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Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533902/the-influence-of-in-ovo-injection-with-the-prebiotic-dinovo%C3%A2-on-the-development-of-histomorphological-parameters-of-the-duodenum-body-mass-and-productivity-in-large-scale-poultry-production-conditions
#1
Adrianna Sobolewska, Gabriela Elminowska-Wenda, Joanna Bogucka, Agata Dankowiakowska, Anna Kułakowska, Agata Szczerba, Katarzyna Stadnicka, Michał Szpinda, Marek Bednarczyk
BACKGROUND: Among various feed additives currently used in poultry nutrition, an important role is played by bioactive substances, including prebiotics. The beneficial effect of these bioactive substances on the gastrointestinal tract and immune system give rise to improvements in broiler health and performance nutrition, thus increasing the productivity of these birds. An innovative method for introducing bioactive substances into chickens is the in ovo injection into eggs intended for hatching...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491297/net-energy-of-corn-soybean-meal-and-rapeseed-meal-in-growing-pigs
#2
Zhongchao Li, Yakui Li, Zhiqian Lv, Hu Liu, Jinbiao Zhao, Jean Noblet, Fenglai Wang, Changhua Lai, Defa Li
BACKGROUND: Two experiments were conducted to estimate the net energy (NE) of corn, soybean meal, expeller-pressed rapeseed meal (EP-RSM) and solvent-extracted rapeseed meal (SE-RSM) using indirect calorimetry and to validate the NE of these four ingredients using pig growth performance. METHODS: In Exp.1, 24 barrows (initial BW = 36.4 ± 1.6 kg) were allotted to 1 of 4 diets which included a corn basal diet, a corn-soybean meal basal diet and two rapeseed meal diets containing 20% EP-RSM (9...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484596/association-of-growth-rate-with-hormone-levels-and-myogenic-gene-expression-profile-in-broilers
#3
Yingping Xiao, Choufei Wu, Kaifeng Li, Guohong Gui, Guolong Zhang, Hua Yang
BACKGROUND: The growth rate often varies among individual broilers of the same breed under a common management condition. To investigate whether a variation in the growth rate is associated with a difference in hormone levels and myogenic gene expression profile in broilers, a feeding trial was conducted with 10,000 newly hatched Ross 308 chicks in a commercial production facility under standard management. At 38 d of age, 30 fast-, 30 medium-, and 30 slow-growing broilers were selected among 600 healthy male individuals...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484595/fetal-and-neonatal-programming-of-postnatal-growth-and-feed-efficiency-in-swine
#4
REVIEW
Yun Ji, Zhenlong Wu, Zhaolai Dai, Xiaolong Wang, Ju Li, Binggen Wang, Guoyao Wu
Maternal undernutrition or overnutrition during pregnancy alters organ structure, impairs prenatal and neonatal growth and development, and reduces feed efficiency for lean tissue gains in pigs. These adverse effects may be carried over to the next generation or beyond. This phenomenon of the transgenerational impacts is known as fetal programming, which is mediated by stable and heritable alterations of gene expression through covalent modifications of DNA and histones without changes in DNA sequences (namely, epigenetics)...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484594/adipose-tissue-lipolysis-and-remodeling-during-the-transition-period-of-dairy-cows
#5
REVIEW
G Andres Contreras, Clarissa Strieder-Barboza, William Raphael
Elevated concentrations of plasma fatty acids in transition dairy cows are significantly associated with increased disease susceptibility and poor lactation performance. The main source of plasma fatty acids throughout the transition period is lipolysis from adipose tissue depots. During this time, plasma fatty acids serve as a source of calories mitigating the negative energy balance prompted by copious milk synthesis and limited dry matter intake. Past research has demonstrated that lipolysis in the adipose organ is a complex process that includes not only the activation of lipolytic pathways in response to neural, hormonal, or paracrine stimuli, but also important changes in the structure and cellular distribution of the tissue in a process known as adipose tissue remodeling...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484593/net-protein-and-metabolizable-protein-requirements-for-maintenance-and-growth-of-early-weaned-dorper-crossbred-male-lambs
