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Paediatrics and International Child Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176613/erratum
#1
P Burford
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173741/elimination-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-lessons-learned-from-success-in-thailand
#2
Usa Thisyakorn
In 1988, the generalised HIV/AIDS epidemic in Thailand began and in the same year the first HIV-exposed infant in Thailand was born at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok. From the early to mid-1990s, an epidemic wave of HIV-infected women and infants occurred. Heterosexual HIV transmission, as described in the Asian Epidemic Model, was the major mode of spread in Thailand, causing an increasing number of HIV-infected pregnant women. The early and concerted multi-sectoral response of Thai society reduced the prevalence of HIV infection in pregnant women from 2% in the mid-1990s to 0...
February 8, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162087/antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-uropathogens-isolated-from-cambodian-children
#3
Catrin E Moore, Christopher M Parry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162058/prevalence-of-epilepsy-in-74-949-school-children-in-khartoum-state-sudan
#4
Inaam N Mohamed, Maha A Elseed, Ahlam A Hamed, Manar E Abdel-Rahman, Sarah M El-Sadig, Ilham M Omer, Abdelgadir H Osman, Ammar E Ahmed, Zein A Karrar, Mustafa A Salih
BACKGROUND: Data on childhood epilepsy in Sudan are scarce and the only published study on its prevalence was published in 1983. This study aimed to determine the current prevalence of epilepsy in school children in Khartoum State. METHODS: This is an analytical population-based, cross-sectional study conducted in Khartoum State, Sudan. The study included students in the basic (primary) schools aged 6-14 years. Simple random sampling was used to draw a cluster of four of the seven localities comprising Khartoum State...
February 6, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162052/adjunctive-therapy-for-severe-hypoxic-pneumonia-in-hiv-infected-and-hiv-exposed-children-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#5
P Goussard, R P Gie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162051/henoch-schonlein-purpura-post-streptococcal-glomerulonephritis-and-acute-rheumatic-carditis-after-group-a-%C3%AE-haemolytic-streptococcal-infection
#6
Seçil Arslansoyu Çamlar, Alper Soylu, İpek Akil, Mehtat Ünlü, Şenol Coşkun, Pelin Ertan, Salih Kavukçu
Besides association with acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and acute glomerulonephritis (APSGN), in up to 40% of cases, Group A β-haemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) infections are also implicated as a trigger for Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP). A 7-year-old girl with GABHS throat infection who developed HSP, APSGN and rheumatic carditis is reported. She presented with palpable purpura and arthritis in both ankles and later developed carditis characterised by mitral/aortic regurgitation and glomerulonephritis characterised by mixed nephritic/nephrotic syndrome...
February 6, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152666/provision-of-critical-care-services-to-hiv-infected-children-in-an-era-of-advanced-intensive-care-and-availability-of-combined-antiretroviral-therapy
#7
Prakash M Jeena, Miriam Adhikari
Intensive care facilities are always in demand in the public sector and there is constant competition for beds. Appropriate allocation of children to these resources is based on the ethical principles of distributive justice and beneficence that is determined on the presumed short-term outcome of the acute illness, long-term outcome of the underlying chronic disease and the overall demand for these facilities. At the onset of the HIV epidemic in South Africa, HIV-infected children were refused admission to the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) on the basis of poor ICU outcomes and the lack of provision of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) for survivors...
February 3, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145162/early-use-of-corticosteroids-in-infants-with-a-clinical-diagnosis-of-pneumocystis-jiroveci-pneumonia-in-malawi-a-double-blind-randomised-clinical-trial
#8
Laura Newberry, Bernadette O'Hare, Neil Kennedy, Andrew Selman, Sofia Omar, Pamela Dawson, Kim Stevenson, Yo Nishihara, Samantha Lissauer, Elizabeth Molyneux
BACKGROUND: Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PJP) is the most common opportunistic infection in infants with vertically acquired HIV infection and the most common cause of death in HIV-infected infants. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether early administration of adjuvant corticosteroids in addition to standard treatment reduces mortality in infants with vertically acquired HIV and clinically diagnosed PJP when co-infection with cytomegalovirus and other pathogens cannot be excluded...
