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Paediatrics and International Child Health

Kahabi Ganka Isangula, Megan E Kassick, Allan Kaijunga Kairuki, Robson Amunga Meda, Erica Thomas, Akwila Temu, Georgina Msemo, Mary Azayo, Brett D Nelson
OBJECTIVES: Worldwide, there has been renewed emphasis on reducing neonatal mortality in low-resource countries. The Helping Babies Breathe (HBB) programme has been shown to reduce newborn deaths. The aim of this study is to present provider-level perceptions and experiences of the HBB programme implemented at-scale in Tanzania and identify key lessons learned for scalability in similar and other settings. METHODS: Focus group discussions with HBB-trained providers were conducted using a prospective longitudinal study design between October 2013 and May 2015...
September 29, 2016: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Emily Mosites, Elizabeth Dawson-Hahn, Judd Walson, Ali Rowhani-Rahbar, Marian L Neuhouser
Reducing the burden of stunting in childhood is critical to improving health in low- and middle-income settings. However, because many aetiologies underlie linear growth failure, stunting has proved difficult to prevent and reverse. Understanding the contributions these aetiologies make to the burden of stunting can help the development of targeted, effective interventions. To begin to frame these causes, a qualitative and a quantitative framework of the primary drivers of stunting in low-resource settings were developed...
September 29, 2016: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Nicolaus W Glomb, Manish I Shah, Andrea T Cruz
BACKGROUND: There is global variation in the ability of hospital-based emergency centres to provide paediatric emergency medicine (PEM) services. Although minimum standards have been proposed, they may not be applicable in resource-limited settings. OBJECTIVE: The goal was to identify reasonable minimum standards to provide safe and effective care for acutely ill children in resource-limited settings. METHODS: Using previously proposed standards from the International Federation of Emergency Medicine (IFEM), a modified Delphi approach was used to reach agreement regarding minimum standards for PEM in resource-limited settings...
September 29, 2016: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Ira Shah, Forum Shah
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of drug-resistant (DR) tuberculosis (TB) in children is increasing. Although, in India, multi-drug-resistant (MDR) TB rates have been relatively stable, the number of children with pre-extensively drug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB is increasing. AIM: To determine whether the prevalence of DR TB in children in Mumbai is changing and to study the evolving patterns of resistance. METHODS: A retrospective study was undertaken in 1311 paediatric patients referred between April 2007 and March 2013 to the Paediatric TB clinic at B...
August 9, 2016: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Ampaiwan Chuansumrit, Jiraporn Laothamathat, Nongnuch Sirachainan, Witaya Sungkarat, Pakawan Wongwerawattanakoon, Patrapop Kumkrua
BACKGROUND: MRI imaging is an alternative to serum ferritin for assessing iron overload in patients with thalassaemia disease. AIMS: To correlate liver iron concentration (LIC) determined by MRI and clinical and biochemical parameters. METHODS: An MRI study using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) tools to determine cardiac and liver iron was undertaken in adolescents with thalassaemia disease. RESULTS: Eighty-nine patients (48 males) with thalassaemia disease were enrolled...
August 2016: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Rebecca M Zash, Roger L Shapiro, Jean Leidner, Carolyn Wester, Alexander J McAdam, Richard L Hodinka, Ibou Thior, Claire Moffat, Joseph Makhema, Kenneth McIntosh, Max Essex, Shahin Lockman
BACKGROUND: Diarrhoea and pneumonia are common causes of childhood death in sub-Saharan Africa but there are few studies describing specific pathogens. OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to describe the pathogens associated with diarrhoea, pneumonia and oropharyngeal colonization in children born to HIV-infected women (HIV-exposed infants). METHODS: The Mashi Study randomized 1200 HIV-infected women and their infants to breastfeed for 6 months with ZDV prophylaxis or formula-feed with 4 weeks of ZDV...
