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FEBS Open Bio

Joo Yong Kim, Jong Tae Song, Hak Soo Seo
Sumoylation regulates numerous cellular functions in plants as well as in other eukaryotic systems. However, the regulatory mechanisms controlling E3 small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) ligase are not well understood. Here, post-translational modification of the Arabidopsis E3 SUMO ligase AtSIZ1 was shown to be specifically controlled by abiotic stresses. AtSIZ1 ubiquitination was induced by exposure to heat stress in transgenic plants overexpressing the E3 ubiquitin ligase COP1. In addition, AtSIZ1 ubiquitination was strongly enhanced in transgenic plants overexpressing SUMO isopeptidase ESD4 under heat stress...
October 2017: FEBS Open Bio
Yang Liao, Wei Du
E2F transcription factors are key targets of the retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor. Despite extensive studies, the in vivo consequences of disrupting the interaction between Rb and an individual E2F are not clear. Here, we report an E2F mutation that interfered with binding to Rb family proteins without significantly affecting protein level or transactivation function. Characterization of mouse embryonic fibroblasts with this Rb-independent E2F3(LQ) mutation revealed that disrupting the Rb and E2F3 interaction increased cell proliferation, allowed cells to accumulate to higher density, and significantly altered expression of genes involved in metabolism, inflammation, immunity, and response to stress...
October 2017: FEBS Open Bio
Yang Liu, Toshio Maekawa, Keisuke Yoshida, Hideki Kaneda, Bruno Chatton, Shigeharu Wakana, Shunsuke Ishii
Assisted reproductive technologies, including in vitro fertilization (IVF), are now frequently used, and increasing evidence indicates that IVF causes gene expression changes in children and adolescents that increase the risk of metabolic diseases. Although such gene expression changes are thought to be due to IVF-induced epigenetic changes, the mechanism remains elusive. We tested whether the transcription factor ATF7-which mediates stress-induced changes in histone H3K9 tri- and dimethylation, typical marks of epigenetic silencing-is involved in the IVF-induced gene expression changes...
October 2017: FEBS Open Bio
Satoshi Furuya, Kaori Endo, Akiko Takahashi, Keiji Miyazawa, Masao Saitoh
Snail, a zinc finger transcription factor, induces an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in various cancer and epithelial cells. We investigated the function of Snail (SNAI1) by downregulating its expression with short interfering RNA (siRNA). Suppression of Snail expression induced cellular senescence in several cancer cells and in normal fibroblast IMR90 cells. Cancer progression is facilitated by fibroblasts, so-called fibroblast-led cancer cell invasion. Snail-silenced cancer cells exhibited reduced motility, which was further decreased by cocultivation with Snail-silenced IMR90 cells...
October 2017: FEBS Open Bio
Rong Sun, Shan Liu, Zi-Zhong Tang, Tian-Run Zheng, Tao Wang, Hui Chen, Cheng-Lei Li, Qi Wu
Conyza blinii H.Lév. is a widely used medicinal herb in southwestern China. The main pharmacological components of C. blinii are a class of oleanane-type pentacyclic triterpene glycosides known as conyzasaponins, which are thought to be synthesized from β-amyrin. However, no genes involved in the conyzasaponin pathway have previously been identified. Here, we identify an oxidosqualene cyclase (OSC), a β-amyrin synthase, which mediates cyclization of 2,3-oxidosqualene to yield β-amyrin. Ten OSC sequences were isolated from C...
October 2017: FEBS Open Bio
Karin P M Geuijen, Cindy Oppers-Tiemissen, David F Egging, Peter J Simons, Louis Boon, Richard B M Schasfoort, Michel H M Eppink
The interactions of therapeutic antibodies with fragment crystallizable γ (Fcγ) receptors and neonatal Fc receptors (FcRn) are measured in vitro as indicators of antibody functional performance. Antibodies are anchored to immune cells through the Fc tail, and these interactions are important for the efficacy and safety of therapeutic antibodies. High-throughput binding studies on each of the human Fcγ receptor classes (FcγRI, FcγRIIa, FcγRIIb, FcγRIIIa, and FcγRIIIb) as well as FcRn have been developed and performed with human IgG after stress-induced modifications to identify potential impact in vivo...
October 2017: FEBS Open Bio
Juan Calvo-Iglesias, Daniel Pérez-Estévez, África González-Fernández
The mussel shell protein 22.8 (MSP22.8) is recognized by a monoclonal antibody (M22.8) directed against larvae of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. After being secreted by cells of the mantle-edge epithelium into the extrapallial (EP) space (the gap between the mantle and the shell), the protein is detected in the extrapallial fluid (EPF) and EP hemocytes and finally becomes part of the shell matrix framework in adult specimens of M. galloprovincialis. In the work described here, we show how MSP22.8 is detected in EPF samples from different species of mussels (M...
