cared for by adoptive parents. At 25 days, she was treated for pneumonia with immunoglobulins and multiple antibiotics and appeared to respond. Her symptoms recurred at 8 weeks and tuberculosis was confirmed by detection in an acid-fast bacilli smear of gastric aspirate. Her mother presented with disseminated tuberculosis with meningitis 1 month after delivery. Criteria for the diagnosis of congenital tuberculosis in the infant were confirmed...
August 14, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28786757/large-scale-implementation-of-helping-babies-breathe-what-is-required
#6
Hege Langli Ersdal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 8, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737482/corrigendum
#7
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 24, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714784/the-management-of-paediatric-neurogenic-bladder-an-approach-in-a-resource-poor-setting
#8
Patrick Opoku Manu Maison, John Lazarus
BACKGROUND: If untreated, paediatric neurogenic bladder can cause renal failure and urinary incontinence. It is usually caused by neural tube defects such as myelomeningocele. Children with a neurogenic bladder should be monitored from birth and management should aim to preserve renal function and achieve social continence. This article outlines the management options appropriate for these children in resource-poor settings. ASSESSMENT: In most low- and middle-income countries, a general lack of awareness of the neurological effects on the urinary tract results in late presentation, usually with urological complications even when spina bifida is diagnosed early...
July 17, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532269/antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-uropathogens-isolated-from-cambodian-children
#9
LETTER
Anirban Mandal, Puneet Kaur Sahi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176613/erratum
#10
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162087/antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-uropathogens-isolated-from-cambodian-children
#11
LETTER
Catrin E Moore, Christopher M Parry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680199/piecing-together-the-stunting-puzzle-a-framework-for-attributable-factors-of-child-stunting
#12
Emily Mosites, Elizabeth Dawson-Hahn, Judd Walson, Ali Rowhani-Rahbar, Marian L Neuhouser
Reducing the burden of stunting in childhood is critical to improving health in low- and middle-income settings. However, because many aetiologies underlie linear growth failure, stunting has proved difficult to prevent and reverse. Understanding the contributions these aetiologies make to the burden of stunting can help the development of targeted, effective interventions. To begin to frame these causes, a qualitative and a quantitative framework of the primary drivers of stunting in low-resource settings were developed...
August 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27405413/gastro-oesophageal-reflux-associated-with-duodenum-inversum-two-case-reports-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#13
Dhiren Patel, Roshani Agarwal, William Powell, Namir Al-Ansari
Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is a very common paediatric disorder and the majority of patients are treated successfully by primary care physicians. Two infants aged 2 months with GORD which did not respond to conventional medical management are reported; they were diagnosed with duodenum inversum. The first infant failed medical management and required Nissen's fundoplication to control his symptoms. The second infant improved on maximizing medical management without the need for a surgical procedure...
August 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27376438/brainstem-micro-abscesses-caused-by-burkholderia-pseudomallei-in-a-10-month-old-infant-a-case-report
#14
M Prasanna Kumar, Sriram Krishnamurthy, V S Venkateswaran, Subramanian Mahadevan, M Lalitha, Sujatha Sistla, K Nagarajan
Melioidosis is an uncommon tropical infectious disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei. Neurological complications of melioidosis are extremely uncommon in infants. A 10-month-old girl is described who presented with disseminated melioidosis with subcutaneous nodules, arthritis, hepatomegaly and a lung cavity, and developed a left medial rectus palsy. Cranial MRI demonstrated mid-brain, pontine and basal ganglia micro-abscesses. Therapy with meropenem and cotrimoxazole led to resolution of the medial nerve palsy...
