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Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology

Heju Zhong, Peng Wang, Yumo Song, Xiaoling Zhang, Lianqiang Che, Bin Feng, Yan Lin, Shengyu Xu, Jian Li, De Wu, Qiaofeng Wu, Zhengfeng Fang
Background: Persistent lactation, as the result of mammary cellular anabolism and secreting function, is dependent on substantial mobilization or catabolism of body reserves under nutritional deficiency. However, little is known about the biochemical mechanisms for nutrition-restricted lactating animals to simultaneously maintain the anabolism of mammary cells while catabolism of body reserves. In present study, lactating sows with restricted feed allowance (RFA) ( n  = 6), 24% feed restriction compared with the control (CON) group ( n  = 6), were used as the nutrition-restricted model...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Xin Liu, Kaiqing Liu, Baosen Shan, Shengjuan Wei, Dongfeng Li, Haiyin Han, Wei Wei, Jie Chen, Honglin Liu, Lifan Zhang
Background: Preadipocyte differentiation plays a critical role in subcutaneous fat deposition in pigs. However, the roles of different RNAs, such as messenger RNAs (mRNAs), long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), and circular RNAs (circRNAs) in the differentiation process of subcutaneous preadipocytes, are still largely unclear. In the present study, a transcriptome analysis, including the analysis of mRNAs, lncRNAs, and circRNAs, during different differentiation stages, namely, day 0 (D0), day 2 (D2), day 4 (D4), and day 8 (D8), of subcutaneous preadipocytes from Chinese Erhualian pigs was performed...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Shihai Zhang, Fang Chen, Yinzhi Zhang, Yantao Lv, Jinghui Heng, Tian Min, Lilang Li, Wutai Guan
As the only nutritional source for newborn piglets, porcine colostrum and milk contain critical nutritional and immunological components including carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins (immunoglobulins). However, porcine milk composition is more complex than these three components. Recently, scientists identified additional and novel components of sow colostrum and milk, including exosomes, oligosaccharides, and bacteria, which possibly act as biological signals and modulate the intestinal environment and immune status in piglets and later in life...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Xiaonan Yu, Jianan Han, Haiyun Li, Yiwei Zhang, Jie Feng
Background: This experiment was conducted to study the effect of different feed enzymes (phytase, xylanase, β-glucanase) on release rate of trace elements (Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn) in 6 commonly used feedstuffs (corn, wheat, barley, soybean meal, wheat bran, wheat middlings) by using an in vitro model, simulating the digestive processes in stomach for 2 h and then in small intestine for 6 h at 39 °C. Results: Phytase raised ( P  < 0.05) the release rate of Cu and Zn in corn, Cu, Zn and Mn in wheat, Cu in barley, Cu, Zn and Mn in soybean meal, Zn, Fe in wheat bran and Zn, Fe, Mn in wheat middlings...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Thiago Martins, Guilherme Pugliesi, Mariana Sponchiado, Angela M Gonella-Diaza, Oscar A Ojeda-Rojas, Frederich D Rodriguez, Roney S Ramos, Andrea C Basso, Mario Binelli
Background: A major, unresolved issue is how the uterine microenvironment determines pregnancy success in cattle. Before implantation, conceptus development depends on the uterine secretome (i.e., histotroph). Despite its pivotal role, little is known about the dynamics of histotroph synthesis and changes in composition throughout the early diestrus and the relevance to pregnancy establishment. We hypothesize that disturbances on histotroph composition affect the establishment of pregnancy...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Shiyi Tian, Jue Wang, Hu Yu, Jing Wang, Weiyun Zhu
Background: Most research on galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) has mainly focused on their prebiotic effects on the hindgut, but their beneficial effects on the small intestine (SI) have received little attention. Since jejunum is the important place to digest and absorb nutrients efficiently, optimal maturation of the jejunum is necessary for maintaining the high growth rate in the neonate. Therefore, this study investigates the effect of the early intervention with GOS on the intestinal development of the jejunum...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Shengru Wu, Yanli Liu, Yongle Duan, Fangyuan Wang, Fangshen Guo, Fang Yan, Xiaojun Yang, Xin Yang