October 2017: FEBS Open Bio
Violeta L Calin, Mona Mihailescu, Eugen I Scarlat, Alexandra V Baluta, Daniel Calin, Eugenia Kovacs, Tudor Savopol, Mihaela G Moisescu
The cell refractive index has been proposed as a putative cancer biomarker of great potential, being correlated with cell content and morphology, cell division rate and membrane permeability. We used digital holographic microscopy to compare the refractive index and dry mass density of two B16 murine melanoma sublines of different metastatic potential. Using statistical methods, the distribution of phase shifts within the reconstructed quantitative phase images was analyzed by the method of bimodality coefficients...
October 2017: FEBS Open Bio
Félix Ramos-León, Vicente Mariscal, Natalia Battchikova, Eva-Mari Aro, Enrique Flores
Heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria grow as filaments that can be hundreds of cells long. Proteinaceous septal junctions provide cell-cell binding and communication functions in the filament. In Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, the SepJ protein is important for the formation of septal junctions. SepJ consists of integral membrane and extramembrane sections - the latter including linker and coiled-coil domains. SepJ (predicted MW, 81.3 kDa) solubilized from Anabaena membranes was found in complexes of about 296-334 kDa, suggesting that SepJ forms multimeric complexes...
October 2017: FEBS Open Bio
Aline Sampaio, Vanessa Rodrigues Pegos, Elisa Emiko Oshiro, Andrea Balan
In Xanthomonas citri, the bacterium that causes citrus canker, three ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are known to be dedicated to the uptake of sulfur compounds. In this work, using functional, biophysical and structural methods, we showed that NrtT, a periplasmic component of the ABC transporter NrtCB, is an alkanesulfonate-binding protein and that the deletion of the nrtT gene affected xantham gum synthesis, adhesion and biofilm production, similarly to the phenotype obtained in the X. citri ssuA-knockout strain, in which the alkanesulfonate-binding protein SsuA is absent...
October 2017: FEBS Open Bio
Joseph Irvin, Alexander J Ropelewski, John Perozich
Heme oxygenases (HO) catalyze the breakdown of heme, aiding the recycling of its components. Several other enzymes have homologous tertiary structures to HOs, while sharing little sequence homology. These homologues include thiaminases, the hydroxylase component of methane monooxygenases, and the R2 component of Class I ribonucleotide reductases (RNR). This study compared these structural homologues of HO, using a large number of protein sequences for each homologue. Alignment of a total of 472 sequences showed little sequence conservation, with no residues having conservation in more than 80% of aligned sequences and only five residues conserved in at least 60% of the sequences...
October 2017: FEBS Open Bio
Li Ju, Wei Wu, Xianhong Yin, Yun Xiao, Zhenyu Jia, Jianlin Lou, Min Yu, Shibo Ying, Tianhui Chen, Zhaoqiang Jiang, Wei Li, Junqiang Chen, Xing Zhang, Lijin Zhu
Pleural malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a highly aggressive tumor that is typically related to asbestos exposure and has a latency of 20-60 years. Several microRNA contribute to MM initiation and progression, but the mechanisms are not clear. Here, we found that miR-30d is downregulated in the pleural MM cell line NCI-H2452, in the plasma of asbestos-exposed individuals, and in asbestos-exposed mesothelial cells. Furthermore, we investigated the influence of the overexpression of miR-30d in pleural MM cells...
October 2017: FEBS Open Bio
Nunzia Di Maio, Rosario Vicidomini, Alberto Angrisani, Valentina Belli, Maria Furia, Mimmo Turano
Dyskerin is an essential, conserved, multifunctional protein found in the nucleolus, whose loss of function causes the rare genetic diseases X-linked dyskeratosis congenita and Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome. To further investigate the wide range of dyskerin's biological roles, we set up stable cell lines able to trigger inducible protein knockdown and allow a detailed analysis of the cascade of events occurring within a short time frame. We report that dyskerin depletion quickly induces cytoskeleton remodeling and significant alterations in endocytic Ras-related protein Rab-5A/Rab11 trafficking...
October 2017: FEBS Open Bio
Joey V Barnett, Robert A Harris, Michael J Mulvany
The PhD degree was established in Berlin 200 years ago and has since spread across the whole world. While there is general agreement that the degree is awarded in recognition of successfully completed research training, there have been significant differences in the way doctoral training programs have developed in particular countries. There is, however, a clear global tendency to follow the programs currently used either in the United States or in Europe. To determine more clearly how US and European PhD programs are both similar and different, we have used a validated questionnaire to analyze biomedical PhD programs in four representative institutions at Vanderbilt University, University of Manitoba, Karolinska Institutet, and Graz Medical University...
