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FEBS Open Bio

Mi-Sun Kwon, Jaewon Min, Hee-Yeon Jeon, Kwangwoo Hwang, Chuna Kim, Junho Lee, Je-Gun Joung, Woong-Yang Park, Hyunsook Lee
BRCA2 is a multifunctional tumor suppressor involved in homologous recombination (HR), mitotic checkpoint regulation, and telomere homeostasis. Absence of Brca2 in mice results in progressive shortening of telomeres and senescence, yet cells are prone to neoplastic transformation with elongated telomeres, suggesting that BRCA2 has positive and negative effects on telomere length regulation along the path to tumorigenesis. Using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model, we show here that depletion of BRC-2, an ortholog of BRCA2, paradoxically delays senescence in telomerase-deficient mutant worms...
October 2016: FEBS Open Bio
Michiyo Deushi, Mizuko Osaka, Kaku Nakano, Kyoichi Osada, Kensuke Egashira, Masayuki Yoshida
Oxidized cholesterol (oxysterols) plays an important and multifaceted role in lipid metabolism. Here we examined whether dietary oxysterols accelerate hepatic lipid accumulation and inflammation in nonhuman primates. We also examined the effect of the Niemann-Pick C1-like1 inhibitor, ezetimibe (Ez). Macaca fascicularis (5-year-old males) were fed either regular cholesterol + high-fat diet (control-HFD) or oxysterols + high-fat diet (ox-HFD; with 0.015% of oxysterols cholesterol) for 24 weeks. Compared with control-HFD, ox-HFD did not affect plasma lipid levels, but it did affect hepatic lipid levels [total cholesterol, 40...
October 2016: FEBS Open Bio
David Leon, Daniela Parada, Mauricio Vargas-Uribe, Alejandra A Perez, Lorena Ojeda, Angara Zambrano, Alejandro M Reyes, Mónica Salas
The polyphenol nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) has antineoplastic properties, hence it is critical to understand its action at the molecular level. Here, we establish that NDGA inhibits glucose uptake and cell viability in leukemic HL-60 and U-937 cell lines. We monitored hexose uptake using radio-labeled 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) and found that the inhibition by NDGA followed a noncompetitive mechanism. In addition, NDGA blocked hexose transport in human red blood cells and displaced prebound cytochalasin B from erythrocyte ghosts, suggesting a direct interaction with the glucose transporter GLUT1...
October 2016: FEBS Open Bio
Kasper D Tidemand, Hans E M Christensen, Niclas Hoeck, Pernille Harris, Jane Boesen, Günther H Peters
Tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) catalyses the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of serotonin, which is associated with a variety of disorders such as depression, obsessive compulsive disorder, and schizophrenia. Full-length TPH2 is poorly characterized due to low purification quantities caused by its inherent instability. Three truncated variants of human TPH2 (rch TPH2; regulatory and catalytic domain, NΔ47-rch TPH2; truncation of 47 residues in the N terminus of rch TPH2, and ch TPH2; catalytic domain) were expressed, purified, and examined for changes in transition temperature, inactivation rate, and oligomeric state...
October 2016: FEBS Open Bio
Jorge L Rosas-Trigueros
Bax is a protein that promotes apoptosis (a form of cell death). The atomistic details of the mechanism by which Bax is activated during apoptosis remain a subject of debate. C-terminal basic residues in the sequence of Bax show remarkable conservation across a variety of species. The role of these charged residues in the stability of Bax was investigated by submitting substituted mutants to molecular dynamics simulations at high temperatures. Mutation of either or both K189 and K190 led to dramatic changes in helical content, radius of gyration, proximity of the C terminus to the core of the protein, exposure of the BH3 domain, and bundling of the core...
October 2016: FEBS Open Bio
Jun Xiao, Xin Song, Jiang Deng, Liping Lv, Ping Ma, Bo Gao, Xipeng Zhou, Yanyu Zhang, Jinbo Xu
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection can be accelerated by intracellular and extracellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) stimulation, mediated by the activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. However, it remains unknown whether host gene expression is involved in H2O2-upregulated HCMV replication. Here, we show that the expression of the host gene, cyclophilin A (CyPA), could be facilitated by treatment with H2O2 in a dose-dependent manner. Experiments with CyPA-specific siRNA, or with cyclosporine A, an inhibitor of CyPA, confirmed that H2O2-mediated upregulation of HCMV replication is specifically mediated by upregulation of CyPA expression...
September 2016: FEBS Open Bio
Yang Cao, Yinglei Liu, Xiaoyan Lu, Ying Wang, Haifeng Qiao, Manhua Liu
The identification of cancer-associated long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) is critical for us to understand cancer pathogenesis and development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression profile of the lncRNA SPRY4-IT1 in cervical cancer and to identify its clinical significance in cancer progression. The expression levels of SPRY4-IT1 in cervical cancer tissues were measured by quantitative real-time PCR, and its correlation with overall survival of cervical cancer patients was analyzed statistically. Our results showed that the expression levels of SPRY4-IT1 were higher in cervical cancer tissues than in adjacent normal tissues...
