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Systematic Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720117/systematic-review-adherence-to-methodological-or-reporting-quality
#1
Kusala Pussegoda, Lucy Turner, Chantelle Garritty, Alain Mayhew, Becky Skidmore, Adrienne Stevens, Isabelle Boutron, Rafael Sarkis-Onofre, Lise M Bjerre, Asbjørn Hróbjartsson, Douglas G Altman, David Moher
BACKGROUND: Guidelines for assessing methodological and reporting quality of systematic reviews (SRs) were developed to contribute to implementing evidence-based health care and the reduction of research waste. As SRs assessing a cohort of SRs is becoming more prevalent in the literature and with the increased uptake of SR evidence for decision-making, methodological quality and standard of reporting of SRs is of interest. The objective of this study is to evaluate SR adherence to the Quality of Reporting of Meta-analyses (QUOROM) and PRISMA reporting guidelines and the A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) and Overview Quality Assessment Questionnaire (OQAQ) quality assessment tools as evaluated in methodological overviews...
July 19, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720141/selecting-and-implementing-overview-methods-implications-from-five-exemplar-overviews
#2
Alex Pollock, Pauline Campbell, Ginny Brunton, Harriet Hunt, Lise Estcourt
BACKGROUND: Overviews of systematic reviews are an increasingly popular method of evidence synthesis; there is a lack of clear guidance for completing overviews and a number of methodological challenges. At the UK Cochrane Symposium 2016, methodological challenges of five overviews were explored. Using data from these five overviews, practical implications to support methodological decision making of authors writing protocols for future overviews are proposed. METHODS: Methods, and their justification, from the five exemplar overviews were tabulated and compared with areas of debate identified within current literature...
July 18, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720128/the-utility-of-mini-clinical-evaluation-exercise-mini-cex-in-undergraduate-and-postgraduate-medical-education-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#3
Sara Mortaz Hejri, Mohammad Jalili, Mandana Shirazi, Rasoul Masoomi, Saharnaz Nedjat, John Norcini
BACKGROUND: One of the most frequently used assessment tools that measure the trainees' performance in workplace is the mini-Clinical Evaluation Exercise (mini-CEX), in which an expert observes and rates the actual performance of trainees. Several primary studies have evaluated the effectiveness of mini-CEX by assessing its educational and psychometric properties. The objective of this BEME review is to explore, analyze, and synthesize the evidence considering the utility of the mini-CEX for assessing undergraduate and postgraduate medical trainees...
July 18, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716112/psychosocial-interventions-for-managing-occupational-stress-and-burnout-among-medical-doctors-a-systematic-review
#4
Bonnie A Clough, Sonja March, Raymond J Chan, Leanne M Casey, Rachel Phillips, Michael J Ireland
BACKGROUND: Occupational stress and burnout are highly prevalent among medical doctors and can have adverse effects on patient, doctor, and organisational outcomes. The purpose of the current study was to review and evaluate evidence on psychosocial interventions aimed at reducing occupational stress and burnout among medical doctors. METHOD: A systematic review was conducted for original research articles reporting on psychosocial interventions targeting occupational stress or burnout among medical doctors, published in the English language, and with data collected at a minimum of two time points...
July 17, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705226/continuous-surveillance-of-a-pregnancy-clinical-guideline-an-early-experience
#5
Laura Martínez García, Hector Pardo-Hernández, Andrea Juliana Sanabria, Pablo Alonso-Coello
BACKGROUND: To date there is no consensus about the optimal strategy for keeping clinical guidelines (CGs) up-to-date. The aims of this study were (1) to develop a continuous surveillance and updating strategy for CGs and (2) to test the strategy in a specific CG. METHODS: The main steps were as follows: (1) recruiting members for the CG Updating Working Group, (2) mapping the CG, (3) identifying new evidence from the CG Updating Working Group, (4) designing and running restricted literature searches, (5) reviewing drugs and medical devices alerts, (6) screening and assessing the new evidence, (7) reviewing and, if necessary, modifying clinical questions and recommendations, and (8) updating the CG document...
July 14, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701180/influence-of-genetic-variants-on-toxicity-to-anti-tubercular-agents-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-protocol
#6
Marty Richardson, Jamie Kirkham, Kerry Dwan, Derek Sloan, Geraint Davies, Andrea Jorgensen
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis patients receiving anti-tuberculosis treatment may experience serious adverse drug reactions, such as hepatotoxicity. Genetic risk factors, such as polymorphisms of the NAT2, CYP2E1 and GSTM1 genes, may increase the risk of experiencing such toxicity events. Many pharmacogenetic studies have investigated the association between genetic variants and anti-tuberculosis drug-related toxicity events, and several meta-analyses have synthesised data from these studies, although conclusions from these meta-analyses are conflicting...
