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Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology

Sihem Dabbou, Francesco Gai, Ilaria Biasato, Maria Teresa Capucchio, Elena Biasibetti, Daniela Dezzutto, Marco Meneguz, Iveta Plachà, Laura Gasco, Achille Schiavone
Background: The present study has evaluated the effects of different inclusion levels of a partially defatted black soldier fly ( Hermetia illucens L.; HI) larva meal on the growth performance, blood parameters and gut morphology of broiler chickens. A total of 256 male broiler chickens (Ross 308) were reared from d 1 to d 35 and assigned to 4 dietary treatments (8 replicates/treatment and 8 birds/replicate). HI larva meal was included at increasing levels (0, 5%, 10% and 15%; HI0, HI5, HI10 and HI15, respectively) in isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets formulated for 3 feeding phases: starter (1-10 d), growing (10-24 d) and finisher (24-35 d)...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Swagat K Patra, Chakrpani Vemulawada, Meenati M Soren, Jitendra K Sundaray, Manoj K Panda, Hirak K Barman
Background: The homeobox containing transcription factor Nanog plays crucial roles in embryonic development/proliferation and/or maintenance of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) via interacting with transcription factors such as Oct4 and Sox2 in mammals. However, knowledge of its exact mechanistic pathways remains unexploited. Very little is known about teleost Nanog . Information on the Nanog gene of farmed rohu carp ( Labeo rohita ) is lacking. We cloned and characterized the Nanog gene of rohu carp to understand the expression pattern in early developmental stages and also deduced the genomic organization including promoter elements...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Chuanjian Zhang, Yu Peng, Chunlong Mu, Weiyun Zhu
Background: Compared with oral antibiotics (primarily disrupt foregut microbiota), the present study used antibiotics with ileum terminal infusion to disrupt the hindgut microbiota, and investigated the changes in specific bacterial composition and immune indexes in the jejunum and colon, and serum of growing pigs. Twelve barrows (45 d of age, 12.08 ± 0.28 kg) fitted with a T-cannula at the terminal ileum, were randomly assigned to two groups and infused either saline without antibiotics (Control) or with antibiotics (Antibiotic) at the terminal ileum...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Hesham Y A Darwish, Yuanyuan Zhang, Kai Cui, Zu Yang, Deping Han, Xianggui Dong, Huaming Mao, Weidong Deng, Xuemei Deng
Background: Black bone sheep was first discovered in Yunnan province of China in 1970, with unique black pigmentation on the body and internal organs. Endothelin 3 ( EDN3 ) has been known as a key gene causing hyperpigmentation in black bone chicken, the Silky fowl. Methods: In this study, EDN3 was employed as a candidate gene for regulating black color pigmentation. First, EDN3 was cloned from sheep to obtain the full-length cDNA by using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Liuan Ma, Huiling Qiu, Zhi Chen, Li Li, Yan Zeng, Jun Luo, Deming Gou
Background: The goat ( Caprahircus ) is one of the most important livestock animals. Goat milk fat is an important component in the nutritional quality of goat milk. Growing evidence points to the critical roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in lipid metabolism. Results: Using a highly sensitive method of S-poly(T) plus for miRNAs detection, we analyze the expression patterns of 715 miRNAs in goat mammary gland tissues at different stages of lactation. We observed that miR-25 expression had an inverse relationship with milk production...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Nichole F Huntley, C Martin Nyachoti, John F Patience
Background: Pathogen or diet-induced immune activation can partition energy and nutrients away from growth, but clear relationships between immune responses and the direction and magnitude of energy partitioning responses have yet to be elucidated. The objectives were to determine how β-mannanase supplementation and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) immune stimulation affect maintenance energy requirements (MEm) and to characterize immune parameters, digestibility, growth performance, and energy balance...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Ryosuke Sakumoto, Kosuke Iga, Ken-Go Hayashi, Shiori Fujii, Hiroko Kanahara, Misa Hosoe, Tadashi Furusawa
Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate CCL8 and CXCL10 expression and its regulatory mechanism in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) at the time of maternal recognition in cows. Blood samples were collected on 14, 15, 16, 17 and 18 d after artificial insemination (AI). Based on the day of return of estrus, cows were divided into three groups, pregnant ( n  = 5), early embryonic mortality (EEM; n  = 5) and late embryonic mortality (LEM; n  = 5). The gene expression levels in PBLs were assessed with quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Zhenhua Yi, Xing Li, Wen Luo, Zhenqiang Xu, Congliang Ji, Yan Zhang, Qinghua Nie, Dexiang Zhang, Xiquan Zhang
Background: The feed conversion ratio (FCR) and residual feed intake (RFI) are common indexes in measuring feed efficiency for livestock. RFI is a feed intake adjusted for requirements for maintenance and production so these two traits are related. Similarly, FCR is related to feed intake and weight gain because it is their ratio. Cholecystokinin type A receptor ( CCKAR ) plays an important role in animal digestive process. We examined the interplay of these three parameters in a local Chinese chicken population...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Hakhyun Ka, Heewon Seo, Yohan Choi, Inkyu Yoo, Jisoo Han
The establishment of pregnancy is a complex process that requires a well-coordinated interaction between the implanting conceptus and the maternal uterus. In pigs, the conceptus undergoes dramatic morphological and functional changes at the time of implantation and introduces various factors, including estrogens and cytokines, interleukin-1β2 (IL1B2), interferon-γ (IFNG), and IFN-δ (IFND), into the uterine lumen. In response to ovarian steroid hormones and conceptus-derived factors, the uterine endometrium becomes receptive to the implanting conceptus by changing its expression of cell adhesion molecules, secretory activity, and immune response...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Ahmed A Elolimy, José M Arroyo, Fernanda Batistel, Michael A Iakiviak, Juan J Loor
Background: Residual feed intake (RFI) in dairy cattle typically calculated at peak lactation is a measure of feed efficiency independent of milk production level. The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in ruminal bacteria, biopolymer hydrolyzing enzyme activities, and overall performance between the most- and the least-efficient dairy cows during the peripartal period. Twenty multiparous Holstein dairy cows with daily ad libitum access to a total mixed ration from d - 10 to d 60 relative to the calving date were used...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Donghui Shi, Jianchuan Zhou, Lihong Zhao, Xiaoping Rong, Yu Fan, Humera Hamid, Wenqiang Li, Cheng Ji, Qiugang Ma
Background: The current study was carried out to evaluate the effects of mycotoxin biodegradation agent (MBA, composed of Bacillus subtilis ANSB01G and Devosia sp. ANSB714) on relieving zearalenone (ZEA) and deoxynivalenol (DON) toxicosis in immature gilts. Methods: A total of forty pre-pubertal female gilts (61.42 ± 1.18 kg) were randomly allocated to four diet treatments: CO (positive control); MO (negative control, ZEA 596.86 μg/kg feed and DON 796 μg/kg feed); COA (CO + 2 g MBA/kg feed); MOA (MO + 2 g MBA/kg feed)...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Hu Liu, Yifan Chen, Dongxu Ming, Ji Wang, Zhen Li, Xi Ma, Junjun Wang, Jaap van Milgen, Fenglai Wang
Background: Fasting is a simple metabolic strategy that is used to estimate the maintenance energy requirement where the energy supply for basic physiological functions is provided by the mobilization of body reserves. However, the underlying metabolic components of maintenance energy expenditure are not clear. This study investigated the differences in heat production (HP), respiratory quotient (RQ) and plasma metabolites in pigs in the fed and fasted state, using the techniques of indirect calorimetry and metabolomics...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Yitong Yuan, Shunqi Liu, Yue Zhao, Ling Lian, Zhengxing Lian
Background: Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) is critical for innate and adaptive immunity against viral and bacterial infections. IFN-γ reportedly affects the phagocytic ability of monocytes and macrophages as well as regulates pituitary function in humans and mice. The present study analyzed the impact of IFN-γ on monocyte and macrophage phagocytosis, production performance, and pituitary function in vivo and in vitro (in dwarf chickens). IFN-γ was injected into dwarf chickens through a vein, and then, the laying rate, average egg weight, and levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and IFN-γ were measured in treatment and control groups...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Zhongchao Li, Hu Liu, Yakui Li, Zhiqian Lv, Ling Liu, Changhua Lai, Junjun Wang, Fenglai Wang, Defa Li, Shuai Zhang
