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Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405315/disappearance-and-appearance-of-an-indigestible-marker-in-feces-from-growing-pigs-as-affected-by-previous-and-current-diet-composition
#1
Brandy M Jacobs, John F Patience, Merlin D Lindemann, Kenneth J Stalder, Brian J Kerr
BACKGROUND: Indigestible markers are commonly utilized in digestion studies, but the complete disappearance or maximum appearance of a marker in feces can be affected by diet composition, feed intake, or an animal's BW. The objectives of this study were to determine the impact of previous (Phase 1, P1) and current- (Phase 2, P2) diet composition on marker disappearance (Cr) and appearance (Ti) in pigs fed 3 diets differing in NDF content. RESULTS: When pigs were maintained on the 25...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405314/mitochondrial-dna-t7719g-in-trna-lys-gene-affects-litter-size-in-small-tailed-han-sheep
#2
Xiaoyong Chen, Dan Wang, Hai Xiang, Weitao Dun, Dave O H Brahi, Tao Yin, Xingbo Zhao
BACKGROUND: In farm animals, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) effect on economic performance remains hot-topic for breeding and genetic selection. Here, 53 maternal lineages of Small-tailed Han sheep were used to investigate the association of mitochondrial DNA variations and the lambing litter size. RESULTS: Sequence sweeping of the mitochondrial coding regions discovered 31 non-synonymous mutations, and the association study revealed that T7719G in mtDNA tRNA-Lys gene was associated with litter size (P < 0...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405313/artificial-rearing-influences-the-morphology-permeability-and-redox-state-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract-of-low-and-normal-birth-weight-piglets
#3
Hans Vergauwen, Jeroen Degroote, Sara Prims, Wei Wang, Erik Fransen, Stefaan De Smet, Christophe Casteleyn, Steven Van Cruchten, Joris Michiels, Chris Van Ginneken
BACKGROUND: In this study the physiological implications of artificial rearing were investigated. Low (LBW) and normal birth weight (NBW) piglets were compared as they might react differently to stressors caused by artificial rearing. In total, 42 pairs of LBW and NBW piglets from 16 litters suckled the sow until d19 of age or were artificially reared starting at d3 until d19 of age. Blood and tissue samples that were collected after euthanasia at 0, 3, 5, 8 and 19 d of age. Histology, ELISA, and Ussing chamber analysis were used to study proximal and distal small intestine histo-morphology, proliferation, apoptosis, tight junction protein expression, and permeability...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396748/innate-immune-responses-induced-by-lipopolysaccharide-and-lipoteichoic-acid-in-primary-goat-mammary-epithelial-cells
#4
Omar Bulgari, Xianwen Dong, Alfred L Roca, Anna M Caroli, Juan J Loor
BACKGROUND: Innate immune responses induced by in vitro stimulation of primary mammary epithelial cells (MEC) using Gram-negative lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Gram-positive lipoteichoic acid (LTA) bacterial cell wall components are well- characterized in bovine species. The objective of the current study was to characterize the downstream regulation of the inflammatory response induced by Toll-like receptors in primary goat MEC (pgMEC). We performed quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR) to measure mRNA levels of 9 genes involved in transcriptional regulation or antibacterial activity: Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), interferon induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 3 (IFIT3), interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MYD88), nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 1 (NFKB1), Toll interacting protein (TOLLIP), and lactoferrin (LTF)...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373905/reproductive-performance-and-gestational-effort-in-relation-to-dietary-fatty-acids-in-guinea-pigs
#5
Matthias Nemeth, Eva Millesi, Carina Siutz, Karl-Heinz Wagner, Ruth Quint, Bernard Wallner
BACKGROUND: Dietary saturated (SFAs) and polyunsaturated (PUFAs) fatty acids can highly affect reproductive functions by providing additional energy, modulating the biochemical properties of tissues, and hormone secretions. In precocial mammals such as domestic guinea pigs the offspring is born highly developed. Gestation might be the most critical reproductive period in this species and dietary fatty acids may profoundly influence the gestational effort. We therefore determined the hormonal status at conception, the reproductive success, and body mass changes during gestation in guinea pigs maintained on diets high in PUFAs or SFAs, or a control diet...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331609/preparation-characterization-antimicrobial-and-cytotoxicity-studies-of-copper-zinc-loaded-montmorillonite
#6
Lefei Jiao, Fanghui Lin, Shuting Cao, Chunchun Wang, Huan Wu, Miaoan Shu, Caihong Hu
BACKGROUND: A series of modified montmorillonites (Mt) including zinc-loaded Mt (Zn-Mt), copper-loaded Mt (Cu-Mt), copper/zinc-loaded Mt with different Cu/Zn ratio (Cu/Zn-Mt-1, Cu/Zn-Mt-2, Cu/Zn-Mt-3) were prepared by an ion-exchange reaction, and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The specific surface areas, antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity of the modified Mt were investigated...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316783/current-and-future-prospects-for-nanotechnology-in-animal-production
#7
REVIEW
Emily K Hill, Julang Li
