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Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883917/betaine-affects-muscle-lipid-metabolism-via-regulating-the-fatty-acid-uptake-and-oxidation-in-finishing-pig
#1
Sisi Li, Haichao Wang, Xinxia Wang, Yizhen Wang, Jie Feng
BACKGROUND: Betaine affects fat metabolism in animals, but the specific mechanism is still not clear. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible mechanisms of betaine in altering lipid metabolism in muscle tissue in finishing pigs. METHODS: A total of 120 crossbred gilts (Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc) with an average initial body weight of 70.1 kg were randomly allotted to three dietary treatments. The treatments included a corn-soybean meal basal diet supplemented with 0, 1250 or 2500 mg/kg betaine...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883916/circulating-leptin-and-its-muscle-gene-expression-in-nellore-cattle-with-divergent-feed-efficiency
#2
Lúcio Flávio Macedo Mota, Cristina Moreira Bonafé, Pâmela Almeida Alexandre, Miguel Henrique Santana, Francisco José Novais, Erika Toriyama, Aldrin Vieira Pires, Saulo da Luz Silva, Paulo Roberto Leme, José Bento Sterman Ferraz, Heidge Fukumasu
BACKGROUND: Leptin has a strong relation to important traits in animal production, such as carcass composition, feed intake, and reproduction. It is mainly produced by adipose cells and acts predominantly in the hypothalamus. In this study, circulating leptin and its gene expression in muscle were evaluated in two groups of young Nellore bulls with divergent feed efficiency. Individual dry matter intake (DMI) and average daily gain (ADG) of 98 Nellore bulls were evaluated in feedlot for 70 d to determinate the residual feed intake (RFI) and select 20 animals for the high feed efficient (LRFI) and 20 for the low feed efficient (HRFI) groups...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883915/evaluation-of-fatty-acid-metabolism-and-innate-immunity-interactions-between-commercial-broiler-f1-layer-%C3%A3-broiler-cross-and-commercial-layer-strains-selected-for-different-growth-potentials
#3
Nicky-Lee Willson, Rebecca E A Forder, Rick G Tearle, Greg S Nattrass, Robert J Hughes, Philip I Hynd
BACKGROUND: The broiler industry has undergone intense genetic selection over the past 50 yr. resulting in improvements for growth and feed efficiency, however, significant variation remains for performance and growth traits. Production improvements have been coupled with unfavourable metabolic consequences, including immunological trade-offs for growth, and excess fat deposition. To determine whether interactions between fatty acid (FA) metabolism and innate immunity may be associated with performance variations commonly seen within commercial broiler flocks, total carcass lipid %, carcass and blood FA composition, as well as genes involved with FA metabolism, immunity and cellular stress were investigated in male birds of a broiler strain, layer strain and F1 layer × broiler cross at d 14 post hatch...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883914/effect-of-recombinant-and-native-buffalo-ovgp1-on-sperm-functions-and-in-vitro-embryo-development-a-comparative-study
#4
Suman Choudhary, A Kumaresan, Manish Kumar, Shivani Chhillar, Hrudananda Malik, Sudarshan Kumar, Jai K Kaushik, Tirtha K Datta, Ashok K Mohanty
BACKGROUND: An oviduct- specific glycoprotein, OVGP1, is synthesized and secreted by non-ciliated epithelial cells of the mammalian oviduct which provides an essential milieu for reproductive functions. The present study reports the effects of recombinant buffalo OVGP1 that lacks post-translational modifications, and native Buffalo OVGP1 isolated from oviductal tissue, on frozen- thawed sperm functions and in vitro embryo development. RESULTS: The proportion of viable sperms was greater (P < 0...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883913/glucosamine-supplementation-during-late-gestation-alters-placental-development-and-increases-litter-size
#5
Jeffrey L Vallet, Jeremy R Miles, Bradley A Freking, Shane Meyer
BACKGROUND: During late gestation the placental epithelial interface becomes highly folded, which involves changes in stromal hyaluronan. Hyaluronan is composed of glucoronate and N-acetyl-glucosamine. We hypothesized that supplementing gestating dams with glucosamine during this time would support placental folded-epithelial-bilayer development and increase litter size. In Exp. 1, gilts were unilaterally hysterectomized-ovariectomized (UHO). UHO gilts were mated and then supplemented daily with 10 g glucosamine (n = 16) or glucose (control, n = 17) from d 85 of gestation until slaughter (d 105)...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878894/genomic-regions-and-pathways-associated-with-gastrointestinal-parasites-resistance-in-santa-in%C3%A3%C2%AAs-breed-adapted-to-tropical-climate
