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Paediatrics and International Child Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30191770/lupus-enteritis-as-the-sole-presenting-feature-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#1
Monthira Chowichian, Prapun Aanpreung, Ananya Pongpaibul, Sirirat Charuvanij
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem, autoimmune inflammatory disease which can affect any organ, including the gastrointestinal tract. Lupus enteritis is one of the manifestations of gastrointestinal involvement in SLE patients. However, it is exceedingly rare that lupus enteritis is the sole initial presentation of SLE. A 12-year-old Thai girl who had had recurrent abdominal pain for 2 months with no other signs of SLE on initial presentation is described. A single-balloon enteroscopy demonstrated segmental erythema of the proximal and mid-jejunum...
September 7, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30160618/yield-of-meconium-in-non-vigorous-neonates-undergoing-endotracheal-suctioning-and-profile-of-all-neonates-born-through-meconium-stained-amniotic-fluid-a-prospective-observational-study
#2
V R Viraraghavan, Sushma Nangia, B H Prathik, Babu S Madarkar, Deepshika Rani, Arvind Saili
BACKGROUND: Delivery room management of infants born via meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) is quite controversial. No study has tried to quantify the amount of meconium that can be aspirated from the trachea of a non-vigorous neonate born through MSAF. AIMS: To study the yield of meconium in non-vigorous neonates born through MSAF undergoing endotracheal (ET) suctioning. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study conducted from 1 March 2015 to 31 October 2015...
August 30, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30160613/corrigendum
#3
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 30, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30132736/parasitic-infections-of-the-gut-in-children
#4
Kapula Chifunda, Paul Kelly
Parasitic infections of the gut have major implications for child health, but many questions remain unanswered. Protozoal parasites, especially cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis, cause diarrhoea and contribute to impaired growth, neurocognitive development and mortality. Entamoeba histolytica causes dysentery and may have more subtle effects on child growth. Helminth infections are mostly asymptomatic, and untargeted mass deworming has not been shown to be beneficial. However, children with heavy infections certainly benefit from antihelminthic treatment...
August 22, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109814/therapeutic-hypothermia-for-moderate-and-severe-hypoxic-ischaemic-encephalopathy-in-newborns-using-low-cost-devices-ice-packs-and-phase-changing-material
#5
Y N Prashantha, P N Suman Rao, Saudamini Nesargi, B S Chandrakala, Kalyan Chakravarthy Balla, A Shashidhar
BACKGROUND: Different methods have been used for therapeutic hypothermia for neonates with moderate-to-severe hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE). As standard cooling devices are expensive, there is a need to establish the safety and efficacy of low-cost devices such as ice packs (IP) and phase changing material (PCM). AIM: To assess the efficacy and safety of therapeutic hypothermia (TH) and the clinico-laboratory profile of neonates who underwent cooling with IP or PCM...
August 15, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102134/mentor-mothers-zithulele-exploring-the-role-of-a-peer-mentorship-program-in-rural-pmtct-care-in-zithulele-eastern-cape-south-africa
#6
A Rebecca L Hamilton, Karl W du Pré le Roux, Catherine W Young, Björn Södergård
BACKGROUND: The majority of global HIV infections in children under 10 years of age occur during pregnancy, delivery or breastfeeding, despite improved coverage of 'prevention of mother-to-child transmission' (PMTCT) guidelines to reduce vertical transmission. This article looks closer at one community-based peer mentorship programme [Mentor Mothers Zithulele (MMZ)] in the Eastern Cape, South Africa which aims to supplement the existing heavily burdened antenatal programmes and improve PMTCT care...
August 13, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30099930/coeliac-disease
#7
Jeremy R Glissen Brown, Prashant Singh
Coeliac disease (CD) develops in genetically susceptible individuals who, in response to unclear environmental triggers, develop an immune response triggered by gluten ingestion. It is now recognised as a global disease affecting about 0.7% of the world's population. The clinical presentation ranges from malabsorption to asymptomatic individuals diagnosed by screening high-risk groups. Diagnosis requires the demonstration of small intestinal villous atrophy in the presence of circulating coeliac auto-antibodies and/or an unequivocal response to a gluten-free diet (GFD)...
