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Respiratory Investigation

Kuniaki Seyama, Toshihiro Nukiwa, Tadashi Sato, Masaru Suzuki, Satoshi Konno, Kazuhisa Takahashi, Masaharu Nishimura, Kimberly Steinmann, Susan Sorrells, Junliang Chen, Ken-Ichi Hayashi
BACKGROUND: Alpha1 -Proteinase Inhibitor, Modified Process (Alpha-1 MP) is used for augmentation therapy in alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD), an extremely rare disease in Japan. Weekly doses of 60 mg/kg Alpha-1 MP have been shown to be safe and well tolerated in non-Japanese subjects, but the safety and pharmacokinetics (PK) have not been evaluated in Japanese subjects. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the safety and PK of 60 mg/kg Alpha-1 MP administered by weekly IV infusions over 8 weeks in Japanese subjects with AATD...
November 8, 2018: Respiratory Investigation
Toshiaki Kikuchi, Akira Watanabe
Baloxavir marboxil is an orally available prodrug of baloxavir acid. Japan was the first country to approve baloxavir marboxil as a treatment for influenza. The antiviral mechanism of action of baloxavir is unique; the drug blocks initiation of viral mRNA synthesis, thus preventing proliferation of the influenza virus. A single oral dose of baloxavir is usually well tolerated; it hastens alleviation of influenza symptoms and shortens the duration of viral shedding. However, novel influenza variants exhibiting over 10-fold reductions in baloxavir susceptibility emerged in baloxavir-treated patients...
November 2, 2018: Respiratory Investigation
Kaori Hara, Mitsuko Kondo, Mayoko Tsuji, Kiyoshi Takeyama, Jun Tamaoki
BACKGROUND: Transmembrane protein 16A (TMEM16A) is associated with mucus secretion and ion transport in asthma. Clarithromycin (CAM) is reported to inhibit IL-13-induced goblet cell metaplasia. However, the effect of CAM on TMEM16A function and expression remains unclear. METHODS: Tracheal epithelial cells from guinea pigs were cultured for ~14 days at an air-liquid interface in medium containing IL-13 (10 ng/ml) in the absence or presence of CAM (20 µg/ml) or a TMEM16A inhibitor, T16Ainh-A01 (10 µg/ml)...
November 1, 2018: Respiratory Investigation
Eri Hagiwara, Takuma Katano, Kohsuke Isomoto, Ryota Otoshi, Hideaki Yamakawa, Ryo Okuda, Akimasa Sekine, Tomohisa Baba, Shigeru Komatsu, Takashi Ogura
BACKGROUND: The incidence of asymptomatic pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease appears to be increasing. This study aimed to determine the clinical characteristics and examine early outcomes of patients newly diagnosed with MAC disease. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all 184 patients newly diagnosed with MAC disease between April 2013 and March 2015 at our hospital. Culture conversion, defined as at least two consecutive negative cultures, was used as the early outcome measure...
October 24, 2018: Respiratory Investigation
Tsukasa Ishiwata, Mitsuhiro Abe, Hajime Kasai, Jun Ikari, Naoko Kawata, Jiro Terada, Seiichiro Sakao, Yuji Tada, Nobuhiro Tanabe, Koichiro Tatsumi
BACKGROUND: The presence of pulmonary hypertension (PH) and treatment with anticoagulant agents could potentially increase the risk for bleeding/hemodynamic complications associated with bronchoscopic procedures. The aim of this study was to assess the safety of diagnostic flexible bronchoscopy (FB) in patients with PH. METHODS: A retrospective review of clinical records of patients with echocardiographic evidence of PH (right ventricular systolic pressure [RVSP] > 40 mm Hg) who underwent diagnostic FB between 2004 and 2016 at a single facility in Japan was conducted...
October 24, 2018: Respiratory Investigation
Naofumi Shinagawa
Bronchoscopy is one of the main techniques used for sampling lung tumor biopsies. In recent years, a large number of tumor specimens have been required to determine the best chemotherapy regimen for each patient; this personalized approach is known as precision medicine. In this review, radial endobronchial ultrasound; bronchoscopic navigation systems, including virtual bronchoscopic navigation and electromagnetic navigation; ultrathin bronchoscope,; and endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration are highlighted as techniques used to increase the diagnostic yield...