#6
Mariana Piatto Berton, Rafael Medeiros de Oliveira Silva, Elisa Peripolli, Nedenia Bonvino Stafuzza, Jesús Fernández Martin, Maria Saura Álvarez, Beatriz Villanueva Gavinã, Miguel Angel Toro, Georgget Banchero, Priscila Silva Oliveira, Joanir Pereira Eler, Fernando Baldi, José Bento Sterman Ferraz
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to estimate variance components and to identify genomic regions and pathways associated with resistance to gastrointestinal parasites, particularly Haemonchus contortus, in a breed of sheep adapted to tropical climate. Phenotypes evaluations were performed to verify resistance to gastrointestinal parasites, and were divided into two categories: i) farm phenotypes, assessing body condition score (BCS), degree of anemia assessed by the famacha chart (FAM), fur score (FS) and feces consistency (FC); and ii) lab phenotypes, comprising blood analyses for hematocrit (HCT), white blood cell count (WBC), red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB), platelets (PLT) and transformed (log10) egg per gram of feces (EPGlog)...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852499/candidate-genes-for-male-and-female-reproductive-traits-in-canchim-beef-cattle
#7
Marcos Eli Buzanskas, Daniela do Amaral Grossi, Ricardo Vieira Ventura, Flavio Schramm Schenkel, Tatiane Cristina Seleguim Chud, Nedenia Bonvino Stafuzza, Luciana Diniz Rola, Sarah Laguna Conceição Meirelles, Fabiana Barichello Mokry, Maurício de Alvarenga Mudadu, Roberto Hiroshi Higa, Marcos Vinícius Gualberto Barbosa da Silva, Maurício Mello de Alencar, Luciana Correia de Almeida Regitano, Danísio Prado Munari
BACKGROUND: Beef cattle breeding programs in Brazil have placed greater emphasis on the genomic study of reproductive traits of males and females due to their economic importance. In this study, genome-wide associations were assessed for scrotal circumference at 210 d of age, scrotal circumference at 420 d of age, age at first calving, and age at second calving, in Canchim beef cattle. Data quality control was conducted resulting in 672,778 SNPs and 392 animals. RESULTS: Associated SNPs were observed for scrotal circumference at 420 d of age (435 SNPs), followed by scrotal circumference at 210 d of age (12 SNPs), age at first calving (six SNPs), and age at second calving (four SNPs)...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28824802/cinnamicaldehyde-regulates-the-expression-of%C3%A2-tight-junction-proteins-and-amino-acid-transporters-in-intestinal-porcine-epithelial-cells
#8
Kaiji Sun, Yan Lei, Renjie Wang, Zhenlong Wu, Guoyao Wu
BACKGROUND: Cinnamicaldehyde (CA) is a key flavor compound in cinnamon essential oil possessing various bioactivities. Tight junction (TJ) proteins are vital for the maintenance of intestinal epithelial barrier function, transport, absorption and utilization of dietary amino acids and other nutrients. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that CA may regulate the expression of TJ proteins and amino acid transporters in intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-1) isolated from neonatal pigs...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804620/stress-and-immunological-response-of-heifers-divergently-ranked-for-residual-feed-intake-following-an-adrenocorticotropic-hormone-challenge
#9
A K Kelly, P Lawrence, B Earley, D A Kenny, M McGee
BACKGROUND: When an animal is exposed to a stressor, metabolic rate, energy consumption and utilisation increase primarily through activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Changes to partitioning of energy by an animal are likely to influence the efficiency with which it is utilised. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the physiological stress response to an exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge in beef heifers divergently ranked on phenotypic residual feed intake (RFI)...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781774/level-of-dietary-energy-and-2-4-thiazolidinedione-alter-molecular-and-systemic-biomarkers-of-inflammation-and-liver-function-in-holstein-cows
#10
Afshin Hosseini, Mustafa Salman, Zheng Zhou, James K Drackley, Erminio Trevisi, Juan J Loor
BACKGROUND: The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of overfeeding a moderate energy diet and a 2,4-thiazolidinedione (TZD) injection on blood and hepatic tissue biomarkers of lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, and inflammation as it relates to insulin sensitivity. RESULTS: Fourteen dry non-pregnant cows were fed a control (CON) diet to meet 100% of NRC requirements for 3 wk, after which half of the cows were assigned to a moderate-energy diet (OVE) and half of the cows continued on CON for 6 wk...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781773/the-relationship-between-dietary-methionine-and-growth-digestion-absorption-and-antioxidant-status-in-intestinal-and-hepatopancreatic-tissues-of-sub-adult-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella
