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Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101336/regulatory-elements-and-transcriptional-control-of-chicken-vasa-homologue-cvh-promoter-in-chicken-primordial-germ-cells
#1
So Dam Jin, Bo Ram Lee, Young Sun Hwang, Hong Jo Lee, Jong Seop Rim, Jae Yong Han
BACKGROUND: Primordial germ cells (PGCs), the precursors of functional gametes, have distinct characteristics and exhibit several unique molecular mechanisms to maintain pluripotency and germness in comparison to somatic cells. They express germ cell-specific RNA binding proteins (RBPs) by modulating tissue-specific cis- and trans-regulatory elements. Studies on gene structures of chicken vasa homologue (CVH), a chicken RNA binding protein, involved in temporal and spatial regulation are thus important not only for understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate germ cell fate, but also for practical applications of primordial germ cells...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101335/novel-snps-in-il-17f-and-il-17a-genes-associated-with-somatic-cell-count-in-chinese-holstein-and-inner-mongolia-sanhe-cattle
#2
Tahir Usman, Yachun Wang, Chao Liu, Yanghua He, Xiao Wang, Yichun Dong, Hongjun Wu, Airong Liu, Ying Yu
BACKGROUND: Bovine mastitis is the most common and costly disease of lactating cattle worldwide. Apart from milk somatic cell count (SCC) and somatic cell score (SCS), serum cytokines such as interleukin-17 (IL-17) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) may also be potential indicators for bovine mastitis. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in bovine IL-17F and IL-17A genes on SCC, SCS and serum cytokines in Chinese Holstein and Inner-Mongolia Sanhe cattle, and to compare the mRNA expression variations of the cows with different genotypes...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078083/over-expression-of-toll-like-receptor-2-up-regulates-heme-oxygenase-1-expression-and-decreases-oxidative-injury-in-dairy-goats
#3
Shoulong Deng, Kun Yu, Wuqi Jiang, Yan Li, Shuotian Wang, Zhuo Deng, Yuchang Yao, Baolu Zhang, Guoshi Liu, Yixun Liu, Zhengxing Lian
BACKGROUND: Mastitis, an infection caused by Gram-positive bacteria, produces udder inflammation and oxidative injury in milk-producing mammals. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is important for host recognition of invading Gram-positive microbes. Over-expression of TLR2 in transgenic dairy goats is a useful model for studying various aspects of infection with Gram-positive bacteria, in vivo. METHODS: We over-expressed TLR2 in transgenic dairy goats. Pam3CSK4, a component of Gram-positive bacteria, triggered the TLR2 signal pathway by stimulating the monocytes-macrophages from the TLR2-positive transgenic goats, and induced over-expression of activator protein-1 (AP-1), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and inflammation factors downstream of the signal pathway...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074127/transfer-of-%C3%AE-hydroxy-%C3%AE-methylbutyrate-from-sows-to-their-offspring-and-its-impact-on-muscle-fiber-type-transformation-and-performance-in-pigs
#4
Haifeng Wan, Jiatao Zhu, Caimei Wu, Pan Zhou, Yong Shen, Yan Lin, Shengyu Xu, Lianqiang Che, Bin Feng, Jian Li, Zhengfeng Fang, De Wu
BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggested that supplementation of lactating sows with β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) could improve the performance of weaning pigs, but there were little information in the muscle fiber type transformation of the offspring and the subsequent performance in pigs from weaning through finishing in response to maternal HMB consumption. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of supplementing lactating sows with HMB on skeletal muscle fiber type transformation and growth of the offspring during d 28 and 180 after birth...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070331/effects-of-bacillus-subtilis-csl2-on-the-composition-and-functional-diversity-of-the-faecal-microbiota-of-broiler-chickens-challenged-with-salmonella-gallinarum
#5
Ju Kyoung Oh, Edward Alain B Pajarillo, Jong Pyo Chae, In Ho Kim, Dong Soo Yang, Dae-Kyung Kang
