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Systematic Reviews

Fiona Dobbie, Kathryn Angus, Isabelle Uny, Edward Duncan, Lisa MacInnes, Liz Hasseld, Gareth Clegg
BACKGROUND: A key determinant of survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is bystander cardio pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) which can more than double an individual's chances of surviving to discharge from hospital. The experience of other international OHCA survival programmes has shown that increasing bystander CPR is strongly associated with an increase in overall survival. However, existing data suggest that the more economically deprived an area is the higher the incidence of cardiac arrest...
September 17, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Andrea C Tricco, Julia E Moore, Nicole Beben, Ross C Brownson, David A Chambers, Lisa R Dolovich, Annemarie Edwards, Lee Fairclough, Paul P Glasziou, Ian D Graham, Brenda R Hemmelgarn, Bev Holmes, Wanrudee Isaranuwatchai, Chantelle C Lachance, France Legare, Jessie McGowan, Sumit R Majumdar, Justin Presseau, Janet E Squires, Henry T Stelfox, Lisa Strifler, Kristine Thompson, Trudy Van der Weijden, Areti Angeliki Veroniki, Sharon E Straus
BACKGROUND: Failure to sustain knowledge translation (KT) interventions impacts patients and health systems, diminishing confidence in future implementation. Sustaining KT interventions used to implement chronic disease management (CDM) interventions is of critical importance given the proportion of older adults with chronic diseases and their need for ongoing care. Our objectives are to (1) complete a systematic review and network meta-analysis of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of sustainability of KT interventions that target CDM for end-users including older patients, clinicians, public health officials, health services managers and policy-makers on health care outcomes beyond 1 year after implementation or the termination of initial project funding and (2) use the results of this review to complete an economic analysis of the interventions identified to be effective...
September 15, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Ewan Gray, Anna Donten, Katherine Payne, Peter S Hall
BACKGROUND: Estimates of survival for women diagnosed with early staged breast cancer are available based on stratification into prognostic categories defined using the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). This review aimed to identify and summarize the estimated survival statistics from separate sources in the literature and to explore the extent of between-study heterogeneity in survival estimates. METHODS: Observational studies in women diagnosed with early and locally advanced breast cancer reporting overall survival by NPI category were identified using a systematic literature search...
September 15, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Titus H Divala, Katherine L Fielding, Marriott Nliwasa, Derek J Sloan, Ankur Gupta-Wright, Elizabeth L Corbett
BACKGROUND: Suboptimal diagnostics for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) drives use of 'trial-of-antibiotics (non-tuberculosis)' in an attempt to distinguish PTB patients from those with bacterial lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). The underlying assumption-that patients with LRTI will report 'response' to broad-spectrum antibiotics, while those with PTB will not-has minimal evidence base for such a widely used intervention. Numerous potential causes of misclassification include bacterial super-infection of active PTB, placebo effect, and antimicrobial resistance (AMR)...
September 15, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Ayuba Issaka, Yin Paradies, Christopher Stevenson
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remains a public health problem in low-income countries, including African countries. Risk factors of this disease in Africa are still unclear. This study will examine the modifiable and emerging risk factors associated with T2DM in Africa. METHODOLOGY: The study will include a systematic review and meta-analysis of published and unpublished empirical studies, reporting quantitative data only. We will conduct a search on scientific databases (e...
September 12, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Purity Njagi, Jelena Arsenijevic, Wim Groot
BACKGROUND: To assess the financial burden due to out of pocket (OOP) payments, two mutually exclusive approaches have been used: catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) and impoverishment. Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries primarily rely on OOP and are thus challenged with providing financial protection to the populations. To understand the variations in CHE and impoverishment in SSA, and the underlying determinants of CHE, a scoping review of the existing evidence was conducted. METHODS: This review is guided by Arksey and O'Malley scoping review framework...
