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Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids

Andreas Holmgaard, Anne Louise Askou, Josephine Natalia Esther Benckendorff, Emil Aagaard Thomsen, Yujia Cai, Toke Bek, Jacob Giehm Mikkelsen, Thomas J Corydon
Virus-based gene therapy by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing and knockout may provide a new option for treatment of inherited and acquired ocular diseases of the retina. In support of this notion, we show that Streptococcus pyogenes (Sp) Cas9, delivered by lentiviral vectors (LVs), can be used in vivo to selectively ablate the vascular endothelial growth factor A (Vegfa) gene in mice. By generating LVs encoding SpCas9 targeted to Vegfa, and in parallel the fluorescent eGFP marker protein, we demonstrate robust knockout of Vegfa that leads to a significant reduction of VEGFA protein in transduced cells...
December 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Kohei Ogawa, Kenya Kamimura, Yuji Kobayashi, Hiroyuki Abe, Takeshi Yokoo, Norihiro Sakai, Takuro Nagoya, Akira Sakamaki, Satoshi Abe, Kazunao Hayashi, Satoshi Ikarashi, Junji Kohisa, Masanori Tsuchida, Yutaka Aoyagi, Guisheng Zhang, Dexi Liu, Shuji Terai
Development of an effective, safe, and convenient method for gene delivery to the pancreas is a critical step toward gene therapy for pancreatic diseases. Therefore, we tested the possibility of applying the principle of hydrodynamic gene delivery for successful gene transfer to pancreas using rats as a model. The established procedure involves the insertion of a catheter into the superior mesenteric vein with temporary blood flow occlusion at the portal vein and hydrodynamic injection of DNA solution. We demonstrated that our procedure achieved efficient pancreas-specific gene expression that was 2,000-fold higher than that seen in the pancreas after the systemic hydrodynamic gene delivery...
December 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Rawa Arif, Marcin Zaradzki, Anca Remes, Philipp Seppelt, Reiner Kunze, Hannes Schröder, Simon Schwill, Stephan M Ensminger, Peter N Robinson, Matthias Karck, Oliver J Müller, Markus Hecker, Andreas H Wagner, Klaus Kallenbach
Marfan syndrome is characterized by high expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in aortic smooth muscle cells (AoSMCs) associated with medial elastolysis and aortic root aneurysm. We aimed to reduce aortic elastolysis through decrease of MMP expression with decoy oligodeoxynucleotides (dODNs) neutralizing the transcription factor activating factor-1 (AP-1). AP-1 abundance in nuclear extracts as well as MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression were significantly increased in isolated mAoSMC of mgR/mgR Marfan mice compared to wild-type cells...
December 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Christin Helmschrodt, Sabrina Höbel, Sandra Schöniger, Anne Bauer, Jana Bonicelli, Marieke Gringmuth, Simone A Fietz, Achim Aigner, Angelika Richter, Franziska Richter
RNA interference (RNAi)-based strategies that mediate the specific knockdown of target genes by administration of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) could be applied for treatment of presently incurable neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease. However, inefficient delivery of siRNA into neurons hampers in vivo application of RNAi. We have previously established the 4-12 kDa branched polyethylenimine (PEI) F25-LMW with superior transfection efficacy for delivery of siRNA in vivo. Here, we present that siRNA complexed with this PEI extensively distributes across the CNS down to the lumbar spinal cord after a single intracerebroventricular infusion...
December 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Xiao-Yu Li, Shan-Shan Wang, Zhe Han, Fei Han, Yun-Peng Chang, Yang Yang, Mei Xue, Bei Sun, Li-Ming Chen
Fibrosis is the major pathological feature of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Autophagy, a process to maintain metabolic homeostasis, is obviously inhibited in DKD. Triptolide (TP) is a traditional Chinese medicine extract known for immune suppression and anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities. In this study, we investigated the effects of TP on autophagy and fibrosis in DKD. TP restored autophagy and alleviated fibrosis in DKD rats and high-glucose-incubated human mesangial cells. After we applied 3-methyladenine (an autophagy inhibitor) and autophagy-related gene 5-small interfering RNA (siRNA), we found that the improvement of fibrosis on TP was related to the restoration of autophagy...
December 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Cheng-Rong Xie, Fei Wang, Sheng Zhang, Fu-Qiang Wang, Sen Zheng, Zhao Li, Jie Lv, He-Qiang Qi, Qin-Liang Fang, Xiao-Min Wang, Zhen-Yu Yin
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a new class of regulatory noncoding RNAs. Emerging evidences indicate that lncRNAs play a critical role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although several lncRNAs have been annotated, the association of most lncRNAs with HCC is unknown. In this study, we investigated lncRNA alterations in HCC by performing lncRNA microarray analysis. We identified a novel lncRNA called HCC-associated lncRNA (HCAL) that was highly expressed in HCC tissues. HCAL upregulation was clinically associated with poor differentiation, intravascular cancer embolus, and decreased survival of patients with HCC...
