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RSC Advances

G Gupta, S Sharma, P M Mendes
The current study investigated the unique combination of alloying (Pt with Cr) and Nafion stabilisation to reap the benefits of catalyst systems with enhanced catalytic activity and improved durability in PEMFCs. Pt-Cr alloy nanoparticles stabilised with Nafion were chosen in the current study owing to their higher stability in acidic and oxidising media at high temperatures compared to other Pt-transition metal alloys (e.g. Pt-Ni, Pt-Co). Two different precursor : reducing agent (1 : 10 and 1 : 20) ratios were used in order to prepare two different alloys, denoted as Pt-Cr 10 and Pt-Cr 20...
September 15, 2016: RSC Advances
Damiano Cattaneo, Stewart J Warrender, Morven J Duncan, Christopher J Kelsall, Mary K Doherty, Phillip D Whitfield, Ian L Megson, Russell E Morris
Nitric oxide (NO) storage and release measurements have been recorded for Ni-doped CPO-27 (Mg) and CPO-27 (Zn), and the biological effect of the released NO was assessed in porcine coronary artery relaxation tests. The results indicate that the doping strategy leads to increased levels of NO storage and delivery compared to the parent materials and that the NO dosage and biological response can be tuned via this approach to suit the requirements of particular applications.
February 13, 2016: RSC Advances
W K Yeung, I V Sukhorukova, D V Shtansky, E A Levashov, I Y Zhitnyak, N A Gloushankova, P V Kiryukhantsev-Korneev, M I Petrzhik, A Matthews, A Yerokhin
The enhancement of the biological properties of Ti by surface doping with hydroxyapatite (HA) is of great significance, especially for orthodontic applications. This study addressed the effects of HA particle size in the electrolyte suspension on the characteristics and biological properties of thin titania-based coatings produced on Ti-6Al-4V alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO). Detailed morphological investigation of the coatings formed by a single-stage PEO process with two-step control of the electrical parameters was performed using the Minkowski functionals approach...
February 12, 2016: RSC Advances
Scott M Bird, Andrea E Rawlings, Johanna M Galloway, Sarah S Staniland
Magnetotactic bacteria are able to synthesise precise nanoparticles of the iron oxide magnetite within their cells. These particles are formed in dedicated organelles termed magnetosomes. These lipid membrane compartments use a range of biomineralisation proteins to nucleate and regulate the magnetite crystallisation process. A key component is the membrane protein Mms6, which binds to iron ions and helps to control the formation of the inorganic core. We have previously used Mms6 on gold surfaces patterned with a self-assembled monolayer to successfully produce arrays of magnetic nanoparticles...
January 29, 2016: RSC Advances
Alexander Yulaev, Guangjun Cheng, Angela R Hight Walker, Ivan V Vlassiouk, Alline Myers, Marina S Leite, Andrei Kolmakov
The application of suspended graphene as electron transparent supporting media in electron microscopy, vacuum electronics, and micromechanical devices requires the least destructive and maximally clean transfer from their original growth substrate to the target of interest. Here, we use thermally evaporated anthracene films as the sacrificial layer for graphene transfer onto an arbitrary substrate. We show that clean suspended graphene can be achieved via desorbing the anthracene layer at temperatures in the 100 °C to 150 °C range, followed by two sequential annealing steps for the final cleaning, using Pt catalyst and activated carbon...
2016: RSC Advances
Lung-I Huang, Yanfei Yang, Randolph E Elmquist, Shun-Tsung Lo, Fan-Hung Liu, Chi-Te Liang
We report on magneto-transport measurements on low-density, large-area monolayer epitaxial graphene devices grown on SiC. We observe temperature (T)-independent crossing points in the longitudinal resistivity ρxx, which are signatures of the insulator-quantum Hall (I-QH) transition, in all three devices. Upon converting the raw data into longitudinal and Hall conductivities σxx and σxy, in the most disordered device, we observed T-driven flow diagram approximated by the semi-circle law as well as the T-independent point in σxy near e(2)/h...
2016: RSC Advances
Madison A P McEnery, Sichang Lu, Mukesh K Gupta, Katarzyna J Zienkiewicz, Joseph C Wenke, Kerem N Kalpakci, Daniel Shimko, Craig L Duvall, Scott A Guelcher
Synthetic bone cements are commonly used in orthopaedic procedures to aid in bone regeneration following trauma or disease. Polymeric cements like PMMA provide the mechanical strength necessary for orthopaedic applications, but they are not resorbable and do not integrate with host bone. Ceramic cements have a chemical composition similar to that of bone, but their brittle mechanical properties limit their use in weight-bearing applications. In this study, we designed oxidatively degradable, polymeric bone cements with mechanical properties suitable for bone tissue engineering applications...