September 2016: FEBS Open Bio
Kazuyoshi Yamane, Kai-Poon Leung
Macrophages can change their phenotype in response to environmental cues. Polarized macrophages are broadly classified into two groups: classical activated M1 and alternative activated M2. Characterization of human macrophages has been widely studied, but polarized macrophages in rabbits have not been characterized. We characterized rabbit macrophages that were polarized using human recombinant GM-CSF and M-CSF. GM-CSF-treated macrophages had higher mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines (M1 phenotype) than did the M-CSF-treated counterpart...
September 2016: FEBS Open Bio
Shokoofeh Hajihashemi, Jan M C Geuns
Stevia rebaudiana is a sweet herb of the Astraceae family, which is cultivated for the natural sweeteners it contains. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of drought, simulated by the application of polyethylene glycol (5%, 10%, and 15% w/v), on the content of steviol glycosides (SVglys) and transcription levels of six genes involved in the biosynthesis of these natural sweeteners. The transcription levels of ent-kaurene synthase, ent-kaurene oxidase, ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase, and three UDP-dependent glycosyltransferases, UGT85C2,UGT74G1 and UGT76G1 were downregulated under polyethylene glycol treatment...
September 2016: FEBS Open Bio
Kosuke Yamaguchi, Mariko Ishii, Naoyuki Maeda, Hidetomo Iwano, Hiroshi Yokota
Ethinylestradiol (EE), a main component of the combined oral contraceptive pill, is associated with an increased risk of arterial diseases. However, the toxicity mechanism of EE is poorly understood. In this study, we found that the exposure to EE reduced the serum apolipoprotein E (Apo E) level and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)/cholesterol concentration in adult female rats. Diethylstilbestrol showed the same effects and both reductions were suppressed by coadministration of tamoxifen (TAM). Liver perfusion experiments revealed that the secretion rate of Apo E from the liver was significantly reduced...
September 2016: FEBS Open Bio
Juliane Schmidt, Ren Wei, Thorsten Oeser, Matheus Regis Belisário-Ferrari, Markus Barth, Johannes Then, Wolfgang Zimmermann
The enzymatic degradation of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) occurs at mild reaction conditions and may find applications in environmentally friendly plastic waste recycling processes. The hydrolytic activity of the homologous polyester hydrolases LC cutinase (LCC) from a compost metagenome and TfCut2 from Thermobifida fusca KW3 against PET films was strongly influenced by the reaction medium buffers tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris), 3-(N-morpholino)propanesulfonic acid (MOPS), and sodium phosphate. LCC showed the highest initial hydrolysis rate of PET films in 0...
September 2016: FEBS Open Bio
Katsuhiro Hiranuma, Atsushi Yamada, Tamaki Kurosawa, Ryo Aizawa, Dai Suzuki, Yoshiro Saito, Ryo Nagahama, Mikiko Ikehata, Masayuki Tsukasaki, Naoko Morimura, Daichi Chikazu, Koutaro Maki, Tatsuo Shirota, Masamichi Takami, Matsuo Yamamoto, Takehiko Iijima, Ryutaro Kamijo
The extracellular matrix protein nephronectin (Npnt), also called POEM, is considered to play critical roles as an adhesion molecule in development and functions of various tissues, such as the kidneys, liver, and bone. In the present study, we examined the molecular mechanism of Npnt gene expression and found that vitamin D3 (1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3,VD 3) strongly enhanced Npnt mRNA expression in MC3T3-E1 cells from a mouse osteoblastic cell line. The VD 3-induced increase in Npnt expression is both time- and dose-dependent and is mediated by the vitamin D receptor (VDR)...
September 2016: FEBS Open Bio
Gertjan Kramer, Wouter Wegdam, Wilma Donker-Koopman, Roelof Ottenhoff, Paulo Gaspar, Marri Verhoek, Jessica Nelson, Tanit Gabriel, Wouter Kallemeijn, Rolf G Boot, Jon D Laman, Johannes P C Vissers, Timothy Cox, Elena Pavlova, Mary Teresa Moran, Johannes M Aerts, Marco van Eijk
Gaucher disease is caused by inherited deficiency of lysosomal glucocerebrosidase. Proteome analysis of laser-dissected splenic Gaucher cells revealed increased amounts of glycoprotein nonmetastatic melanoma protein B (gpNMB). Plasma gpNMB was also elevated, correlating with chitotriosidase and CCL18, which are established markers for human Gaucher cells. In Gaucher mice, gpNMB is also produced by Gaucher cells. Correction of glucocerebrosidase deficiency in mice by gene transfer or pharmacological substrate reduction reverses gpNMB abnormalities...