#11
Pei Wu, Ling Tang, Weidan Jiang, Kai Hu, Yang Liu, Jun Jiang, Shengyao Kuang, Ling Tang, Wuneng Tang, Yongan Zhang, Xiaoqiu Zhou, Lin Feng
BACKGROUND: Methionine is an essential amino acid for fish. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary methionine on growth performance, digestive and absorptive ability, as well as antioxidant capacity in the intestine and hepatopancreas of sub-adult grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). RESULTS: Dietary methionine deficiency significantly decreased percentage weight gain (PWG), feed intake, feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio, as well as activities of hepatopancreatic glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase and muscle glutamate-pyruvate transaminase in sub-adult grass carp (P < 0...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781772/enriched-endoplasmic-reticulum-mitochondria-interactions-result-in-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-apoptosis-in-oocytes-from-obese-mice
#12
Lihong Zhao, Tengfei Lu, Lei Gao, Xiangwei Fu, Shien Zhu, Yunpeng Hou
BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity alters oocytes and subsequent fetal metabolism. An increasing number of studies have shown that the endoplasmic reticulums (ER) or mitochondria have important effects on oocyte quality, but there has been no study of the effect of mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAMs) on oocyte quality. The present study was designed to assess whether the level of MAM and MAM-related proteins were different in oocytes from obese and control mice. RESULTS: First, oocytes from mice with high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity had higher levels (either greater numbers or a higher proportion for the same numbers) of MAM than oocytes from control mice...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781771/the-impact-of-synbiotic-administration-through-in-ovo-technology-on-the-microstructure-of-a-broiler-chicken-small-intestine-tissue-on-the-1-st-and-42-nd-day-of-rearing
#13
A Sobolewska, J Bogucka, A Dankowiakowska, G Elminowska-Wenda, K Stadnicka, M Bednarczyk
BACKGROUND: Application the innovative method which is in ovo technology provides a means of modulating the immune system at early embryonic stages. The aim of study was to determine influence of the in ovo stimulation, on d 12 of incubation, with synbiotics (synbiotic 1- L. salivarius IBB3154 + Bi(2)tos, Clasado Ltd. and the synbiotic 2 - L. plantarum IBB3036 + lupin RFOs) on the microstructure of duodenum, jejunum and ileum in the 1(st) and 42(nd) day of rearing. RESULTS: On the 1(st) day of chickens life, in the duodenum of both experimental groups (SYN1 and SYN2), a significantly higher and wider intestinal villi as well as a significantly larger absorbent surface of these villi were found in comparison with the Control group (P ≤ 0...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781770/long-term-effects-of-early-antibiotic-intervention-on-blood-parameters-apparent-nutrient-digestibility-and-fecal-microbial-fermentation-profile-in-pigs-with-different-dietary-protein-levels
#14
Miao Yu, Chuanjian Zhang, Yuxiang Yang, Chunlong Mu, Yong Su, Kaifan Yu, Weiyun Zhu
BACKGROUD: This study aimed to determine the effects of early antibiotic intervention (EAI) on subsequent blood parameters, apparent nutrient digestibility, and fecal fermentation profile in pigs with different dietary crude protein (CP) levels. Eighteen litters of piglets (total 212) were randomly allocated to 2 groups and were fed a creep feed diet with or without in-feed antibiotics (olaquindox, oxytetracycline calcium and kitasamycin) from postnatal d 7 to d 42. On d 42, the piglets within the control or antibiotic group were mixed, respectively, and then further randomly assigned to a normal- (20%, 18%, and 14% CP from d 42 to d 77, d 77 to d 120, and d 120 to d 185, respectively) or a low-CP diet (16%, 14%, and 10% CP from d 42 to d 77, d 77 to d 120, and d 120 to d 185, respectively), generating 4 groups...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702191/regularized-quantile-regression-for-snp-marker-estimation-of-pig-growth-curves
#15
L M A Barroso, M Nascimento, A C C Nascimento, F F Silva, N V L Serão, C D Cruz, M D V Resende, F L Silva, C F Azevedo, P S Lopes, S E F Guimarães