October 22, 2018: Respiratory Investigation
Akane Ishida, Masahide Oki, Hideo Saka
BACKGROUND: Airway stenting is an established procedure for treating airway stenosis and fistulas. The AERO stent (Merit Medical Systems, South Jordan, UT, USA), a relatively new, fully covered, self-expandable metallic stent, was approved in Japan in 2014. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of this stent for malignant airway disorders. METHODS: Medical records of all patients at a single center, in whom the AERO stent was deployed between February 2015 and December 2017, were retrospectively reviewed...
October 5, 2018: Respiratory Investigation
Naoyuki Nogami, Makoto Nishio, Isamu Okamoto, Sotaro Enatsu, Kazumi Suzukawa, Hiroki Takai, Kazuhiko Nakagawa, Tomohide Tamura
BACKGROUND: The combination of pemetrexed and carboplatin is commonly used for the treatment of advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), mainly because it is comparatively effective and less toxic than other platinum-doublet therapies. Using the JMII (JACAL) study, we report the efficacy and safety of this treatment followed by pemetrexed maintenance in the elderly population (≥70 years of age). METHODS: The JMII study was a multicenter, post-marketing study that assessed the efficacy and safety of carboplatin (AUC6) and pemetrexed (500 mg/m2 , given on Day 1 of a 21-day cycle, 4 cycles) followed by pemetrexed (500 mg/m2 ) maintenance in advanced non-squamous NSCLC patients (n = 109)...
October 4, 2018: Respiratory Investigation
Tetsuhiko Asao, Fumiyuki Takahashi, Kazuhisa Takahashi
The discovery of oncogenic driver gene mutations, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion, ROS proto-oncogene 1 (ROS1) fusion, and ret proto-oncogene (RET) fusion, has led to the development of molecularly targeted therapy for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This therapy has changed the standard of care for NSCLC. Despite the dramatic response to molecularly targeted therapy, almost all patients ultimately develop resistance to the drugs. To understand the mechanisms of resistance to molecularly targeted agents, it is essential to understand the molecular pathways of NSCLC...
October 4, 2018: Respiratory Investigation
Masatoshi Itaki, Ryo Kozu, Kenichiro Tanaka, Hideaki Senjyu
BACKGROUND: The incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) is widely used in clinical and research settings. However, there are no reference equations to predict the walk distance achieved in the ISWT (ISWD) for healthy Japanese adults. We aimed to establish a reference equation for the ISWD prediction in Japanese adults. METHODS: The sample comprised 590 healthy Japanese subjects (237 male). All subjects performed the ISWT twice, and their anthropometric and demographic data were collected, including gender, age, height, weight, and body mass index (BMI)...
November 2018: Respiratory Investigation
Naoya Tanabe, Tsuyoshi Oguma, Susumu Sato, Takeshi Kubo, Satoshi Kozawa, Hiroshi Shima, Koji Koizumi, Atsuyasu Sato, Shigeo Muro, Kaori Togashi, Toyohiro Hirai
BACKGROUND: Quantitative measurement of airway dimensions using computed tomography (CT) is performed in relatively larger airways due to the limited resolution of CT scans. Nevertheless, the small airway is an important pathological lesion in lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. Ultra-high resolution scanning may resolve the smaller airway, but its accuracy and limitations are unclear. METHODS: Phantom tubes were imaged using conventional (512 × 512) and ultra-high resolution (1024 × 1024 and 2048 × 2048) scans...
November 2018: Respiratory Investigation
Yoshihisa Hiraishi, Takehiro Izumo, Shinji Sasada, Yuji Matsumoto, Toshiyuki Nakai, Takaaki Tsuchida, Hisashi Baba
BACKGROUND: Bronchoscopy is important to diagnose lung cancer. However, some patients who undergo bronchoscopic procedures develop respiratory tract infections. Little is known about the proportion of pathogen-positive results in bacterial cultures from diagnostic bronchoscopy samples in patients with suspected lung cancer. This study aimed to determine the rate of positive bacterial cultures after diagnostic bronchoscopy in patients with suspected lung cancer and the relationship among culture results, clinical characteristics, and respiratory tract infections...
