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Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids

Li Zhou, Shunai Liu, Ming Han, Yanhua Ma, Shenghu Feng, Jing Zhao, Hongping Lu, Xiaoxue Yuan, Jun Cheng
Recent studies have shown the effect of microRNAs on HSC activation and transformation, which is essential for the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. In our study, we explored the role of miR-185 in liver fibrosis. Plasma miR-185 was detected in hepatitis B virus-related liver fibrosis patients (S2/3, n = 10) by Illumina HiSeq sequencing, and healthy volunteers were selected (n = 8) as the control group. We found that the plasma miR-185 level in fibrosis patients was significantly downregulated. CCl4 -induced fibrosis tissues in mouse livers and TGF-β1-activated HSCs also presented downregulated miR-185 concomitant with an increased expression of RHEB and RICTOR...
March 2, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Manjarika De, Sneha Ghosh, Triparna Sen, Md Shadab, Indranil Banerjee, Santanu Basu, Nahid Ali
There is a pressing need for a ubiquitously expressed antigen or receptor on the tumor surface for successful mitigation of the deleterious side effects of chemotherapy. Phosphatidylserine (PS), normally constrained to the intracellular surface, is exposed on the external surface of tumors and most tumorigenic cell lines. Here we report that a novel PS-targeting liposome, phosphatidylcholine-stearylamine (PC-SA), induced apoptosis and showed potent anticancer effects as a single agent against a majority of cancer cell lines...
March 2, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Jing Sun, Chong Qiu, Yiping Diao, Wei Wei, Hongwei Jin, Yi Zheng, Jiancheng Wang, Lihe Zhang, Zhenjun Yang
Small interfering RNA (siRNA) has been continuously explored for clinical applications. However, neither nanocarriers nor conjugates have been able to remove the obstacles. In this study, we employed a combined nanochemistry strategy to optimize its delivery dilemma, where different interactions and assembly modes were cooperatively introduced into the forming process of siRNA/lipids nanoplexes. In the nanoplexes, the 3',3″-bis-peptide-siRNA conjugate (pp-siRNA) and gemini-like cationic lipids (CLDs) were employed as dual regulators to improve their bio-behavior...
March 2, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Yasuhiro Mie, Yu Hirano, Keiko Kowata, Akiyoshi Nakamura, Mayu Yasunaga, Yoshihiro Nakajima, Yasuo Komatsu
MicroRNA (miRNA)-guided argonaute (Ago) controls gene expression upon binding to the 3' UTR of mRNA. The miRNA function can be competitively inhibited by single-stranded anti-miRNA oligonucleotides (AMOs). In this study, we constructed a novel type of AMO flanked by interstrand cross-linked 2'-O-methylated RNA duplexes (CLs) that confer a stable helical conformation. Compared with other structured AMOs, AMO flanked by CLs at the 5' and 3' termini exhibited much higher inhibitory activity in cells. Anti-miRNA activity, nuclease resistance, and miRNA modification pattern distinctly differed according to the CL-connected positions in AMOs...
March 2, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Kevin J Kauffman, Matthias A Oberli, J Robert Dorkin, Juan E Hurtado, James C Kaczmarek, Shivani Bhadani, Jeff Wyckoff, Robert Langer, Ana Jaklenec, Daniel G Anderson
mRNA therapeutics hold promise for the treatment of diseases requiring intracellular protein expression and for use in genome editing systems, but mRNA must transfect the desired tissue and cell type to be efficacious. Nanoparticle vectors that deliver the mRNA are often evaluated using mRNA encoding for reporter genes such as firefly luciferase (FLuc); however, single-cell resolution of mRNA expression cannot generally be achieved with FLuc, and, thus, the transfected cell populations cannot be determined without additional steps or experiments...
March 2, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Andreas Dieckmann, Peter H Hagedorn, Yvonne Burki, Christine Brügmann, Marco Berrera, Martin Ebeling, Thomas Singer, Franz Schuler
The successful development of high-affinity gapmer antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) therapeutics containing locked nucleic acid (LNA) or constrained ethyl (cEt) substitutions has been hampered by the risk of hepatotoxicity. Here, we present an in vitro approach using transfected mouse fibroblasts to predict the potential hepatic liabilities of LNA-modified ASOs (LNA-ASOs), validated by assessing 236 different LNA-ASOs with known hepatotoxic potential. This in vitro assay accurately reflects in vivo findings and relates hepatotoxicity to RNase H1 activity, off-target RNA downregulation, and LNA-ASO-binding affinity...
March 2, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Xingmei Zhang, Li Peng, Zhiman Liang, Zhewen Kou, Yue Chen, Guangwei Shi, Xiaowen Li, Yanling Liang, Fang Wang, Yusheng Shi
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most prevalent and lethal malignant intracranial tumor in the brain, with very poor prognosis and survival. The epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII) contributes to increased oncogenicity that does not occur through binding EGFR ligands and instead occurs through constitutive activation, which enhances glioma tumorigenicity and resistance to targeted therapy. Aptamers are nucleic acids with high affinity and specificity to targets selected by systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), and are usually developed as antagonists of disease-associated factors...
