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Paediatrics and International Child Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003852/association-of-vitamin-d-deficiency-with-an-increased-risk-of-late-onset-neonatal-xepsis
#1
Rajeshwari Dhandai, Mamta Jajoo, Amitabh Singh, Anirban Mandal, Rahul Jain
Background Vitamin D deficiency in mothers and neonates is being recognised increasingly as a leading cause of many adverse health effects in the newborn infant, including sepsis. Methods A prospective observational study was conducted at a tertiary care Paediatric teaching hospital in northern India to assess vitamin D deficiency as a possible risk factor for late-onset sepsis (LOS) in term and late preterm neonates and also to examine the correlation between maternal and infant vitamin D levels during the neonatal period...
July 13, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29987976/helicobacter-pylori-a-perspective-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#2
Ujjal Poddar
Background In adults, Helicobacter pylori is aetiologically associated with peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. However, the relationship between this bacteria and gastro-intestinal symptoms in children is less clear. Aims To review the recent literature on H. pylori in children and to outline the approach to diagnosis and management. Methods The English language literature was searched for articles on H. pylori in children. Special attention was paid to prevalence, diagnosis and management pertinent to low- and middle-income countries (LMIC)...
July 10, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912679/oral-indomethacin-versus-oral-ibuprofen-for-treatment-of-patent-ductus-arteriosus-a-randomised-controlled-study-in-very-low-birthweight-infants
#3
Varangthip Khuwuthyakorn, Chuleeporn Jatuwattana, Suchaya Silvilairat, Watcharee Tantiprapha
Background In low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), haemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (hsPDA) is treated with oral indomethacin (IDC) and ibuprofen (IB) instead of intravenous formulations. No significant differences in efficacy have been reported. However, previous studies had small numbers of VLBW infants (<1500 g). Objective To evaluate the efficacy of oral IDC and IB for closing PDA in VLBW infants with a gestational age of 24-32 weeks. Methods This randomised controlled study enrolled 32 infants with hsPDA for treatment with either three doses of oral IDC or oral IB...
June 18, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912645/use-of-a-modified-bubble-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-bcpap-device-for-children-in-respiratory-distress-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-safety-study
#4
Ashley R Bjorklund, Beatrice Odongkara Mpora, Marie E Steiner, Gwenyth Fischer, Cynthia S Davey, Tina M Slusher
BACKGROUND: While bubble continuous positive airway pressure (bCPAP) is commonly used in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) to support neonates with respiratory distress, there are limited non-invasive support options for non-neonatal children. AIM: To demonstrate safety of a new device designed to support children during respiratory distress in LMIC. METHODS: A paediatric bCPAP device was designed called SEAL-bCPAP (Simplified Ear-plug Adapted-bCPAP)...
June 18, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897291/isoniazid-induced-neuropathy-in-a-pre-pubertal-child
#5
Naman S Shetty, Ira Shah
Isoniazid (INH)-induced peripheral neuritis is not uncommonly reported in adults, especially those with malnutrition and alcoholism, but it is very rare in children. INH leads to peripheral neuritis by causing a deficiency in the serum level of pyridoxine which depends on the dose of INH, duration of treatment and the patient's nutritional and acetylator status. A 12-year-old girl developed tingling and numbness of the lower limbs after commencing anti-tuberculous therapy which included INH 10 mg/kg/day. The symptoms continued despite the dose being reduced to 5 mg/kg/day...
June 13, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897290/poncet-s-disease-in-an-adolescent-with-abdominal-tuberculosis
#6
Ira Shah, Radhika Kalelkar
Poncet disease is a rare, acute-onset polyarthritis associated with active extra-articular tuberculosis (TB) without evidence of active infection in the affected joint and resolves without residual joint damage or long-term complications. Most cases are reported at the commencement of anti-tuberculous therapy (ATT). A 13-year-old girl with Poncet disease is reported which, despite almost 6 months of treatment for abdominal TB, manifested with bilateral knee joint involvement which resolved only with continuation of ATT...