#6
Tao Ma, Kaidong Deng, Yan Tu, Naifeng Zhang, Bingwen Si, Guishan Xu, Qiyu Diao
BACKGROUND: Dorper is an important breed for meat purpose and widely used in the livestock industry of the world. However, the protein requirement of Dorper crossbred has not been investigated. The current paper reports the net protein (NP) and metabolizable protein (MP) requirements of Dorper crossbred ram lambs from 20 to 35 kg BW. METHODS: Thirty-five Dorper × thin-tailed Han crossbred lambs weaned at approximately 50 d of age (20.3 ± 2.15 kg of BW) were used...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473913/alternative-prediction-methods-of-protein-and-energy-evaluation-of-pig-feeds
#7
REVIEW
Ewa Święch
Precise knowledge of the actual nutritional value of individual feedstuffs and complete diets for pigs is important for efficient livestock production. Methods of assessment of protein and energy values in pig feeds have been briefly described. In vivo determination of protein and energy values of feeds in pigs are time-consuming, expensive and very often require the use of surgically-modified animals. There is a need for more simple, rapid, inexpensive and reproducible methods for routine feed evaluation. Protein and energy values of pig feeds can be estimated using the following alternative methods: 1) prediction equations based on chemical composition; 2) animal models as rats, cockerels and growing pigs for adult animals; 3) rapid methods, such as the mobile nylon bag technique and in vitro methods...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469846/efficient-strategies-for-leave-one-out-cross-validation-for-genomic-best-linear-unbiased-prediction
#8
Hao Cheng, Dorian J Garrick, Rohan L Fernando
BACKGROUND: A random multiple-regression model that simultaneously fit all allele substitution effects for additive markers or haplotypes as uncorrelated random effects was proposed for Best Linear Unbiased Prediction, using whole-genome data. Leave-one-out cross validation can be used to quantify the predictive ability of a statistical model. METHODS: Naive application of Leave-one-out cross validation is computationally intensive because the training and validation analyses need to be repeated n times, once for each observation...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469845/effect-of-bacillus-subtilis-and-bacillus-licheniformis-supplementation-in-diets-with-low-and-high-protein-content-on-ileal-crude-protein-and-amino-acid-digestibility-and-intestinal-microbiota-composition-of-growing-pigs
#9
Chanwit Kaewtapee, Katharina Burbach, Georgina Tomforde, Thomas Hartinger, Amélia Camarinha-Silva, Sonja Heinritz, Jana Seifert, Markus Wiltafsky, Rainer Mosenthin, Pia Rosenfelder-Kuon
BACKGROUND: Bacillus spp. seem to be an alternative to antimicrobial growth promoters for improving animals' health and performance. However, there is little information on the effect of Bacillus spp. in combination with different dietary crude protein (CP) levels on the ileal digestibility and microbiota composition. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of Bacillus spp. supplementation to low- (LP) and high-protein diets (HP) on ileal CP and amino acid (AA) digestibility and intestinal microbiota composition...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469844/the-roles-of-micrornas-in-regulation-of-mammalian-spermatogenesis
#10
REVIEW
Xiaoxu Chen, Xueliang Li, Jiayin Guo, Pengfei Zhang, Wenxian Zeng
Mammalian spermatogenesis contains three continuous and organized processes, by which spermatogonia undergo mitosis and differentiate to spermatocytes, follow on meiosis to form haploid spermatids and ultimately transform into spermatozoa. These processes require an accurately, spatially and temporally regulated gene expression patterns. The microRNAs are a novel class of post-transcriptional regulators. Cumulating evidences have demonstrated that microRNAs are expressed in a cell-specific or stage-specific manner during spermatogenesis...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469843/review-utilization-of-yeast-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-origin-in-artificially-raised-calves
#11
REVIEW
Gibson M Alugongo, Jianxin Xiao, Zhaohai Wu, Shengli Li, Yajing Wang, Zhijun Cao
