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Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology

Lingyang Xu, Yanghua He, Yi Ding, George E Liu, Huanmin Zhang, Hans H Cheng, Robert L Taylor, Jiuzhou Song
Background: Marek's disease (MD) is a highly contagious pathogenic and oncogenic disease primarily affecting chickens. However, the mechanisms of genetic resistance for MD are complex and not fully understood. MD-resistant line 63 and MD-susceptible line 72 are two highly inbred progenitor lines of White Leghorn. Recombinant Congenic Strains (RCS) were developed from these two lines, which show varied susceptibility to MD. Results: We investigated genetic structure and genomic signatures across the genome, including the line 63 and line 72 , six RCSs, and two reciprocally crossed flocks between the lines 63 and 72 (F1 63  × 72 and F1 72  × 63 ) using Affymetrix® Axiom® HD 600 K genotyping array...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
M Drikic, C Windeyer, S Olsen, Y Fu, L Doepel, J De Buck
Background: Immune protection in newborn calves relies on a combination of the timing, volume and quality of colostrum consumed by the calf after birth. Poor quality colostrum with inadequate immunoglobulin concentration contributes to failed transfer of passive immunity in calves, leading to higher calf morbidity and mortality. Therefore, estimating colostrum quality and ensuring the transfer of passive immunity on farm is of critical importance. Currently, there are no on-farm tools that directly measure immunoglobulin content in colostrum or serum...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Marco Zampiga, Joshua Flees, Adele Meluzzi, Sami Dridi, Federico Sirri
The poultry industry is continuously facing substantial and different challenges such as the increasing cost of feed ingredients, the European Union's ban of antibiotic as growth promoters, the antimicrobial resistance and the high incidence of muscle myopathies and breast meat abnormalities. In the last decade, there has been an extraordinary development of many genomic techniques able to describe global variation of genes, proteins and metabolites expression level. Proper application of these cutting-edge omics technologies (mainly transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics) paves the possibility to understand much useful information about the biological processes and pathways behind different complex traits of chickens...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Shuxiang Wang, Arash Azarfar, Yajing Wang, Zhijun Cao, Shengli Li
Background: High-altitude pulmonary hypertension (HAPH) is a life-threating condition for animals in high altitude, and disturbance of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthesis contributes to its pathogenesis. N-carbamylglutamate (NCG), which enhances arginine synthesis, promotes endogenous synthesis of NO. In this study, we determined the effects of NCG on alleviating HAPH in Holstein heifers that ascended to Tibet (Lhasa, 3,658 m). Methods: Exp. 1, 2,000 Holstein heifers were transported from low elevation (1,027 m) to Lhasa...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Yanhong Liu, Dong Yong Kil, Victor G Perez-Mendoza, Minho Song, James E Pettigrew
Background: There are various fat sources with different energy values and fatty acid compositions that may affect growth performance and carcass composition of grow-finishing pigs. A higher net energy was recently reported in choice white grease compared with soybean oil. Therefore, two experiments were conducted to determine whether practical responses confirm that difference between choice white grease and soybean oil, and to extend the observations to other fat sources. Results: In Exp...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Ling Chen, Shuang Li, Jie Zheng, Wentao Li, Xuemei Jiang, Xilun Zhao, Jian Li, Lianqiang Che, Yan Lin, Shengyu Xu, Bin Feng, Zhengfeng Fang, De Wu
Background: Weanling pigs, with immature immune system and physiological function, usually experience post-weaning diarrhea. This study determined the effects of dietary Clostridium butyricum supplementation on growth performance, diarrhea, and immunity of weaned pigs challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Methods: In Experiment (Exp.) 1, 144 weaned piglets were weaned at 21 d and randomly assigned to six groups, with six replicates per group and four pigs per replicate, receiving a control diet (CON) or diet supplemented with antibiotics (AB) or C...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Ting He, Long He, Enen Gao, Jinhua Hu, Jianjun Zang, Chunlin Wang, Jinshan Zhao, Xi Ma
Background: The high mortality of pre-weanling piglets is a dominant challenge which severely restricts the development of pig industry. A number of factors including nutrients imbalance and temperature variation during postnatal period of piglets have been reported to closely associated with the high mortality of postnatal piglets. This study aims to find out the relationship between fat deposition and survival of newborn piglets. Results: There were no differences in organ coefficient and bone density between the surviving and dead piglets ( P  > 0...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Peipei Ma, Ju Huang, Weijia Gong, Xiujin Li, Hongding Gao, Qin Zhang, Xiangdong Ding, Chonglong Wang