July 13, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701204/criteria-and-models-for-the-distribution-of-casualties-in-trauma-related-mass-casualty-incidents-a-systematic-literature-review-protocol
#7
Ali Ardalan, Mohammad Reza Khajehaminian, Sayed Mohsen Hosseini Boroujeni, Amir Nejati, Abbasali Keshtkar, Abbas Rahimi Foroushani, Omid Mahdi Ebadati E
BACKGROUND: One of the most critical practices in mass casualty incident management is vacating the victims from scene of the incident and transporting them to proper healthcare facilities. Decision on distribution of casualties needs to be taken on pre-developed policies and structured decision support mechanisms. While many studies tried to present models for the distribution of casualties, no systematic review has yet been conducted to evaluate the existing models on casualty distribution following mass casualty incidents...
July 12, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697779/ethical-social-and-cultural-issues-related-to-clinical-genetic-testing-and-counseling-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#8
Adrina Zhong, Benedict Darren, Helen Dimaras
BACKGROUND: There has been little focus in the literature on how to build genetic testing and counseling services in low- and middle-income countries in a responsible, ethical, and culturally appropriate manner. It is unclear to what extent this area is being explored and what form further research should take. The proposed knowledge synthesis aims to fill this gap in knowledge and mine the existing data to determine the breadth of work in this area and identify ethical, social, and cultural issues that have emerged...
July 11, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697739/effects-of-transcutaneous-electrical-nerve-stimulation-tens-on-proinflammatory-cytokines-protocol-for-systematic-review
#9
Tábata Cristina do Carmo Almeida, Francisco Winter Dos Santos Figueiredo, Valter Cordeiro Barbosa Filho, Luiz Carlos de Abreu, Fernando Luiz Affonso Fonseca, Fernando Adami
BACKGROUND: Pain reduction can be achieved by lowering proinflammatory cytokine levels in the blood. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a non-invasive physiotherapeutic resource for pain management, but evidence on the effectiveness of this device at reducing proinflammatory cytokines in the blood is unclear. This study systematically reviews the literature on the effect of TENS on proinflammatory cytokines. METHODS: A systematic review protocol was developed based on searches of articles in six electronic databases and references of retrieved articles, contact with authors, and repositories of clinical trials...
July 11, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693568/anorexia-nervosa-and-cancer-a-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#10
Ferrán Catalá-López, Brian Hutton, Jane A Driver, Manuel Ridao, José M Valderas, Ricard Gènova-Maleras, Jaume Forés-Martos, Adolfo Alonso-Arroyo, Diego Macías Saint-Gerons, Eduard Vieta, Alfonso Valencia, Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos
BACKGROUND: Anorexia nervosa is characterized by a severe restriction of caloric intake, low body weight, fear of gaining weight or of becoming fat, and disturbance of body image. Pathogenesis of the disorder may include genetic predisposition, hormonal changes and a combination of environmental, psychosocial, and cultural factors. Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. At present, no systematic reviews and meta-analyses have evaluated the risk of cancer in people with anorexia nervosa...
July 11, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693555/delay-discounting-differences-in-brain-activation-connectivity-and-structure-in-individuals-with-addiction-a-systematic-review-protocol
#11
Max M Owens, Michael T Amlung, Steven R H Beach, Lawrence H Sweet, James MacKillop
BACKGROUND: Delayed reward discounting (DRD), the degree to which future rewards are discounted relative to immediate rewards, is used as an index of impulsive decision-making and has been associated with a number of problematic health behaviors. Given the robust behavioral association between DRD and addictive behavior, there is an expanding literature investigating the differences in the functional and structural correlates of DRD in the brain between addicted and healthy individuals...
July 11, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693598/clinical-manifestations-and-diagnostic-methods-in-pulmonary-angiosarcoma-protocol-for-a-scoping-review
#12
Rachel Lim, Lea Harper, John Swiston
BACKGROUND: Angiosarcoma involving the lung can represent either primary or metastatic malignancy. Due to the rarity of this condition, knowledge surrounding the natural history and clinical presentation is scarce. The aim of this scoping review is to summarize the existing literature on pulmonary angiosarcoma, particularly as it pertains to the clinical presentation and ancillary tests used for diagnosis in addition to histopathology. METHODS: We will conduct a systematic search using Ovid MEDLINE and EMBASE electronic databases...
July 10, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693556/evidence-for-a-comprehensive-approach-to-aboriginal-tobacco-control-to-maintain-the-decline-in-smoking-an-overview-of-reviews-among-indigenous-peoples
#13
Catherine Chamberlain, Susan Perlen, Sue Brennan, Lucie Rychetnik, David Thomas, Raglan Maddox, Noore Alam, Emily Banks, Andrew Wilson, Sandra Eades
BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is a leading cause of disease and premature mortality among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) Australians. While the daily smoking prevalence among Indigenous Australians has declined significantly from 49% in 2001, it remains about three times higher than that of non-Indigenous Australians (39 and 14%, respectively, for age ≥15 years in 2014-15). This overview of systematic reviews aimed to synthesise evidence about reducing tobacco consumption among Indigenous peoples using a comprehensive framework for Indigenous tobacco control in Australia comprised of the National Tobacco Strategy (NTS) and National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Plan (NATSIHP) principles and priorities...