March 2, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Jiazhi Li, Kun Zou, Lihui Yu, Wenyue Zhao, Ying Lu, Jun Mao, Bo Wang, Lu Wang, Shujun Fan, Bo Song, Lianhong Li
MicroRNA-140, a cartilage-specific microRNA, has recently been implicated in the cancer progression. However, the comprehensive role of miR-140 in the invasion and metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC) is still not fully understood. In this study, we confirmed that miR-140 downregulates SMAD family member 3 (Smad3), which is a key downstream effector of the TGF-β signaling pathway, at the translational level in the CRC cell lines. Ectopic expression of miR-140 inhibits the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), at least partially through targeting Smad3, and induces the suppression of migratory and invasive capacities of CRC cells in vitro...
March 2, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Shuyuan Shen, Hai Yu, Xiaobai Liu, Yunhui Liu, Jian Zheng, Ping Wang, Wei Gong, Jiajia Chen, Lini Zhao, Yixue Xue
The blood-tumor barrier (BTB) restricts the efficient delivery of anti-glioma drugs to cranial glioma tissues. Increased BTB permeability may allow greater delivery of the therapeutic agents. Increasing evidence has revealed that PIWI proteins and PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) play an important role in tumor progression. However, whether PIWI proteins and piRNAs regulate BTB permeability remains unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated that the PIWIL1/piRNA-DQ593109 (piR-DQ593109) complex was the predominant regulator of BTB permeability...
March 2, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Carla Lucia Esposito, Silvia Nuzzo, Silvia Catuogno, Simona Romano, Filomena de Nigris, Vittorio de Franciscis
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most frequent and aggressive primary brain tumor in adults, and despite advances in neuro-oncology, the prognosis for patients remains dismal. The signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) has been reported as a key regulator of the highly aggressive mesenchymal GBM subtype, and its direct silencing (by RNAi oligonucleotides) has revealed a great potential as an anti-cancer therapy. However, clinical use of oligonucleotide-based therapies is dependent on safer ways for tissue-specific targeting and increased membrane penetration...
March 2, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Lifang Lv, Tianyu Li, Xuelian Li, Chaoqian Xu, Qiushuang Liu, Hua Jiang, Yingnan Li, Yingqi Liu, He Yan, Qihe Huang, Yuhong Zhou, Mingyu Zhang, Hongli Shan, Haihai Liang
Cardiac hypertrophy accompanied by maladaptive cardiac remodeling is the uppermost risk factor for the development of heart failure. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) have various biological functions, and their vital role in the regulation of cardiac hypertrophy still needs to be explored. In this study, we demonstrated that lncRNA Plscr4 was upregulated in hypertrophic mice hearts and in angiotensin II (Ang II)-treated cardiomyocytes. Next, we observed that overexpression of Plscr4 attenuated Ang II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy...
March 2, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Feriel Azibani, Astrid Brull, Ludovic Arandel, Maud Beuvin, Isabelle Nelson, Arnaud Jollet, Esma Ziat, Bernard Prudhon, Sofia Benkhelifa-Ziyyat, Marc Bitoun, Stéphanie Lorain, Gisèle Bonne, Anne T Bertrand
We assessed the potential of Lmna-mRNA repair by spliceosome-mediated RNA trans-splicing as a therapeutic approach for LMNA-related congenital muscular dystrophy. This gene therapy strategy leads to reduction of mutated transcript expression for the benefit of corresponding wild-type (WT) transcripts. We developed 5'-RNA pre-trans-splicing molecules containing the first five exons of Lmna and targeting intron 5 of Lmna pre-mRNA. Among nine pre-trans-splicing molecules, differing in the targeted sequence in intron 5 and tested in C2C12 myoblasts, three induced trans-splicing events on endogenous Lmna mRNA and confirmed at protein level...
March 2, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Shanxin Peng, Jing Wang, Songtao Wei, Changfei Li, Kai Zhou, Jun Hu, Xin Ye, Jinghua Yan, Wenjun Liu, George F Gao, Min Fang, Songdong Meng
The reciprocal interaction between influenza virus and host microRNAs (miRNAs) has been implicated in the regulation of viral replication and host tropism. However, the global roles of the cellular miRNA repertoire and the mechanisms of miRNA-mediated antiviral defense await further elucidation. In this study, we systematically screened 297 cellular miRNAs from human and mouse epithelial cells and identified five inhibitory miRNAs that efficiently inhibited influenza virus replication in vitro and in vivo...