September 11, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Jessica J Bartoszko, Dominik Mertz, Lehana Thabane, Mark Loeb
BACKGROUND: Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) in hospital and community settings impose a substantial socio-economic burden. Therapeutic uncertainty due to the availability of a wide range of antibiotics and the need for empirical treatment decisions complicate SSTI clinical management. Completion of numerous pairwise meta-analyses to account for this variability in antibiotics is impractical, and many head-to-head comparisons of potential interest are likely not available. In comparing multiple antibiotics simultaneously, this network meta-analysis aims to identify the antibiotic(s) with the greatest value in the treatment of SSTIs, in terms of patient-important outcomes such as efficacy and safety...
September 11, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Rachel Flynn, Amanda S Newton, Thomas Rotter, Dawn Hartfield, Sarah Walton, Michelle Fiander, Shannon D Scott
BACKGROUND: Lean is a quality improvement management system from the Toyota manufacturing industry. Since the early 2000's, Lean has been used as an intervention for healthcare improvement. Lean is intended to reduce costs and improve customer value through continuous improvement. Despite its extensive use, the contextual factors and mechanisms that influence the sustainability of Lean in healthcare have not been well studied. Realist synthesis is one approach to "unpack" the causal explanations of how and why Lean is sustained or not in healthcare...
September 11, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Rahel Klatte, Bernhard Strauss, Christoph Flückiger, Jenny Rosendahl
BACKGROUND: While it is well known that psychotherapy is efficacious in the treatment of mental disorders, much less is known about the adverse effects of psychotherapeutic interventions. The aim of this systematic review is to examine the definition, frequency, nature, and severity of adverse effects occurring parallel to or following psychotherapeutic treatment and to compare it against control groups. METHODS: All registered randomised controlled trials published since 2004 (publication year of harm-reporting extension of the CONSORT statement) with adult patients fulfilling clinical criteria of defined mental disorders, which compare individual or group psychotherapy against a control group, will be included...
September 8, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Stuart Leske, Allan Ben Smith, Sylvie D Lambert, Afaf Girgis
BACKGROUND: Fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) is reportedly common, persistent, associated with significant morbidity and often higher in cancer caregivers than cancer patients. This review will summarise empirical research on FCR to understand its prevalence, severity, correlates, course and impact in families and caregivers of adults diagnosed with cancer, and identify tested interventions that reduce its effects. METHODS: This review will include peer-reviewed, empirical, qualitative and/or quantitative studies on fear, worry or concern of patients' cancer returning or progressing among adult family members or caregivers of the cancer patient...
August 31, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Abdul Wajid, Muhammad Kashif Mughal, Deborah McNeil, Helen Lee Robertson, Dawn Kingston
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity has become a global epidemic irrespective of the socioeconomic status of a country or nation. Obesity increases the risk of various diseases in children, for example asthma, sleep apnea, bone and joint problems, type-2 diabetes, and heart problems. The existing literature informs us of the many factors associated with childhood obesity. Among these factors, maternal mental health has been found to be a strong predictor. Maternal mental health programs were implemented to address the issue of childhood obesity but with little or no improvement...
August 29, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Andrea Chow, Justin Presseau, Iris Perelman, Lindsey Sikora, Dean Fergusson
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer and its treatment can have many physical and psychological effects on affected women. Women's personal goals may provide insight into their priorities and motivations in the context of breast cancer. Incorporating personal goal-setting into support and care interventions may have an effect on psychological well-being. This protocol describes our scoping review methods, the aim of which is to examine and map the existing evidence on personal goal-setting among women with a breast cancer diagnosis...
August 28, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Jonathan A Batty, Mengyao Tang, Marlous Hall, Roberto Ferrari, Martin H Strauss, Alistair S Hall
BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEis) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) efficaciously reduce systolic blood pressure (BP), a well-established risk factor for myocardial infarction (MI). Both inhibit the renin-angiotensin system, albeit through different mechanisms, and produce similar reductions in BP. However, in parallel meta-analyses of ACEi and ARB trials, ACEis reduce risk of MI whereas ARBs do not-a phenomenon described as the 'ARB-MI paradox'. In addition, ACEis reduce all-cause mortality, whereas ARBs do not, which appears to be independent of BP lowering...
