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Systematic Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919281/incidence-causes-and-consequences-of-preventable-adverse-drug-events-protocol-for-an-overview-of-reviews
#1
Brian Hutton, Salmaan Kanji, Erika McDonald, Fatemeh Yazdi, Dianna Wolfe, Kednapa Thavorn, Sally Pepper, Laurie Chapman, Becky Skidmore, David Moher
BACKGROUND: Medication errors represent a noteworthy source of harm to patients. In recent years, several systematic reviews have assessed the frequency and causes of these events, as well as other factors such as commonly associated drugs, their incidence in different specialties, and their consequences to patients. Despite this past literature, there remains a need to study discrepancies between these reviews and establish the current state of the evidence. The planned review will bring together, compare, and contract existing evidence related to the occurrence of medication errors in acute and continuing/long-term care settings...
December 5, 2016: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919275/rayyan-a-web-and-mobile-app-for-systematic-reviews
#2
Mourad Ouzzani, Hossam Hammady, Zbys Fedorowicz, Ahmed Elmagarmid
BACKGROUND: Synthesis of multiple randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in a systematic review can summarize the effects of individual outcomes and provide numerical answers about the effectiveness of interventions. Filtering of searches is time consuming, and no single method fulfills the principal requirements of speed with accuracy. Automation of systematic reviews is driven by a necessity to expedite the availability of current best evidence for policy and clinical decision-making. We developed Rayyan ( http://rayyan...
December 5, 2016: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906117/carotid-artery-stenting-versus-no-stenting-assisting-thrombectomy-for-acute-ischaemic-stroke-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-of-randomised-clinical-trials-with-meta-analyses-and-trial-sequential-analyses
#3
Henrik Steglich-Arnholm, Markus Holtmannspötter, Christian Gluud, Derk Wolfgang Krieger
BACKGROUND: In patients with intracranial large vessel arterial occlusion, ipsilateral extracranial carotid artery occlusions or near-occlusions pose a significant hurdle in endovascular management of acute ischaemic stroke. Stenting of the carotid lesion may be beneficial in this situation to provide a stable access for introducing catheters through the carotid lesion into the intracranial vasculature and the target occlusion. Furthermore, carotid stenting may ensure ample blood flow for wash-out of clot material and reperfusion of the ischaemic penumbral tissue...
December 1, 2016: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906071/are-digital-interventions-for-smoking-cessation-in-pregnancy-effective-a-systematic-review-protocol
#4
Sarah Ellen Griffiths, Katherine E Brown, Emily Anne Fulton, Ildiko Tombor, Felix Naughton
BACKGROUND: Behavioural support for smoking cessation in pregnancy can be effective; however, many pregnant women face barriers to seeking support to stop smoking. Some digital interventions have been found to be effective for smoking cessation in the general population and may be effective for supporting cessation in pregnancy due to their flexibility and the potential for personalisation. To date, there is limited evidence of the effectiveness of digital interventions for smoking cessation in pregnancy...
December 1, 2016: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903285/prognostic-biomarkers-to-identify-patients-destined-to-develop-severe-crohn-s-disease-who-may-benefit-from-early-biological-therapy-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-meta-analysis-and-external-validation
#5
Steve Halligan, Darren Boone, Gauraang Bhatnagar, Tariq Ahmad, Stuart Bloom, Manuel Rodriguez-Justo, Stuart A Taylor, Susan Mallett
BACKGROUND: It is believed increasingly that patients with severe Crohn's disease are best treated early with biological therapy, which may ameliorate subsequent disease course and diminish long-term complications. However, we cannot predict currently which new presentations of Crohn's disease are destined to develop severe disease so treatment cannot be targeted to the most appropriate patients. Accordingly, via systematic review and meta-analysis we aim to identify if biomarkers of disease activity are able to predict development of severe disease...
December 1, 2016: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899141/relationship-between-surgeon-volume-and-outcomes-a-systematic-review-of-systematic-reviews
#6
Johannes Morche, Tim Mathes, Dawid Pieper
BACKGROUND: The surgeon volume-outcome relationship has been discussed for many years and its existence or nonexistence is of importance for various reasons. A lot of empirical work has been published on it. We aimed to summarize systematic reviews in order to present current evidence. METHODS: Medline, Embase, Cochrane database of systematic reviews (CDSR), and health technology assessment websites were searched up to October 2015 for systematic reviews on the surgeon volume-outcome relationship...
