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Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology

Dafei Yin, Xiaonan Yin, Xingyu Wang, Zhao Lei, Maofei Wang, Yuming Guo, Samuel E Aggrey, Wei Nie, Jianmin Yuan
Background: The effect of amylases combined with exogenous carbohydrase and protease in a newly harvested corn diet on starch digestibility, intestine health and cecal microbiota was investigated in broiler chickens. Methods: Two hunderd and eighty-eight 5-day-old female chickens were randomly divided into six treatments: a newly harvested corn-soybean meal diet (control); control supplemented with 1,500 U/g α-amylase (Enzyme A); Enzyme A + 300 U/g amylopectase + 20,000 U/g glucoamylase (Enzyme B); Enzyme B + protease 10,000 U/g (Enzyme C); Enzyme C + xylanase 15,000 U/g (Enzyme D); and Enzyme D + cellulase 200 U/g + pectinase 1,000 U/g (Enzyme E)...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Gianfranco Picone, Martina Zappaterra, Diana Luise, Alessia Trimigno, Francesco Capozzi, Vincenzo Motta, Roberta Davoli, Leonardo Nanni Costa, Paolo Bosi, Paolo Trevisi
Background: Colostrum is the first secretion produced by mammary glands during the hours immediately preceding and succeeding parturition. This secretion differs from milk and represents an essential vehicle of passive immunity, prebiotic compounds and growth factors involved in intestinal development. Most of the literature concerning colostrum composition refers mainly to human and cow; and little is known about pig colostrum metabolome and how it varies between pig breeds and different farrowing parity...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Zongjun Li, Nannan Liu, Yangchun Cao, Chunjia Jin, Fei Li, Chuanjiang Cai, Junhu Yao
Background: In rumen fermentation, fumaric acid (FA) could competitively utilize hydrogen with methanogenesis to enhance propionate production and suppress methane emission, but both effects were diet-dependent. This study aimed to explore the effects of FA supplementation on methanogenesis and rumen fermentation in goats fed diets varying in forage and concentrate particle size. Methods: Four rumen-cannulated goats were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments: low or high ratio of forage particle size: concentrate particle size (Fps:Cps), without or with FA supplementation (24 g/d)...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Caitlin A Cooper, Timothy J Doran, Arjun Challagulla, Mark L V Tizard, Kristie A Jenkins
The tools available for genome engineering have significantly improved over the last 5 years, allowing scientist to make precise edits to the genome. Along with the development of these new genome editing tools has come advancements in technologies used to deliver them. In mammals genome engineering tools are typically delivered into in vitro fertilized single cell embryos which are subsequently cultured and then implanted into a recipient animal. In avian species this is not possible, so other methods have been developed for genome engineering in birds...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Mohamed K Abdelmegeid, Ahmed A Elolimy, Zheng Zhou, Vincenzo Lopreiato, Joshua C McCann, Juan J Loor
Background: Extensive degradation of amino acids in the rumen via microbial deamination decreases the post-ruminal availability of dietary indispensable amino acids. Together with the normal decrease in voluntary dry matter intake (DMI) around parturition in dairy cows, microbial metabolism contributes to a markedly negative balance of indispensable amino acids, including methionine which may be the first-limiting for milk production. The main objective of the current study was to profile changes in major bacterial species with key functions in cellulose and hemicellulose digestion, xylan breakdown, proteolytic action, propionic acid production, lactate utilization and ruminal biohydrogenation in cows supplemented with rumen-protected Methionine (SM; Smartamine M, Adisseo NA, Alpharetta, GA, USA) from -23 through 30 d relative to parturition...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Alessia Gloria, Augusto Carluccio, Laura Wegher, Domenico Robbe, Claudio Valorz, Alberto Contri
Background: Semen evaluation is used to estimate the testicular function. In bulls, the spermatozoa present in the ejaculate are the result of a process that begun more than 2 mo earlier, bequeathing a delayed depiction of the actual function of the testis. Since testis vascularization might be critical for the gonad function, selected pulse wave Doppler ultrasound parameters were assessed in this study, for instance the peak systolic velocity, the end diastolic velocity and the resistive index of the testicular artery along the spermatic cord, the marginal portion of the testicular artery and the intratesticular branches of the testicular artery both in healthy adult and young bulls...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Jae Yong Han, Young Hyun Park