August 2016: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Trevor Duke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Amar Al Shibli, Dima Abukhater, Najla Al Kuwaiti, Muhammad Bassel Noureddin, Mariam Al Harbi, Aysha Al Kaabi, Salwa Al Kaabi, May Hamie, Abdulla Al Amri, Hassib Narchi
BACKGROUND: Hyponatraemia occurs during bronchiolitis, sometimes with neurological manifestations. The prevalence of the latter differs widely and little is known about the time of occurrence and associated factors. This study was undertaken to investigate these complications. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational chart review of a cohort of 233 infants under 2 years of age admitted with bronchiolitis to a teaching hospital in the United Arab Emirates...
August 2016: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Zainab Arslan, Naveen K Athiraman, Simon J Clark
Lithium toxicity in a neonate can occur owing to antenatal exposure as a result of maternal treatment for psychiatric illnesses. False elevation of lithium levels has been reported in the paediatric population when the sample was mistakenly collected in a lithium heparin container. A term, male infant was born to a mother who was on lithium treatment for a psychiatric illness. On day 1, the infant was jittery, had a poor suck with difficulties in establishing feeds. Blood taken from the infant approximately 8 hours after birth demonstrated a lithium level of 4...
August 2016: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Claudia Montserrat Flores Robles, Carlos Alberto Cuello García
BACKGROUND: Recent literature suggests that hypotonic fluids increase the risk of hospital-acquired hyponatraemia; despite this, hypotonic fluids are widely used. OBJECTIVES: To compare the change in serum sodium following the use of hypotonic (0.3% saline, 0.45% saline) or isotonic (0.9% saline) intravenous (IV) maintenance solutions in hospitalised children. STUDY DESIGN: This was a randomised controlled trial. Children aged 3 months to 15 years with medical or surgical disorders were randomised to receive one of three maintenance IV fluids: two hypotonic solutions (3...
August 2016: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Roya Kelishadi, Atefeh Noori, Mostafa Qorbani, Shadi Rahimzadeh, Shirin Djalalinia, Gita Shafiee, Mohammad Esmaeil Motlagh, Gelayol Ardalan, Hossein Ansari, Hamid Asayesh, Zeinab Ahadi, Ramin Heshmat
BACKGROUND: Smoking is an important risky behavior in adolescents worldwide. Active and passive smoking have adverse health effects at public and individual levels. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the association of active and passive smoking with cardiometabolic risk factors in a national sample of Iranian adolescents. METHODS: Participants consisted of 5625 students, aged 10-18 years, studied in the third survey of a national school-based surveillance system...
August 2016: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Anne Jardim-Botelho, Ricardo Queiroz Gurgel, Gilberto Simeone Henriques, Claudimary Bispo Dos Santos, Alceu Afonso Jordão, Fernanda Nascimento Faro, Fernanda Maria Silveira Souto, Anna Pryscilla Rodrigues Santos, Luis Eduardo Cuevas
BACKGROUND: Micronutrient deficiencies are the most prevalent form of malnutrition worldwide. Although commonly related to underweight, micronutrient deficiencies can occur in both normal and overweight children in medium- and low-income populations undergoing nutritional transition. OBJECTIVE: To describe haemoglobin and micronutrient levels in infants from a low-income area in Brazil in relation to their weight-for-length Z-score. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was undertaken of 2-11-month-old infants in Laranjeiras, a small urban community in North-east-Brazil between April 2009 and February 2010...
August 2016: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Suneel Prajapati, Kriti Upadhyay, Aparna Mukherjee, S K Kabra, Rakesh Lodha, Varinder Singh, Harleen M S Grewal, Sarman Singh
BACKGROUND: Drug susceptibility testing (DST) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) isolates is crucial for the effective treatment of tuberculosis. Data on DST patterns in Mtb isolates in childhood tuberculosis are scanty. AIMS: To determine drug resistance patterns in Mtb isolates from a paediatric TB cohort in North India. METHODS: 403 children aged 6 months to14 year with probable intrathoracic tuberculosis were enrolled prospectively. All were treatment-naïve...
