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Case Reports in Oncological Medicine

Taku Mitome, Tadashi Tabei, Yukio Tsuura, Kazuki Kobayashi
A 73-year-old woman was referred to our department with a complaint of asymptomatic gross hematuria. Dynamic computed tomography revealed a complicated (Bosniak type IIF) cyst in the upper pole of her right kidney, which was diagnosed as a calyceal diverticulum. The diagnosis was confirmed by ureteroscopy. The diverticulum was filled with a soft protein matrix that was difficult to completely remove from the inner surface of the calyceal diverticulum. Endoscopy combined with intrarenal surgery (ECIRS) was performed to completely remove the matrix...
2018: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
Frank S Fan, Chung-Fan Yang, Yi-Fen Wang
Introduction: Breast cancer is one of the malignancies which tend to involve the bone marrow, but initial presentation with diffuse bone marrow metastasis from an occult breast cancer is very rare. Prognosis is generally very poor for marrow metastasis from solid tumors except that breast cancer is a treatable disease even in such a dismal condition. Case: A 64-year-old woman's headache was found to result from diffuse adenocarcinoma metastasis in the bone marrow from an unknown primary site...
2018: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
Matthew Harrison, Amanda Jones, Abebe Abebe
A 39-year-old male presented with a painful paraspinal mass, which had been present for several weeks. The mass had previously been treated with oral sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim DS, as the patient reported a history of "boils," with no improvement in his pain or size of the mass. No further diagnostic workup was pursued until he was admitted with intractable pain. Eventual biopsy revealed adenocarcinoma, likely of pulmonary origin. This report, as well as other incoming cases, highlights this rare phenomenon of muscular metastases as the sole presentation of a distant primary malignancy...
2018: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
Smriti Panda, Madhu Rajeshwari, Chirom Amit Singh, Suresh C Sharma, Pirabu Sakthivel
Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a benign disease affecting young males with a propensity to invade intracranially and into the orbit along preformed pathways. Complete surgical excision is the mainstay of management. Patients with multiple recurrences along with tumour extension into skull base and orbit can be considered for external beam radiation as either adjuvant or definitive treatment. Possibility of radiation-induced malignancy has been speculated by many authors, proof of which exists in only two studies so far...
2018: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
Andrew D Liman, Vida A Passero, Agnes K Liman, Jenna Shields
We report a rare case of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in a patient who developed rhabdomyolysis while on sunitinib. He was admitted to the hospital due to muscle weakness, fatigue, poor oral intake, and difficulty swallowing in March 2017. He was found to have pancytopenia, liver failure, kidney failure, high uric acid, and increased creatine phosphokinase of more than 5000. He quickly developed lactic acidosis and acute respiratory failure. He was transferred to the ICU, but his condition declined rapidly...
2018: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
Mara Mantiero, Giovanni Faggioni, Alice Menichetti, Matteo Fassan, Valentina Guarneri, Pierfranco Conte
Gastric linitis plastica is a diffuse involvement of the stomach walls by neoplastic cells. It represents about 3-19% of primitive gastric adenocarcinomas, but it can also be the manifestation of a metastatic disease. Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy in women, and the metastatic spread to the stomach occurs in less than 10% of the cases. We present an unusual case of gastric linitis plastica and peritoneal carcinomatosis as manifestations of an occult breast cancer in a 53-year-old woman. Imaging and endoscopic evaluation were not able to discriminate a primary from a secondary gastric lesion...
2018: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
Mark B Ulanja, Mohamed E Taha, Arshad A Al-Mashhadani, Marwah Muaad Al-Tekreeti, Christie Elliot, Santhosh Ambika
Skin cancer as a single entity is the most common malignancy in North America, accounting for half of all human cancers. It comprises two types: melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. Of the nonmelanomas, basal cell carcinoma (BCC) constitutes about 80% of the cancers diagnosed every year. BCC usually occurs in sun-exposed areas such as the face and extremities. Occurrence in the nipple areolar complex is very rare. We present a case of a Caucasian woman who presented with what was initially thought to be invasive carcinoma of the breast involving the nipple areolar complex (NAC); however, the diagnosis was revealed to be a basal cell carcinoma after histopathological examination...