Transgenesis and genome editing in birds are based on a unique germline transmission system using primordial germ cells (PGCs), which is quite different from the mammalian transgenic and genome editing system. PGCs are progenitor cells of gametes that can deliver genetic information to the next generation. Since avian PGCs were first discovered in nineteenth century, there have been numerous efforts to reveal their origin, specification, and unique migration pattern, and to improve germline transmission efficiency...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Yujiao Ji, Qiuping Guo, Yulong Yin, Francois Blachier, Xiangfeng Kong
Background: Pregnancy is associated with important changes in gut microbiota composition. Dietary factors may affect the diversity, composition, and metabolic activity of the intestinal microbiota. Among amino acids, proline is known to play important roles in protein metabolism and structure, cell differentiation, conceptus growth and development, and gut microbiota re-equilibration in case of dysbiosis. Results: Dietary supplementation with 1% proline decreased ( P  < 0...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Soo-Young Yum, Ki-Young Youn, Woo-Jae Choi, Goo Jang
The production of transgenic farm animals (e.g., cattle) via genome engineering for the gain or loss of gene functions is an important undertaking. In the initial stages of genome engineering, DNA micro-injection into one-cell stage embryos (zygotes) followed by embryo transfer into a recipient was performed because of the ease of the procedure. However, as this approach resulted in severe mosaicism and has a low efficiency, it is not typically employed in the cattle as priority, unlike in mice. To overcome the above issue with micro-injection in cattle, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) was introduced and successfully used to produce cloned livestock...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Junghyun Ryu, Randall S Prather, Kiho Lee
Pigs are an important resource in agriculture and serve as a model for human diseases. Due to their physiological and anatomical similarities with humans, pigs can recapitulate symptoms of human diseases, making them a useful model in biomedicine. However, in the past pig models have not been widely used partially because of the difficulty in genetic modification. The lack of true embryonic stem cells in pigs forced researchers to utilize genetic modification in somatic cells and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) to generate genetically engineered (GE) pigs carrying site-specific modifications...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Pawel Antoni Kolodziejski, Maciej Sassek, Daniela Chalupka, Natalia Leciejewska, Leszek Nogowski, Pawel Mackowiak, Damian Jozefiak, Katarzyna Stadnicka, Maria Siwek, Marek Bednarczyk, Tomasz Szwaczkowski, Ewa Pruszynska-Oszmalek
Background: In order to discover new strategies to replace antibiotics in the post-antibiotic era in meat-type chicken production, two new synbiotics were tested: (Lactobacillus salivarius IBB3154 plus galactooligosaccharide (Syn1) and Lactobacillus plantarum IBB3036 plus raffinose family oligosaccharides (Syn2). Methods: The synbiotics were administered via syringe, using a special automatic system, into the egg air chamber of Cobb 500 broiler chicks on the 12th day of egg incubation (2 mg of prebiotics + 105 cfu bacteria per egg)...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Yuanyuan Wu, Yujing Shao, Bochen Song, Wenrui Zhen, Zhong Wang, Yuming Guo, Muhammad Suhaib Shahid, Wei Nie
Background: The poultry industry is in need of effective antibiotic alternatives to control outbreaks of necrotic enteritis (NE) due to Clostridium perfringens. Methods: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding Bacillus coagulans on the growth performance and gut health of broiler chickens with C. perfringens-induced NE. Two hundred and forty 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with two dietary B...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Yasser Y Lenis, Gregory A Johnson, Xiaoqiu Wang, Wendy W Tang, Kathrin A Dunlap, M Carey Satterfield, Guoyao Wu, Thomas R Hansen, Fuller W Bazer
Background: Polyamines stimulate DNA transcription and mRNA translation for protein synthesis in trophectoderm cells, as well as proliferation and migration of cells; therefore, they are essential for development and survival of conceptuses (embryo/fetus and placenta). The ovine conceptus produces polyamines via classical and non-classical pathways. In the classical pathway, arginine (Arg) is transformed into ornithine, which is then decarboxylated by ornithine decarboxylase (ODC1) to produce putrescine which is the substrate for the production of spermidine and spermine...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Abdulrahman Alharthi, Zheng Zhou, Vincenzo Lopreiato, Erminio Trevisi, Juan J Loor
