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FEBS Open Bio

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286738/tsc2-rheb-signaling-mediates-erk-dependent-regulation-of-mtorc1-activity-in-c2c12-myoblasts
#1
Mitsunori Miyazaki, Tohru Takemasa
The enhanced rate of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle cells results in a net increase in total protein content that leads to skeletal muscle growth/hypertrophy. The mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-dependent regulation of the activity of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and subsequent protein synthesis has been suggested as a regulatory mechanism; however, the exact molecular processes underlying such a regulation are poorly defined. The purpose of this study was to investigate regulatory mechanisms involved in the MEK/ERK-dependent pathway leading to mTORC1 activation in skeletal muscle cells...
March 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286737/pdgf-induced-fibroblast-growth-requires-monounsaturated-fatty-acid-production-by-stearoyl-coa-desaturase
#2
Alexandra Coomans de Brachène, Nicolas Dif, Audrey de Rocca Serra, Chloé Bonnineau, Amélie I Velghe, Yvan Larondelle, Donatienne Tyteca, Jean-Baptiste Demoulin
Stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD) catalyzes the Δ9-cis desaturation of saturated fatty acids (SFA) to generate monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). This enzyme is highly up-regulated by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in human fibroblasts. Accordingly, the analysis of cellular fatty acids by gas chromatography showed that PDGF significantly increased the proportion of MUFA, particularly palmitoleate, in cellular lipids. To further analyze the role of SCD in fibroblasts, we used small hairpin RNA targeting SCD (shSCD), which decreased the MUFA content...
March 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286736/overexpression-of-heparanase-attenuated-tgf-%C3%AE-stimulated-signaling-in-tumor-cells
#3
Tahira Batool, Jianping Fang, Uri Barash, Aristidis Moustakas, Israel Vlodavsky, Jin-Ping Li
Heparan sulfate (HS) mediates the activity of various growth factors including TGF-β. Heparanase is an endo-glucuronidase that specifically cleaves and modifies HS structure. In this study, we examined the effect of heparanase expression on TGF-β1-dependent signaling activities. We found that overexpression of heparanase in human tumor cells (i.e., Fadu pharyngeal carcinoma, MCF7 breast carcinoma) attenuated TGF-β1-stimulated Smad phosphorylation and led to a slower cell proliferation. TGF-β1-stimulated Akt and Erk phosphorylation was also affected in the heparanase overexpression cells...
March 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286735/mitotic-phosphorylation-of-ccctc-binding-factor-ctcf-reduces-its-dna-binding-activity
#4
Takeshi Sekiya, Kensaku Murano, Kohsuke Kato, Atsushi Kawaguchi, Kyosuke Nagata
During mitosis, higher order chromatin structures are disrupted and chromosomes are condensed to achieve accurate chromosome segregation. CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed C2H2-type zinc finger protein which is considered to be involved in epigenetic memory through regulation of higher order chromatin architecture. However, the regulatory mechanism of CTCF in mitosis is still unclear. Here we found that the DNA-binding activity of CTCF is regulated in a phosphorylation-dependent manner during mitosis...
March 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286734/identifying-the-receptor-subtype-selectivity-of-retinoid-x-and-retinoic-acid-receptors-via-quantum-mechanics
#5
Motonori Tsuji, Koichi Shudo, Hiroyuki Kagechika
Understanding and identifying the receptor subtype selectivity of a ligand is an important issue in the field of drug discovery. Using a combination of classical molecular mechanics and quantum mechanical calculations, this report assesses the receptor subtype selectivity for the human retinoid X receptor (hRXR) and retinoic acid receptor (hRAR) ligand-binding domains (LBDs) complexed with retinoid ligands. The calculated energies show good correlation with the experimentally reported binding affinities. The technique proposed here is a promising method as it reveals the origin of the receptor subtype selectivity of selective ligands...