August 13, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30092749/multifocal-pelvic-osteomyelitis-in-a-child-associated-with-a-cat-scratch-disease-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#8
K Zellali, E Benard, E Smokvina, A Belgaid, F Labbé, V Bertrand
Bone infections in cat-scratch disease (CSD) are uncommon and the diagnosis can be missed. A 3-year-old boy with multifocal pelvic osteomyelitis caused by Bartonella henselae is reported. Serological tests were negative but DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction assay of a lymph node. A swift recovery followed antibiotic treatment and there was completeresolution within a few months. The literature on 64 cases of osteomyelitis owing to CSD in children and adults since 1954 is reviewed.
August 10, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30092157/three-monthly-bolus-vitamin-d-supplements-1000-vs-400-iu-day-for-prevention-of-bone-loss-in-children-with-difficult-to-treat-nephrotic-syndrome-a-randomised-clinical-trial
#9
Dhurva Nandan Singh, Sriram Krishnamurthy, Sadish Kumar Kamalanathan, K T Harichandrakumar, Palanisamy Sivamurukan
BACKGROUND: Nephrotic syndrome (NS) in children is one of the most common chronic diseases with a remitting and relapsing course. Glucocorticoids (prednisolone) are considered to be the treatment of choice but are associated with osteoporosis. There are no uniform consensus guidelines regarding the optimum dose of calcium and vitamin D for osteoprotection. Some authorities suggest a daily dose of 1000 IU vitamin D for children for osteoprotection, while others suggest a daily dose of 400 IU...
August 9, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30080479/gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-gerd-in-children
#10
Ujjal Poddar
BACKGROUND: Gastro-oesophageal reflux (GER) and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) are common in infants and children. AIMS: To review the recent literature on GERD in children and to outline the approach to diagnosis and management. METHODS: A literature search in PubMed was conducted with regard to the prevalence, clinical features, diagnosis and management of GER and GERD in children with special attention to low- and middle-income countries...
August 6, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30079842/antibiotic-use-in-the-management-of-children-with-the-common-cold-at-a-provincial-hospital-in-papua-new-guinea-a-point-prevalence-study
#11
Andree Zamunu, Wendy Pameh, Paulus Ripa, John Vince, Trevor Duke
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic prescribing for self-limiting viral infections such as the common cold or viral upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) is irrational and increases the risk of antibiotic resistance. However, such a practice is widespread and is likely to be as common in Papua New Guinea as in many other countries. METHODS: In a cross-sectional descriptive study, children were recruited who had been diagnosed with a common cold or URTI by attending clinical staff-mostly nurses-in a provincial hospital's children's outpatient department using a standard definition...
August 6, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30079818/persistent-diarrhoea-current-knowledge-and-novel-concepts
#12
Robert H J Bandsma, Kamran Sadiq, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: Persistent diarrhoea (PD), defined as diarrhoeal symptoms for longer than 2 weeks, still forms a substantial disease burden in children under 5 years of age. This article provides an overview of the current knowledge of PD and discusses novel concepts. METHODS: A literature search on PD was performed which focused on evidence on epidemiology, pathophysiology and management of the disease. RESULTS: The prevalence of PD has potentially decreased over the last decades...
August 6, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30058470/diagnostic-and-therapeutic-approach-to-upper-gastrointestinal-bleeding
#13
Ujjal Poddar
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of clarity about the approach to and management of upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding in children. AIM: To examine the recent literature on UGI bleeding in children in order to outline the diagnostic approach and management. METHODS: The English language literature was searched for articles on UGI bleeding in children. Special attention was paid to its prevalence, risk factors, clinical approach and management...