November 29, 2016: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899138/the-impact-of-oxytocin-administration-on-brain-activity-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-protocol
#7
Daniel S Quintana, Tim Outhred, Lars T Westlye, Gin S Malhi, Ole A Andreassen
BACKGROUND: Converging evidence demonstrates the important role of the neuropeptide hormone oxytocin (OT) in human behaviour and cognition. Intranasal OT administration has been shown to improve several aspects of social communication, such as the theory of mind performance and gaze to the eye region, and reduce anxiety and related negative cognitive appraisals. While this early research has demonstrated the potential for intranasal OT to treat psychiatric illnesses characterized by social impairments, the neurobiological mechanisms are not well known...
November 29, 2016: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894331/a-systematic-review-of-patient-safety-in-mental-health-a-protocol-based-on-the-inpatient-setting
#8
Danielle D'Lima, Stephanie Archer, Bethan Ines Thibaut, Sonny Christian Ramtale, Lindsay H Dewa, Ara Darzi
BACKGROUND: Despite the growing international interest in patient safety as a discipline, there has been a lack of exploration of its application to mental health. It cannot be assumed that findings based upon physical health in acute care hospitals can be applied to mental health patients, disorders and settings. To the authors' knowledge, there has only been one review of the literature that focuses on patient safety research in mental health settings, conducted in Canada in 2008. We have identified a need to update this review and develop the methodology in order to strengthen the findings and disseminate internationally for advancement in the field...
November 29, 2016: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894332/consideration-of-health-inequalities-in-systematic-reviews-a-mapping-review-of-guidance
#9
Michelle Maden
BACKGROUND: Given that we know that interventions shown to be effective in improving the health of a population may actually widen the health inequalities gap while others reduce it, it is imperative that all systematic reviewers consider how the findings of their reviews may impact (reduce or increase) on the health inequality gap. This study reviewed existing guidance on incorporating considerations of health inequalities in systematic reviews in order to examine the extent to which they can help reviewers to incorporate such issues...
November 28, 2016: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887634/mental-contrasting-as-a-behaviour-change-technique-a-systematic-review-protocol-paper-of-effects-mediators-and-moderators-on-health
#10
Ainslea Cross, David Sheffield
BACKGROUND: Mental contrasting is a self-regulation strategy that is required for strong goal commitment. In mental contrasting, individuals firstly imagine a desired future or health goal that contrasted with the reality proceeding the goal state, which after reflection is viewed as an obstacle (Oettingen et al. J Pers Soc Psychol 80:736-753, 2001). Mentally contrasting a positive future with reality enables individuals to translate positive attitudes and high efficacy into strong goal commitment...
November 25, 2016: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884180/the-impact-of-mhealth-interventions-on-health-systems-a-systematic-review-protocol
#11
Jill Fortuin, Faatiema Salie, Leila H Abdullahi, Tania S Douglas
BACKGROUND: Mobile health (mHealth) has been described as a health enabling tool that impacts positively on the health system in terms of improved access, quality and cost of health care. The proposed systematic review will examine the impact of mHealth on health systems by assessing access, quality and cost of health care as indicators. METHODS: The systematic review will include literature from various sources including published and unpublished/grey literature...
November 25, 2016: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884175/network-meta-analyses-performed-by-contracting-companies-and-commissioned-by-industry
#12
Ewoud Schuit, John Pa Ioannidis
BACKGROUND: Industry commissions contracting companies to perform network meta-analysis for health technology assessment (HTA) and reimbursement submissions. Our objective was to estimate the number of network meta-analyses performed by consulting companies contracted by industry, to assess whether they were published, and to explore reasons for non-publication. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE for network meta-analyses of randomized trials. Papers were included if they had authors affiliated with any contracting company...
November 25, 2016: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881185/melatonin-and-melatonin-agonists-to-prevent-and-treat-delirium-in-critical-illness-a-systematic-review-protocol
#13
Jennifer Foster, Lisa D Burry, Lehana Thabane, Karen Choong, Kusum Menon, Mark Duffett, Alexandra Cheung, Melanie Guenette, Timothy Chimunda, Louise Rose
BACKGROUND: Delirium is a syndrome characterized by acute fluctuations and alterations in attention and arousal. Critically ill patients are at particularly high risk, and those that develop delirium are more likely to experience poor clinical outcomes such as prolonged duration of ICU and hospital length of stay, and increased mortality. Melatonin and melatonin agonists (MMA) have the potential to decrease the incidence and severity of delirium through their hypnotic and sedative-sparing effects, thus improving health-related outcomes...
November 24, 2016: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876092/assessing-the-validity-of-abbreviated-literature-searches-for-rapid-reviews-protocol-of-a-non-inferiority-and-meta-epidemiologic-study
#14
Barbara Nussbaumer-Streit, Irma Klerings, Gernot Wagner, Viktoria Titscher, Gerald Gartlehner
BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews offer the most reliable and valid support for health policy decision-making, patient information, and guideline development. However, they are labor intensive and frequently take longer than 1 year to complete. Consequently, they often do not meet the needs of those who need to make decisions quickly. Rapid reviews have therefore become a pragmatic alternative to systematic reviews. They are knowledge syntheses that abbreviate certain methodological aspects of systematic reviews to produce information more quickly...