March 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286733/premammalian-origin-of-the-sperm-specific-slo3-channel
#6
Alberto Vicens, Karla Andrade-López, Diego Cortez, Rosa María Gutiérrez, Claudia L Treviño
Slo3 is a sperm-specific potassium (K(+)) channel essential for male fertility. Slo3 channels have so far been considered to be specific to mammals. Through exploratory genomics, we identified the Slo3 gene in the genome of terrestrial (birds and reptiles) and aquatic (fish) vertebrates. In the case of fish, Slo3 has undergone several episodes of gene loss. Transcriptomic analysis showed that vertebrate Slo3 transcript orthologues are predominantly expressed in testis, in concordance with the mammalian Slo3...
March 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286732/water-deficit-induced-oxidative-stress-affects-artemisinin-content-and-expression-of-proline-metabolic-genes-in-artemisia-annua-l
#7
Priyanka Soni, Malik Z Abdin
Water stress is one of the most critical abiotic stresses that restricts growth, development, and alters physiological and biochemical mechanisms of plant. The effects of long-term water shortage-induced oxidative stress on morphophysiological parameters, proline metabolic genes, and artemisinin content were studied in Artemisia annua L. under greenhouse conditions. Plant growth, biomass accumulation, relative water content, and chlorophyll content were reduced under drought. Leaf water potential ranged from -0...
March 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286731/serine-phosphorylation-of-the-cotton-cytosolic-pyruvate-kinase-ghpk6-decreases-its-stability-and-activity
#8
Bing Zhang, Jin-Yuan Liu
Pyruvate kinase (PK, EC 2.7.1.40) is an important glycolytic enzyme involved in multiple physiological and developmental processes. In this study, we demonstrated that cotton cytosolic pyruvate kinase 6 (GhPK6) was phosphorylated at serines 215 and 402. Phosphorylation of GhPK6 at serine 215 inhibited its enzyme activity, whereas phosphorylation at both serine sites could promote its degradation. The phosphorylation-mediated ubiquitination of GhPK6 was gradually attenuated during the cotton fiber elongation process, which sufficiently explained the increase in the protein/mRNA ratios...
March 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286730/mir-409-3p-regulates-cell-proliferation-and-tumor-growth-by-targeting-e74-like-factor-2-in-osteosarcoma
#9
Jun Zhang, Wengen Hou, Jinling Jia, Yilei Zhao, Bin Zhao
Recent evidence has shown that miR-409-3p was down-regulated in several types of cancer, including osteosarcoma. However, the potential role of miR-409-3p in osteosarcoma remains largely unknown. In the present study, we showed that overexpression of miR-409-3p in osteosarcoma cells inhibited cell proliferation in vitro and suppressed tumor growth in vivo, and the restoration of miR-409-3p promoted G1/S cell cycle arrest and induced cell apoptosis. Additionally, E74-like factor 2 (ELF2) was recognized as a new target of miR-409-3p by dual-luciferase reporter assay...
March 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286729/a-novel-cytochrome-p450-cyp3201b1-is-involved-in-r-mandelonitrile-biosynthesis-in-a-cyanogenic-millipede
#10
Takuya Yamaguchi, Yasumasa Kuwahara, Yasuhisa Asano
Specialized arthropods and more than 2500 plant species biosynthesize hydroxynitriles and release hydrogen cyanide as a defensive mechanism. The millipede Chamberlinius hualienensis accumulates (R)-mandelonitrile as a cyanide precursor. Although biosynthesis of hydroxynitriles in cyanogenic plants and in an insect are extensively studied, (R)-mandelonitrile biosynthesis in cyanogenic millipedes has remained unclear. In this study, we identified the biosynthetic precursors of (R)-mandelonitrile and an enzyme involved in (R)-mandelonitrile biosynthesis...
March 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286728/dna-structural-features-of-eukaryotic-tata-containing-and-tata-less-promoters
#11
Venkata Rajesh Yella, Manju Bansal
Eukaryotic genes can be broadly classified as TATA-containing and TATA-less based on the presence of TATA box in their promoters. Experiments on both classes of genes have revealed a disparity in the regulation of gene expression and cellular functions between the two classes. In this study, we report characteristic differences in promoter sequences and associated structural properties of the two categories of genes in six different eukaryotes. We have analyzed three structural features, DNA duplex stability, bendability, and curvature along with the distribution of A-tracts, G-quadruplex motifs, and CpG islands...