Background: Limited research has focused on the effect of Lactobacillus on the intestinal toxicity of deoxynivalenol (DON). The present study was conducted to investigate the role of Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) JM113 in protecting against the intestinal toxicity caused by DON. Methods: A total of 144 one-day-old healthy Arbor Acres broilers were randomly distributed into 3 treatments, including the CON (basal diet), the DON (extra 10 mg/kg deoxynivalenol), and the DL (extra 1 × 109  CFU/ kg L...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Monika Ruszkowska, Anna Nynca, Lukasz Paukszto, Agnieszka Sadowska, Sylwia Swigonska, Karina Orlowska, Tomasz Molcan, Jan P Jastrzebski, Renata E Ciereszko
Background: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) may regulate gene expression in numerous biological processes including cellular response to xenobiotics. The exposure of living organisms to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p -dioxin (TCDD), a persistent environmental contaminant, results in reproductive defects in many species including pigs. The aims of the study were to identify and characterize lncRNAs in porcine granulosa cells as well as to examine the effects of TCDD on the lncRNA expression profile in the cells...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Liping Gan, Hao Fan, Wei Nie, Yuming Guo
Background: Laying hens over 75 weeks of age commonly show great declines in immunity and production performance. It is unclear whether these declines can be relieved by supplementing with ascorbic acid (AA) in feed. Two trials were conducted to investigate the synthesis and metabolism of AA in layers of different ages and the effects of dietary supplemental AA on the performance and the immune and antioxidant statuses of 78 weeks old hens. Methods: In Exp. 1, equal numbers (24 hens) of 35 weeks old (Young) and 75 weeks old (Old) layers were fed the same diet without AA supplementation for 4 weeks...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Ahmed A Elolimy, Mohamed K Abdelmegeid, Joshua C McCann, Daniel W Shike, Juan J Loor
Background: Residual feed intake (RFI) describes an animal's feed efficiency independent of growth performance. The objective of this study was to determine differences in growth performance, carcass traits, major bacteria attached to ruminal solids-fraction, and ruminal epithelium gene expression between the most-efficient and the least-efficient beef cattle. One-hundred and forty-nine Red Angus cattle were allocated to three contemporary groups according to sex and herd origin. Animals were fed a finishing diet in confinement for 70 d to determine the RFI category for each...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
McKenna Clare, Porter Richard, Keogh Kate, Waters Sinead, McGee Mark, Kenny David
Background: Feed accounts for up to 75% of costs in beef production systems, thus any improvement in feed efficiency (FE) will benefit the profitability of this enterprise. Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of FE that is independent of level of production. Adipose tissue (AT) is a major endocrine organ and the primary metabolic energy reservoir. It modulates a variety of processes related to FE such as lipid metabolism and glucose homeostasis and thus measures of inter-animal variation in adiposity are frequently included in the calculation of the RFI index...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Lingyang Xu, Yanghua He, Yi Ding, George E Liu, Huanmin Zhang, Hans H Cheng, Robert L Taylor, Jiuzhou Song
Background: Marek's disease (MD) is a highly contagious pathogenic and oncogenic disease primarily affecting chickens. However, the mechanisms of genetic resistance for MD are complex and not fully understood. MD-resistant line 63 and MD-susceptible line 72 are two highly inbred progenitor lines of White Leghorn. Recombinant Congenic Strains (RCS) were developed from these two lines, which show varied susceptibility to MD. Results: We investigated genetic structure and genomic signatures across the genome, including the line 63 and line 72 , six RCSs, and two reciprocally crossed flocks between the lines 63 and 72 (F1 63  × 72 and F1 72  × 63 ) using Affymetrix® Axiom® HD 600 K genotyping array...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
M Drikic, C Windeyer, S Olsen, Y Fu, L Doepel, J De Buck
Background: Immune protection in newborn calves relies on a combination of the timing, volume and quality of colostrum consumed by the calf after birth. Poor quality colostrum with inadequate immunoglobulin concentration contributes to failed transfer of passive immunity in calves, leading to higher calf morbidity and mortality. Therefore, estimating colostrum quality and ensuring the transfer of passive immunity on farm is of critical importance. Currently, there are no on-farm tools that directly measure immunoglobulin content in colostrum or serum...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Marco Zampiga, Joshua Flees, Adele Meluzzi, Sami Dridi, Federico Sirri