August 25, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Merhawi Gebremedhin, Agumasie Semahegn, Tofik Usmael, Gezahegn Tesfaye
BACKGROUND: Unsafe abortion is a neglected public health problem contributing for 13% of maternal death worldwide. In Africa, 99% of abortions are unsafe resulting in one maternal death per 150 cases. The prevalence of unsafe abortion is associated with restricted abortion law, poor quality of health service, and low community awareness. Hence, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to identify and summarize the available evidence to generate an abridged evidence on the prevalence of unsafe abortion and its associated factors in Sub-Saharan Africa...
August 25, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Lauge Neimann Rasmussen, Paul Montgomery
BACKGROUND: Studies published in languages other than English are often neglected when research teams conduct systematic reviews. Literature on how to deal with non-English studies when conducting reviews have focused on the importance of including such studies, while less attention has been paid to the practical challenges of locating and assessing relevant non-English studies. We investigated the factors which might predict the inclusion of non-English studies in systematic reviews in the social sciences, to better understand how, when and why these are included/excluded...
August 23, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Joseph K Kamara, Nidhi Wali, Kingsley Agho, Andre M N Renzaho
BACKGROUND: Southern Africa has long been vulnerable to climate-induced disasters, especially droughts and floods. The severity and frequency of disasters increased in the early 1980s, continuously eroding livelihoods, which in turn invoked humanitarian intervention. A systematic review of the relationship between resilience to drought and well-being will be undertaken. METHODS: Studies will be included if they were conducted between January 1980 and December 2017; used quantitative and/or qualitative methods; were peer reviewed or comprise grey literature; covered Southern Africa; and measured resilience and its relationship to well-being...
August 21, 2018: Systematic Reviews
C Noone, C P Dwyer, J Murphy, J Newell, G J Molloy
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of hypertension is a major public health challenge. Despite it being highly preventable, hypertension is responsible for a significant proportion of global morbidity and mortality. Common methods for controlling hypertension include prescribing anti-hypertensive medication, a pharmacological approach, and increasing physical activity, a behavioural approach. In general, little is known about the comparative effectiveness of pharmacological and behavioural approaches for reducing blood pressure in hypertension...
August 21, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Laura Kaiser, Sina Bartz, Edmund A M Neugebauer, Barbara Pietsch, Dawid Pieper
BACKGROUND: Interprofessional collaboration (IPC) is a core demand of policymakers, funding parties, and health care professionals in practice. Although the causal mechanism from increased IPC to improved patient outcomes seems to be intuitive, there is a lack of credible causal evidence concerning the effects not only on the objective but also on the subjective patient outcomes. The aim of the planned systematic review is to focus on the effect of IPC on patient-reported outcomes and experiences in inpatient care...
August 21, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Andrisha-Jade Inderjeeth, K Mary Webberley, Josephine Muir, Barry J Marshall
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal (GI) conditions are highly prevalent, and their standard diagnostic tests are costly and carry risks. There is a need for new, cost-effective, non-invasive tests. Our main objective was to assess the potential for use of bowel sounds computerised analysis in the diagnosis of GI conditions. METHODS: The systematic review followed the PRISMA requirements. Searches were made of four databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, and IEEE Xplore) and the references of included papers...
August 17, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Mary Thompson, Lauralyn McIntyre, Brian Hutton, Alexandre Tran, Dianna Wolfe, Jamie Hutchison, Dean Fergusson, Alexis F Turgeon, Shane W English
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines identify the choice of fluid resuscitation as important in minimizing the incidence of secondary brain injury from cerebral edema. It is widely accepted that isotonic crystalloid resuscitation fluids, specifically normal saline (NS), are optimal for resuscitation and that other relatively hypotonic fluids, such as Ringer's lactate (RL), should be avoided in this patient population. The aim of this review is to systematically compare the use of relatively hypotonic versus isotonic crystalloid resuscitation fluids in clinical and pre-clinical models of acute brain injury and their effect on outcomes...
August 17, 2018: Systematic Reviews
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