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Systematic Reviews

Zhao Xinke, Li Yingdong, Feng Mingxia, Liu Kai, Chen Kaibing, Lu Yuqing, Sun Shaobo, Song Peng, Liu Bin
BACKGROUND: Chinese herbal medicine has been used to treat hypertension in China and East Asia since centuries. In this study, we conduct an overview of systematic reviews of Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of primary hypertension to 1) summarize the conclusions of these reviews, 2) evaluate the methodological quality of these reviews, and 3) rate the confidence in the effect on each outcome. METHODS: We comprehensively searched six databases to retrieve systematic reviews of Chinese herbal medicine for primary hypertension from inception to December 31, 2015...
October 20, 2016: Systematic Reviews
Charmaine Krishnasamy, Sik Yin Ong, Yvonne Yock, Issac Lim, Rebecca Rees, Josip Car
BACKGROUND: mLearning is increasingly presented as an attractive novel educational strategy for medical and nursing education. Yet, evidence base for its effectiveness or factors which influence use, success, implementation or adoption are not clear. We aim to synthesise findings from qualitative studies to provide insight into the factors (barriers and facilitators) influencing adoption, implementation and use of mobile devices for learning in medical and nursing education. The review also aims to identify factors or actions which are considered to optimise the experience and satisfaction of educators and learners in using mobile technologies for medical and nursing education and to identify strategies for improving mLearning interventions for medical and nursing education...
October 19, 2016: Systematic Reviews
Živa Cotič, Rebecca Rees, Petra A Wark, Josip Car
BACKGROUND: In 2013, there was a shortage of approximately 7.2 million health workers worldwide, which is larger among family physicians than among specialists. eLearning could provide a potential solution to some of these global workforce challenges. However, there is little evidence on factors facilitating or hindering implementation, adoption, use, scalability and sustainability of eLearning. This review aims to synthesise results from qualitative and mixed methods studies to provide insight on factors influencing implementation of eLearning for family medicine specialty education and training...
October 19, 2016: Systematic Reviews
Myriam Cielo Pérez, Nanor Minoyan, Valéry Ridde, Marie-Pierre Sylvestre, Mira Johri
BACKGROUND: Cluster randomised trials (CRTs) are a key instrument to evaluate public health interventions, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Fidelity assessment examines study processes to gauge whether an intervention was delivered as initially planned. Evaluation of implementation fidelity (IF) is required to establish whether the measured effects of a trial are due to the intervention itself and may be particularly important for CRTs of complex interventions...
October 19, 2016: Systematic Reviews
Angeline Traynor, Eimear Morrissey, Jonathan Egan, Brian E McGuire
BACKGROUND: Resource and geographic barriers are the commonly cited constraints preventing the uptake of psychological treatment for chronic pain management. For adults, there is some evidence to support the use of information and communication technology (ICT) as a mode of treatment delivery. However, mixed findings have been reported for the effectiveness and acceptability of psychological interventions delivered using information and communication technology for children and adolescents...
October 18, 2016: Systematic Reviews
Nicola Mackintosh, Marius Terblanche, Ritesh Maharaj, Andreas Xyrichis, Karen Franklin, Jamie Keddie, Emily Larkins, Anna Maslen, James Skinner, Samuel Newman, Joana Hiew De Sousa Magalhaes, Jane Sandall
BACKGROUND: Telemedicine applications aim to address variance in clinical outcomes and increase access to specialist expertise. Despite widespread implementation, there is little robust evidence about cost-effectiveness, clinical benefits, and impact on quality and safety of critical care telemedicine. The primary objective was to determine the impact of critical care telemedicine (with clinical decision support available 24/7) on intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital mortality and length of stay in adults and children...
October 18, 2016: Systematic Reviews
Jean Joel R Bigna, Lewis N Um, Jobert Richie N Nansseu
BACKGROUND: Journal abstracts including those reporting systematic reviews (SR) should contain sufficiently clear and accurate information for adequate comprehension and interpretation. The aim was to compare the quality of reporting of abstracts of SRs including meta-analysis published in high-impact general medicine journals before and after publication of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) extension for abstracts (PRISMA-A) released in April 2013...