Yeast of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SCY) origin has over long time been incorporated into domestic animal diets. In calves, several products have offered improved performance and health. Although several types of research have been completed, the mode of action of SCY is not clear in calves. Under this review, we have highlighted the works available in the literature on the use of SCY in calves performance, health, immunity, and the gut environment. Both active live yeast and yeast culture have positive effects on growth, rumen, small intestines, immunity and general health of the calf...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469842/peripheral-leukocyte-and-endometrium-molecular-biomarkers-of-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-are-altered-in-peripartal-dairy-cows-supplemented-with-zn-mn-and-cu-from-amino-acid-complexes-and-co-from-co-glucoheptonate
#12
Fernanda Batistel, Johan S Osorio, Muhammad Rizwan Tariq, Cong Li, Jessica Caputo, Michael T Socha, Juan J Loor
BACKGROUND: Immune dysfunction and a higher risk of uterine infections are characteristics of the transition into lactation in dairy cows. The supply of complexed trace minerals, which are more bioavailable, could help overcome the greater needs of these nutrients in tissues around parturition and early lactation. RESULTS: Twenty Holstein cows received an oral bolus with a mix of inorganic trace minerals (INO) or complexed trace minerals (AAC) to achieve 75, 65, 11, and 1 ppm supplemental Zn, Mn, Cu, and Co, respectively, in the total diet dry matter from -30 d through +30 d relative to parturition...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465826/effects-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-fermentation-products-on-performance-and-rumen-fermentation-and-microbiota-in-dairy-cows-fed-a-diet-containing-low-quality-forage
#13
Wen Zhu, Zihai Wei, Ningning Xu, Fan Yang, Ilkyu Yoon, Yihua Chung, Jianxin Liu, Jiakun Wang
BACKGROUND: A possible option to meet the increased demand of forage for dairy industry is to use the agricultural by-products, such as corn stover. However, nutritional value of crop residues is low and we have been seeking technologies to improve the value. A feeding trial was performed to evaluate the effects of four levels of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP; Original XP; Diamond V) on lactation performance and rumen fermentation in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows fed a diet containing low-quality forage...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405315/disappearance-and-appearance-of-an-indigestible-marker-in-feces-from-growing-pigs-as-affected-by-previous-and-current-diet-composition
#14
Brandy M Jacobs, John F Patience, Merlin D Lindemann, Kenneth J Stalder, Brian J Kerr
BACKGROUND: Indigestible markers are commonly utilized in digestion studies, but the complete disappearance or maximum appearance of a marker in feces can be affected by diet composition, feed intake, or an animal's BW. The objectives of this study were to determine the impact of previous (Phase 1, P1) and current- (Phase 2, P2) diet composition on marker disappearance (Cr) and appearance (Ti) in pigs fed 3 diets differing in NDF content. RESULTS: When pigs were maintained on the 25...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405314/mitochondrial-dna-t7719g-in-trna-lys-gene-affects-litter-size-in-small-tailed-han-sheep
#15
Xiaoyong Chen, Dan Wang, Hai Xiang, Weitao Dun, Dave O H Brahi, Tao Yin, Xingbo Zhao
BACKGROUND: In farm animals, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) effect on economic performance remains hot-topic for breeding and genetic selection. Here, 53 maternal lineages of Small-tailed Han sheep were used to investigate the association of mitochondrial DNA variations and the lambing litter size. RESULTS: Sequence sweeping of the mitochondrial coding regions discovered 31 non-synonymous mutations, and the association study revealed that T7719G in mtDNA tRNA-Lys gene was associated with litter size (P < 0...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405313/artificial-rearing-influences-the-morphology-permeability-and-redox-state-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract-of-low-and-normal-birth-weight-piglets
#16
Hans Vergauwen, Jeroen Degroote, Sara Prims, Wei Wang, Erik Fransen, Stefaan De Smet, Christophe Casteleyn, Steven Van Cruchten, Joris Michiels, Chris Van Ginneken