BACKGROUND: Genomic growth curves are generally defined only in terms of population mean; an alternative approach that has not yet been exploited in genomic analyses of growth curves is the Quantile Regression (QR). This methodology allows for the estimation of marker effects at different levels of the variable of interest. We aimed to propose and evaluate a regularized quantile regression for SNP marker effect estimation of pig growth curves, as well as to identify the chromosome regions of the most relevant markers and to estimate the genetic individual weight trajectory over time (genomic growth curve) under different quantiles (levels)...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702190/impact-of-dietary-l-arginine-supply-during-early-gestation-on-myofiber-development-in-newborn-pigs-exposed-to-intra-uterine-crowding
#16
Johannes Gulmann Madsen, Camilo Pardo, Michael Kreuzer, Giuseppe Bee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680591/evaluation-of-the-suitability-of-a-partially-defatted-black-soldier-fly-hermetia-illucens-l-larvae-meal-as-ingredient-for-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-walbaum-diets
#17
M Renna, A Schiavone, F Gai, S Dabbou, C Lussiana, V Malfatto, M Prearo, M T Capucchio, I Biasato, E Biasibetti, M De Marco, A Brugiapaglia, I Zoccarato, L Gasco
BACKGROUND: Two trials were performed to evaluate a partially defatted Hermetia illucens (HI) larvae meal as potential feed ingredient in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) diets. In the first trial, 360 trout (178.9 ± 9.8 g of mean initial body weight) were randomly divided into three experimental groups (4 tanks/treatment, 30 fish/tank). The fish were fed for 78 days with isonitrogenous, isolipidic and isoenergetic diets containing increasing levels of HI, on as fed basis: 0% (HI0, control diet), 25% (HI25) and 50% (HI50) of fish meal substitution, corresponding to dietary inclusion levels of 0, 20% and 40%...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680590/variance-components-and-correlations-of-female-fertility-traits-in-chinese-holstein-population
#18
Aoxing Liu, Mogens Sandø Lund, Yachun Wang, Gang Guo, Ganghui Dong, Per Madsen, Guosheng Su
BACKGROUND: The objective of the present study was to estimate (co)variance components of female fertility traits in Chinese Holsteins, considering fertility traits in different parities as different traits. Data on 88,647 females with 215,632 records (parities) were collected during 2000 to 2014 from 32 herds in the Sanyuan Lvhe Dairy Cattle Center, Beijing, China. The analyzed female fertility traits included interval from calving to first insemination, interval from first to last insemination, days open, conception rate at first insemination, number of inseminations per conception and non-return rates within 56 days after first insemination...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674607/fluoroacetate-in-plants-a-review-of-its-distribution-toxicity-to-livestock-and-microbial-detoxification
#19
REVIEW
Lex Ee Xiang Leong, Shahjalal Khan, Carl K Davis, Stuart E Denman, Chris S McSweeney
Fluoroacetate producing plants grow worldwide and it is believed they produce this toxic compound as a defence mechanism against grazing by herbivores. Ingestion by livestock often results in fatal poisonings, which causes significant economic problems to commercial farmers in many countries such as Australia, Brazil and South Africa. Several approaches have been adopted to protect livestock from the toxicity with limited success including fencing, toxic plant eradication and agents that bind the toxin. Genetically modified bacteria capable of degrading fluoroacetate have been able to protect ruminants from fluoroacetate toxicity under experimental conditions but concerns over the release of these microbes into the environment have prevented the application of this technology...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630707/evidence-of-endometrial-amino-acid-metabolism-and-transport-modulation-by-peri-ovulatory-endocrine-profiles-driving-uterine-receptivity
#20
Moana Rodrigues França, Maressa Izabel Santos da Silva, Guilherme Pugliesi, Veerle Van Hoeck, Mario Binelli
BACKGROUND: In beef cattle, changes in the periovulatory endocrine milieu are associated with fertility and conceptus growth. A large preovulatory follicle (POF) and the resulting elevated concentrations of progesterone (P4) during diestrus positively affect pregnancy rates. Amino acids (AA) are important components of maternally derived secretions that are crucial for embryonic survival before implantation. The hypothesis is that the size of the POF and the concentration of P4 in early diestrus modulate the endometrial abundance of SLC transcripts related to AA transport and metabolism and subsequently impact luminal concentrations of AA...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
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