July 10, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683787/the-effect-and-safety-of-postmenopausal-hormone-therapy-and-selective-estrogen-receptor-modulators-on-kidney-outcomes-in-women-a-protocol-for-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
Sandra M Dumanski, Sharanya Ramesh, Matthew T James, Amy Metcalfe, Kara Nerenberg, Ellen W Seely, Helen Lee Robertson, Sofia B Ahmed
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of menopause in women with or at risk of chronic kidney disease is increasing globally. Although international guidelines on menopause recommend the use of postmenopausal hormone therapy with or without selective estrogen receptor modulators for control of vasomotor symptoms, the effects of these treatments on kidney function and albuminuria are unclear. Furthermore, women with chronic kidney disease are at significantly increased risk of venous thromboembolism and malignancy, well-documented adverse effects of postmenopausal hormone therapy...
July 7, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683777/physical-frailty-and-functional-status-in-patients-with-advanced-kidney-disease-a-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#15
Kendra E Brett, Alexandria Bennett, Lindsay J Ritchie, Greg A Knoll
BACKGROUND: Predicting outcomes in those with chronic kidney disease or following transplantation is challenging, and current models lack detailed patient-level information. Frailty and poor functional status are risk factors for adverse patient outcomes that may be useful additions to prognostic tools in patients with chronic kidney disease. The purpose of this systematic review is to examine whether frailty or functional status are associated with increased risk of mortality or adverse clinical outcomes in patients with advanced kidney disease...
July 6, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679407/protocol-for-a-systematic-review-of-n-of-1-trial-protocol-guidelines-and-protocol-reporting-guidelines
#16
Antony J Porcino, Salima Punja, An-Wen Chan, Richard Kravitz, Aaron Orkin, Philippe Ravaud, Christopher H Schmid, Sunita Vohra
BACKGROUND: N-of-1 trials are multiple cross-over trials done in individual participants, generating individual treatment effect information. While reporting guidelines for the CONSORT Extension for N-of-1 trials (CENT) and the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) already exist, there is no standardized recommendation for the reporting of N-of-1 trial protocols. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to evaluate current literature on N-of-1 design and reporting to identify key elements of rigorous N-of-1 protocol design...
July 6, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679416/management-of-frailty-a-protocol-of-a-network-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#17
Ahmed M Negm, Courtney C Kennedy, Lehana Thabane, Areti-Angeliki Veroniki, Jonathan D Adachi, Julie Richardson, Ian D Cameron, Aidan Giangregorio, Alexandra Papaioannou
BACKGROUND: Frailty is a common syndrome affecting 5-17% of community-dwelling older adults. Various interventions are used to prevent or treat frailty. Given the diversity of singular and multi-faceted frailty interventions, not all of them have been compared in head-to-head studies. Network meta-analyses provide an approach to simultaneous consideration of the relative effectiveness of multiple treatment alternatives. This systematic review and network meta-analysis of RCTs aims to determine the comparative effect of interventions targeting the prevention or treatment of frailty...
July 5, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679412/impact-of-body-size-nutrition-and-socioeconomic-position-in-early-life-on-the-epigenome-a-systematic-review-protocol
#18
Jane Maddock, Wahyu Wulaningsih, Rebecca Hardy
BACKGROUND: Body size, nutrition and socioeconomic position (SEP) in early life have been associated with a range of later life health outcomes. Epigenetic regulation is one mechanism through which these early life factors may impact later life health. The aim of this review protocol is to outline procedures to document the influence of body size, nutrition and SEP in early life on the epigenome. METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase and BIOSIS will be systematically searched using pre-defined keywords...
July 5, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673365/is-health-coaching-effective-in-changing-the-health-status-and-behaviour-of-prisoners-a-systematic-review-protocol
#19
Nadja Almondes, Denise Downie, Ayse B Cinar, Derek Richards, Ruth Freeman
BACKGROUND: This is a protocol for a systematic review of the impact of health coaching on changing the health behaviour of offenders. Prisoners are more likely to suffer from health-related issues when compared to the general population. Health coaching has been shown to influence health outcomes of patients with chronic conditions. This review, therefore, aims to assess the effectiveness of health coaching interventions on the health of adolescent and adult offenders in custodial institutions...
July 3, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673356/quality-indicators-for-care-of-depression-in-primary-care-settings-a-systematic-review
#20
Yelena Petrosyan, Yeva Sahakyan, Jan M Barnsley, Kerry Kuluski, Barbara Liu, Walter P Wodchis
BACKGROUND: Despite the growing interest in assessing the quality of care for depression, there is little evidence to support measurement of the quality of primary care for depression. This study identified evidence-based quality indicators for monitoring, evaluating and improving the quality of care for depression in primary care settings. METHODS: Ovid MEDLINE and Ovid PsycINFO databases, and grey literature, including relevant organizational websites, were searched from 2000 to 2015...
July 3, 2017: Systematic Reviews
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