In genomic selection, prediction accuracy is highly driven by the size of animals in the reference population (RP). Combining related populations from different countries and regions or using a related population with large size of RP has been considered to be viable strategies in cattle breeding. The genetic relationship between related populations is important for improving the genomic predictive ability. In this study, we used 122 French bulls as test individuals. The genomic estimated breeding values (GEBVs) evaluated using French RP, America RP and Chinese RP were compared...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Selene Jarrett, Cheryl J Ashworth
Fibres from a variety of sources are a common constituent of pig feeds. They provide a means to utilise locally-produced plant materials which are often a by-product of the food or drink industry. The value of a high fibre diet in terms of producing satiety has long been recognised. However the addition of fibre can reduce feed intake, which is clearly detrimental during stages of the production cycle when nutrient needs are high, for example in growing piglets and during lactation. More recently, fibre has been found to promote novel benefits to pig production systems, particularly given the reduction in antimicrobial use world-wide, concern for the welfare of animals fed a restricted diet and the need to ensure that such systems are more environmentally friendly...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Jin Wan, Jiao Zhang, Daiwen Chen, Bing Yu, Xiangbing Mao, Ping Zheng, Jie Yu, Junqiu Luo, Jun He
Background: Alginate oligosaccharide (AOS), produced from alginate by alginate lyase-mediated depolymerisation, is a potential substitute for antibiotics and possesses growth-enhancing effects. Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which AOS regulates porcine growth remain to be elucidated. Therefore, we investigated the AOS-mediated changes in the growth performance of weaned pigs by determining the intestinal morphology, barrier function, as well as epithelium apoptosis. Methods: Twenty-four weaned pigs were distributed into two groups ( n  = 12) and received either a basal diet (control group) or the same diet supplemented with 100 mg/kg AOS...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Wei Nie, Bo Wang, Jing Gao, Yuming Guo, Zhong Wang
Background: Phosphorus is an essential nutrient to maintain poultry health and performance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary phosphorus levels on egg production, egg quality, bone health, immune responses of laying hens challenged with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide. Methods: Three hundred laying hens at 28 wk were randomly divided into 2 dietary treatments with 10 replicates of 15 birds. The wheat-soybean based diets contained either 0...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Robin B Guevarra, Sang Hyun Hong, Jin Ho Cho, Bo-Ra Kim, Jiwon Shin, Jun Hyung Lee, Bit Na Kang, Young Hwa Kim, Suphot Wattanaphansak, Richard E Isaacson, Minho Song, Hyeun Bum Kim
Background: Understanding the composition of the microbial community and its functional capacity during weaning is important for pig production as bacteria play important roles in the pig's health and growth performance. However, limited information is available regarding the composition and function of the gut microbiome of piglets in early-life. Therefore, we performed 16S rRNA gene and whole metagenome shotgun sequencing of DNA from fecal samples from healthy piglets during weaning to measure microbiome shifts, and to identify the potential contribution of the early-life microbiota in shaping piglet health with a focus on microbial stress responses, carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Corrine L Harris, Bo Wang, Jeneane M Deavila, Jan R Busboom, Martin Maquivar, Steven M Parish, Brent McCann, Mark L Nelson, Min Du
Background: Marbling, or intramuscular fat, is an important factor contributing to the palatability of beef. Vitamin A, through its active metabolite, retinoic acid, promotes the formation of new fat cells (adipogenesis). As intramuscular adipogenesis is active during the neonatal stage, we hypothesized that vitamin A administration during the neonatal stage would enhance intramuscular adipogenesis and marbling. Methods: Angus steer calves ( n  = 30), in a completely randomized design, were randomly allotted to three treatment groups at birth, receiving 0, 150,000, or 300,000 IU of vitamin A at both birth and one month of age...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Yuming Wang, Junyan Zhou, Gang Wang, Shuang Cai, Xiangfang Zeng, Shiyan Qiao