October 13, 2016: Systematic Reviews
Stephan U Dombrowski, Pauline Campbell, Helen Frost, Alex Pollock, Julie McLellan, Steve MacGillivray, Anna Gavine, Margaret Maxwell, Ronan O'Carroll, Helen Cheyne, Justin Presseau, Brian Williams
BACKGROUND: Failure to successfully implement and sustain change over the long term continues to be a major problem in health and social care. Translating evidence into routine clinical practice is notoriously complex, and it is recognised that to implement new evidence-based interventions and sustain them over time, professional behaviour needs to change accordingly. A number of theories and frameworks have been developed to support behaviour change among health and social care professionals, and models of sustainability are emerging, but few have translated into valid and reliable interventions...
October 13, 2016: Systematic Reviews
Stephen J Gentles, Cathy Charles, David B Nicholas, Jenny Ploeg, K Ann McKibbon
BACKGROUND: Overviews of methods are potentially useful means to increase clarity and enhance collective understanding of specific methods topics that may be characterized by ambiguity, inconsistency, or a lack of comprehensiveness. This type of review represents a distinct literature synthesis method, although to date, its methodology remains relatively undeveloped despite several aspects that demand unique review procedures. The purpose of this paper is to initiate discussion about what a rigorous systematic approach to reviews of methods, referred to here as systematic methods overviews, might look like by providing tentative suggestions for approaching specific challenges likely to be encountered...
October 11, 2016: Systematic Reviews
Thomas Harder, Cornelius Remschmidt, Sebastian Haller, Tim Eckmanns, Ole Wichmann
BACKGROUND: Given limited resources and time constraints, the use of existing systematic reviews (SR) for the development of evidence-based public health recommendations has become increasingly important. Recently, a five-step approach for identifying, analyzing, appraising and using existing SRs based on recent guidance by the US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) was proposed within the Project on a Framework for Rating Evidence in Public Health (PRECEPT). However, case studies are needed to test whether this approach is useful, what challenges arise and how problems can be solved...
October 11, 2016: Systematic Reviews
Joshua Demb, Isabel Allen, Dejana Braithwaite
BACKGROUND: Approximately half of new invasive breast cancer cases diagnosed each year in the United States occur among women aged 65 years and older. The increasing life expectancy coupled with the attendant rise in breast cancer incidence and elimination of out-of-pocket expenses for screening mammography as a result of the Affordable Care Act could lead to higher utilization rates of screening mammography. Although research indicates that life expectancy should be a strong consideration when making screening decisions among older women, the extent to which screening mammography utilization is tailored to comorbidity and life expectancy is not well established...
October 4, 2016: Systematic Reviews
W Dominika Wranik, Jill A Hayden, Sheri Price, Robin M N Parker, Susan M Haydt, Jeanette M Edwards, Esther Suter, Alan Katz, Liesl L Gambold, Adrian R Levy
BACKGROUND: Western publicly funded health care systems increasingly rely on interdisciplinary teams to support primary care delivery and management of chronic conditions. This knowledge synthesis focuses on what is known in the academic and grey literature about optimal structural characteristics of teams. Its goal is to assess which factors contribute to the effective functioning of interdisciplinary primary care teams and improved health system outcomes, with specific focus on (i) team structure contribution to team process, (ii) team process contribution to primary care goals, and (iii) team structure contribution to primary care goals...
October 4, 2016: Systematic Reviews
Jose Mauro Madi, Antonio Rodrigues Braga, Machline Paim Paganella, Isnard Elman Litvin, Eliana Márcia Da Ros Wendland
BACKGROUND: Distinguishing hydatidiform moles (HMs) from non-molar specimens and the subclassification of HM are important because complete hydatidiform mole (CHM) is associated with an increased risk of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. However, diagnosis based solely on morphology has poor interobserver reproducibility. Recent studies have demonstrated that the use of p57(KIP2) immunostaining improves diagnostic accuracy for CHM. METHODS: We will conduct a systematic review of prospective and retrospective studies to evaluate the accuracy of p57(KIP2) immunostaining compared with molecular genotyping for the diagnosis of CHM...