BACKGROUND: In this study the physiological implications of artificial rearing were investigated. Low (LBW) and normal birth weight (NBW) piglets were compared as they might react differently to stressors caused by artificial rearing. In total, 42 pairs of LBW and NBW piglets from 16 litters suckled the sow until d19 of age or were artificially reared starting at d3 until d19 of age. Blood and tissue samples that were collected after euthanasia at 0, 3, 5, 8 and 19 d of age. Histology, ELISA, and Ussing chamber analysis were used to study proximal and distal small intestine histo-morphology, proliferation, apoptosis, tight junction protein expression, and permeability...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396748/innate-immune-responses-induced-by-lipopolysaccharide-and-lipoteichoic-acid-in-primary-goat-mammary-epithelial-cells
#17
Omar Bulgari, Xianwen Dong, Alfred L Roca, Anna M Caroli, Juan J Loor
BACKGROUND: Innate immune responses induced by in vitro stimulation of primary mammary epithelial cells (MEC) using Gram-negative lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Gram-positive lipoteichoic acid (LTA) bacterial cell wall components are well- characterized in bovine species. The objective of the current study was to characterize the downstream regulation of the inflammatory response induced by Toll-like receptors in primary goat MEC (pgMEC). We performed quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR) to measure mRNA levels of 9 genes involved in transcriptional regulation or antibacterial activity: Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), interferon induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 3 (IFIT3), interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MYD88), nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 1 (NFKB1), Toll interacting protein (TOLLIP), and lactoferrin (LTF)...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373905/reproductive-performance-and-gestational-effort-in-relation-to-dietary-fatty-acids-in-guinea-pigs
#18
Matthias Nemeth, Eva Millesi, Carina Siutz, Karl-Heinz Wagner, Ruth Quint, Bernard Wallner
BACKGROUND: Dietary saturated (SFAs) and polyunsaturated (PUFAs) fatty acids can highly affect reproductive functions by providing additional energy, modulating the biochemical properties of tissues, and hormone secretions. In precocial mammals such as domestic guinea pigs the offspring is born highly developed. Gestation might be the most critical reproductive period in this species and dietary fatty acids may profoundly influence the gestational effort. We therefore determined the hormonal status at conception, the reproductive success, and body mass changes during gestation in guinea pigs maintained on diets high in PUFAs or SFAs, or a control diet...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331609/preparation-characterization-antimicrobial-and-cytotoxicity-studies-of-copper-zinc-loaded-montmorillonite
#19
Lefei Jiao, Fanghui Lin, Shuting Cao, Chunchun Wang, Huan Wu, Miaoan Shu, Caihong Hu
BACKGROUND: A series of modified montmorillonites (Mt) including zinc-loaded Mt (Zn-Mt), copper-loaded Mt (Cu-Mt), copper/zinc-loaded Mt with different Cu/Zn ratio (Cu/Zn-Mt-1, Cu/Zn-Mt-2, Cu/Zn-Mt-3) were prepared by an ion-exchange reaction, and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The specific surface areas, antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity of the modified Mt were investigated...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316783/current-and-future-prospects-for-nanotechnology-in-animal-production
#20
REVIEW
Emily K Hill, Julang Li
Nanoparticles have been used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents in the human medical field for quite some time, though their application in veterinary medicine and animal production is still relatively new. Recently, production demands on the livestock industry have been centered around the use of antibiotics as growth promoters due to growing concern over microbial antibiotic resistance. With many countries reporting increased incidences of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, laws and regulations are being updated to end in-feed antibiotic use in the animal production industry...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
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