Nanoparticles have been used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents in the human medical field for quite some time, though their application in veterinary medicine and animal production is still relatively new. Recently, production demands on the livestock industry have been centered around the use of antibiotics as growth promoters due to growing concern over microbial antibiotic resistance. With many countries reporting increased incidences of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, laws and regulations are being updated to end in-feed antibiotic use in the animal production industry...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286650/review-sugar-beets-as-a-substitute-for-grain-for-lactating-dairy-cattle
#8
REVIEW
Essi Evans, Ulrike Messerschmidt
Dairy cows are customarily given grains and highly digestible byproduct ingredients as additions to forage to support milk production. In many parts of the world growing seasons are short, and the grain crops that can be grown may not provide adequate yields. Sugar beets, on the other hand are relatively hardy, and dry matter yields surpass the yields of most grain crops. There are however, perceptions that beets may not be suitable as a feed ingredient due to the fact that the storage form of carbohydrate is sugar rather than starch...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286649/protein-hydrolysates-in-animal-nutrition-industrial-production-bioactive-peptides-and-functional-significance
#9
REVIEW
Yongqing Hou, Zhenlong Wu, Zhaolai Dai, Genhu Wang, Guoyao Wu
Recent years have witnessed growing interest in the role of peptides in animal nutrition. Chemical, enzymatic, or microbial hydrolysis of proteins in animal by-products or plant-source feedstuffs before feeding is an attractive means of generating high-quality small or large peptides that have both nutritional and physiological or regulatory functions in livestock, poultry and fish. These peptides may also be formed from ingested proteins in the gastrointestinal tract, but the types of resultant peptides can vary greatly with the physiological conditions of the animals and the composition of the diets...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286648/new-approach-to-assess-sperm-dna-fragmentation-dynamics-fine-tuning-mathematical-models
#10
Isabel Ortiz, Jesús Dorado, Jane Morrell, Jaime Gosálvez, Francisco Crespo, Juan M Jiménez, Manuel Hidalgo
BACKGROUND: Sperm DNA fragmentation (sDF) has been proved to be an important parameter in order to predict in vitro the potential fertility of a semen sample. Colloid centrifugation could be a suitable technique to select those donkey sperm more resistant to DNA fragmentation after thawing. Previous studies have shown that to elucidate the latent damage of the DNA molecule, sDF should be assessed dynamically, where the rate of fragmentation between treatments indicates how resistant the DNA is to iatrogenic damage...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286647/investigation-of-the-immune-effects-of-scutellaria-baicalensis-on-blood-leukocytes-and-selected-organs-of-the-chicken-s-lymphatic-system
#11
Bożena Króliczewska, Stanisław Graczyk, Jarosław Króliczewski, Aleksandra Pliszczak-Król, Dorota Miśta, Wojciech Zawadzki
BACKGROUND: The health of chickens and the welfare of poultry industry are central to the efforts of addressing global food security. Therefore, it is essential to study chicken immunology to maintain and improve its health and to find novel and sustainable solutions. This paper presents a study on investigation of the effect of Scutellaria baicalensis root (SBR) on the immune response of broiler chicken, especially on lymphocytes and heterophils reactivity, regarding their contribution to the development of immunity of the chickens...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270911/relationship-between-hsp90a-npc2-and-l-pgds-proteins-to-boar-semen-freezability
#12
Julián Valencia, Germán Gómez, Walter López, Henry Mesa, Francisco Javier Henao
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine the association of three proteins involved in sperm function on the freezability of porcine semen: the heat shock protein 90 alpha (HSP90a), the Niemann-Pick disease type C2 protein (NPC2), and lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS). Six adult boars (each boar was ejaculated three times, 18 in total) were classified by freezability based on the percentage of functionally competent sperm. The male semen with highest freezability (MHF) and the male semen with lowest freezability (MLF) were centrifuged immediately after collection to separate seminal plasma and spermatozoa to make four possible combinations of these two components and to incubate them for 3 h, adjusting the temperature to 17 °C, to freeze them afterwards...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261474/expression-of-fatty-acid-sensing-g-protein-coupled-receptors-in-peripartal-holstein-cows
#13
Alea Agrawal, Abdulrahman Alharthi, Mario Vailati-Riboni, Zheng Zhou, Juan J Loor
BACKGROUND: G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR), also referred as Free Fatty Acid Receptors (FFAR), are widely studied within human medicine as drug targets for metabolic disorders. To combat metabolic disorders prevalent in dairy cows during the transition period, which co-occur with negative energy balance and changes to lipid and glucose metabolism, it may be helpful to identify locations and roles of FFAR and other members of the GPCR family in bovine tissues. RESULTS: Quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR) of subcutaneous adipose, liver, and PMNL samples during the transition period (-10, +7, and +20 or +30 d) were used for expression profiling of medium- (MCFA) and long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) receptors GPR120 and GPR40, MCFA receptor GPR84, and niacin receptor HCAR2/3...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239458/erratum-to-over-expression-of-toll-like-receptor-2-up-regulates-heme-oxygenase-1-expression-and-decreases-oxidative-injury-in-dairy-goats
#14
Shoulong Deng, Kun Yu, Wuqi Jiang, Yan Li, Sutian Wang, Zhuo Deng, Yuchang Yao, Baolu Zhang, Guoshi Liu, Yixun Liu, Zhengxing Lian
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s40104-016-0136-2.].