February 1, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145154/effect-of-impaired-ambulation-and-anti-epileptic-drug-intake-on-vitamin-d-status-of-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#9
Anju Seth, Satinder Aneja, Ritu Singh, Ritu Majumdar, Neera Sharma, Muthuselvan Gopinath
BACKGROUND: Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are vulnerable to developing vitamin D deficiency. There is little information on the prevalence and severity of vitamin D deficiency in these patients. OBJECTIVE: To study vitamin D status in children with CP with special reference to their intake of anti-epileptic drugs (AED) and ambulatory status. METHODS: The relative effects of AED use and ambulatory status on the vitamin D status of 120 children with CP aged 2-10 years were examined in this observational study...
February 1, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121264/a-14-year-old-girl-presenting-with-tuberculous-intestinal-perforation-while-in-a-temporary-shelter-after-the-2015-earthquake-in-nepal
#10
Dhruba Shrestha, Manoj Krishna Shrestha, Ganendra Bhakta Raya, Anuj Bhattachan, Kentaro Hayashi, Koya Ariyoshi, Christopher M Parry, Bhim Gopal Dhoubhadel
A 14-year-old Nepalese girl presented with fever, abdominal pain and vomiting. She was living with her family in a temporary settlement camp following the earthquake in Nepal in 2015. She had had abdominal pain for 2 months and fever for 1 month. Abdominal examination suggested acute peritonitis. At laparotomy, three ileal perforations were detected and histopathology demonstrated caseous granulomas. Her father had sputum-positive pulmonary tuberculosis. She was diagnosed with abdominal tuberculosis and responded well to anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy...
January 25, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121245/solar-powered-hearing-aids-for-children-with-impaired-hearing-in-vietnam-a-pilot-study
#11
Quang Thanh Vo, Dung Pham, Kevin J Choi, Uyen T T Nguyen, Lan Le, Trudy Shanewise, Lien Tran, Nga Nguyen, Walter T Lee
BACKGROUND: Hearing loss is a barrier to speech and social and cognitive development. This can be especially pronounced in children living in low- and middle-income countries with limited resources. AIM: To determine the feasibility, durability and social impact of ComCare GLW solar-powered hearing aids provided for Vietnamese children with hearing impairment. METHODS: A retrospective review of data from an international, multi-discipline humanitarian visit was performed...
January 25, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112592/testicular-enlargement-in-a-pre-pubertal-boy-with-adrenocortical-tumour
#12
Manassawee Korwutthikulrangsri, Duangkamon Wattanatranon, Sumate Teeraratkul, Piyathida Wijarn, Pat Mahachoklertwattana, Preamrudee Poomthavorn
Adrenocortical tumours are rare in children. Virilisation caused by overproduction of adrenal androgens is the most common presentation. The testes of pre-pubertal boys with this tumour are usually small or of pre-pubertal size. A 4.8-year-old boy with an adrenocortical tumour and symmetrical pubertal-sized testes is reported. The serum testosterone level was 204 nmol/L (<0.7), dehydro-epiandrosterone-sulphate 56.7 μmol/L (<1.5) and luteinising and follicle-stimulating hormones were at suppressed levels...
January 23, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112049/kidney-disease-in-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-positive-children-experience-from-a-centre-in-south-west-nigeria-and-a-review-of-the-nigerian-literature
#13
Adanze O Asinobi, Adebowale D Ademola, Clement A Okolo, Adedayo A Adepoju, Susan M Samuel, Wendy E Hoy
BACKGROUND: Kidney disease is an important extra-hepatic manifestation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, there is paucity of recent literature on kidney disease in children and adolescents with HBV infection from several parts of sub-Saharan Africa including Nigeria. OBJECTIVE: To review the pattern of kidney disease in hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive children and adolescents seen at a tertiary hospital in south-west Nigeria. METHODS: A retrospective study was undertaken of HBsAg-seropositive children with kidney disease managed at University College Hospital, Ibadan, from January 2004 to December 2015...
January 23, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112037/basidiobolomycosis-complicated-by-hydronephrosis-and-a-perinephric-abscess-presenting-as-a-hypertensive-emergency-in-a-7-year-old-boy
#14
Sriram Krishnamurthy, Rakesh Singh, Venkatesh Chandrasekaran, Gopinathan Mathiyazhagan, Meenachi Chidambaram, S Deepak Barathi, Subramanian Mahadevan
A 7-year-old boy presented with a chronic, indurated, tender left thigh swelling in association with a hypertensive emergency. He had a bilateral moderate degree of hydronephrosis and a left perinephric abscess, and MRI features of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. Histopathological examination of the biopsy specimen demonstrated eosinophilic fasciitis with filamentous fungi. Basidiobolus ranarum was isolated from the culture. The fungus was also isolated from a perinephric fluid aspirate. Computerised tomography of the abdomen demonstrated features consistent with fungal invasion of the pelvic floor muscles and urinary bladder, leading to bilateral hydronephrosis...