September 2016: FEBS Open Bio
Aline N Rabaça, Denise C Arruda, Carlos R Figueiredo, Mariana H Massaoka, Camyla F Farias, Dayane B Tada, Vera C Maia, Pedro I Silva Junior, Natalia Girola, Fernando Real, Renato A Mortara, Luciano Polonelli, Luiz R Travassos
Antibody-derived peptides modulate functions of the immune system and are a source of anti-infective and antitumor substances. Recent studies have shown that they comprise amino acid sequences of immunoglobulin complementarity-determining regions, but also fragments of constant regions. VH CDR3 of murine mAb AC-1001 displays antimetastatic activities using B16F10-Nex2 murine melanoma cells in a syngeneic model. The peptide was cytotoxic in vitro in murine and human melanoma cells inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis by the intrinsic pathway...
September 2016: FEBS Open Bio
Tigist Kassa, Sirsendu Jana, Fantao Meng, Abdu I Alayash
Despite advances in our understanding of the oxidative pathways mediated by free hemoglobin (Hb), the precise contribution of its highly reactive redox forms to tissue and organ toxicities remains ambiguous. Heme, a key degradation byproduct of Hb oxidation, has recently been recognized as a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule, able to trigger inflammatory responses. Equally damaging is the interaction of the highly redox active forms of Hb with other biological molecules. We determined the kinetics of heme loss from individual Hb redox states-ferrous (Fe(2+)), ferric (Fe(3+)), and ferryl (Fe(4+))-using two different heme receptor proteins: hemopexin (Hxp), a naturally occurring heme scavenger in plasma, and a double mutant (H64Y/V86F), apomyoglobin (ApoMb), which avidly binds heme released from Hb...
September 2016: FEBS Open Bio
David Kersting, Mirko Krüger, Julia M Sattler, Ann-Kristin Mueller, Annette Kaiser
The biological function of the post-translational modification hypusine in the eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (EIF-5A) in eukaryotes is still not understood. Hypusine is formed by two sequential enzymatic steps at a specific lysine residue in the precursor protein EIF-5A. One important biological function of EIF-5A which was recently identified is the translation of polyproline-rich mRNA, suggesting its biological relevance in a variety of biological processes. Hypusinated eIF-5A controls the proliferation of cancer cells and inflammatory processes in malaria...
August 2016: FEBS Open Bio
Ferenc Tóth, János Kádas, János András Mótyán, József Tőzsér
The capsid protein of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 has been found to be a substrate of the retroviral protease in vitro, and its processing was predicted to be strongly dependent on a pH-induced conformational change. Several protease cleavage sites have been identified within the capsid protein, but the importance of its cleavage by the viral protease at the early phase of infection is controversial. To confirm the relevance of this process, we aimed to design, produce, and characterize mutant capsid proteins, in which the protein susceptibility toward HIV-1 protease is altered without affecting other steps of the viral life cycle...
August 2016: FEBS Open Bio
Emily B Harrison, Colleen G Hochfelder, Benjamin G Lamberty, Brittney M Meays, Brenda M Morsey, Matthew L Kelso, Howard S Fox, Sowmya V Yelamanchili
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important health concern and effective treatment strategies remain elusive. Understanding the complex multicellular response to TBI may provide new avenues for intervention. In the context of TBI, cell-cell communication is critical. One relatively unexplored form of cell-cell communication in TBI is extracellular vesicles (EVs). These membrane-bound vesicles can carry many different types of cargo between cells. Recently, miRNA in EVs have been shown to mediate neuroinflammation and neuronal injury...
August 2016: FEBS Open Bio
Mohd Hanif Zulfakar, Rebecca M Porter, Charles M Heard
Psoriasis is an incurable autoimmune disease characterized by patches of abnormal red, itchy and scaly skin. This work examined the modulation of inflammation, hyperproliferation and immune cell markers following topical application of fish oil (FO) in comparison to the antipsoriatic agents, betamethasone dipropionate (BD) and salicylic acid (SA), to GsdmA3(Dfl)/+ mice, a hair loss mutant which also exhibits epidermal hyperproliferation akin to psoriasis. The mice were dosed with 100 mg of the test formulation and after 10 days, the mice were sacrificed, skin sections excised and subjected to immunohistochemical determination of COX-2, K17 and MAC-1; and immunofluorescence of Ki-67...
August 2016: FEBS Open Bio
Koichi Ojima, Mika Oe, Ikuyo Nakajima, Susumu Muroya, Takanori Nishimura
The major functions of adipocytes include both lipid storage and the production of secretory factors. However, the type of proteins released from mouse 3T3-L1 cells during adipocyte differentiation remains poorly understood. We examined the dynamics of secreted proteins during adipocyte differentiation using mass spectrometry (MS) combined with an iTRAQ (®) labeling method that enables the simultaneous analysis of relative protein expression levels. A total of 215 proteins were identified and quantified from approximately 10 000 MS/MS spectra...
August 2016: FEBS Open Bio
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