Background: Previous research has revealed a strong inflammatory response within adipose (AT) tissue during the transition into lactation. Whether this effect is a result of oxidative stress induced by lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation associated with differences in prepartum body condition score remains to be determined. The objectives of this study were to investigate systemic biomarkers of energy balance and inflammation and the expression of lipid metabolism- and inflammation-related genes in AT during the transition period in dairy cows...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Qingbiao Xu, Zhixuan Liu, Hongyun Liu, Fengqi Zhao, Xinbei Huang, Yueming Wu, Jianxin Liu
Background: It is well known that peptides play a vital role in the nutrition and health of dairy cows. Bovine oligopeptide transporter 1 (bPepT1) is involved in the peptide transport process in the gastrointestinal tracts of dairy cows. However, little information is known in the characteristics of bPepT1. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to characterize bPepT1 functionally using a mammalian cell expression system. The uptake of radiolabeled dipeptide glycyl-sarcosine ([3H]-Gly-Sar) into the bPepT1-transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells was measured at various pH and substrate concentrations and with or without 15 other small peptides that contained Met or Lys...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Nagmeldin A Omer, Yun Hu, Yan Hu, Abdulrahman A Idriss, Halima Abobaker, Zhen Hou, Haibo Dong, Ruqian Zhao
Background: Vitellogenin (VTG) is a precursor of egg yolk proteins synthesized within the liver of oviparous vertebrates. Betaine is an important methyl donor that is reported to improve egg production of laying hens with an unclear mechanism. In the present study, we fed betaine-supplemented diet (0.5%) to laying hens for 4 wk and investigated its effect on VTGII expression in the liver. Results: Betaine did not affect chicken weight, but significantly (P < 0...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Jiawei Wang, Chunfu Qin, Ting He, Kai Qiu, Wenjuan Sun, Xin Zhang, Ning Jiao, Weiyun Zhu, Jingdong Yin
Background: Pork produced by outdoor-reared pigs raised mostly on alfalfa pastures attracts increasing population of consumer from most of the world. In China, pigs were raised with alfalfa-containing diets to seek for good quality pork. However, the influence of dietary alfalfa involving high level of insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) on pig intestinal luminal microbiota composition remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of alfalfa on luminal microbiota and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) production, and gene expressions involved in SCFA sensing, transporting and absorbing in pig caecal mucosa...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Awang Hazmi Awang-Junaidi, Ali Honaramooz
Background: Gonocytes give rise to spermatogonial stem cells, and thereby play an essential role in establishing spermatogenesis. Optimized culture conditions for gonocytes provide an opportunity for their study and in vitro manipulation for potential application in reproductive technologies. Using six experiments in a step-wise design, we examined the effects of several culture conditions on the maintenance, proliferation, and colony formation of porcine gonocytes. Testis cells from neonatal piglets were cultured for 7 d in DMEM supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Ahmed Mohamed Fouad, Dong Ruan, Shuang Wang, Wei Chen, Weiguang Xia, Chuntian Zheng
The demand for duck meat, duck eggs, and associated products is increasing each year. Classic and modern selection programs have been applied to enhance the economic traits of ducks to satisfy the requirements of consumers and enhance the incomes of producers. The nutritional requirements of unselected ducks may not be adequate, however, to fulfill the potential productivity performance of modern birds, including both meat-type and egg-type ducks. In particular, an imbalanced diet is associated with low productive performance and signs of nutritional deficiency (if insufficient nutrients are supplied), as well as with high feed costs and manure problems that reflect flock health and welfare (if excessive nutrients are supplied)...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
C A Martel, L K Mamedova, J E Minton, M Garcia, C Legallet, B J Bradford
Background: Associative data and some controlled studies suggest that the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α can induce fatty liver in dairy cattle. However, research demonstrating that TNFα is a necessary component in the etiology of bovine fatty liver is lacking. The aim of this work was to evaluate whether blocking TNFα signaling with a synthetic cyclic peptide (TNF receptor loop peptide; TRLP) would improve liver metabolic function and reduce triglyceride accumulation during feed restriction...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
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