January 23, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922344/predictors-of-mortality-in-a-paediatric-intensive-care-unit-in-kigali-rwanda
#15
Rosine Nyirasafari, Mark H Corden, Angélique Charlie Karambizi, Jean Claude Kabayiza, Jean Damascene Makuza, Rex Wong, Michael F Canarie
BACKGROUND: The enormous burden of critical illness in resource-limited settings has led to a growing interest in paediatric critical care in these regions. However, published data on the practice of critical care and patient outcomes in these settings are scant. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to identify risk factors associated with mortality in the newly established Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) at Kigali University Teaching Hospital (KUTH) in Rwanda and test the predictive ability of a newly devised mortality risk score, the modified PRISM (MP) score...
December 6, 2016: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922342/treatment-seeking-and-out-of-pocket-expenditure-on-childhood-illness-in-a-migrant-tribal-community-in-bhubaneswar-odisha-state-india
#16
Suchismita Mishra, Yadlapalli S Kusuma, Bontha V Babu
BACKGROUND: In India, migrant status, tribal affiliation and poverty render tribal migrants more vulnerable than any other group which leads to high treatment costs and the risk of low access to health care. OBJECTIVE: To examine treatment-seeking behaviour and out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditure on the treatment of childhood illnesses, with a focus on gender in a migrant tribal community in Bhubaneswar, eastern India. METHODS: A total of 175 households with a child aged 0-14 years and who had migrated within the last 12 years were selected from tribal-dominated slums...
December 6, 2016: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922341/an-exploration-of-complementary-feeding-of-infants-and-young-children-in-the-rural-area-of-muhoroni-nyanza-province-kenya-a-descriptive-study
#17
Sophie Harvey, Jo Callaby, Lesley Roberts
BACKGROUND: Inappropriate infant and young child feeding practices contribute to malnutrition, infection and long-term development limitation. AIMS: To explore complementary feeding and food safety in Muhoroni District, Nyanza Province in rural Kenya. OBJECTIVES: To compare practices with the Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) guidelines, and identify associations with inappropriate practices. METHODS: Between January and April 2014, a questionnaire completed by primary caregivers of children aged 6-23 months asked about foods the child had received in the previous 24 hours, the introduction of complementary foods, and the food hygiene practices undertaken by the caregiver...
December 6, 2016: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922335/nutritional-rickets-around-the-world-an-update
#18
Ana L Creo, Tom D Thacher, John M Pettifor, Mark A Strand, Philip R Fischer
Worldwide, nutritional rickets continues to be an evolving problem with several causes. This paper provides an updated literature review characterising the prevalence, aetiology, pathophysiology and treatment of nutritional rickets worldwide. A systematic review of articles on nutritional rickets from various geographical regions was undertaken. For each region, key information was extracted, including prevalence, cause of rickets specific to the region, methods of confirming the diagnosis and current treatment and preventive measures...
December 6, 2016: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27967828/homozygous-familial-hypercholesterolaemia-update-on-management
#19
Michael France
Homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HoFH) is an inherited disease causing an approximately fourfold increase in blood low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) from birth compared with the age-matched normal population owing to reduced low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) activity. Such elevated cholesterol is associated with accelerated atheromatous disease, particularly of the aortic root and coronary arteries. However, HoFH is clinically heterogeneous, reflecting residual low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) activity...
November 2016: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27376185/homozygous-familial-hypercholesterolaemia-in-two-boys-aged-5-and-10-years
#20
Shivani Deswal, Akshay Kapoor, Anupam Sibal, Vikas Kohli
Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant lipid disorder. Homozygous FH (HFH), though rare, presents in early childhood. Two different presentations of HFH are reported. The first child presented at 5 years of age with xanthomas on the knees, elbows and buttocks and failure to thrive since the second year of life. He was found to be hypertensive with moderate aortic regurgitation. He is now stable on statins and antihypertensives. The second child presented at 10 years of age with multiple xanthomas and severe aortic stenosis...
November 2016: Paediatrics and International Child Health
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