August 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27329512/auto-immune-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-anti-nmdar-encephalitis-three-case-reports
#15
Fahad A Bashiri, Abdulrahman A Al-Rasheed, Saeed M Hassan, Muddathir H A Hamad, Heba Y El Khashab, Amal Y Kentab, Fahad B AlBadr, Mustafa A Salih
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is a recently identified auto-immune disorder characterised by severe memory deficit, a decreased level of consciousness, seizures, autonomic dysfunction and movement disorders. Three girls with the disorder are reported; they were aged 4 years, 5 years and 10 months. The 10-month-old infant who is one of the youngest patients reported with anti-NMDAR encephalitis worldwide, had MRI features suggestive of herpes simplex encephalitis (known to trigger anti-NMDAR encephalitis), but CSF PCR for herpes simplex was negative...
August 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648114/pseudohypoparathyroidism-type-1b-a-rare-cause-of-tetany-case-report
#16
Catarina Garcia, Cátia R Correia, Lurdes Lopes
Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) is a rare group of disorders characterised by end-organ resistance to the parathyroid hormone (PTH). A 16-year-old boy presented with a 2-year history of involuntary dystonic movements involving mainly the left hand, initially after writing and later during physical exercise. Serum calcium was 1.37 mmol/L (2.20-2.69), phosphate 2.1 mmol/L (0.8-1.45) and PTH 302 ng/L (12-88). CT scan of the head demonstrated multiple subcortical and diffuse basal ganglia calcifications. Genetic analysis confirmed a methylation defect in the GNAS cluster on chromosome 20q13...
June 26, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594291/rickets-in-a-6-year-old-girl-resulting-in-extreme-deformities
#17
Asad Abbas, Zeeba Zaka-Ur-Rab
Rickets remains endemic in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) and has re-emerged in high-income countries. Poverty, ignorance and poor healthcare in LMIC still contribute to development of the disease and, if untreated, its progression to severe forms. A 6-year-old girl from a poor background presented with malnutrition, anaemia, rachitic rosary and severe deformities of the upper and lower limbs owing to vitamin D deficiency. Although she responded well to treatment initially, some of the deformities required surgical intervention...
June 8, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557682/an-infant-presenting-with-failure-to-thrive-and-hyperkalaemia-owing-to-transient-pseudohypoaldosteronism-case-report
#18
Marieke De Clerck, Johan Vande Walle, Evelyn Dhont, Joke Dehoorne, Werner Keenswijk
A 3-month-old boy presented with failure to thrive and a history of a prenatally detected unilateral hydroureteronephrosis which was confirmed after birth. His growth and developmental milestones had been normal during the first 2 months but in the third month his appetite was poor with reduced intake but no vomiting. At presentation, his temperature was normal, there was mild dehydration and there was weight loss (his weight had decreased by 270 g in the past month). Haemoglobin was 11.9 g/dL, total white cell count 20...
May 30, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498062/telemedicine-is-helping-the-parents-of-children-with-neurodevelopmental-disorders-living-in-remote-and-deprived-areas
#19
Ruth Stuckey, Sophie Domingues-Montanari
Telecommunication technologies are advancing rapidly with huge investment to improve infrastructure in rural areas. Telemedicine brings the benefits of telecommunication to healthcare, especially in resource-limited and remote communities. The recent literature on telemedicine in paediatrics will be reviewed, with particular focus on its application to help children with neurodevelopmental disorders and their families living in remote regions and/or low-income countries, and gaps identified for future research...
May 12, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490246/evaluation-of-xpert-mtb-rif-assay-in-children-with-presumed-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-papua-new-guinea
#20
Sharon Kasa Tom, Henry Welch, Cornelia Kilalang, Nakapi Tefuarani, John Vince, Evelyn Lavu, Karen Johnson, Ruth Magaye, Trevor Duke
BACKGROUND: The Gene Xpert MTB/ RIF assay (Xpert) is used for rapid, simultaneous detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and rifampicin resistance. This study examined the accuracy of Xpert in children with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). METHODS: Children admitted to Port Moresby General Hospital with suspected PTB were prospectively enrolled between September 2014 and March 2015. They were classified into probable, possible and TB-unlikely groups...
May 11, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
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