August 2016: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Ampaiwan Chuansumrit, Duantida Songdej, Nongnuch Sirachainan, Pakawan Wongwerawattanakoon, Praguywan Kadegasem, Werasak Sasanakul
BACKGROUND: Data on the use of deferiprone in young children with iron overload are limited. OBJECTIVE: To study the safety profile of a liquid formulation of deferiprone in chelating young children with transfusion-induced iron overload. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A daily dose of 50-100 mg/kg BW in three divided doses of oral deferiprone was given to young patients who had received at least ten packed red cell transfusions and achieved a serum ferritin level >1000 μg/L during a 12-month period from 2011 to 2012...
August 2016: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Angela Dramowski, Andrew Whitelaw, Mark F Cotton
BACKGROUND: Healthcare (HC) providers' knowledge, attitudes and practices with regard to infection control (IC) may positively or adversely affect rates of institutional healthcare-associated infection (HAI). OBJECTIVES: To determine paediatric HC providers' knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding HAI and guide IC interventions in a resource-limited setting. METHODS: Paediatric HC providers at Tygerberg Children's Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa completed an anonymous, self-administered, 37-item questionnaire...
August 2016: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Chih-Chen Chang, Chia-Jie Lee, Liang-Shiou Ou, Chao-Jan Wang, Yhu-Chering Huang
Cat scratch disease (CSD) can present as a systemic disease in 5-10% of cases and lead to various disease entities. A previously healthy 16-month-old boy presented with fever for 7 days without other obvious symptoms. Abdominal computed tomography scan demonstrated enlarged right inguinal lymph nodes and multiple small round hypodensities in the spleen. Despite antibiotic treatment for 1 week, the fever persisted and the intrasplenic lesions progressed. Inguinal lymph node biopsy confirmed CSD by immunohistochemistry staining...
August 2016: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Heather L Crouse, Francisco Torres, Henry Vaides, Michael T Walsh, Elise M Ishigami, Andrea T Cruz, Susan B Torrey, Miguel A Soto
BACKGROUND: Triage process implementation has been shown to be effective at improving patient outcomes. This study sought to develop, implement and assess the impact of an Emergency Triage Assessment and Treatment (ETAT)-based emergency triage process in the paediatric emergency department (PED) of a public hospital in Guatemala. METHODS: The study was a quality improvement comparison with a before/after design. Uptake was measured by percentage of patients with an assigned triage category...
August 2016: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Shay Lu, Jeng-Dau Tsai, Ten-Fu Tsao, Pei-Fen Liao, Ji-Nan Sheu
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common cause of infectious diseases in children that may lead to life-threatening complications. Acute purulent pericarditis is an uncommon complication of S. pneumoniae in the antibiotic era. A healthy 4-year-old girl was admitted with pneumonia and pleural effusion. She had received one catch-up dose of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine at 2 years of age. She rapidly developed necrotizing pneumonia, complicated by bronchopleural fistula presenting as subcutaneous emphysema and pneumothorax and acute purulent pericarditis...
August 2016: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Parul Gupta, Manish Narang, Sunil Gomber, Rumpa Saha
BACKGROUND: There are several case reports of quinine-induced thrombocytopenia but no clinical trials to ascertain its incidence and significance in severe malaria. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to assess the effect of quinine on the platelet count in children with severe malaria and to compare it with artesunate combination therapy (ACT), and the secondary objective was to assess outcome of treatment with quinine and ACT. METHODS: An open-labelled, randomised, controlled trial was undertaken in 100 children aged 6 months to 12 years who were diagnosed with malaria by microscopy and/or rapid diagnostic test kits with at least one WHO clinical or laboratory criterion for severe malaria...
July 26, 2016: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Pooja Dewan, Anupama Tandon, Smriti Rohatgi, Shuaib Qureshi
Multifocal skeletal tuberculosis accounts for less than 1% of all tuberculous lesions in children. A 3-year-old unimmunised child presented with painless symmetrical swelling of both arms, pallor and hepatosplenomegaly. A skeletal survey demonstrated lytic lesions of the metadiaphysis of both humeri, a rib and the sacrum. The possibility of Langerhans cell histiocytosis or multifocal fibrous dysplasia was considered; however, acid-fast bacilli were detected in the biopsy specimen and real-time polymerase chain reaction confirmed Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection...
July 26, 2016: Paediatrics and International Child Health
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