2016: RSC Advances
Li-Xia Chen, Gui-Yang Xia, Hao He, Jian Huang, Feng Qiu, Xiao-Lin Zi
Physalis pubescens L. plant produces nutritious and healthy fruits, called husk tomato or hairy ground cherry. However, its bioactive components are largely unknown. Four new withanolide steroids (1-4) together with one known withanolide (5) were isolated from the extract of P. pubescens L. and their chemical structures were established by extensive spectroscopic analyses. Compounds 1, 3 and 5 showed potent growth inhibitory effects against four human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell lines (i.e. 786-O, A-498, Caki-2 and ACHN)...
2016: RSC Advances
Xuezhen Huang, Xi Zhang, Hongrui Jiang
Two-electrode photovoltaically self-charging cells (PSCs) possess compact structures for both energy conversion and storage with shared electrolyte and electrodes. It remains challenging to develop PSCs that are efficient in both energy conversion and storage. In this work, WO3·H2O nanoplates were synthesized by a modified acid-directed hydrothermal process and used to prepare a WO3·H2O/CNTs/PVDF composite film for energy storage in PSCs. The method with the assistance of polyethylenimine was essential to form smaller sized WO3·H2O nanoplates, thus larger surface area and higher columbic efficiency in cyclic voltammetry tests...
2016: RSC Advances
Linyong Song, Qiang Ye, Xueping Ge, Anil Misra, Candan Tamerler, Paulette Spencer
A self-strengthening methacrylate-based dental adhesive system was developed by introducing an epoxy cyclohexyl trimethoxysilane (TS) which contains both epoxy and methoxysilyl functional groups. The experimental formulation, HEMA/BisGMA/TS (22.5/27.5/50, wt%), was polymerized by visible-light. Real-time Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to investigate in situ the free radical polymerization of methacrylate, ring-opening cationic polymerization of epoxy, and photoacid-induced sol-gel reactions...
2016: RSC Advances
Yangyang Li, Yurong Zhou, Xiang Li, Jihong Sun, Zhaohui Ren, Wengjian Wen, Xiaoming Yang, Gaorong Han
A new facile approach, namely chemical-assisted sol-gel growth (CASGG), was successfully developed to induce the formation of fine CaF2:Yb(3+), Tm(3+) nanocrytals within the pore channels of mesoporous silica (mSiO2) nanoparticles. A series of upconversion photoluminescent crystalline CaF2:Yb(3+),Tm(3+)@mSiO2 nanospheres with controlled diameters from (~)65 nm to (~)290 nm were fabricated. All nanospheres presented sound cyto-compatibility and unique ratiometric spectral monitoring functionalities for drug release kinetics...
2016: RSC Advances
Ismail Ocsoy, Nuran Isiklan, Sena Cansiz, Nalan Özdemir, Weihong Tan
Aptamer-functionalized magnetic graphene oxide conjugates loaded with indocyanine green (ICG) dye, or Apt@ICG@mGO, have been successfully developed for dual-targeted photothermal and photodynamic therapy. In general, a drug or its carrier or their dosage can be imprtant important issues in terms of toxicity. However, in this system, each component used is quite safe, biocompatibe and clean. For instance, ICG, a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved near-infrared (NIR) dye, serves as both a photothermal and photodynamic agent...
2016: RSC Advances
Dawei Xu, Qian Ran, Yang Xiang, Jiang Linhai, Britannia M Smith, Fadi Bou-Abdallah, Reidar Lund, Zhongjun Li, He Dong
A significant challenge associated with systemic delivery of cationic antimicrobial peptides and polymers lies in their limited hemocompatibility toward vast numbers of circulating red blood cells (RBCs). Supramolecular assembly of cationic peptides and polymers can be an effective strategy to develop an array of antimicrobial nanomaterials with tunable material structures, stability and thus optimized bioactivity to overcome some of the existing challenges associated with conventional antimicrobials. In this work, we will demonstrate the supramolecular design of self-assembling antimicrobial nanofibers (SAANs) which have tunable supramolecular nanostructures, stability, internal molecular packing and surface chemistry through self-assembly of de novo designed cationic peptides and peptide-PEG conjuguates...
