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Systematic Reviews

Janete Capel Hernandes, Viviane Cruvinel Di Castro, Mauro Elias Mendonça, Celmo Celeno Porto
BACKGROUND: As general population life expectancy has increased, the need to investigate the quality of life has arisen, especially because it is important that people have a healthy long life and with good quality. Studies are done with specific populations, and in the case of this investigation, the target studies are the ones done with women. Female population is growing demographically and professionally. Women have shown increased levels of stress and higher number of illness. It is known that many practices can be used to improve the level of quality of life and that one of them is the dance...
July 10, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Katherine R Naish, Lana Vedelago, James MacKillop, Michael Amlung
BACKGROUND: Individuals with substance use and addictive disorders often display greater risk-taking behaviour, higher impulsivity, and altered reward processing compared to individuals without these disorders. While it is not known whether cognitive biases precede or result from addictive behaviour, they likely influence addiction-related decision-making, and may facilitate pathological behaviour. There is evidence that cognitive functions-including those shown to be altered in substance use and addictive disorders-can be influenced by neuromodulation techniques (specifically, transcranial direct current stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation)...
June 26, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Marianne Cranwell, Anna Gavine, Linda McSwiggan, Timothy B Kelly
BACKGROUND: Dementia is a globally prevalent disease that requires ongoing and increasing levels of care, often provided in the first instance by informal caregivers. Supporting transitions in informal caregiving in dementia is a pertinent issue for caregivers, care providers and governments. There is no existing systematic review that seeks to identify and map the body of literature regarding the review question: 'What happens for informal caregivers during transition to increased levels of care for the person with dementia?' METHODS/DESIGN: ASSIA, CINAHL+, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, SCIE, Social Service Abstracts and Web of Science will be systematically searched...
June 26, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Mona Pathak, Sada Nand Dwivedi, S V S Deo, Bhaskar Thakur, Vishnubhatla Sreenivas, G K Rath
BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT), a standard of care for locally advanced breast cancer patients, is widely used for early breast cancer patients also. The varying role of regimens used as NACT needs to be investigated. Despite availability of some randomized controlled trials (RCTs), it is unclear which treatment regimen suits best. Further, there is no study comparing all the three regimens. Accordingly, present study will compare the efficacy of anthracyclines, taxanes, and targeted therapy administered in neoadjuvant setting on the basis of oncological outcomes and functional outcomes...
June 26, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Claire Kerins, Jennifer McSharry, Catherine Hayes, Ivan J Perry, Fiona Geaney, Colette Kelly
BACKGROUND: Menu labelling is continuing to gather public and legislative support as one of the potential environmental strategies for addressing the obesity pandemic. However, issues relating to implementation have been reported in countries where menu labelling has been introduced on a voluntary or mandatory basis. The aim of this mixed methods systematic review is to synthesise the empirical evidence on the barriers and facilitators to implementation of menu labelling interventions to support healthy food choices...
June 23, 2018: Systematic Reviews
David Moher, Lesley A Stewart, Paul Shekelle
The journal recently celebrated its fifth anniversary. Like systematic reviews themselves, the journal is thriving and publishing a variety of protocols, reviews, and methods papers. We have also had success in publishing-themed series.
June 20, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Thomas Waterfield, Derek Fairley, Fiona Lynn, Bronagh Blackwood, Michael D Shields
BACKGROUND: Meningococcal disease (MD) is notoriously difficult to diagnose in the early stages of the illness and presents similarly to many self-limiting viral infections. This mandates a cautious approach to diagnosis and initial management of suspected MD with many children receiving precautionary broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics. Despite this approach, some children are still diagnosed late. In the last 10 years, there have been advances in nucleic acid amplification techniques, and there is now a rapid test that can detect meningococcal DNA in under 30 min...
June 15, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Edward Zimbudzi, Clement Lo, Marie L Misso, Sanjeeva Ranasinha, Peter G Kerr, Helena J Teede, Sophia Zoungas
BACKGROUND: Self-management support interventions may potentially delay kidney function decline and associated complications in patients with comorbid diabetes and chronic kidney disease. However, the effectiveness of these interventions remains unclear. We investigated the effectiveness of current self-management support interventions and their specific components and elements in improving patient outcomes. METHODS: Electronic databases were systematically searched from January 1, 1994, to December 19, 2017...
June 13, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Allison Gates, Michelle Gates, Gonçalo Duarte, Maria Cary, Monika Becker, Barbara Prediger, Ben Vandermeer, Ricardo M Fernandes, Dawid Pieper, Lisa Hartling
BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews (SRs) of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) can provide the best evidence to inform decision-making, but their methodological and reporting quality varies. Tools exist to guide the critical appraisal of quality and risk of bias in SRs, but evaluations of their measurement properties are limited. We will investigate the interrater reliability (IRR), usability, and applicability of A MeaSurement Tool to Assess systematic Reviews (AMSTAR), AMSTAR 2, and Risk Of Bias In Systematic reviews (ROBIS) for SRs in the fields of biomedicine and public health...
June 13, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Joshua Blair, Robert Barry, Philip I Murray, David J Moore, Alastair K Denniston
BACKGROUND: Non-infectious uveitis represents a sub-type of intraocular inflammation often associated with disorders of immune dysregulation. If untreated, the intraocular inflammation may progress to severe visual impairment and blindness. Current treatment is heavily reliant on systemic corticosteroid, often at doses associated with severe side effects. There is a need for efficacious corticosteroid-sparing immunomodulatory therapy for these patients. Current immunomodulators include various immunosuppressants and biologics but mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors (such as sirolimus and everolimus) may also be contenders for this role...