October 4, 2016: Systematic Reviews
Alison Turner, Abeda Mulla, Andrew Booth, Shiona Aldridge, Sharon Stevens, Fraser Battye, Peter Spilsbury
BACKGROUND: NHS England's Five Year Forward View (NHS England, Five Year Forward View, 2014) formally introduced a strategy for new models of care driven by simultaneous pressures to contain costs, improve care and deliver services closer to home through integrated models. This synthesis focuses on a multispecialty community provider (MCP) model. This new model of care seeks to overcome the limitations in current models of care, often based around single condition-focused pathways, in contrast to patient-focused delivery (Royal College of General Practitioners, The 2022 GP: compendium of evidence, 2012) which offers greater continuity of care in recognition of complex needs and multimorbidity...
October 1, 2016: Systematic Reviews
Monica S M Persson, Yu Fu, Archan Bhattacharya, Siew-Li Goh, Marienke van Middelkoop, Sita M A Bierma-Zeinstra, David Walsh, Michael Doherty, Weiya Zhang
BACKGROUND: Pain is the most troubling issue to patients with osteoarthritis (OA), yet current pharmacological treatments offer only small-to-moderate pain reduction. Current guidelines therefore emphasise the need to identify predictors of treatment response. In line with these recommendations, an individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis will be conducted. The study aims to investigate the relative treatment effects of topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and topical capsaicin in OA and to identify patient-level predictors of treatment response...
September 29, 2016: Systematic Reviews
Mariela Acuña Mora, Philip Moons, Carina Sparud-Lundin, Ewa-Lena Bratt, Eva Goossens
BACKGROUND: Life-long specialized care is of the utmost importance to safeguard longevity as well as the quality of life in children diagnosed with a chronic condition (CC). Provision of life-long care, however, infers transfers to different settings in line with person's development status. Young people with CC (10-25 years) will transfer care from a pediatric towards an adult-oriented care setting. As a transfer of care is associated with a change of care context, healthcare team, responsibilities, expectations, and roles, patients need to be prepared for this alteration...
September 29, 2016: Systematic Reviews
Jean Adams, Frances C Hillier-Brown, Helen J Moore, Amelia A Lake, Vera Araujo-Soares, Martin White, Carolyn Summerbell
BACKGROUND: Grey literature includes a range of documents not controlled by commercial publishing organisations. This means that grey literature can be difficult to search and retrieve for evidence synthesis. Much knowledge and evidence in public health, and other fields, accumulates from innovation in practice. This knowledge may not even be of sufficient formality to meet the definition of grey literature. We term this knowledge 'grey information'. Grey information may be even harder to search for and retrieve than grey literature...
September 29, 2016: Systematic Reviews
Benhildah N Rumbwere Dube, Tom P Marshall, Ronan P Ryan
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapies for human immunodeficiency virus are more effective if infected individuals are diagnosed early, before they have irreversible immunologic damage. A large proportion of patients that are diagnosed with HIV, in United Kingdom, would have seen a general practitioner (GP) within the previous year. Determining the demographic and clinical characteristics of HIV-infected patients prior to diagnosis of HIV may be useful in identifying patients likely to be HIV positive in primary care...
September 20, 2016: Systematic Reviews
Eric A Apaydin, Alicia R Maher, Roberta Shanman, Marika S Booth, Jeremy N V Miles, Melony E Sorbero, Susanne Hempel
BACKGROUND: This systematic review evaluated St. John's wort (SJW) for the treatment of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). The objectives of this review are to (1) evaluate the efficacy and safety of SJW in adults with MDD compared to placebo and active comparator and (2) evaluate whether the effects vary by severity of MDD. METHODS: We searched PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, CENTRAL, Embase, AMED, MANTIS, Web of Science, and ICTRP and existing reviews to November 2014...
September 2, 2016: Systematic Reviews
Kate Button, Fiona Morgan, Helen Hodgson, Alison L Weightman, Steve Jones
BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal (MSK) conditions are the most frequently reported chronic conditions and one of the biggest causes of disability in the UK. Given the ageing population and the impact of these problems, the demand for MSK treatment will rise. Despite reduced waiting times, MSK pathways have remained variable and inconsistent and need to be improved to meet patient needs. The aim of this systematic review is to understand the evidence for the effectiveness of current models of service delivery and care pathways for adult hip/knee pain patients accessing secondary care for specialist opinions...
August 1, 2016: Systematic Reviews
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