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Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology

Sergio Salazar-Villanea, Erik M A M Bruininx, Harry Gruppen, Wouter H Hendriks, Patrick Carré, Alain Quinsac, Antonius F B van der Poel
BACKGROUND: Toasting during the production of rapeseed meal (RSM) decreases ileal crude protein (CP) and amino acid (AA) digestibility. The mechanisms that determine the decrease in digestibility have not been fully elucidated. A high protein quality, low-denatured, RSM was produced and toasted up to 120 min, with samples taken every 20 min. The aim of this study was to characterize secondary structure and chemical changes of proteins and glucosinolates occurring during toasting of RSM and the effects on its in vitro CP digestibility...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
David W Miller, Zoe Prosser, Edward Y W Chee, Christian F Hansen, Frank R Dunshea, Bruce P Mullan, John R Pluske
BACKGROUND: Three experiments were conducted to examine the overall hypothesis that addition of medium chain triglycerides (MCT) and cysteamine hydrochloride (CSH) into the diets of young and growing pigs would stimulate the endogenous somatotropic axis to improve growth and performance. RESULTS: In Experiment 1, weaner pigs were given either a 5 d dietary supplement of 5 % MCT (n = 8) or a control diet (n = 8). MCT increased the plasma concentration of growth hormone (GH; P < 0...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Cheng Wang, Hongqian Chen, Xuebin Zhang, Chaoying Meng
BACKGROUND: Behavior is an important indicator reflecting the welfare of animals. Manual analysis of video is the most commonly used method to study animal behavior. However, this approach is tedious and depends on a subjective judgment of the analysts. There is an urgent need for automatic identification of individual animals and automatic tracking is a fundamental part of the solution to this problem. RESULTS: In this study, an algorithm based on a Hybrid Support Vector Machine (HSVM) was developed for the automated tracking of individual laying hens in a layer group...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Alberto Mansur Ghetti, Luiz Gustavo Bruno Siqueira, Eduardo Kenji Nunes Arashiro, Miller Pereira Palhao, Felipe Zandonadi Brandao, Joao Henrique Moreira Viana
BACKGROUND: Removal of the follicular content by ultrasound-guided transvaginal follicle aspiration (TVFA) may fail to induce immediate atresia and loss of function, resulting in the occurrence of residual follicles (RF). The aims of this study were to characterize the blood flow in RF and to determine the effects of the treatment with estradiol benzoate on RF fate. Lactating, cyclic Holstein-Gir crossbred cows were used. In Experiment 1, follicular wave emergence (D0) was synchronized in cows (n = 10) and follicular growth was then monitored by transrectal ultrasonography from D0 to D8, followed by TVFA of the largest follicle present on the ovaries 24 h later...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Jae Cheol Kim, Bruce P Mullan, John L Black, Robert J E Hewitt, Robert J van Barneveld, John R Pluske
BACKGROUND: This experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that vitamin E (Vit E) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, will additively reduce the production of the immunosuppressive molecule prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and hence reduce inflammatory responses in weaner pigs experimentally infected with an enterotoxigenic strain of E. coli. METHODS: The experiment was conducted in a research facility with 192 individually-housed male weaner pigs (Landrace × Large White) weighing 6...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Jieyun Li, Hui Gao, Zhen Tian, Yi Wu, Yingzheng Wang, Yuan Fang, Lu Lin, Ying Han, Shuaishuai Wu, IhteshamUl Haq, Shenming Zeng
BACKGROUND: Heat stress is known to alter follicular dynamics and granulosa cell function and may contribute to the diminished reproductive efficiency commonly observed in mammals during the summer. Although several investigators have studied heat-induced ovarian injury, few reports have focused on the effects of chronic heat stress on ovarian function and the molecular mechanisms through which it induces ovarian injury. METHODS: In Exp. 1, 48 female mice were assigned to a control or heat-stressed treatment...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Hanna Katharina Spindler, Rainer Mosenthin, Pia Rosenfelder, Henry Jørgensen, Knud Erik Bach Knudsen, Meike Eklund
BACKGROUND: Basal ileal endogenous amino acid (AA) losses (IAAend) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) values of cereal grains, such as barley, are apparently underestimated when determined according to the nitrogen (N)-free method. Regression analysis between the dietary apparent ileal digestible content (cAID) and total crude protein (CP) and AA can be considered as alternative approach to obtain more accurate values for IAAend and SID of AA in cereal grains. METHODS: Eight hulled barley genotypes were used, with barley being the only source of CP and AA in the assay diets...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Sandra J A van Kuijk, José C Del Río, Jorge Rencoret, Ana Gutiérrez, Anton S M Sonnenberg, Johan J P Baars, Wouter H Hendriks, John W Cone