The poultry industry is continuously facing substantial and different challenges such as the increasing cost of feed ingredients, the European Union's ban of antibiotic as growth promoters, the antimicrobial resistance and the high incidence of muscle myopathies and breast meat abnormalities. In the last decade, there has been an extraordinary development of many genomic techniques able to describe global variation of genes, proteins and metabolites expression level. Proper application of these cutting-edge omics technologies (mainly transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics) paves the possibility to understand much useful information about the biological processes and pathways behind different complex traits of chickens...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Shuxiang Wang, Arash Azarfar, Yajing Wang, Zhijun Cao, Shengli Li
Background: High-altitude pulmonary hypertension (HAPH) is a life-threating condition for animals in high altitude, and disturbance of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthesis contributes to its pathogenesis. N-carbamylglutamate (NCG), which enhances arginine synthesis, promotes endogenous synthesis of NO. In this study, we determined the effects of NCG on alleviating HAPH in Holstein heifers that ascended to Tibet (Lhasa, 3,658 m). Methods: Exp. 1, 2,000 Holstein heifers were transported from low elevation (1,027 m) to Lhasa...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Yanhong Liu, Dong Yong Kil, Victor G Perez-Mendoza, Minho Song, James E Pettigrew
Background: There are various fat sources with different energy values and fatty acid compositions that may affect growth performance and carcass composition of grow-finishing pigs. A higher net energy was recently reported in choice white grease compared with soybean oil. Therefore, two experiments were conducted to determine whether practical responses confirm that difference between choice white grease and soybean oil, and to extend the observations to other fat sources. Results: In Exp...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Ling Chen, Shuang Li, Jie Zheng, Wentao Li, Xuemei Jiang, Xilun Zhao, Jian Li, Lianqiang Che, Yan Lin, Shengyu Xu, Bin Feng, Zhengfeng Fang, De Wu
Background: Weanling pigs, with immature immune system and physiological function, usually experience post-weaning diarrhea. This study determined the effects of dietary Clostridium butyricum supplementation on growth performance, diarrhea, and immunity of weaned pigs challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Methods: In Experiment (Exp.) 1, 144 weaned piglets were weaned at 21 d and randomly assigned to six groups, with six replicates per group and four pigs per replicate, receiving a control diet (CON) or diet supplemented with antibiotics (AB) or C...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Ting He, Long He, Enen Gao, Jinhua Hu, Jianjun Zang, Chunlin Wang, Jinshan Zhao, Xi Ma
Background: The high mortality of pre-weanling piglets is a dominant challenge which severely restricts the development of pig industry. A number of factors including nutrients imbalance and temperature variation during postnatal period of piglets have been reported to closely associated with the high mortality of postnatal piglets. This study aims to find out the relationship between fat deposition and survival of newborn piglets. Results: There were no differences in organ coefficient and bone density between the surviving and dead piglets ( P  > 0...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Peipei Ma, Ju Huang, Weijia Gong, Xiujin Li, Hongding Gao, Qin Zhang, Xiangdong Ding, Chonglong Wang
In genomic selection, prediction accuracy is highly driven by the size of animals in the reference population (RP). Combining related populations from different countries and regions or using a related population with large size of RP has been considered to be viable strategies in cattle breeding. The genetic relationship between related populations is important for improving the genomic predictive ability. In this study, we used 122 French bulls as test individuals. The genomic estimated breeding values (GEBVs) evaluated using French RP, America RP and Chinese RP were compared...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Selene Jarrett, Cheryl J Ashworth
Fibres from a variety of sources are a common constituent of pig feeds. They provide a means to utilise locally-produced plant materials which are often a by-product of the food or drink industry. The value of a high fibre diet in terms of producing satiety has long been recognised. However the addition of fibre can reduce feed intake, which is clearly detrimental during stages of the production cycle when nutrient needs are high, for example in growing piglets and during lactation. More recently, fibre has been found to promote novel benefits to pig production systems, particularly given the reduction in antimicrobial use world-wide, concern for the welfare of animals fed a restricted diet and the need to ensure that such systems are more environmentally friendly...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
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