BACKGROUND: The chicken gastrointestinal tract contains a diverse microbiota whose composition and structure play important roles in gut functionality. In this study, microbial shifts resulting from feed supplementation with Bacillus subtilis CSL2 were evaluated in broilers challenged and unchallenged with Salmonella Gallinarum. To analyse bacterial community composition and functionality, 454 GS-FLX pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons was performed. RESULTS: The Quantitative Insights into Microbial Ecology (QIIME) pipeline was used to analyse changes in the faecal microbiota over a 24-h period...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018590/use-of-asian-selected-agricultural-byproducts-to-modulate-rumen-microbes-and-fermentation
#6
REVIEW
Yasuo Kobayashi, Seongjin Oh, Htun Myint, Satoshi Koike
In the last five decades, attempts have been made to improve rumen fermentation and host animal nutrition through modulation of rumen microbiota. The goals have been decreasing methane production, partially inhibiting protein degradation to avoid excess release of ammonia, and activation of fiber digestion. The main approach has been the use of dietary supplements. Since growth-promoting antibiotics were banned in European countries in 2006, safer alternatives including plant-derived materials have been explored...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999668/development-of-a-vivo-rabbit-ligated-intestinal-loop-model-for-hcmv-infection
#7
Jin Tang, Qiaoxing Wu, Xinming Tang, Ruihan Shi, Jingxia Suo, Guangping Huang, Junqing An, Jingyuan Wang, Jinling Yang, Wenzhuo Hao, Ruiping She, Xun Suo
BACKGROUND: Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections can be found throughout the body, especially in epithelial tissue. Animal model was established by inoculation of HCMV (strain AD-169) or coinoculation with Hepatitis E virus (HEV) into the ligated sacculus rotundus and vermiform appendix in living rabbits. The specimens were collected from animals sacrificed 1 and a half hours after infection. RESULTS: The virus was found to be capable of reproducing in these specimens through RT-PCR and Western-blot...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999667/antimicrobial-usage-and-resistance-in-beef-production
#8
REVIEW
Andrew Cameron, Tim A McAllister
Antimicrobials are critical to contemporary high-intensity beef production. Many different antimicrobials are approved for beef cattle, and are used judiciously for animal welfare, and controversially, to promote growth and feed efficiency. Antimicrobial administration provides a powerful selective pressure that acts on the microbial community, selecting for resistance gene determinants and antimicrobial-resistant bacteria resident in the bovine flora. The bovine microbiota includes many harmless bacteria, but also opportunistic pathogens that may acquire and propagate resistance genes within the microbial community via horizontal gene transfer...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895910/proteomic-identification-of-cryostress-in-epididymal-spermatozoa
#9
Sung Jae Yoon, Md Saidur Rahman, Woo Sung Kwon, Do Yeal Ryu, Yoo Jin Park, Myung Geol Pang
BACKGROUND: Cryopreservation of epididymal spermatozoa is important in cases in which it is not possible to collect semen using normal methods, as the sudden death of an animal or a catastrophic injury. However, the freezing and thawing processes cause stress to spermatozoa, including cold shock, osmotic damage, and ice crystal formation, thereby reducing sperm quality. We assessed the motility (%), motion kinematics, capacitation status, and viability of spermatozoa using computer-assisted sperm analysis and Hoechst 33258/chlortetracycline fluorescence staining...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833747/microbiota-host-interplay-at-the-gut-epithelial-level-health-and-nutrition
#10
REVIEW
Jean-Paul Lallès
Growing evidence suggests the implication of the gut microbiota in various facets of health and disease. In this review, the focus is put on microbiota-host molecular cross-talk at the gut epithelial level with special emphasis on two defense systems: intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) and inducible heat shock proteins (iHSPs). Both IAP and iHSPs are induced by various microbial structural components (e.g. lipopolysaccharide, flagellin, CpG DNA motifs), metabolites (e.g. n-butyrate) or secreted signal molecules (e...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826442/pronuclear-formation-by-icsi-using-chemically-activated-ovine-oocytes-and-zona-pellucida-bound-sperm