BACKGROUND: The present work investigated the influence of lignin content and composition in the fungal treatment of lignocellulosic biomass in order to improve rumen degradability. Wheat straw and wood chips, differing in lignin composition, were treated with Lentinula edodes for 0, 2, 4, 8 and 12 wk and the changes occurring during fungal degradation were analyzed using pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and detergent fiber analysis. RESULTS: L. edodes preferentially degraded lignin, with only limited cellulose degradation, in wheat straw and wood chips, leaving a substrate enriched in cellulose...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Laura Maccarana, Mirko Cattani, Franco Tagliapietra, Lucia Bailoni, Stefano Schiavon
BACKGROUND: Modification of chemical composition of diets fed to dairy cows might be a good strategy to reduce methane (CH4) production in the rumen. Notable reductions of CH4 production compared to conventional high-roughages rations were more frequently observed for very concentrated diets or when fat supplements were used. In these cases, the reduction in the gas emission was mainly a consequence of an overall impairment of rumen function with a reduction of fiber digestibility. These strategies do not always comply with feeding standards used in intensive dairy farms and they are usually not applied owing to the risks of negative health and economic consequences...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Emma O'Shea, Sinéad M Waters, Kate Keogh, Alan K Kelly, David A Kenny
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary restriction and subsequent compensatory growth on the relative expression of genes involved in volatile fatty acid transport, metabolism and cell proliferation in ruminal epithelial tissue of beef cattle. Sixty Holstein Friesian bulls (mean liveweight 370 ± 35 kg; mean age 479 ± 15 d) were assigned to one of two groups: (i) restricted feed allowance (RES; n = 30) for 125 d (Period 1) followed by ad libitum access to feed for 55 d (Period 2) or (ii) ad libitum access to feed throughout (ADLIB; n = 30)...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
M D Mostafizar Rahman, Katerina Theodoridou, Peiqiang Yu
BACKGROUND: To our knowledge, there is little study on the interaction between nutrient availability and molecular structure changes induced by different processing methods in dairy cattle. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of heat processing methods on interaction between nutrient availability and molecular structure in terms of functional groups that are related to protein and starch inherent structure of oat grains with two continued years and three replication of each year...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
C E Abell, R L Fernando, T V Serenius, M F Rothschild, K A Gray, K J Stalder
BACKGROUND: The overall breeding objective for a nucleus swine selection program is to improve crossbred commercial performance. Most genetic improvement programs are based on an assumed high degree of positive relationship between purebred performance in a nucleus herd and their relatives' crossbred performance in a commercial herd. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between purebred and crossbred sow longevity performance. Sow longevity was defined as a binary trait with a success occurring if a sow remained in the herd for a certain number of parities and including the cumulative number born alive as a measure of reproductive success...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Eva Tvrdá, Anton Kováčik, Eva Tušimová, Dušan Paál, Alica Mackovich, Jakhongir Alimov, Norbert Lukáč
BACKGROUND: Lycopene (LYC) is a natural carotenoid with powerful reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activities. The aim of this study was to investigate if lycopene has the ability to reverse ROS-mediated alterations to the motility, viability and intracellular antioxidant profile of bovine spermatozoa subjected to ferrous ascorbate (FeAA). Spermatozoa were washed out of fresh bovine semen, suspended in 2.9 % sodium citrate and subjected to LYC treatment (0.25, 0.5, 1 or 2 mmol/L) in the presence or absence of FeAA (150 μmol/L FeSO4 and 750 μmol/L ascorbic acid) during a 6 h in vitro culture...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Huizeng Sun, Bing Wang, Jiakun Wang, Hongyun Liu, Jianxin Liu
BACKGROUND: Alfalfa hay and corn stover are different type of forages which can significantly impact a cow's lactation performance, but the underlying metabolic mechanism has been poorly studied. We used biomarker and pathway analyses to characterize related biomarkers and pathways based on urine metabolomics data from different forage treatments. Urine was collected from 16 multiparous Holstein dairy cows fed alfalfa hay (AH, high-quality forage, n = 8) and corn stover (CS, low-quality forage, n = 8) respectively...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Juntao Li, Quanfeng Li, Defa Li, Yiqiang Chen, Xiaoxiao Wang, Wenjun Yang, Liying Zhang
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s40104-016-0105-9.].