December 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Jia Wei, Shiyou Chen, Song Xue, Qiangru Zhu, Sha Liu, Li Cui, Xiuguo Hua, Yongyi Wang
In donor hearts from mini pigs, overtime cold preservation and ischemia-reperfusion injury cause poor graft quality and impaired heart function. Blockage of complement, apoptosis, and inflammation is considered a strategy for attenuating ischemia-reperfusion injury and protecting cardiac function. Minipig donor hearts were perfused and preserved in Celsior solution or transfection reagent containing Celsior solution with scramble siRNA or siRNAs targeting complement 3, caspase-8, caspase-3, and nuclear factor κB-p65 genes at 4°C and subsequently hemo-reperfused ex vivo (38°C) or transplanted into recipients...
December 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Tzu-Yang Weng, Chia-Jung Li, Chung-Yen Li, Yu-Hsuan Hung, Meng-Chi Yen, Yu-Wei Chang, Yu-Hung Chen, Yi-Ling Chen, Hui-Ping Hsu, Jang-Yang Chang, Ming-Derg Lai
Clec4a has been reported to be an immune suppressor of dendritic cells (DCs), but its potential role in cancer therapy remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated whether downregulating the expression of Clec4a via skin delivery of small hairpin RNA (shRNA) using a gene gun produced stronger host immunity and inhibited tumor progression in animal models. Administration of Clec4a2 shRNA delayed tumor growth in both mouse bladder and lung tumor-bearing mouse models. The result was further confirmed with a compensation experiment showing that the antitumor effects induced by Clec4a2 shRNA were restored by co-injection of a plasmid expressing exogenous Clec4a2...
December 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Saleh Omairi, Kwan-Leong Hau, Henry Collin-Hooper, Federica Montanaro, Aurelie Goyenvalle, Luis Garcia, Ketan Patel
Exon skipping mediated by tricyclo-DNA (tc-DNA) antisense oligonucleotides has been shown to induce significant levels of dystrophin restoration in mdx, a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. This translates into significant improvement in key disease indicators in muscle, cardio-respiratory function, heart, and the CNS. Here we examine the relationship between muscle fiber type, based on myosin heavy chain (MHC) profile, and the ability of tc-DNA to restore not only dystrophin but also other members of the dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex (DAPC)...
December 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Sijin Guo, Hui Li, Mengshi Ma, Jian Fu, Yizhou Dong, Peixuan Guo
RNA molecules have emerged as promising therapeutics. Like all other drugs, the safety profile and immune response are important criteria for drug evaluation. However, the literature on RNA immunogenicity has been controversial. Here, we used the approach of RNA nanotechnology to demonstrate that the immune response of RNA nanoparticles is size, shape, and sequence dependent. RNA triangle, square, pentagon, and tetrahedron with same shape but different sizes, or same size but different shapes were used as models to investigate the immune response...
December 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Yalei Cui, Xiaoyuan Yang, Xiaobo Zhang
During host stress response against virus infection, some animal microRNAs (miRNAs) can be upregulated to restore the virus-caused metabolic disorder of host cells via suppressing the expressions of miRNAs' target genes. These antiviral miRNAs may have antitumor capacity, because tumorigenesis results from metabolic disorder of cells. However, this subject has not been explored. In this study, the results showed that shrimp miR-34, which was upregulated during white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection, had antiviral activity in shrimp...
December 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Jennifer M Beierlein, Laura M McNamee, Fred D Ledley
The long path from initial research on oligonucleotide therapies to approval of antisense products is not unfamiliar. This lag resembles those encountered with monoclonal antibodies, gene therapies, and many biological targets and is consistent with studies of innovation showing that technology maturation is a critical determinant of product success. We previously described an analytical model for the maturation of biomedical research, demonstrating that the efficiency of targeted and biological development is connected to metrics of technology growth...
December 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Tejabhiram Yadavalli, Alex Agelidis, Dinesh Jaishankar, Kyle Mangano, Neel Thakkar, Kumar Penmetcha, Deepak Shukla
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is an important factor for vision loss in developed countries. A challenging aspect of the ocular infection by HSV-1 is that common treatments, such as acyclovir, fail to provide effective topical remedies. Furthermore, it is not very clear whether the viral glycoproteins, required for HSV-1 entry into the host, can be targeted for an effective therapy against ocular herpes in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that HSV-1 envelope glycoprotein gD, which is essential for viral entry and spread, can be specifically targeted by topical applications of a small DNA aptamer to effectively control ocular infection by the virus...