In the past two decades, a considerable amount of research has focused on the determination of the digestible (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) contents of feed ingredients fed to swine. Compared with the DE and ME systems, the net energy (NE) system is assumed to be the most accurate estimate of the energy actually available to the animal. However, published data pertaining to the measured NE content of ingredients fed to growing pigs are limited. Therefore, the Feed Data Group at the Ministry of Agricultural Feed Industry Centre (MAFIC) located at China Agricultural University has evaluated the NE content of many ingredients using indirect calorimetry...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Lei Xu, Haijun Zhang, Hongyuan Yue, Shugeng Wu, Haiming Yang, Zhiyue Wang, Guanghai Qi
Background: Meat color and lipid peroxidation are important traits related to meat quality. CO2 concentration is a critical factor that can affect meat quality in the commercial use of gas stunning (GS). However, the effect and mechanism of CO2 stunning on meat color and lipid peroxidation during long-term storage remain poorly studied. We aimed to study the effects of GS methods, especially CO2 concentration, on meat color and meat lipid peroxidation in broilers during long-term storage at 4 °C and to explore the potential mechanism of meat color change via lipid peroxidation and the inner lipid peroxide scavenging system...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Yun Ji, Xuan Luo, Ying Yang, Zhaolai Dai, Guoyao Wu, Zhenlong Wu
Background: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is associated with multiple pathological processes of intestinal diseases. Despite a critical role of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) in regulating cellular stress response, the crosstalk between mTORC1 and ER stress signaling and its contribution to the intestinal barrier function is unknown. Results: In the present study, we showed that intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) incubated with tunicamycin led to caspase-3-dependent apoptotic cell death...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Thomas Hartinger, Nina Gresner, Karl-Heinz Südekum
Nitrogenous emissions from ruminant livestock production are of increasing public concern and, together with methane, contribute to environmental pollution. The main cause of nitrogen-(N)-containing emissions is the inadequate provision of N to ruminants, leading to an excess of ammonia in the rumen, which is subsequently excreted. Depending on the size and molecular structure, various bacterial, protozoal and fungal species are involved in the ruminal breakdown of nitrogenous compounds (NC). Decelerating ruminal NC degradation by controlling the abundance and activity of proteolytic and deaminating microorganisms, but without reducing cellulolytic processes, is a promising strategy to decrease N emissions along with increasing N utilization by ruminants...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Timothy G Ramsay, Margo J Stoll, Amy E Shannon, Le Ann Blomberg
Background: Recent increases in intra-litter variability in weaning weight have raised swine production costs. A contributor to this variability is the normal birth weight pig that grows at a slower rate than littermates of similar birth weight. The goal of this study was to interrogate biochemical profiles manifested in skeletal muscle originating from slow growing (SG) and faster growing littermates (control), with the aim of identifying differences in metabolic pathway utilization between skeletal muscle of the SG pig relative to its littermates...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Qingwei Meng, Tao Guo, Gaoqiang Li, Shishuai Sun, Shiqi He, Baojing Cheng, Baoming Shi, Anshan Shan
Background: Resveratrol, a plant phenol, affords protection against inflammation and oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary resveratrol supplementation during pregnancy and lactation on the antioxidant status of sows and piglets and on antioxidant gene expression and pathway in placenta. Methods: Forty sows were allotted to 2 dietary treatments 20 d after breeding. Sows were fed a control diet and a control diet with 300 mg/kg resveratrol...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Lei Xu, Yue Wang, Junhua Liu, Weiyun Zhu, Shengyong Mao
Background: The objectives of this study were to characterize changes in the relative mRNA expression of candidate genes and proteins involved in cell cycle regulation, cell proliferation and apoptosis in the ruminal epithelium (RE) of sheep during high-grain (HG) diet adaptation. Results: Twenty sheep were assigned to four groups with five animals each. These animals were assigned to different periods of HG diet (containing 40% forage and 60% concentrate mix) feeding...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
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