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Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194272/fatty-acid-content-in-epididymal-fluid-and-spermatozoa-during-sperm-maturation-in-dogs
#1
Daniel S Ramos Angrimani, Marcilio Nichi, João Diego A Losano, Cristina F Lucio, Gisele A Lima Veiga, Márcia V M Junqueira Franco, Camila I Vannucchi
BACKGROUND: During sperm maturation, there is a reorganization of fatty acids from plasmatic membrane of the spermatozoa, which allows higher membrane integrity and acquisition of sperm motility. However, the fatty acid profile during sperm maturation remains unclear in dogs. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify the fatty acids from the epididymal spermatozoa and plasma during the sperm maturation, and observed changes in the motility and plasmatic membrane parameters. Twenty one adult dogs were used, subsequently to bilateral orchiectomy and epididymal storage, sperm samples were collected from the different segments of the epididymis...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191311/supplemental-smartamine-m-in-higher-energy-diets-during-the-prepartal-period-improves-hepatic-biomarkers-of-health-and-oxidative-status-in-holstein-cows
#2
Mario Vailati-Riboni, Johan S Osorio, Erminio Trevisi, Daniel Luchini, Juan J Loor
BACKGROUND: Feeding higher-energy prepartum is a common practice in the dairy industry. However, recent data underscore how it could reduce performance, deepen negative energy balance, and augment inflammation and oxidative stress in fresh cows. We tested the effectiveness of rumen-protected methionine in preventing the negative effect of feeding a higher-energy prepartum. Multiparous Holstein cows were fed a control lower-energy diet (CON, 1.24 Mcal/kg DM; high-straw) during the whole dry period (~50 d), or were switched to a higher-energy (OVE, 1...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168037/comparison-of-rumen-bacteria-distribution-in-original-rumen-digesta-rumen-liquid-and-solid-fractions-in-lactating-holstein-cows
#3
Shoukun Ji, Hongtao Zhang, Hui Yan, Arash Azarfar, Haitao Shi, Gibson Alugongo, Shengli Li, Zhijun Cao, Yajing Wang
BACKGROUND: Original rumen digesta, rumen liquid and solid fractions have been frequently used to assess the rumen bacterial community. However, bacterial profiles in rumen original digesta, liquid and solid fractions vary from each other and need to be better established. METHODS: To compare bacterial profiles in each fraction, samples of rumen digesta from six cows fed either a high fiber diet (HFD) or a high energy diet (HED) were collected via rumen fistulas...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163916/effects-of-total-replacement-of-corn-silage-with-sorghum-silage-on-milk-yield-composition-and-quality
#4
M Cattani, N Guzzo, R Mantovani, L Bailoni
BACKGROUND: In the last years, difficulties occurring in corn cultivation (i.e., groundwater shortages, mycotoxin contamination) have been forcing dairy farmers to consider alternative silages. Some experiments conducted on lactating cows have proven that the total replacement of corn silage with sorghum silage did not reduce milk yield. However, this kind of substitution involves supplementing sorghum-based diets with grains, to compensate for the lower starch content of sorghum silage compared to corn silage...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149513/intermittent-suckling-with-or-without-co-mingling-of-non-littermate-piglets-before-weaning-improves-piglet-performance-in-the-immediate-post-weaning-period-when-compared-with-conventional-weaning
#5
Diana L Turpin, Pieter Langendijk, Kate Plush, John R Pluske
BACKGROUND: In this experiment, intermittent suckling (IS) with or without the co-mingling (CoM) of piglets was studied as a method to stimulate solid feed intake and reduce post-weaning stress. METHODS: Three weaning regimes using 30 multiparous sows were compared: (1) conventional weaning (CW) (n = 10 litters), where piglets had continuous access to the sow until weaning (d 0, farrowing = d -25 relative to weaning); (2) intermittent suckling (IS) (n = 10 litters), where piglets were separated from the sow for 8 h/d starting at d -7 (relative to weaning); and (3) intermittent suckling with co-mingling (ISCo) (n = 10 litters) where IS started at d -7 and two litters were housed together during separation and then returned to their original sow...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149512/rumen-methanogens-and-mitigation-of-methane-emission-by-anti-methanogenic-compounds-and-substances
#6
REVIEW
Amlan Patra, Tansol Park, Minseok Kim, Zhongtang Yu
Methanogenic archaea reside primarily in the rumen and the lower segments of the intestines of ruminants, where they utilize the reducing equivalents derived from rumen fermentation to reduce carbon dioxide, formic acid, or methylamines to methane (CH4). Research on methanogens in the rumen has attracted great interest in the last decade because CH4 emission from ruminants contributes to global greenhouse gas emission and represents a loss of feed energy. Some DNA-based phylogenetic studies have depicted a diverse and dynamic community of methanogens in the rumen...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149511/the-development-and-role-of-microbial-host-interactions-in-gut-mucosal-immune-development
#7
REVIEW
C R Stokes
At birth the piglet's immune system is immature and it is dependent upon passive maternal protection until weaning. The piglet's mucosal immune system develops over the first few weeks but has not reached maturity at weaning ages which are common on commercial farms. At weaning piglets are presented with a vast and diverse range of microbial and dietary/environmental antigens. Their ability to distinguish between antigens and mount a protective response to potential pathogens and to develop tolerance to dietary antigens is critical to their survival and failure to do so is reflected in the high incidence of morbidity and mortality in the post-weaning period...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149510/breed-and-adaptive-response-modulate-bovine-peripheral-blood-cells-transcriptome