2016: RSC Advances
Liqiang Zhang, Fengyu Su, Xiangxing Kong, Fred Lee, Kevin Day, Weimin Gao, Mary E Vecera, Jeremy M Sohr, Sean Buizer, Yanqing Tian, Deirdre R Meldrum
Extracellular pH has a strong effect on cell metabolism and growth. Precisely detecting extracellular pH with high throughput is critical for cell metabolism research and fermentation applications. In this research, a series of ratiometric fluorescent pH sensitive polymers are developed and the ps-pH-neutral is characterized as the best one for exculsive detection of extracellular pH. Poly(N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide) (PHPMA) is used as the host polymer to increase the water solubility of the pH sensitive polymer without introducing cell toxicity...
2016: RSC Advances
John H Thurston, Necia M Hunter, Kenneth A Cornell
Photoactive films derived from nanostructured samples of metal-free, intermediate band gap semiconductor graphitic carbon nitride (ns-g-C3N4) have been synthesized and characterized for their particle properties and antimicrobial activity. Physical characterization reveals that these materials are composed of discrete nanoparticles whose dimensions range from 200 nm to 700 nm. Investigation of the photochemical reactivity of ns-g-C3N4 using coumarin-3-carboxylic acid (3-CCA) indicates that this material produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) under visible radiation...
2016: RSC Advances
Satbir Singh, Pawan Kumar, Benny Abraham Kaipparettu, Bipin Kumar Gupta
Herein, we introduce a novel strategy for the synthesis of Eu(3+) doped α-sodium gadolinium fluoride (α-NaGd0.88F4:Eu0.12 (3+)) based luminomagnetic nanophosphors using hydrothermal route. The synthesized nanophosphor has exceptional luminescent and paramagnetic properties in a single host lattice, which is highly desirable for biomedical applications. This highly luminescent nanophosphor with an average particle size ∼ 5±3 nm enables high-contrast fluorescent imaging with decreased light scattering. In vitro cellular uptake is shown by fluorescent microscopy that envisages the characteristic hypersensitive red emission of Eu(3+) doped α-sodium gadolinium fluoride centered at 608 nm ((5)D0-(7)F2) upon 465 nm excitation wavelength...
2016: RSC Advances
Sneha Berry, Panagiotis Mastorakos, Clark Zhang, Eric Song, Himat Patel, Jung Soo Suk, Justin Hanes
Gene therapy is a promising strategy for the management of various neurological disorders that do not respond adequately to conventional therapeutics. The development of gene vectors with favorable safety profiles that can achieve uniform distribution and high-level transgene expression in the brain remains challenging. The rod-shaped, non-viral gene delivery platform based on poly-L-lysine (PLL) conjugated to a single segment of polyethylene glycol (PEG) has shown safe transfection in human nares and mouse brains in vivo...
2016: RSC Advances
Yanjiao Ding, Zhenyu Li, Yaoyao Li, Chunhua Lu, Haoxin Wang, Yuemao Shen, Liangcheng Du
Heat-stable antifungal factor (HSAF) belongs to polycyclic tetramate macrolactams (PTMs), which inhibits many fungal pathogens and is effective in inhibiting Candida albicans (C. albicans). In this study, we found that HSAF induced the apoptosis of Candida albicans SC5314 through inducing the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Nevertheless, we validated the efficacy of HSAF against candidiasis caused by C. albicans in a murine model in vivo, and HSAF significantly improved survival and reduced fungal burden compared to vehicles...
2016: RSC Advances
Gang Zhang, Rong Huang
We report the first chemical synthesis of SAM-peptide conjugates through alkyl linkers to prepare bisubstrate analogs for protein methyltransferases. We demonstrate its application by developing a series of bisubstrate inhibitors for protein N-terminal methyltransferase 1 and the most potent one exhibits a K i value of 310 ± 55 nM.
2016: RSC Advances
Lauren M Browning, Kerry J Lee, Pavan K Cherukuri, Prakash D Nallathamby, Seth Warren, Jean-Michel Jault, Xiao-Hong Nancy Xu
ATP-binding cassette (ABC) membrane transporters exist in all living organisms and play key roles in a wide range of cellular and physiological functions. The ABC transporters can selectively extrude a wide variety of structurally and functionally unrelated substrates, leading to multidrug resistance. Despite extensive study, their efflux molecular mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, we synthesized and characterized purified silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) (97 ± 13 nm in diameter), and used them as photostable optical imaging probes to study efflux kinetics of ABC membrane transporters (BmrA) of single live cells (B...
2016: RSC Advances
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