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Psychodynamic Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480787/redefining-identity-after-trauma-or-loss
#1
Mardi Horowitz
Individuals who experience trauma or loss perceive a seriously altered world. Survivors must revise their mental models of identity and adapt to new circumstances. When emotional disturbances lead to a person seeking treatment, useful therapy techniques include efforts at developing new self-concepts. A particular defense that can interfere with self-growth is dissociative shifting in a binary of self-states. Therapists can share observations of this obstacle and help patients form a balanced, nuanced, and coherent self-organization...
2018: Psychodynamic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480786/the-role-of-psychoeducation-in-psychodynamic-psychotherapy
#2
Fredric N Busch, Elizabeth L Auchincloss
Psychoanalysts have generally avoided discussion of psychoeducational interventions in the context of psychodynamic psychotherapy, despite education being a component of many psychoanalytic techniques. This wariness stems from Freud's early concerns about interventions that could be deemed "suggestion," and a misunderstanding of various aspects of neutrality, including viewing psychoeducational comments as over-gratifying or siding with the ego. Although potential pitfalls exist, the authors review clinical evidence and research that indicate the value of psychoeducational approaches for engaging patients in psychodynamic psychotherapy, considering alternative treatments, providing a psychodynamic formulation, and enhancing the therapeutic alliance...
2018: Psychodynamic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480785/psychoanalysis-today-a-pseudoscience-a-critique-of-the-arbitrary-nature-of-psychoanalytic-theories-and-practice
#3
Siegfried Zepf
The article centers on psychoanalysts' indifferent attitude to the mutually exclusivity of theoretical conceptualizations and the ensuing technical rules for treatment. In the author's view this indifference is due to psychoanalysts being business people for whom the exchange value of their service is essentially of greater interest than its utility value, which latter is only of interest as a means of realizing the former. The author argues that, as a consequence of the disparate coexisting conceptualizations being treated as equally valid, psychoanalysis becomes a science without truth, that is, a pseudoscience, and demonstrates that all attempts to appropriate the epithet ornans "scientific" to psychoanalysis by linking its concepts to findings in areas beyond its conceptual field have failed...
2018: Psychodynamic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480784/resilience-trauma-and-coping
#4
Ahron Friedberg, Dana Malefakis
The study and use of resilience is of the utmost importance to psychodynamic psychiatry. It is deeply ingrained in ideas about well-being and the treatment and care of patients. However, its neurobiology is incompletely understood, its terminology and relation to trauma and coping not well defined, and its efficacy underutilized in clinical practice. This article reviews the scientific literature on resilience, especially as it relates to trauma and coping. It also attempts to point the way for its greater application in psychiatry and mental health by utilizing resilience in more informed and individualized approaches...
2018: Psychodynamic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480783/psychodynamic-psychiatry-in-the-21st-century-constructing-a-comprehensive-science-of-experience
#5
Yakov Shapiro
Psychodynamic psychiatry is not limited to psychotherapy practice. It is defined by systematic attention to the "common factors" underlying both psychotherapy and psychopharmacology outcomes, which include the patient's subjective systems of meaning and the complex flow of the patient-provider relationship in addition to the patient's "objective" psychopathology. It allows for a non-reductionist milieu where the meaning of the illness and the full complexity of the treatment process can be explored in order to achieve a qualitative and lasting change in the patient's psychopathology...
2018: Psychodynamic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480782/preliminary-data-about-the-validation-of-a-self-report-for-the-assessment-of-interpersonal-guilt-the-interpersonal-guilt-rating-scales-15s-igrs-15s
#6
Francesco Gazzillo, Bernard Gorman, Emma De Luca, Filippo Faccini, Marshall Bush, George Silberschatz, Nino Dazzi
The aim of this article is to present validation data about a self-report rating scale for the assessment of interpersonal guilt according to Control-Mastery Theory (CMT; Silbershatz, 2005; Weiss, 1993; Weiss, Sampson, & The Mount Zion Psychotherapy Research Group, 1986), the Interpersonal Guilt Rating Scale-15s (IGRS-15s). In order to perform the validation of this tool in an Italian sample we have collected a sample of 645 nonclinical subjects. They had to complete the IGRS-15s, the Scale for the Measurement of the Impending Punishment (SMIP; Caprara et al...