June 13, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882486/fabricated-or-induced-illness-in-twins-associated-with-insertion-of-trocar-needles-into-their-bodies
#7
Yasmine Houas, Fatma Fitouri, Mourad Hamzaoui
Fabricated and/or induced illness (previously known as Munchausen syndrome by proxy) is a form of child abuse in which the perpetrator induces, exaggerates or fabricates illness in his/her child. Two-month-old twins were referred to the paediatric surgery centre with trocar needles lodged in different organs. A radiograph undertaken in one of them because of acute respiratory distress demonstrated needles in the heart and diaphragm which were removed surgically. The second twin, referred one week after his brother, had a needle deep in his liver and it was decided not to operate owing to the possibility of haemorrhage but, sadly, he died unexpectedly and the autopsy concluded that it was owing to sudden infant death syndrome...
June 8, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790830/empyema-necessitans-in-a-six-month-old-girl
#8
P Goussard, Robert Gie, Jacques Janson, Savvas Andronikou
Empyema necessitans is a rare complication of acute bacterial pneumonia, especially in children. It is a complication of empyema characterised by the extension of pus from the pleural cavity into the thoracic wall to form a mass of purulent fluid in the adjacent soft tissue. An inflammatory chest wall mass following pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumonia in a six-month-old infant is reported. The case emphasises that children presenting with persistent fever and a painful chest wall mass following pneumonia should be investigated immediately as there might be an urgent need for surgery...
May 23, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790827/the-effect-of-maternal-hiv-status-and-treatment-duration-on-body-composition-of-hiv-exposed-and-hiv-unexposed-preterm-very-and-extremely-low-birthweight-infants
#9
Klara Strydom, Daniel Gerhardus Nel, Muhammad Ali Dhansay, Evette Van Niekerk
BACKGROUND: There is an evidence gap regarding the relationship between HIV exposure, body composition (and the quality thereof) and preterm infants. AIM: This study determined the body composition of HIV-exposed, preterm very low-birthweight (VLBW) and extremely low-birthweight (ELBW) infants and to assess the effect of maternal HAART duration on the body composition of this vulnerable population. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted...
May 23, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790825/epidemiological-and-clinical-features-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-children-in-alicante-province-spain
#10
Jose M Ramos, Agustin Clavijo, Luis Moral, Cesar Gavilan, Tatiana Salvador, Javier González de Dios
Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic to the Mediterranean basin. In children, VL often presents with non-specific symptoms and can be life-threatening without proper treatment. Aim To describe the epidemiological and clinical features of pediatric VL in children in Alicante, Spain. Methods The study included all paediatric (<15 years) cases admitted to three hospitals in the province of Alicante from May 1992 to May 2015 with diagnosis of VL (detection was either by anti-Leishmania antibodies in serology or Leishmania in blood and/or bone marrow aspirates)...
May 23, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772959/electrocardiogram-in-a-patient-with-paragonimiasis-westermani-triggered-takotsubo-syndrome
#11
Jun Muneuchi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 18, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768976/predictors-of-intravenous-immunoglobulin-resistance-and-coronary-artery-aneurysm-in-patients-with-kawasaki-disease
#12
Nattika Chantasiriwan, Suchaya Silvilairat, Krit Makonkawkeyoon, Yupada Pongprot, Rekwan Sittiwangkul
BACKGROUND: Patients with Kawasaki disease (KD) who have intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) resistance are at increased risk for development of coronary artery abnormalities. Although in Japan several risk scoring systems are able to predict patients with IVIG-resistant (KD), they do not accurately predict non-responders in other regions. AIM: The objectives of this study were to determine the predictors of IVIG resistance and coronary artery aneurysm (CAA) and to develop risk scoring systems for predicting IVIG-resistant KD in the Thai population...
May 17, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737935/amoebic-colitis-presenting-with-hypo-albuminaemia-in-an-eight-month-old-breastfed-girl
#13
Asuman Nur Karhan, Ersin Gümüş, Hülya Demir, İnci Nur Saltik Temizel, Aysel Yüce, Hasan Özen
Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan parasite that affects a large proportion of the world's population and causes amoebic dysentery and extra-intestinal disease. Many individuals remain asymptomatic during colonisation; in 10% of individuals, the parasite breaks through the mucosal barrier and leads to invasive disease. An eight-month-old girl who was evaluated for hypo-albuminaemia and was diagnosed with amoebic colitis is reported. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of hypo-albuminaemia owing to amoebic colitis in any age group...