December 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Sushma Kalmodia, Sowmya Parameswaran, Kalaivani Ganapathy, Wenrong Yang, Colin J Barrow, Jagat R Kanwar, Kislay Roy, Madavan Vasudevan, Kirti Kulkarni, Sailaja V Elchuri, Subramanian Krishnakumar
Inhibition of the interaction between p53 and HDM2 is an effective therapeutic strategy in cancers that harbor a wild-type p53 protein such as retinoblastoma (RB). Nanoparticle-based delivery of therapeutic molecules has been shown to be advantageous in localized delivery, including to the eye, by overcoming ocular barriers. In this study, we utilized biocompatible gold nanoparticles (GNPs) to deliver anti-HDM2 peptide to RB cells. Characterization studies suggested that GNP-HDM2 was stable in biologically relevant solvents and had optimal cellular internalization capability, the primary requirement of any therapeutic molecule...
December 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Colby S Shemesh, Rosie Z Yu, Mark S Warren, Michael Liu, Mirza Jahic, Brandon Nichols, Noah Post, Song Lin, Daniel A Norris, Eunju Hurh, Jane Huang, Tanya Watanabe, Scott P Henry, Yanfeng Wang
Antisense oligonucleotides are metabolized by nucleases and drug interactions with small drug molecules at either the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme or transporter levels have not been observed to date. Herein, a comprehensive in vitro assessment of the drug-drug interaction (DDI) potential was carried out with four 2'-O-(2-methoxyethyl)-modified antisense oligonucleotides (2'-MOE-ASOs), including a single triantennary N-acetyl galactosamine (GalNAc3)-conjugated ASO. Several investigations to describe the DDI potential of a 2'-MOE-ASO conjugated to a high-affinity ligand for hepatocyte-specific asialoglycoprotein receptors are explored...
December 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Claudia Provenzano, Marisa Cappella, Rea Valaperta, Rosanna Cardani, Giovanni Meola, Fabio Martelli, Beatrice Cardinali, Germana Falcone
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is the most common adult-onset muscular dystrophy, characterized by progressive myopathy, myotonia, and multi-organ involvement. This dystrophy is an inherited autosomal dominant disease caused by a (CTG)n expansion within the 3' untranslated region of the DMPK gene. Expression of the mutated gene results in production of toxic transcripts that aggregate as nuclear foci and sequester RNA-binding proteins, resulting in mis-splicing of several transcripts, defective translation, and microRNA dysregulation...
December 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Diana Gulei, Ioana Berindan-Neagoe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Wei Li, Jingxue Sheng, Mengqiong Xu, Gia-Phong Vu, Zhu Yang, Yujun Liu, Xu Sun, Phong Trang, Sangwei Lu, Fenyong Liu
External guide sequence (EGS) RNAs are associated with ribonuclease P (RNase P), a tRNA processing enzyme, and represent promising agents for gene-targeting applications as they can direct RNase-P-mediated cleavage of a target mRNA. Using murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) as a model system, we examined the antiviral effects of an EGS variant, which was engineered using in vitro selection procedures. EGSs were used to target the shared mRNA region of MCMV capsid scaffolding protein (mCSP) and assemblin. In vitro, the EGS variant was 60 times more active in directing RNase P cleavage of the target mRNA than the EGS originating from a natural tRNA...
December 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Anne-Sophie Gautron, Alexandre Juillerat, Valérie Guyot, Jean-Marie Filhol, Emilie Dessez, Aymeric Duclert, Philippe Duchateau, Laurent Poirot
Using a TALEN-mediated gene-editing approach, we have previously described a process for the large-scale manufacturing of "off-the-shelf" CAR T cells from third-party donor T cells by disrupting the gene encoding TCRα constant chain (TRAC). Taking advantage of a previously described strategy to control TALEN targeting based on the exclusion capacities of non-conventional RVDs, we have developed highly efficient and specific nucleases targeting a key T cell immune checkpoint, PD-1, to improve engineered CAR T cells' functionalities...
December 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Bowen Li, Lu Wang, Zheng Li, Weizhi Wang, Xiaofei Zhi, Xiaoxu Huang, Qiang Zhang, Zheng Chen, Xuan Zhang, Zhongyuan He, Jianghao Xu, Lu Zhang, Hao Xu, Diancai Zhang, Zekuan Xu
Gastric cancer (GC) is a major health problem worldwide because of its high morbidity and mortality. Considering the well-established roles of miRNA in the regulation of GC carcinogenesis and progression, we screened differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) by using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the GEO databases. We found that miR-3174 was the most significantly differentially expressed miRNA in GC. Ectopic miR-3174 expression was also detected in clinical GC patient samples and cell lines and associated with poor patient prognosis...
December 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
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