2018: Psychodynamic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480781/race-in-supervision-let-s-talk-about-it
#7
Cathy R Schen, Alecia Greenlee
Addressing race and racial trauma within psychotherapy supervision is increasingly important in psychiatry training. A therapist's ability to discuss race and racial trauma in psychotherapy supervision increases the likelihood that these topics will be explored as they arise in the therapeutic setting. The authors discuss the contextual and sociocultural dynamics that contributed to their own avoidance of race and racial trauma within the supervisory relationship. The authors examine the features that eventually led to a robust discussion of race and culture within the supervisory setting and identify salient themes that occurred during three phases of the conversation about race: pre-dialogue, the conversation, and after the conversation...
2018: Psychodynamic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244629/evolution-shame-and-psychotherapy
#8
Richard Brockman
Medea, the title character in Euripides' play, murdered her two sons in response to her husband Jason's abandonment. If her behavior can be understood, it is best understood in the context of shame. In an evolutionary context, shame is the affective response to the loss of one's place in the group. This response is related to the neurobiology of pain-not the acute pain experienced through the post-central gyrus, but the chronic, lingering pain that is experienced through the insular and cingulate cortices where homeostasis is regulated "from above...
2017: Psychodynamic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244628/the-neurobiology-of-attachment-from-infancy-to-clinical-outcomes
#9
Joanna Chambers
Attachment theory was developed by John Bowlby in the 1950s. He defined attachment as a specific neurobiological system that resulted in the infant connecting to the primary caretaker in such a way to create an inner working model of relationships that continues throughout life and affects the future mental health and physical health of the infant. Given the significance of this inner working model, there has been a tremendous amount of research done in animals as well as humans to better understand the neurobiology...
2017: Psychodynamic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244627/attachment-in-the-psychiatric-curriculum
#10
Jeffrey Katzman, Anilla Del Fabbro
Psychiatric trainees are expected to learn the fundamental concepts of psychodynamic psychotherapy, but they often struggle to understand and appreciate the relevance of this work. An introduction to attachment theory can go a long way toward assisting our trainees in understanding the relevance of psychodynamic psychiatry. To help programs develop this component of their curriculum, we summarize the history of the development of the attachment paradigm including the Strange Situation and Adult Attachment Interview (AAI), useful tools to teach these concepts, as well as ramifications of this work...
2017: Psychodynamic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244625/the-role-of-oxytocin-and-vasopressin-in-attachment
#11
C Sue Carter
Selective relationships and attachments are central to human health and well-being, both in current societies and during the course of evolution. The presence or absence of social bonds has consequences across the lifespan. The neurobiology of attachment is grounded in neuroendocrine substrates that are shared with reproduction and survival. Experimental studies of species, such as sheep or prairie voles, capable of showing selective social behaviors toward offspring or partners, have provided empirical evidence for the role of oxytocin and vasopressin in the formation of selective attachments...
2017: Psychodynamic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244624/the-effects-of-psychosocial-deprivation-on-attachment-lessons-from-the-bucharest-early-intervention-project
#12
Nathan A Fox, Charles A Nelson, Charles H Zeanah
The absence of typical caregiving, including warm and responsive parenting, has been suggested to significantly affect the young child's ability to form adaptive relationships with adults and peers. The Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP), a randomized controlled trial of foster/family care for young children with a history of institutionalization has provided the context to assess these relationships. Here we review data from the BEIP with specific focus on attachment. The findings clearly show the importance of early family care on the emergence of attachment, on the prevention of psychopathology, and on links between brain and social behavior...
2017: Psychodynamic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244623/attachment-figure-s-regulation-of-infant-brain-and-behavior
#13
Regina M Sullivan
Altricial infants (i.e., requiring parental care for survival), such as humans and rats, form an attachment to their caregiver and receive the nurturing and protections needed for survival. Learning has a strong role in attachment, as is illustrated by strong attachment formed to non-biological caregivers of either sex. Here we summarize and integrate results from animal and human infant attachment research that highlights the important role of social buffering (social presence) of the stress response by the attachment figure and its effect on infant processing of threat and fear through modulation of the amygdala...