March 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286727/a-novel-combination-of-four-flavonoids-derived-from-astragali-radix-relieves-the-symptoms-of-cyclophosphamide-induced-anemic-rats
#12
Li Zhang, Amy G W Gong, Kashif Riaz, Jun Y Deng, Chih M Ho, Huang Q Lin, Tina T X Dong, Yi-Kuen Lee, Karl W K Tsim
By using a feedback system control scheme, the best combination of formononetin, ononin, calycosin, and calycosin-7-O-β-d-glucoside derived from Astragali Radix was shown to activate a hypoxia response element, a regulator for erythropoietin (EPO) transcription, in kidney fibroblast. In cyclophosphamide-induced anemic rats, the treatment of combined flavonoids, or EPO, improved the levels of red blood cells, white blood cells, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. In addition, the altered levels of antioxidant capacity, super oxidase dismutase, and malondialdehyde, triggered in anemic rats, were restored to control levels by the treatment of flavonoids...
March 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286726/multiple-expression-cassette-exchange-via-tp901-1-r4-and-bxb1-integrase-systems-on-a-mouse-artificial-chromosome
#13
Kosuke Tomimatsu, Kenji Kokura, Tadashi Nishida, Yuki Yoshimura, Yasuhiro Kazuki, Masashi Narita, Mitsuo Oshimura, Tetsuya Ohbayashi
The site-specific excision of a target DNA sequence for genetic knockout or lineage tracing is a powerful tool for investigating biological systems. Currently, site-specific recombinases (SSRs), such as Cre or Flp recombination target cassettes, have been successfully excised or inverted by a single SSR to regulate transgene expression. However, the use of a single SSR might restrict the complex control of gene expression. This study investigated the potential for expanding the multiple regulation of transgenes using three different integrase systems (TP901-1, R4, and Bxb1)...
March 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174694/stat3-and-erk-pathways-are-involved-in-cell-growth-stimulation-of-the-st2-il1rl1-promoter
#14
Kenji Tago, Satoshi Ohta, Megumi Funakoshi-Tago, Chihiro Aoki-Ohmura, Jitsuhiro Matsugi, Shin-Ichi Tominaga, Ken Yanagisawa
The ST2 gene was originally identified as a primary responsive gene induced by stimulation with growth factors and by oncogenic stress. The ST2 gene harbors two distinct promoters - a distal promoter and a proximal promoter. In this study, we identified a novel type of serum-responsive element in the ST2 proximal promoter using reporter gene analysis; this element includes a possible responsive element for STAT family proteins. Indeed, enforced expression of constitutively active STAT3 activated this promoter element and induced the expression of ST2 gene products...
February 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174693/fanconi-anemia-protein-fancd2-is-activated-by-aicar-a-modulator-of-ampk-and-cellular-energy-metabolism
#15
Min Jeong Chun, Hana Choi, Dong Wha Jun, Sunshin Kim, Yong-Nyun Kim, Soo-Youl Kim, Chang-Hun Lee
FANCD2 is a pivotal molecule in the pathogenesis of Fanconi anemia (FA), an autosomal recessive human syndrome with diverse clinical phenotypes, including cancer predisposition, short stature, and hematological abnormalities. In our previous study, we detected the functional association of FANC proteins, whose mutations are responsible for the onset of FA, with AMPK in response to DNA interstrand crosslinking lesions. Because AMPK is well known as a critical sensing molecule for cellular energy levels, we checked whether FANCD2 activation occurs after treatments affecting AMPK and/or cellular energy status...
February 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174692/the-specificity-of-homomeric-clustering-of-cd81-is-mediated-by-its-%C3%AE-loop
#16
Yahya Homsi, Thorsten Lang
Tetraspanins are cell membrane-scaffolding proteins interacting with one another and a repertoire of interaction partners. Through these interactions, they form extended molecular networks as tetraspanin webs or tetraspanin-enriched microdomains. Microscopic data suggest that these networks contain tetraspanin clusters, with poor overlap between clusters formed by different tetraspanins. Here, we investigate the possibility of targeting tetraspanins CD9 or CD151 to clusters formed by the tetraspanin CD81. We find that the δ-loop from the large extracellular domain of CD81 is sufficient for targeting of CD9/CD151 to CD81 clusters...