2018: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
Megan Wheelden, Leah Cream, Jeffrey Sivik, Mark Robson
Olaparib was first FDA approved for use in women with advanced ovarian cancer and germline BRCA mutations. Based on the results of subsequent research, the use of this drug has been expanded to patients with metastatic breast cancer with germline BRCA mutation. With the use of a relatively new medication and a larger patient population eligible for therapy, monitoring for novel adverse events associated with therapy is important. This case represents a patient with metastatic breast cancer and germline BRCA2 mutation who developed erythema nodosum after initiation of therapy with olaparib capsules...
2018: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
R A Amir, Rola S Rabah, S S Sheikh
Phyllodes tumor (PT) is a rare tumor of the breast accounting for approximately 1% of all breast neoplasms. In 1838, J. Muller coined the term "cystosarcoma phyllodes" based on the leaf-like projections of the tumor extending into the cystic spaces and sarcomatous stromal growth. However, seeing as up to 70% of phyllodes tumors are benign, "cystosarcoma" was removed, and the tumor is now recognized simply as phyllodes tumor. It is mainly seen in females between the ages of 35 and 55. Although most phyllodes tumors are benign, malignant cases do uncommonly occur, 22% of which have distant metastasis typically to the lungs and bones...
2018: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
Tubin Slavisa, Raunik Wolfgang
Currently, there are no specific recommendations regarding the management of the synchronous tumours due to the lack of either specific guidelines or individuals' clinical experiences relative to these clinical situations. In the presence of a locally advanced double primary tumour and with the lymph node metastases in addition, from the radiotherapeutical point of view, it must be challenging to manage this complicated situation that requires a more delicate treatment planning, due to higher doses prescribed to greater volumes concomitantly with the chemotherapy...
2018: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
Kathryn Bower, Nilay Shah
With primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) being a rare disease, the subtype of Burkitt lymphoma (BL) presenting as a sole CNS lesion is an even more exceptional diagnosis. A case of coexistent primary CNS Burkitt lymphoma (PCNSBL) with cerebral palsy (CP) is presented. A 55-year-old Caucasian male presented with increasing bilateral lower extremity weakness above his baseline in addition to signs of increased intracranial pressure. Four abnormal enhancing masses were detected on MRI with biopsy results consistent with Burkitt lymphoma...
2018: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
Géraldine Pairet, Gaëlle Tilman, Rafaël Sciot, Thomas Schubert, Vasiliki Perlepe, Hélène A Poirel, Christine Galant
We report a case of multiple myoepithelioma with synchronous bone and soft tissue tumors, associated with a new genomic alteration of the LPP locus. The lesions occurred in the foot by presenting one lump in the plantar soft tissue, and three lesions were detected in the calcaneus and in the navicular bone. All tumors showed the double immunophenotype of epithelial markers and S100 protein expression. No rearrangement of the EWSR1 and FUS loci was detected as reported in myoepitheliomas. However, molecular karyotyping detected an unbalanced rearrangement of the LPP locus, not involving the HMGA2 locus, which is the most frequent translocation partner observed in benign mesenchymal tumors such as lipomas (of soft tissue as well as parosteal) and pulmonary chondroid hamartoma...
2018: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
Shinji Ohtake, Takashi Kawahara, Go Noguchi, Noboru Nakaigawa, Kimio Chiba, Hiroji Uemura, Masahiro Yao, Kazuhide Makiyama
Introduction: Horseshoe kidney is one of the most common congenital renal fusion anomalies. Due to its poor mobility and abnormal vasculature form, surgeons should pay close attention to all anatomical variations. Case Presentation: An 83-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of left renal tumor in a horseshoe kidney incidentally found by her previous hospital. We performed laparoscopic partial nephrectomy. The pathological diagnosis was clear cell renal cell carcinoma...
2018: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
Hilal Erinanc, Mehmet Ozulku, Aysen Terzi
Primary leiomyosarcomas of vascular origin are rare tumors. They frequently arise within the inferior vena cava; however, the peripheral vein was also affected. To date, only a few hundred cases have been reported in the world literature. Although it is an extremely aggressive tumor, the symptoms may be unspecific, especially in the lower extremities. In this report, we present a case of primary vascular leiomyosarcoma, arising from the short saphenous vein, with symptoms mimicking thrombus in the initial diagnosis...