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194272/fatty-acid-content-in-epididymal-fluid-and-spermatozoa-during-sperm-maturation-in-dogs
#15
Daniel S Ramos Angrimani, Marcilio Nichi, João Diego A Losano, Cristina F Lucio, Gisele A Lima Veiga, Márcia V M Junqueira Franco, Camila I Vannucchi
BACKGROUND: During sperm maturation, there is a reorganization of fatty acids from plasmatic membrane of the spermatozoa, which allows higher membrane integrity and acquisition of sperm motility. However, the fatty acid profile during sperm maturation remains unclear in dogs. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify the fatty acids from the epididymal spermatozoa and plasma during the sperm maturation, and observed changes in the motility and plasmatic membrane parameters. Twenty one adult dogs were used, subsequently to bilateral orchiectomy and epididymal storage, sperm samples were collected from the different segments of the epididymis...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191311/supplemental-smartamine-m-in-higher-energy-diets-during-the-prepartal-period-improves-hepatic-biomarkers-of-health-and-oxidative-status-in-holstein-cows
#16
Mario Vailati-Riboni, Johan S Osorio, Erminio Trevisi, Daniel Luchini, Juan J Loor
BACKGROUND: Feeding higher-energy prepartum is a common practice in the dairy industry. However, recent data underscore how it could reduce performance, deepen negative energy balance, and augment inflammation and oxidative stress in fresh cows. We tested the effectiveness of rumen-protected methionine in preventing the negative effect of feeding a higher-energy prepartum. Multiparous Holstein cows were fed a control lower-energy diet (CON, 1.24 Mcal/kg DM; high-straw) during the whole dry period (~50 d), or were switched to a higher-energy (OVE, 1...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168037/comparison-of-rumen-bacteria-distribution-in-original-rumen-digesta-rumen-liquid-and-solid-fractions-in-lactating-holstein-cows
#17
Shoukun Ji, Hongtao Zhang, Hui Yan, Arash Azarfar, Haitao Shi, Gibson Alugongo, Shengli Li, Zhijun Cao, Yajing Wang
BACKGROUND: Original rumen digesta, rumen liquid and solid fractions have been frequently used to assess the rumen bacterial community. However, bacterial profiles in rumen original digesta, liquid and solid fractions vary from each other and need to be better established. METHODS: To compare bacterial profiles in each fraction, samples of rumen digesta from six cows fed either a high fiber diet (HFD) or a high energy diet (HED) were collected via rumen fistulas...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163916/effects-of-total-replacement-of-corn-silage-with-sorghum-silage-on-milk-yield-composition-and-quality
#18
M Cattani, N Guzzo, R Mantovani, L Bailoni
BACKGROUND: In the last years, difficulties occurring in corn cultivation (i.e., groundwater shortages, mycotoxin contamination) have been forcing dairy farmers to consider alternative silages. Some experiments conducted on lactating cows have proven that the total replacement of corn silage with sorghum silage did not reduce milk yield. However, this kind of substitution involves supplementing sorghum-based diets with grains, to compensate for the lower starch content of sorghum silage compared to corn silage...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149513/intermittent-suckling-with-or-without-co-mingling-of-non-littermate-piglets-before-weaning-improves-piglet-performance-in-the-immediate-post-weaning-period-when-compared-with-conventional-weaning
#19
Diana L Turpin, Pieter Langendijk, Kate Plush, John R Pluske
BACKGROUND: In this experiment, intermittent suckling (IS) with or without the co-mingling (CoM) of piglets was studied as a method to stimulate solid feed intake and reduce post-weaning stress. METHODS: Three weaning regimes using 30 multiparous sows were compared: (1) conventional weaning (CW) (n = 10 litters), where piglets had continuous access to the sow until weaning (d 0, farrowing = d -25 relative to weaning); (2) intermittent suckling (IS) (n = 10 litters), where piglets were separated from the sow for 8 h/d starting at d -7 (relative to weaning); and (3) intermittent suckling with co-mingling (ISCo) (n = 10 litters) where IS started at d -7 and two litters were housed together during separation and then returned to their original sow...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149512/rumen-methanogens-and-mitigation-of-methane-emission-by-anti-methanogenic-compounds-and-substances
#20
REVIEW
Amlan Patra, Tansol Park, Minseok Kim, Zhongtang Yu
Methanogenic archaea reside primarily in the rumen and the lower segments of the intestines of ruminants, where they utilize the reducing equivalents derived from rumen fermentation to reduce carbon dioxide, formic acid, or methylamines to methane (CH4). Research on methanogens in the rumen has attracted great interest in the last decade because CH4 emission from ruminants contributes to global greenhouse gas emission and represents a loss of feed energy. Some DNA-based phylogenetic studies have depicted a diverse and dynamic community of methanogens in the rumen...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
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