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Yinghui Li, Fengna Li, Li Wu, Hongkui Wei, Yingying Liu, Tiejun Li, Bie Tan, Xiangfeng Kong, Kang Yao, Shuai Chen, Fei Wu, Yehui Duan, Yulong Yin
BACKGROUND: To investigate the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) restriction on muscle fiber characteristics and key regulators related to protein deposition in skeletal muscle, a total of 18 growing-finishing pigs (62.30 ± 0.88 kg) were allotted to 3 groups and fed with the recommended adequate protein (AP, 16 % CP) diet, moderately restricted protein (MP, 13 % CP) diet and low protein (LP, 10 % CP) diet, respectively. The skeletal muscle of different locations in pigs, including longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM), psoas major muscle (PMM) and biceps femoris muscle (BFM) were collected and analyzed...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Heju Zhong, Hao Li, Guangmang Liu, Haifeng Wan, Yves Mercier, Xiaoling Zhang, Yan Lin, Lianqiang Che, Shengyu Xu, Li Tang, Gang Tian, Daiwen Chen, De Wu, Zhengfeng Fang
BACKGROUND: To determine responses of neonatal intestine to maternal increased consumption of DL-methionine (DLM) or DL-2-hydroxy-4-methylthiobutanoic acid (HMTBA), eighteen primiparous sows (Landrace × Yorkshire) were allocated based on body weight and backfat thickness to the control, DLM and HMTBA groups (n = 6), with the nutritional treatments introduced from postpartum d0 to d14. RESULTS: The DLM-fed sows showed negative energy balance manifested by lost bodyweight, lower plasma glucose, subdued tricarboxylic acid cycle, and increased plasma lipid metabolites levels...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Juntao Li, Quanfeng Li, Defa Li, Yiqiang Chen, Xiaoxiao Wang, Wunjun Yang, Liying Zhang
BACKGROUND: The ability of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) to determine the digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) content of corn fed to growing pigs was tested. One hundred and seventeen corn samples, comprising different planting regions and varieties were collected from all over China in a three-year period. The samples were randomly split into a calibration set (n = 88) and a validation set (n = 29). The actual and calculated DE and ME content of the corn samples was determined by digestion-metabolism experiments and the prediction equations of Noblet and Perez (J Anim Sci...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Shanshan Li, Afshin Hosseini, Marina Danes, Carolina Jacometo, Jianxin Liu, Juan J Loor
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to study how changing the ratio of Lys to Thr, Lys to His, and Lys to Val affects the expression of lipogenic genes and microRNA (miRNA) in bovine mammary epithelial cells. RESULTS: Triplicate cultures with the respective "optimal" amino acid (AA) ratio (OPAA = Lys:Met 2.9:1; Thr:Phe 1.05:1; Lys:Thr 1.8:1; Lys:His 2.38:1; Lys:Val 1.23:1) plus rapamycin (OPAARMC; positive control), OPAA, Lys:Thr 2.1:1 (LT2.1), Lys:Thr 1...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Wei Chen, Xianyong Ma, Yingcai Lin, Yunxia Xiong, Chuntian Zheng, Youjun Hu, Deqian Yu, Zongyong Jiang
BACKGROUND: Although isoflavones are natural dietary antioxidants, they may have toxicological effects. This study aimed to evaluate the redox system in tissues of finishing pigs by supplementation with high dose of daidzein (640 mg/kg). RESULTS: The supplementation of high dose of daidzein for 64 d increased the activity of superoxide dismutase and total antioxidant capacity in longissimus muscle but down-regulated the expression of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-producing enzyme NADPH oxidase-2 and cyclooxygenase-2...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
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