2018: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
Jomjit Chantharasamee, Jitsupa Treetipsatit
A 51-year-old Thai woman presented with bilateral leg edema and painful left inguinal mass for 6 months. Physical examination revealed matted bilateral inguinal lymph nodes up to 9 cm in size. Otherwise, physical examinations including skin were unremarkable. The result of the lymph node incisional biopsy is consistent with that of metastatic melanoma. The extensive investigation demonstrated multiple intra-abdominal and inguinal lymph nodes without detectable primary tumor. Palliative radiation and conventional chemotherapy were prescribed...
2018: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
Michael L Adashek, Kenneth Miller, Arit A Silpasuvan
A 64-year-old man, with history of micropapillary thyroid cancer and epidermal growth factor receptor-positive lung adenocarcinoma with no evidence of active disease for 3 years after chemotherapy and radiation on erlotinib, presented with fatigue, nausea, lack of appetite, and xeroderma. A screening magnetic resonance image of the patient's head demonstrated a new bilateral pituitary mass. Initial evaluation revealed low morning cortisol, and the patient was diagnosed with adrenal insufficiency. His symptoms rapidly improved with maintenance glucocorticoids...
2018: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
Renate U Wahl, Claudio Cacchi, Albert Rübben
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer. Metastatic BCC is an extraordinary rare finding observed in only 0.5% of all cases. Until the introduction of the small molecule hedgehog inhibitor vismodegib, patients with metastatic BCC were treated with chemotherapy, most frequently platinum-based with mixed responses to therapy. We present the case of a 55-year-old Caucasian man who suffered from BCC on his left arm with lymph node and pulmonary metastases. Sonic hedgehog blockade with vismodegib only induced a short remission, and the patient succumbed to the cancer...
2018: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
Maurício Fernando Silva Almeida Ribeiro, Micelange Carvalho de Sousa, Samir Abdallah Hanna, Marcos Vinicius Calfat Maldaun, Ceci Obara Kurimori, Luiz Guilherme Cernaglia Aureliano de Lima, Romulo Loss Mattedi, Rodrigo Ramella Munhoz
Introduction: Chordomas are rare malignancies of bone origin that occur in the axial skeleton, typically the skull base and lumbar/sacral regions. Although often classified as low-grade neoplasms, its locally infiltrative behavior may result in significant morbidity and mortality. Optimal surgical resection may be curative, but up to 50% of the cases relapse within 5 years, and currently there are no systemic treatments approved in this setting. A large proportion of these tumors express stem-cell factor receptor (c-KIT) and platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGFRs), providing a rationale for the use of tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKIs)...
2018: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
Nagla Abdel Karim, Ihab Eldessouki, Ahmad Taftaf, Deeb Ayham, Ola Gaber, Abouelmagd Makramalla, Zelia M Correa
Metastatic prognosis in uveal melanoma is assessed by gene expression profiling (GEP) testing of the tumor cells, usually obtained by fine needle aspiration (FNA). GEP has demonstrated high accuracy in distinguishing class I and II tumors, both having different metastatic potential. Transcriptomic studies identified distinct mutations including somatic mutations in GNAQ and GNA11 , detected in more than 80%, and contribute to the upregulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and the development of uveal melanoma (UM)...
2018: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
Rubens Barros Costa, Al Benson, Vahid Yaghmai, Ricardo L B Costa, Haijun Zhou, Amir Behdad, Jason B Kaplan, Maureen Sadim, Sarah Talamantes, Aparna Kalyan
Pancreatic cancer is the fourth most common cancer death in the United States despite comprising a small percentage of the total number of cancer cases. The estimated 5-year overall survival (OS) for patients with distant metastatic disease is approximately 3%. New treatment options are an unmet need and remain an area of active investigation. A 53-year-old male with metastatic pancreatic cancer presented to the hospital with acute-on-chronic respiratory failure approximately 24 hours after receiving a novel therapeutic combination...
2018: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
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