#11
J E Hernández-Pichardo, Y Ducolomb, S Romo, M E Kjelland, R Fierro, F Casillas, M Betancourt
BACKGROUND: In order to improve ICSI, appropiate sperm selection and oocyte activation is necessary. The objective of the present study was to determine the efficiency of fertilization using ICSI with chemically activated ovine oocytes and sperm selected by swim up (SU) or swim up + zona pellucida (SU + ZP) binding. RESULTS: Experiment 1, 4-20 replicates with total 821 in vitro matured oocytes were chemically activated with ethanol, calcium ionophore or ionomycin, to determine oocyte activation (precense of one PN)...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822369/short-term-effect-of-supplemental-yeast-extract-without-or-with-feed-enzymes-on-growth-performance-immune-status-and-gut-structure-of-weaned-pigs-challenged-with-escherichia-coli-lipopolysaccharide
#12
Samuel M Waititu, Fugui Yin, Rob Patterson, Juan C Rodriguez-Lecompte, Charles M Nyachoti
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the response of piglets receiving a yeast extract without or with a multi-enzyme mixture compared with an antimicrobial growth promoter (AGP) on performance, immune status and gut structure after an E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Thirty-six pigs were allotted to six treatments including: a non-challenged control (NCC); LPS-challenged control (CC); CC + AGP; CC + yeast extract; CC + enzymes; and CC + enzymes + yeast extract...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790372/aflatoxin-b1-zearalenone-and-deoxynivalenol-in-feed-ingredients-and-complete-feed-from-different-province-in-china
#13
Li Wu, Jianjun Li, Yunhu Li, Tiejun Li, Qinghua He, Yulong Tang, Hongnan Liu, Yongteng Su, Yulong Yin, Peng Liao
BACKGROUND: The current study was carried out to provide a reference for monitory of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZEN) and deoxynivalenol (DON) contamination in feed ingredients and complete feeds were collected from different Province in China from 2013 to 2015. METHODS: A total of 443 feed ingredients, including 220 corn, 24 wheat, 24 domestic distillers dried grains with soluble (DDGS), 55 bran, 20 wheat shorts and red dog, 37 imported DDGS, 34 corn germ meal and 29 soybean meal as well as 127 complete feeds including 25 pig complete feed (powder), 90 pig complete feed (pellet), six duck complete feed and six cattle complete feed were randomly collected from different Province in China, respectively, by high-performance chromatography in combined with UV or fluorescence analysis...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777764/physical-and-chemical-changes-of-rapeseed-meal-proteins-during-toasting-and-their-effects-on-in-vitro-digestibility
#14
Sergio Salazar-Villanea, Erik M A M Bruininx, Harry Gruppen, Wouter H Hendriks, Patrick Carré, Alain Quinsac, Antonius F B van der Poel
BACKGROUND: Toasting during the production of rapeseed meal (RSM) decreases ileal crude protein (CP) and amino acid (AA) digestibility. The mechanisms that determine the decrease in digestibility have not been fully elucidated. A high protein quality, low-denatured, RSM was produced and toasted up to 120 min, with samples taken every 20 min. The aim of this study was to characterize secondary structure and chemical changes of proteins and glucosinolates occurring during toasting of RSM and the effects on its in vitro CP digestibility...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777763/dietary-stimulation-of-the-endogenous-somatotropic-axis-in-weaner-and-grower-finisher-pigs-using-medium-chain-triglycerides-and-cysteamine-hydrochloride
#15
David W Miller, Zoe Prosser, Edward Y W Chee, Christian F Hansen, Frank R Dunshea, Bruce P Mullan, John R Pluske
BACKGROUND: Three experiments were conducted to examine the overall hypothesis that addition of medium chain triglycerides (MCT) and cysteamine hydrochloride (CSH) into the diets of young and growing pigs would stimulate the endogenous somatotropic axis to improve growth and performance. RESULTS: In Experiment 1, weaner pigs were given either a 5 d dietary supplement of 5 % MCT (n = 8) or a control diet (n = 8). MCT increased the plasma concentration of growth hormone (GH; P < 0...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777762/evaluation-of-a-laying-hen-tracking-algorithm-based-on-a-hybrid-support-vector-machine
#16