March 2, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Zongliang Gao, Elena Herrera-Carrillo, Ben Berkhout
Type 3 Pol III promoters such as U6 are widely used for expression of small RNAs, including short hairpin RNA for RNAi applications and guide RNA in CRISPR genome-editing platforms. RNA polymerase III uses a T-stretch as termination signal, but the exact properties have not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we systematically measured the in vivo termination efficiency and the actual site of termination for different T-stretch signals in three commonly used human Pol III promoters (U6, 7SK, and H1). Both the termination efficiency and the actual termination site depend on the T-stretch signal...
March 2, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Yi Lu, Phillip W L Tai, Jianzhong Ai, Dominic J Gessler, Qin Su, Xieyi Yao, Qiang Zheng, Phillip D Zamore, Xun Xu, Guangping Gao
Corneal neovascularization (NV) is the major sight-threatening pathology caused by angiogenic stimuli. Current drugs that directly target pro-angiogenic factors to inhibit or reverse the disease require multiple rounds of administration and have limited efficacies. Here, we identify potential anti-angiogenic corneal microRNAs (miRNAs) and demonstrate a framework that employs discovered miRNAs as biotherapies deliverable by recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAVs). By querying differentially expressed miRNAs in neovascularized mouse corneas induced by alkali burn, we have revealed 39 miRNAs that are predicted to target more than 5,500 differentially expressed corneal mRNAs...
March 2, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Qianru He, Lini Zhao, Yunhui Liu, Xiaobai Liu, Jian Zheng, Hai Yu, Heng Cai, Jun Ma, Libo Liu, Ping Wang, Zhen Li, Yixue Xue
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a type of endogenous non-coding RNAs, which have been considered to mediate diverse tumorigenesis including angiogenesis. The present study aims to elucidate the potential role and molecular mechanism of circ-SHKBP1 in regulating the angiogenesis of U87 glioma-exposed endothelial cells (GECs). The expression of circ-SHKBP1, but not linear SHKBP1, was significantly upregulated in GECs compared with astrocyte-exposed endothelial cells (AECs). circ-SHKBP1 knockdown inhibited the viability, migration, and tube formation of GECs dramatically...
March 2, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Xiaolin Yu, Sharad Ghamande, Haitao Liu, Lu Xue, Shuhua Zhao, Wenxi Tan, Lijing Zhao, Shou-Ching Tang, Daqing Wu, Hasan Korkaya, Nita J Maihle, Hong Yan Liu
HER family members are interdependent and functionally compensatory. Simultaneously targeting EGFR/HER2/HER3 by antibody combinations has demonstrated superior treatment efficacy over targeting one HER receptor. However, antibody combinations have their limitations, with high immunogenicity and high cost. In this study, we have developed a three-in-one nucleic acid aptamer-small interfering RNA (siRNA) chimera, which targets EGFR/HER2/HER3 in one molecule. This inhibitory molecule was constructed such that a single EGFR siRNA is positioned between the HER2 and HER3 aptamers to create a HER2 aptamer-EGFR siRNA-HER3 aptamer chimera (H2EH3)...
March 2, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Weronika Kotkowiak, Jolanta Lisowiec-Wachnicka, Jakub Grynda, Ryszard Kierzek, Jesper Wengel, Anna Pasternak
Thrombin is a serine protease that plays a crucial role in hemostasis, fibrinolysis, cell proliferation, and migration. Thrombin binding aptamer (TBA) is able to inhibit the activity of thrombin molecule via binding to its exosite I. This 15-nt DNA oligonucleotide forms an intramolecular, antiparallel G-quadruplex structure with a chair-like conformation. In this paper, we report on our investigations on the influence of certain modified nucleotide residues on thermodynamic stability, folding topology, and biological properties of TBA variants...
March 2, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Yi Lu, Dongdong Lu, Yu Hu
Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP2) is a proglucagon-derived peptide that is involved in the regulation of energy absorption and exerts beneficial effects on glucose metabolism. However, the exact mechanisms underlying the GLP2 during osteogenic differentiation has not been illustrated. Herein, we indicated that GLP2 was demonstrated to result in positive action during the osteogenic differentiation of human osteosarcoma cells. Our findings demonstrate that GLP2 inhibis the growth of osteosarcoma cells in vivo and in vitro...
March 2, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Krista Freimann, Piret Arukuusk, Kaido Kurrikoff, Ly Pärnaste, Raivo Raid, Andres Piirsoo, Margus Pooga, Ülo Langel
Although advances in genomics and experimental gene therapy have opened new possibilities for treating otherwise incurable diseases, the transduction of nucleic acids into the cells and delivery in vivo remain challenging. The high molecular weight and anionic nature of nucleic acids require their packing into nanoparticles for the delivery. The efficacy of nanoparticle drugs necessitates the high bioactivity of constituents, but their distribution in organisms is mostly governed by the physical properties of nanoparticles, and therefore, generation of stable particles with strictly defined characteristics is highly essential...
March 2, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
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