Recent years have witnessed the great advantages of reducing dietary crude protein (CP) with free amino acids (AA) supplementation for sustainable swine industry, including saving protein ingredients, reducing nitrogen excretion, feed costs and the risk of gut disorders without impairing growth performance compared to traditional diets. However, a tendency toward increased fatness is a matter of concern when pigs are fed low-protein (LP) diets. In response, the use of the net energy system and balanced AA for formulation of LP diets has been proposed as a solution...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Karolina Haziak, Andrzej Przemysław Herman, Karolina Wojtulewicz, Bartosz Pawlina, Kamila Paczesna, Joanna Bochenek, Dorota Tomaszewska-Zaremba
Background: Immune stress induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) influences the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)/luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion. Presence of LPS interacting Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 in the hypothalamus may enable the direct action of LPS on the GnRH/LH secretion. So, the aim of the study was to investigate the influence of intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of TLR4 antagonist on GnRH/LH secretion in anestrous ewes during LPS-induced central inflammation. Animals were divided into three groups icv-treated with: Ringer-Locke solution, LPS and TLR4 antagonist followed by LPS...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Sihem Dabbou, Francesco Gai, Ilaria Biasato, Maria Teresa Capucchio, Elena Biasibetti, Daniela Dezzutto, Marco Meneguz, Iveta Plachà, Laura Gasco, Achille Schiavone
Background: The present study has evaluated the effects of different inclusion levels of a partially defatted black soldier fly ( Hermetia illucens L.; HI) larva meal on the growth performance, blood parameters and gut morphology of broiler chickens. A total of 256 male broiler chickens (Ross 308) were reared from d 1 to d 35 and assigned to 4 dietary treatments (8 replicates/treatment and 8 birds/replicate). HI larva meal was included at increasing levels (0, 5%, 10% and 15%; HI0, HI5, HI10 and HI15, respectively) in isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets formulated for 3 feeding phases: starter (1-10 d), growing (10-24 d) and finisher (24-35 d)...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Swagat K Patra, Chakrpani Vemulawada, Meenati M Soren, Jitendra K Sundaray, Manoj K Panda, Hirak K Barman
Background: The homeobox containing transcription factor Nanog plays crucial roles in embryonic development/proliferation and/or maintenance of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) via interacting with transcription factors such as Oct4 and Sox2 in mammals. However, knowledge of its exact mechanistic pathways remains unexploited. Very little is known about teleost Nanog . Information on the Nanog gene of farmed rohu carp ( Labeo rohita ) is lacking. We cloned and characterized the Nanog gene of rohu carp to understand the expression pattern in early developmental stages and also deduced the genomic organization including promoter elements...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Chuanjian Zhang, Yu Peng, Chunlong Mu, Weiyun Zhu
Background: Compared with oral antibiotics (primarily disrupt foregut microbiota), the present study used antibiotics with ileum terminal infusion to disrupt the hindgut microbiota, and investigated the changes in specific bacterial composition and immune indexes in the jejunum and colon, and serum of growing pigs. Twelve barrows (45 d of age, 12.08 ± 0.28 kg) fitted with a T-cannula at the terminal ileum, were randomly assigned to two groups and infused either saline without antibiotics (Control) or with antibiotics (Antibiotic) at the terminal ileum...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Hesham Y A Darwish, Yuanyuan Zhang, Kai Cui, Zu Yang, Deping Han, Xianggui Dong, Huaming Mao, Weidong Deng, Xuemei Deng
Background: Black bone sheep was first discovered in Yunnan province of China in 1970, with unique black pigmentation on the body and internal organs. Endothelin 3 ( EDN3 ) has been known as a key gene causing hyperpigmentation in black bone chicken, the Silky fowl. Methods: In this study, EDN3 was employed as a candidate gene for regulating black color pigmentation. First, EDN3 was cloned from sheep to obtain the full-length cDNA by using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Liuan Ma, Huiling Qiu, Zhi Chen, Li Li, Yan Zeng, Jun Luo, Deming Gou
Background: The goat ( Caprahircus ) is one of the most important livestock animals. Goat milk fat is an important component in the nutritional quality of goat milk. Growing evidence points to the critical roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in lipid metabolism. Results: Using a highly sensitive method of S-poly(T) plus for miRNAs detection, we analyze the expression patterns of 715 miRNAs in goat mammary gland tissues at different stages of lactation. We observed that miR-25 expression had an inverse relationship with milk production...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
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