#8
Nataliya Pošćić, Tommaso Montanari, Mariasilvia D'Andrea, Danilo Licastro, Fabio Pilla, Paolo Ajmone-Marsan, Andrea Minuti, Sandy Sgorlon
BACKGROUND: Adaptive response includes a variety of physiological modifications to face changes in external or internal conditions and adapt to a new situation. The acute phase proteins (APPs) are reactants synthesized against environmental stimuli like stress, infection, inflammation. METHODS: To delineate the differences in molecular constituents of adaptive response to the environment we performed the whole-blood transcriptome analysis in Italian Holstein (IH) and Italian Simmental (IS) breeds...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127425/novel-metabolic-and-physiological-functions-of-branched-chain-amino-acids-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Shihai Zhang, Xiangfang Zeng, Man Ren, Xiangbing Mao, Shiyan Qiao
It is widely known that branched chain amino acids (BCAA) are not only elementary components for building muscle tissue but also participate in increasing protein synthesis in animals and humans. BCAA (isoleucine, leucine and valine) regulate many key signaling pathways, the most classic of which is the activation of the mTOR signaling pathway. This signaling pathway connects many diverse physiological and metabolic roles. Recent years have witnessed many striking developments in determining the novel functions of BCAA including: (1) Insufficient or excessive levels of BCAA in the diet enhances lipolysis...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123698/the-ruminal-microbiome-associated-with-methane-emissions-from-ruminant-livestock
#10
REVIEW
Ilma Tapio, Timothy J Snelling, Francesco Strozzi, R John Wallace
Methane emissions from ruminant livestock contribute significantly to the large environmental footprint of agriculture. The rumen is the principal source of methane, and certain features of the microbiome are associated with low/high methane phenotypes. Despite their primary role in methanogenesis, the abundance of archaea has only a weak correlation with methane emissions from individual animals. The composition of the archaeal community appears to have a stronger effect, with animals harbouring the Methanobrevibacter gottschalkii clade tending to be associated with greater methane emissions...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116075/effects-of-liquid-feeding-of-corn-condensed-distiller-s-solubles-and-whole-stillage-on-growth-performance-carcass-characteristics-and-sensory-traits-of-pigs
#11
Xiaojian Yang, Carissa Nath, Alan Doering, John Goihl, Samuel Kofi Baidoo
BACKGROUND: The immense growth in global bioethanol production has greatly increased the supply of by-products such as whole stillage and condensed distiller's solubles, which could be potentially used for animal feeding. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of liquid feeding high levels of corn condensed distiller's solubles (CCDS) and whole stillage (CWS) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, belly firmness and meat sensory traits of pigs. METHODS: A total of 256 pigs were blocked by sex and initial BW (13...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116074/understanding-host-microbial-interactions-in-rumen-searching-the-best-opportunity-for-microbiota-manipulation
#12
REVIEW
Nilusha Malmuthuge, Le Luo Guan
Ruminants utilize a wide variety of dietary substrates that are not digestible by the mammals, through microbial fermentation taking place in the rumen. Recent advanced molecular based approaches have allowed the characterization of rumen microbiota and its compositional changes under various treatment conditions. However, the knowledge is still limited on the impacts of variations in the rumen microbiota on host biology and function. This review summarizes the information to date on host-microbial interactions in the rumen and how we can apply such information to seek the opportunities to enhance the animal performance through manipulating the rumen function...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101336/regulatory-elements-and-transcriptional-control-of-chicken-vasa-homologue-cvh-promoter-in-chicken-primordial-germ-cells
#13
So Dam Jin, Bo Ram Lee, Young Sun Hwang, Hong Jo Lee, Jong Seop Rim, Jae Yong Han
BACKGROUND: Primordial germ cells (PGCs), the precursors of functional gametes, have distinct characteristics and exhibit several unique molecular mechanisms to maintain pluripotency and germness in comparison to somatic cells. They express germ cell-specific RNA binding proteins (RBPs) by modulating tissue-specific cis- and trans-regulatory elements. Studies on gene structures of chicken vasa homologue (CVH), a chicken RNA binding protein, involved in temporal and spatial regulation are thus important not only for understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate germ cell fate, but also for practical applications of primordial germ cells...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101335/novel-snps-in-il-17f-and-il-17a-genes-associated-with-somatic-cell-count-in-chinese-holstein-and-inner-mongolia-sanhe-cattle
#14
Tahir Usman, Yachun Wang, Chao Liu, Yanghua He, Xiao Wang, Yichun Dong, Hongjun Wu, Airong Liu, Ying Yu