July 30, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30014782/cow-milk-protein-allergy-and-other-common-food-allergies-and-intolerances
#14
Wiparat Manuyakorn, Pornthep Tanpowpong
The prevalence of food allergy and food intolerance is increasing and it is an important public health problem affecting children. Food allergy results from an immunological reaction to certain food(s) and affects numerous organs in the body. Food intolerances are non-immunological reactions including metabolic, toxic, pharmacological and undefined mechanisms. Cow milk is the most common cause of food allergy and food intolerance, especially in young children. Food intolerance can present with similar symptoms to those of food allergy...
July 17, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29987976/helicobacter-pylori-a-perspective-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#15
Ujjal Poddar
Background In adults, Helicobacter pylori is aetiologically associated with peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. However, the relationship between this bacteria and gastro-intestinal symptoms in children is less clear. Aims To review the recent literature on H. pylori in children and to outline the approach to diagnosis and management. Methods The English language literature was searched for articles on H. pylori in children. Special attention was paid to prevalence, diagnosis and management pertinent to low- and middle-income countries (LMIC)...
July 10, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790845/guidelines-for-the-treatment-of-dysentery-shigellosis-a-systematic-review-of-the-evidence
#16
Phoebe C M Williams, James A Berkley
BACKGROUND: Shigella remains the primary cause of diarrhoea in paediatric patients worldwide and accounts for up to 40,000 deaths per year. Current guidelines for the treatment of shigellosis are based on data which are over a decade old. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, an updated review of the appropriate empirical therapy for shigellosis in children is necessary, taking into account susceptibility patterns, cost and the risk of adverse events. METHODS: A systematic review of the current published literature on the treatment of shigella dysentery was undertaken in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA)...
November 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790844/antibiotic-use-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-neonates-and-children-who-evidence-review
#17
Shrey Mathur, Aline Fuchs, Julia Bielicki, Johannes Van Den Anker, Mike Sharland
Background Pneumonia is the most common cause of death in children worldwide, accounting for 15% of all deaths of children under 5 years of age. This review summarises the evidence for the empirical antibiotic treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in neonates and children and puts emphasis on publications since the release of the previous WHO Evidence Summary report published in 2014. Methods A systematic search for systematic reviews and meta-analyses of antibiotic therapy for community-acquired pneumonia was conducted between 1 January 2013 and 10 November 2016...
November 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790843/empirical-antibiotic-treatment-for-children-suffering-from-dysentery-cholera-pneumonia-sepsis-or-severe-acute-malnutrition
#18
Per Ashorn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790842/reviewing-the-who-guidelines-for-antibiotic-use-for-sepsis-in-neonates-and-children
#19
Aline Fuchs, Julia Bielicki, Shrey Mathur, Mike Sharland, Johannes N Van Den Anker
Background Guidelines from 2005 for treating suspected sepsis in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) recommended hospitalisation and prophylactic intramuscular (IM) or intravenous (IV) ampicillin and gentamicin. In 2015, recommendations when referral to hospital is not possible suggest the administration of IM gentamicin and oral amoxicillin. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, an updated review of the appropriate empirical therapy for treating sepsis (taking into account susceptibility patterns, cost and risk of adverse events) in neonates and children is necessary...
November 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790841/guidelines-for-the-management-of-paediatric-cholera-infection-a-systematic-review-of-the-evidence
#20
Phoebe C M Williams, James A Berkley
Background Vibrio cholerae is a highly motile Gram-negative bacterium which is responsible for 3 million cases of diarrhoeal illness and up to 100,000 deaths per year, with an increasing burden documented over the past decade. Current WHO guidelines for the treatment of paediatric cholera infection (tetracycline 12.5 mg/kg four times daily for 3 days) are based on data which are over a decade old. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, updated review of the appropriate empirical therapy for cholera infection in children (taking account of susceptibility patterns, cost and the risk of adverse events) is necessary...
November 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
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