June 9, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Benhildah N Rumbwere Dube, Tom P Marshall, Ronan P Ryan, Modupe Omonijo
BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is important because antiretroviral therapies are more effective if infected individuals are diagnosed early. Diagnosis of HIV relies on laboratory testing and determining the demographic and clinical characteristics of undiagnosed HIV-infected patients may be useful in identifying patients for testing. This systematic review aims to identify characteristics of HIV-infected adults prior to diagnosis that could be used in a prediction model for early detection of patients for HIV testing in UK primary care...
June 2, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Robel Tezera, Zekariyas Sahile, Delelegn Yilma, Equilnet Misganaw, Ermiyas Mulu
BACKGROUND: Anemia continued to become a major public health problem in developing nations including Ethiopia. Especially, school children are more vulnerable for anemia and consequences of anemia. Generating accurate epidemiological data on anemia in school children is an important step for health policy maker. There are limited evidences on anemia prevalence in school-age children in Ethiopia. This study aimed to synthesize the pooled prevalence of anemia in school-age children in Ethiopia...
May 24, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Arnold Y L Wong, Katarina Sjögren Forss, Jenny Jakobsson, Veronika Schoeb, Christine Kumlien, Gunilla Borglin
BACKGROUND: Of various chronic diseases, low back pain (LBP) is the most common and debilitating musculoskeletal condition among older adults aged 65 years or older. While more than 17 million older adults in the USA suffer from at least one episode of LBP annually, approximately six million of them experience chronic LBP that significantly affects their quality of life and physical function. Since many older adults with chronic LBP may also have comorbidities and are more sensitive to pain than younger counterparts, these older individuals may face unique age-related physical and psychosocial problems...
May 24, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Tim Mathes, Gerald Willms, Stephanie Polus, Constance Stegbauer, Melanie Messer, Corinna Klingler, Heidi Ehrenreich, Dea Niebuhr, Georg Marckmann, Ansgar Gerhardus, Dawid Pieper
BACKGROUND: Conducting a health technology assessment (HTA) of public health interventions (PHIs) poses some challenges. PHIs are often complex interventions, which affect the number and degree of interactions of the aspects to be assessed. Randomized controlled trials on PHIs are rare as they are difficult to conduct because of ethical or feasibility issues. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the methodological characteristics and to compare the applied assessment methods in HTAs on PHIs...
May 23, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Ariane Ballard, Christelle Khadra, Samara Adler, Evelyne Doyon-Trottier, Sylvie Le May
BACKGROUND: Needle-related procedures are the most important source of pain in children in hospital setting. Unmanaged pain could result in short- and long-term physiological, psychological, and emotional consequences. Although the efficacy of numerous interventions has been evaluated, procedural pain management is often suboptimal in children undergoing needle-related procedures. The main objective of this systematic review is to examine the evidence for the efficacy of the Buzzy® device for needle-related procedural pain in children...
May 22, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Elaine Beller, Justin Clark, Guy Tsafnat, Clive Adams, Heinz Diehl, Hans Lund, Mourad Ouzzani, Kristina Thayer, James Thomas, Tari Turner, Jun Xia, Karen Robinson, Paul Glasziou
Systematic reviews (SR) are vital to health care, but have become complicated and time-consuming, due to the rapid expansion of evidence to be synthesised. Fortunately, many tasks of systematic reviews have the potential to be automated or may be assisted by automation. Recent advances in natural language processing, text mining and machine learning have produced new algorithms that can accurately mimic human endeavour in systematic review activity, faster and more cheaply. Automation tools need to be able to work together, to exchange data and results...
May 19, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Ryckie G Wade, Yemisi Takwoingi, Justin C R Wormald, John P Ridgway, Steven Tanner, James J Rankine, Grainne Bourke
BACKGROUND: Adult brachial plexus injuries (BPI) are becoming more common. The reconstruction and prognosis of pre-ganglionic injuries (root avulsions) are different to other types of BPI injury. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is being used to identify root avulsions, but the evidence from studies of its diagnostic accuracy are conflicting. Therefore, a systematic review is needed to address uncertainty about the accuracy of MRI and to guide future research. METHODS: We will conduct a systematic search of electronic databases alongside reference tracking...
May 19, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Gloria C Law, Christian Apfelbacher, Pawel P Posadzki, Sandra Kemp, Lorainne Tudor Car
BACKGROUND: There will be a lack of 18 million healthcare workers by 2030. Multiplying the number of well-trained healthcare workers through innovative ways such as eLearning is highly recommended in solving this shortage. However, high heterogeneity of learning outcomes in eLearning systematic reviews reveals a lack of consistency and agreement on core learning outcomes in eLearning for medical education. In addition, there seems to be a lack of validity evidence for measurement instruments used in these trials...
May 17, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Nadera Ahmadzai, Shaun Kilty, Dianna Wolfe, Jamie Bonaparte, David Schramm, Elizabeth Fitzpatrick, Vincent Lin, Wei Cheng, Becky Skidmore, David Moher, Brian Hutton
BACKGROUND: Hearing loss is one of the leading causes of disability worldwide, with greater than 20% of Canadian adults having measurable hearing loss in at least one ear. Patients with hearing loss experience impaired quality of life, and emotional and financial consequences that affect themselves and their families. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is a common but difficult to treat form of hearing loss that has a sudden onset of ≤ 72 h associated with various etiologies, with the majority of cases being idiopathic...
May 16, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Shelly-Anne Li, Lianne Jeffs, Melanie Barwick, Bonnie Stevens
BACKGROUND: Organizational contextual features have been recognized as important determinants for implementing evidence-based practices across healthcare settings for over a decade. However, implementation scientists have not reached consensus on which features are most important for implementing evidence-based practices. The aims of this review were to identify the most commonly reported organizational contextual features that influence the implementation of evidence-based practices across healthcare settings, and to describe how these features affect implementation...
May 5, 2018: Systematic Reviews
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