BACKGROUND: Bovine mastitis is the most common and costly disease of lactating cattle worldwide. Apart from milk somatic cell count (SCC) and somatic cell score (SCS), serum cytokines such as interleukin-17 (IL-17) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) may also be potential indicators for bovine mastitis. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in bovine IL-17F and IL-17A genes on SCC, SCS and serum cytokines in Chinese Holstein and Inner-Mongolia Sanhe cattle, and to compare the mRNA expression variations of the cows with different genotypes...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078083/over-expression-of-toll-like-receptor-2-up-regulates-heme-oxygenase-1-expression-and-decreases-oxidative-injury-in-dairy-goats
#15
Shoulong Deng, Kun Yu, Wuqi Jiang, Yan Li, Shuotian Wang, Zhuo Deng, Yuchang Yao, Baolu Zhang, Guoshi Liu, Yixun Liu, Zhengxing Lian
BACKGROUND: Mastitis, an infection caused by Gram-positive bacteria, produces udder inflammation and oxidative injury in milk-producing mammals. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is important for host recognition of invading Gram-positive microbes. Over-expression of TLR2 in transgenic dairy goats is a useful model for studying various aspects of infection with Gram-positive bacteria, in vivo. METHODS: We over-expressed TLR2 in transgenic dairy goats. Pam3CSK4, a component of Gram-positive bacteria, triggered the TLR2 signal pathway by stimulating the monocytes-macrophages from the TLR2-positive transgenic goats, and induced over-expression of activator protein-1 (AP-1), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and inflammation factors downstream of the signal pathway...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074127/transfer-of-%C3%AE-hydroxy-%C3%AE-methylbutyrate-from-sows-to-their-offspring-and-its-impact-on-muscle-fiber-type-transformation-and-performance-in-pigs
#16
Haifeng Wan, Jiatao Zhu, Caimei Wu, Pan Zhou, Yong Shen, Yan Lin, Shengyu Xu, Lianqiang Che, Bin Feng, Jian Li, Zhengfeng Fang, De Wu
BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggested that supplementation of lactating sows with β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) could improve the performance of weaning pigs, but there were little information in the muscle fiber type transformation of the offspring and the subsequent performance in pigs from weaning through finishing in response to maternal HMB consumption. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of supplementing lactating sows with HMB on skeletal muscle fiber type transformation and growth of the offspring during d 28 and 180 after birth...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070331/effects-of-bacillus-subtilis-csl2-on-the-composition-and-functional-diversity-of-the-faecal-microbiota-of-broiler-chickens-challenged-with-salmonella-gallinarum
#17
Ju Kyoung Oh, Edward Alain B Pajarillo, Jong Pyo Chae, In Ho Kim, Dong Soo Yang, Dae-Kyung Kang
BACKGROUND: The chicken gastrointestinal tract contains a diverse microbiota whose composition and structure play important roles in gut functionality. In this study, microbial shifts resulting from feed supplementation with Bacillus subtilis CSL2 were evaluated in broilers challenged and unchallenged with Salmonella Gallinarum. To analyse bacterial community composition and functionality, 454 GS-FLX pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons was performed. RESULTS: The Quantitative Insights into Microbial Ecology (QIIME) pipeline was used to analyse changes in the faecal microbiota over a 24-h period...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018590/use-of-asian-selected-agricultural-byproducts-to-modulate-rumen-microbes-and-fermentation
#18
REVIEW
Yasuo Kobayashi, Seongjin Oh, Htun Myint, Satoshi Koike
In the last five decades, attempts have been made to improve rumen fermentation and host animal nutrition through modulation of rumen microbiota. The goals have been decreasing methane production, partially inhibiting protein degradation to avoid excess release of ammonia, and activation of fiber digestion. The main approach has been the use of dietary supplements. Since growth-promoting antibiotics were banned in European countries in 2006, safer alternatives including plant-derived materials have been explored...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999668/development-of-a-vivo-rabbit-ligated-intestinal-loop-model-for-hcmv-infection
#19
Jin Tang, Qiaoxing Wu, Xinming Tang, Ruihan Shi, Jingxia Suo, Guangping Huang, Junqing An, Jingyuan Wang, Jinling Yang, Wenzhuo Hao, Ruiping She, Xun Suo
BACKGROUND: Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections can be found throughout the body, especially in epithelial tissue. Animal model was established by inoculation of HCMV (strain AD-169) or coinoculation with Hepatitis E virus (HEV) into the ligated sacculus rotundus and vermiform appendix in living rabbits. The specimens were collected from animals sacrificed 1 and a half hours after infection. RESULTS: The virus was found to be capable of reproducing in these specimens through RT-PCR and Western-blot...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999667/antimicrobial-usage-and-resistance-in-beef-production
#20
REVIEW
Andrew Cameron, Tim A McAllister
Antimicrobials are critical to contemporary high-intensity beef production. Many different antimicrobials are approved for beef cattle, and are used judiciously for animal welfare, and controversially, to promote growth and feed efficiency. Antimicrobial administration provides a powerful selective pressure that acts on the microbial community, selecting for resistance gene determinants and antimicrobial-resistant bacteria resident in the bovine flora. The bovine microbiota includes many harmless bacteria, but also opportunistic pathogens that may acquire and propagate resistance genes within the microbial community via horizontal gene transfer...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
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