May 8, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726752/spectrum-of-renal-disease-in-hiv-infected-children-report-of-five-cases
#14
Karalanglin Tiewsoh, Ankur Kumar Jindal, Dhrubajyoti Sharma, Sunil Arora, Ranjana W Minz, Parimal Agrawal, Ritambhra Nada, Deepti Suri
There is a paucity of literature on renal diseases associated with HIV infection in Asian countries. Renal disease in HIV-infected children can involve the glomerulus, interstitium, tubules or blood vessels of the kidney. In this case series, five HIV-infected children with various forms of renal disease are reported. The renal pathology included HIV-associated nephropathy, collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis without tubular changes, tubule-interstitial nephritis and minimal change disease (MCD). Case five fulfilled the classification criteria for childhood polyarteritis nodosa (PAN)...
May 4, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790845/guidelines-for-the-treatment-of-dysentery-shigellosis-a-systematic-review-of-the-evidence
#15
Phoebe C M Williams, James A Berkley
BACKGROUND: Shigella remains the primary cause of diarrhoea in paediatric patients worldwide and accounts for up to 40,000 deaths per year. Current guidelines for the treatment of shigellosis are based on data which are over a decade old. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, an updated review of the appropriate empirical therapy for shigellosis in children is necessary, taking into account susceptibility patterns, cost and the risk of adverse events. METHODS: A systematic review of the current published literature on the treatment of shigella dysentery was undertaken in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA)...
November 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790844/antibiotic-use-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-neonates-and-children-who-evidence-review
#16
Shrey Mathur, Aline Fuchs, Julia Bielicki, Johannes Van Den Anker, Mike Sharland
Background Pneumonia is the most common cause of death in children worldwide, accounting for 15% of all deaths of children under 5 years of age. This review summarises the evidence for the empirical antibiotic treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in neonates and children and puts emphasis on publications since the release of the previous WHO Evidence Summary report published in 2014. Methods A systematic search for systematic reviews and meta-analyses of antibiotic therapy for community-acquired pneumonia was conducted between 1 January 2013 and 10 November 2016...
November 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790843/empirical-antibiotic-treatment-for-children-suffering-from-dysentery-cholera-pneumonia-sepsis-or-severe-acute-malnutrition
#17
Per Ashorn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790842/reviewing-the-who-guidelines-for-antibiotic-use-for-sepsis-in-neonates-and-children
#18
Aline Fuchs, Julia Bielicki, Shrey Mathur, Mike Sharland, Johannes N Van Den Anker
Background Guidelines from 2005 for treating suspected sepsis in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) recommended hospitalisation and prophylactic intramuscular (IM) or intravenous (IV) ampicillin and gentamicin. In 2015, recommendations when referral to hospital is not possible suggest the administration of IM gentamicin and oral amoxicillin. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, an updated review of the appropriate empirical therapy for treating sepsis (taking into account susceptibility patterns, cost and risk of adverse events) in neonates and children is necessary...
November 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790841/guidelines-for-the-management-of-paediatric-cholera-infection-a-systematic-review-of-the-evidence
#19
Phoebe C M Williams, James A Berkley
Background Vibrio cholerae is a highly motile Gram-negative bacterium which is responsible for 3 million cases of diarrhoeal illness and up to 100,000 deaths per year, with an increasing burden documented over the past decade. Current WHO guidelines for the treatment of paediatric cholera infection (tetracycline 12.5 mg/kg four times daily for 3 days) are based on data which are over a decade old. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, updated review of the appropriate empirical therapy for cholera infection in children (taking account of susceptibility patterns, cost and the risk of adverse events) is necessary...
November 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790840/guidelines-for-the-treatment-of-severe-acute-malnutrition-a-systematic-review-of-the-evidence-for-antimicrobial-therapy
#20
Phoebe C M Williams, James A Berkley
Background Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) affects nearly 20 million children worldwide and is responsible for up to 1 million deaths per year in children under the age of 5 years. Current WHO guidelines recommend oral amoxicillin for children with uncomplicated malnutrition and parenteral benzylpenicillin and gentamicin for those with complicated malnutrition. Because of cost pressures and increasing antimicrobial resistance, the administration of empirical antibiotics for children with SAM has recently been debated...
November 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
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