November 2018: Respiratory Investigation
Kazuhiro Yatera, Shingo Noguchi, Hiroshi Mukae
With the advent of new technologies evaluating the microbiome in the sample such as next-generation sequencer (NGS), current increase of an interest in understanding of the lung microbiome and its roles in lung diseases are marked. Gathering the data of bacterial flora in the lung and their changes during disease courses is unraveling the pathogenesis and the mechanism of disease progression particularly in patients with bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and infectious lung diseases. To clarify the relationship between the lung microbiome and pulmonary diseases, new information may help us to create new treatment and prevention strategies of some pulmonary diseases by controlling the lung microbiome...
November 2018: Respiratory Investigation
Tomoo Kishaba
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Respiratory Investigation
Takeshi Kawaguchi, Noriyoshi Sawabata, Tokiko Nakai, Sachiko Miura, Norikazu Kawai, Motoaki Yasukawa, Takashi Tojo, Chiho Ohbayashi, Shigeki Taniguchi
BACKGROUND: Intrapulmonary lymph nodes (IPLNs) are often recognized as sub-centimeter solid pulmonary nodules (SCPNs). The present study investigated their clinical and pathological characteristics to allow clinicians to distinguish them from malignant nodules. METHODS: Among 194 SCPNs surgically resected between 2006 and 2016, 26 IPLNs were investigated histopathologically. In addition, 145 resected malignant SCPNs were compared radiographically with the 26 IPLNs...
November 2018: Respiratory Investigation
Satoshi Sakamoto, Masaki Okamoto, Shinjiro Kaieda, Kiminori Fujimoto, Shuji Nagata, Masaki Tominaga, Masayuki Nakamura, Yoshiaki Zaizen, Takashi Nouno, Takuma Koga, Tomotaka Kawayama, Masataka Kuwana, Hiroaki Ida, Tomoaki Hoshino
BACKGROUND: Anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 antibody (anti-MDA5-Ab) is associated with fatal rapidly progressive interstitial lung disease (RP-ILD) in patients with dermatomyositis (DM). We attempted to clarify whether anti-MDA5-Ab is associated with long-term outcomes in patients with DM-ILD. METHODS: Thirty-six patients with DM-ILD were retrospectively analyzed for their serum anti-MDA5-Ab by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We analyzed the association between clinical parameters, including the serum levels of anti-MDA5-Ab and ferritin...
November 2018: Respiratory Investigation
Kazuto Matsunaga
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Respiratory Investigation
Susumu Hirosako, Kazuyoshi Nakamura, Shohei Hamada, Kazuaki Sugahara, Chieko Yoshida, Sho Saeki, Keisuke Kojima, Shinichiro Okamoto, Hidenori Ichiyasu, Kazuhiko Fujii, Hirotsugu Kohrogi
BACKGROUND: Due to advances in medicine, patients with pulmonary diseases have become candidates for surgery under general anesthesia. They often consult pulmonologists to assess their tolerability for surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the significant characteristics responsible for postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) and the preclusion of the planned surgery. METHODS: The clinical data of 462 consecutive patients who consulted at the Department of Respiratory Medicine before surgery under general anesthesia were used in this study...
November 2018: Respiratory Investigation
Miharu Kato, Yumiko Kanehiro, Kaku Yoshimi, Yuzo Kodama, Mitsuaki Sekiya, Tadashi Sato, Kazuhisa Takahashi, Kuniaki Seyama
BACKGROUND: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a progressive, cystic lung disease that causes an obstructive ventilatory impairment similar to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and impairs the health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Here, we extended the use of the COPD assessment test (CAT) to patients with chronic respiratory diseases other than COPD. Specifically, the CAT was administered to patients with LAM for the first time. METHODS: Using data from 25 patients with LAM at Juntendo University who participated in the Multicenter Lymphangioleiomyomatosis Sirolimus Trial for Safety (MLSTS), we evaluated changes in pulmonary function, responses to HRQoL questionnaires (the CAT, St...
November 2018: Respiratory Investigation
Masako To, Akihiro Hitani, Yuta Kono, Natsue Honda, Ichino Kano, Kosuke Haruki, Yasuo To
BACKGROUND: Severe asthma is increasingly being recognized as an important public health issue. Obesity has been identified as a risk factor for poor asthma control and for worsening of asthma severity. However, most studies investigating obese patients with asthma have been performed in Western countries. Reports on the characteristics of obese Japanese individuals with severe asthma are lacking. Herein, we investigated the clinical characteristics of patients with obesity-associated severe asthma in a Japanese population and the association between obesity and poor asthma control...
November 2018: Respiratory Investigation
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