Cheng Wang, Hongqian Chen, Xuebin Zhang, Chaoying Meng
BACKGROUND: Behavior is an important indicator reflecting the welfare of animals. Manual analysis of video is the most commonly used method to study animal behavior. However, this approach is tedious and depends on a subjective judgment of the analysts. There is an urgent need for automatic identification of individual animals and automatic tracking is a fundamental part of the solution to this problem. RESULTS: In this study, an algorithm based on a Hybrid Support Vector Machine (HSVM) was developed for the automated tracking of individual laying hens in a layer group...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752308/characterization-of-blood-flow-and-the-effects-of-exogenous-estradiol-benzoate-on-residual-follicles-formed-after-ultrasound-guided-transvaginal-follicle-aspiration-in-cattle
#17
Alberto Mansur Ghetti, Luiz Gustavo Bruno Siqueira, Eduardo Kenji Nunes Arashiro, Miller Pereira Palhao, Felipe Zandonadi Brandao, Joao Henrique Moreira Viana
BACKGROUND: Removal of the follicular content by ultrasound-guided transvaginal follicle aspiration (TVFA) may fail to induce immediate atresia and loss of function, resulting in the occurrence of residual follicles (RF). The aims of this study were to characterize the blood flow in RF and to determine the effects of the treatment with estradiol benzoate on RF fate. Lactating, cyclic Holstein-Gir crossbred cows were used. In Experiment 1, follicular wave emergence (D0) was synchronized in cows (n = 10) and follicular growth was then monitored by transrectal ultrasonography from D0 to D8, followed by TVFA of the largest follicle present on the ovaries 24 h later...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729974/acetylsalicylic-acid-supplementation-improves-protein-utilization-efficiency-while-vitamin-e-supplementation-reduces-markers-of-the-inflammatory-response-in-weaned-pigs-challenged-with-enterotoxigenic-e-coli
#18
Jae Cheol Kim, Bruce P Mullan, John L Black, Robert J E Hewitt, Robert J van Barneveld, John R Pluske
BACKGROUND: This experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that vitamin E (Vit E) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, will additively reduce the production of the immunosuppressive molecule prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and hence reduce inflammatory responses in weaner pigs experimentally infected with an enterotoxigenic strain of E. coli. METHODS: The experiment was conducted in a research facility with 192 individually-housed male weaner pigs (Landrace × Large White) weighing 6...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708774/effects-of-chronic-heat-stress-on-granulosa-cell-apoptosis-and-follicular-atresia-in-mouse-ovary
#19
Jieyun Li, Hui Gao, Zhen Tian, Yi Wu, Yingzheng Wang, Yuan Fang, Lu Lin, Ying Han, Shuaishuai Wu, IhteshamUl Haq, Shenming Zeng
BACKGROUND: Heat stress is known to alter follicular dynamics and granulosa cell function and may contribute to the diminished reproductive efficiency commonly observed in mammals during the summer. Although several investigators have studied heat-induced ovarian injury, few reports have focused on the effects of chronic heat stress on ovarian function and the molecular mechanisms through which it induces ovarian injury. METHODS: In Exp. 1, 48 female mice were assigned to a control or heat-stressed treatment...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708773/determination-of-basal-ileal-endogenous-losses-and-standardized-ileal-digestibility-of-amino-acids-in-barley-fed-to-growing-pigs
#20
Hanna Katharina Spindler, Rainer Mosenthin, Pia Rosenfelder, Henry Jørgensen, Knud Erik Bach Knudsen, Meike Eklund
BACKGROUND: Basal ileal endogenous amino acid (AA) losses (IAAend) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) values of cereal grains, such as barley, are apparently underestimated when determined according to the nitrogen (N)-free method. Regression analysis between the dietary apparent ileal digestible content (cAID) and total crude protein (CP) and AA can be considered as alternative approach to obtain more accurate values for IAAend and SID of AA in cereal grains. METHODS: Eight hulled barley genotypes were used, with barley being the only source of CP and AA in the assay diets...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
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