2017: Psychodynamic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244622/growing-up-with-attachment-theory-a-personal-view
#14
Richard Bowlby
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Psychodynamic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244621/on-mourning-and-recovery-integrating-stages-of-grief-and-change-toward-a-neuroscience-based-model-of-attachment-adaptation-in-addiction-treatment
#15
R Andrew Chambers, Sue C Wallingford
Interpersonal attachment and drug addiction share many attributes across their behavioral and neurobiological domains. Understanding the overlapping brain circuitry of attachment formation and addiction illuminates a deeper understanding of the pathogenesis of trauma-related mental illnesses and comorbid substance use disorders, and the extent to which ending an addiction is complicated by being a sort of mourning process. Attention to the process of addiction recovery-as a form of grieving-in which Kubler-Ross's stages of grief and Prochaska's stages of change are ultimately describing complementary viewpoints on a general process of neural network and attachment remodeling, could lead to more effective and integrative psychotherapy and medication strategies...
2017: Psychodynamic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244620/calming-cycle-theory-and-the-co-regulation-of-oxytocin
#16
Martha G Welch, Robert J Ludwig
The biological functions of oxytocin in attachment and bonding between mother and infant in parturition and breastfeeding and between adults have been studied extensively. However, most current authors have proposed that infant attachment to the mother is learned through operant conditioning mechanisms via the infant's brain and central nervous system. We propose that oxytocin levels in the mother and infant are co-regulated by emotional connection or disconnection, and that the autonomic co-conditioning learning mechanism can be exploited to change a negative physiological and behavioral response between mother and infant into a positive one...
2017: Psychodynamic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244618/guest-editors-introduction
#17
Joanna Chambers, Richard Brockman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Psychodynamic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846511/personality-and-affect-when-the-central-nervous-system-is-sensitized-an-analysis-of-central-sensitization-syndromes-in-a-substance-use-disorder-population
#18
Lindsey C McKernan, Michael T M Finn, Erika R Carr
Functional somatic syndromes, or more recently termed central sensitivity syndromes (CSS), comprise a significant portion of the chronic pain population. Although it is evident that personality is intricately related to the pain experience, it has not been widely studied. This article examines the impact of CSS on the clinical presentation of individuals presenting to treatment for a substance use disorder (SUD), with an emphasis on personality and emotional functioning. We examined personality profiles of individuals presenting to treatment with SUD between three groups: those with a CSS (n = 30), non-CSS chronic pain (n = 79), and no pain (n = 232)...
2017: Psychodynamic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846510/psychological-mindedness-and-psychotherapy-process-in-short-term-group-therapy
#19
David Kealy, Carlos A Sierra-Hernandez, William E Piper, Anthony S Joyce, Rene Weideman, John S Ogrodniczuk
Psychological mindedness is regarded as an important patient characteristic that can influence the course of psychotherapy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between patients' capacity for psychological mindedness and aspects of the group psychotherapy process as experienced and rated by therapists and other group members. Participants were 110 patients who completed two forms of short-term group therapy for the treatment of complicated grief. Psychological mindedness was assessed at pretreatment by external raters using a video-interview procedure...
2017: Psychodynamic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846509/reliability-and-validity-of-the-interpersonal-guilt-rating-scale-15-a-new-clinician-reporting-tool-for-assessing-interpersonal-guilt-according-to-control-mastery-theory
#20
Francesco Gazzillo, Bernard Gorman, Marshall Bush, George Silberschatz, Cristina Mazza, Filippo Faccini, Valeria Crisafulli, Roberta Alesiani, Emma De Luca
This article introduces the Interpersonal Guilt Rating Scale-15 (IGRS-15), a brief clinician-rated tool for the clinical assessment of interpersonal guilt as conceived in Control-Mastery Theory (CMT; Silberschatz, 2015; Weiss, 1993), and its psychometric proprieties. The items of the IGRS-15 were derived from the CMT clinical and empirical literature about guilt, and from the authors' clinical experiences. Twenty-eight clinicians assessed 154 patients with the IGRS-15, the patient self-reported Interpersonal Guilt Questionnaire-67 (IGQ-67; O'Connor, Berry, Weiss, Bush, & Sampson, 1997), and the Clinical Data Form (CDF; Westen & Shedler, 1999)...
2017: Psychodynamic Psychiatry
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