February 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174691/beta-catenin-participates-in-dialysate-induced-peritoneal-fibrosis-via-enhanced-peritoneal-cell-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition
#17
Shuiyu Ji, Hao Deng, Wei Jin, Pengpeng Yan, Rending Wang, Lisha Pang, Jingyi Zhou, Jiaming Zhang, Xiaoying Chen, Xiang Zhao, Jia Shen
Long-term exposure to peritoneal dialysate with high glucose (HG) leads to peritoneal fibrosis and thus decreases dialysis efficiency. In this study, we explored the role of β-catenin in this process. C57BL/6 mice received daily intraperitoneal injection with 10% of the body weight of saline (control), 4.25% glucose peritoneal dialysis fluid (PDF), or PDF combined with 5 mg·kg(-1) of the β-catenin inhibitor ICG-001 (PDF+ICG) for 30 days. Also, mice peritoneal epithelial cells (mPECs) were cultured in 4.25% glucose (HG) or combined with 10 μm ICG-001 (HG+ICG) for 48 h...
February 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174690/the-gene-expression-of-numerous-slc-transporters-is-altered-in-the-immortalized-hypothalamic-cell-line-n25-2-following-amino-acid-starvation
#18
Sofie V Hellsten, Emilia Lekholm, Tauseef Ahmad, Robert Fredriksson
Amino acids are known to play a key role in gene expression regulation, and in mammalian cells, amino acid signaling is mainly mediated via two pathways, the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway and the amino acid responsive (AAR) pathway. It is vital for cells to have a system to sense amino acid levels, in order to control protein and amino acid synthesis and catabolism. Amino acid transporters are crucial in these pathways, due to both their sensing and transport functions. In this large-scale study, an immortalized mouse hypothalamic cell line (N25/2) was used to study the gene expression changes following 1, 2, 3, 5 or 16 h of amino acid starvation...
February 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174689/characterization-of-murine-polyspecific-monoamine-transporters
#19
Yamato Miura, Takeo Yoshikawa, Fumito Naganuma, Tadaho Nakamura, Tomomitsu Iida, Anikó Kárpáti, Takuro Matsuzawa, Asuka Mogi, Ryuichi Harada, Kazuhiko Yanai
The dysregulation of monoamine clearance in the central nervous system occurs in various neuropsychiatric disorders, and the role of polyspecific monoamine transporters in monoamine clearance is increasingly highlighted in recent studies. However, no study to date has properly characterized polyspecific monoamine transporters in the mouse brain. In the present study, we examined the kinetic properties of three mouse polyspecific monoamine transporters [organic cation transporter 2 (Oct2), Oct3, and plasma membrane monoamine transporter (Pmat)] and compared the absolute mRNA expression levels of these transporters in various brain areas...
February 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174688/protection-by-huang-lian-jie-du-decoction-and-its-constituent-herbs-of-lipopolysaccharide-induced-acute-kidney-injury
#20
Pei Li, Shan-Ting Liao, Jun-Song Wang, Qian Zhang, Ding-Qiao Xu, Yan Lv, Ming-Hua Yang, Ling-Yi Kong
Sepsis, characterized by systemic inflammation, often leads to end-organ dysfunction, such as acute kidney injury (AKI). Despite of the severity and frequency of septic AKI in clinic, its pathogenesis is still poorly understood. Combined with histopathology evaluations, mortality assessments, biochemical evaluations, reverse transcription (RT) reaction and quantitative real-time PCR, and western blot, (1)H NMR-based metabolomics approach was applied to investigate effects of Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Decotion (HLJDD), a traditional Chinese medicine prescription, and its four component herbs on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced septic AKI and the underlying mechanism...
February 2017: FEBS Open Bio
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