October 2017: FEBS Open Bio
Marie-Lena I E Harwardt, Phoebe Young, Willem M Bleymüller, Timo Meyer, Christos Karathanasis, Hartmut H Niemann, Mike Heilemann, Marina S Dietz
The human MET receptor tyrosine kinase contributes to vertebrate development and cell proliferation. As a proto-oncogene, it is a target in cancer therapies. MET is also relevant for bacterial infection by Listeria monocytogenes and is activated by the bacterial protein internalin B. The processes of ligand binding, receptor activation, and the diffusion behavior of MET within the plasma membrane as well as its interconnections with various cell components are not fully understood. We investigated the receptor diffusion dynamics using single-particle tracking and imaging fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and elucidated mobility states of resting and internalin B-bound MET...
September 2017: FEBS Open Bio
Hiroki Shimada, Naotaka Kogure, Erika Noro, Masataka Kudo, Kaori Sugawara, Ikuko Sato, Kyoko Shimizu, Makoto Kobayashi, Dai Suzuki, Rehana Parvin, Takako Saito-Ito, Akira Uruno, Akiko Saito-Hakoda, William E Rainey, Sadayoshi Ito, Atsushi Yokoyama, Akira Sugawara
Aldosterone synthase is the key rate-limiting enzyme in adrenal aldosterone production, and induction of its gene (CYP11B2) results in the progression of hypertension. As hypertension is a frequent complication among patients with diabetes, we set out to elucidate the link between diabetes mellitus and hypertension. We examined the effects of high glucose on CYP11B2 expression and aldosterone production using human adrenal H295R cells and a stable H295R cell line expressing a CYP11B2 5'-flanking region/luciferase cDNA chimeric construct...
September 2017: FEBS Open Bio
Manabu Nagao, Ryuji Toh, Yasuhiro Irino, Hideto Nakajima, Toshihiko Oshita, Shigeyasu Tsuda, Tetsuya Hara, Masakazu Shinohara, Tatsuro Ishida, Ken-Ichi Hirata
Low levels of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol are associated with an increased risk of heart failure, regardless of the presence or absence of coronary artery disease. However, the direct effects of HDL on failing myocardium have not been fully elucidated. We found that HDL treatment resulted in improved cell viability in H9c2 cardiomyocytes under oxidative stress. This cardioprotective effect of HDL was regulated via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway...
September 2017: FEBS Open Bio
Takahiro Shimizu, Taiga Higuchi, Toshihiro Toba, Chie Ohno, Takuto Fujii, Bernd Nilius, Hideki Sakai
Voltage-dependent inactivation of ion channels contributes to the regulation of the membrane potential of excitable cells. Mouse polycystic kidney disease 2-like 1 (PKD2L1) forms voltage-dependent nonselective cation channels, which are activated but subsequently inactivated in response to membrane depolarization. Here, we found that the mutation of an asparagine 533 residue (N533Q) in the outer pore loop region of PKD2L1 caused a marked increase in outward currents induced by depolarization. In addition, the tail current analysis demonstrated that the N533Q mutants are activated during depolarization but the subsequent inactivation does not occur...
September 2017: FEBS Open Bio
Huijie Shi, Qingchun Wang, Liu Yang, Shouxia Xie, Haibo Zhu
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most common chronic liver disease in humans, is characterized by the accumulation of triacylglycerols (TGs) in hepatocytes. We tested whether 2',3',5'-tri-acetyl-N6-(3-hydroxylaniline) adenosine (IMM-H007) can eliminate hepatic steatosis in hamsters fed a high-fat diet (HFD), as a model of NAFLD. Compared with HFD-only controls, IMM-H007 treatment significantly lowered serum levels of TG, total cholesterol, and free fatty acids (FFAs) in hamsters fed the HFD, with a prominent decrease in levels of serum transaminases and fasting insulin, without affecting fasting glucose levels...
September 2017: FEBS Open Bio
Tomáš Knedlík, Barbora Vorlová, Václav Navrátil, Jan Tykvart, František Sedlák, Šimon Vaculín, Miloslav Franěk, Pavel Šácha, Jan Konvalinka
Glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII), also known as prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) or folate hydrolase, is a metallopeptidase expressed predominantly in the human brain and prostate. GCPII expression is considerably increased in prostate carcinoma, and the enzyme also participates in glutamate excitotoxicity in the brain. Therefore, GCPII represents an important diagnostic marker of prostate cancer progression and a putative target for the treatment of both prostate cancer and neuronal disorders associated with glutamate excitotoxicity...
September 2017: FEBS Open Bio
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