November 22, 2016: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876082/evaluating-data-abstraction-assistant-a-novel-software-application-for-data-abstraction-during-systematic-reviews-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Ian J Saldanha, Christopher H Schmid, Joseph Lau, Kay Dickersin, Jesse A Berlin, Jens Jap, Bryant T Smith, Simona Carini, Wiley Chan, Berry De Bruijn, Byron C Wallace, Susan M Hutfless, Ida Sim, M Hassan Murad, Sandra A Walsh, Elizabeth J Whamond, Tianjing Li
BACKGROUND: Data abstraction, a critical systematic review step, is time-consuming and prone to errors. Current standards for approaches to data abstraction rest on a weak evidence base. We developed the Data Abstraction Assistant (DAA), a novel software application designed to facilitate the abstraction process by allowing users to (1) view study article PDFs juxtaposed to electronic data abstraction forms linked to a data abstraction system, (2) highlight (or "pin") the location of the text in the PDF, and (3) copy relevant text from the PDF into the form...
November 22, 2016: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871332/the-prevalence-of-novel-psychoactive-substances-nps-use-in-non-clinical-populations-a-systematic-review-protocol
#16
Salma M Khaled, Elizabeth Hughes, Dan Bressington, Monica Zolezzi, Ahmed Radwan, Ashish Badnapurkar, Richard Gray
BACKGROUND: Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) are new narcotic or psychotropic drugs that are not controlled by the United Nations drug convention that may pose a serious public health threat due to their wide availability for purchase on the internet and in so called "head shops." Yet, the extent of their global use remains largely unknown. The aim of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the prevalence of NPS use in non-clinical populations. METHODS: This is a systematic review of observational studies...
November 21, 2016: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871314/a-mixed-methods-systematic-review-protocol-to-examine-the-use-of-physical-restraint-with-critically-ill-adults-and-strategies-for-minimizing-their-use
#17
Louise Rose, Craig Dale, Orla M Smith, Lisa Burry, Glenn Enright, Dean Fergusson, Samir Sinha, Lesley Wiesenfeld, Tasnim Sinuff, Sangeeta Mehta
BACKGROUND: Critically ill patients frequently experience severe agitation placing them at risk of harm. Physical restraint is common in intensive care units (ICUs) for clinician concerns about safety. However, physical restraint may not prevent medical device removal and has been associated with negative physical and psychological consequences. While professional society guidelines, legislation, and accreditation standards recommend physical restraint minimization, guidelines for critically ill patients are over a decade old, with recommendations that are non-specific...
November 21, 2016: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855720/pharmacological-interventions-for-agitation-in-patients-with-traumatic-brain-injury-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
David R Williamson, Anne Julie Frenette, Lisa Burry, Marc M Perreault, Emmanuel Charbonney, François Lamontagne, Marie-Julie Potvin, Jean-François Giguère, Sangeeta Mehta, Francis Bernard
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a worldwide leading cause of mortality and disability. Among TBI complications, agitation is a frequent behavioural problem. Agitation causes potential harm to patients and caregivers, interferes with treatments, leads to unnecessary chemical and physical restraints, increases hospital length of stay, delays rehabilitation, and impedes functional independence. Pharmacological treatments are often considered for agitation management following TBI...
November 17, 2016: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852314/meta-analysis-complexity-and-heterogeneity-a-qualitative-interview-study-of-researchers-methodological-values-and-practices
#19
Theo Lorenc, Lambert Felix, Mark Petticrew, G J Melendez-Torres, James Thomas, Sian Thomas, Alison O'Mara-Eves, Michelle Richardson
BACKGROUND: Complex or heterogeneous data pose challenges for systematic review and meta-analysis. In recent years, a number of new methods have been developed to meet these challenges. This qualitative interview study aimed to understand researchers' understanding of complexity and heterogeneity and the factors which may influence the choices researchers make in synthesising complex data. METHODS: We conducted interviews with a purposive sample of researchers (N = 19) working in systematic review or meta-analysis across a range of disciplines...
November 16, 2016: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846867/exploring-issues-in-the-conduct-of-website-searching-and-other-online-sources-for-systematic-reviews-how-can-we-be-systematic
#20
EDITORIAL
Claire Stansfield, Kelly Dickson, Mukdarut Bangpan
Websites and online resources outside academic bibliographic databases can be significant sources for identifying literature, though there are challenges in searching and managing the results. These are pertinent to systematic reviews that are underpinned by principles of transparency, accountability and reproducibility. We consider how the conduct of searching these resources can be compatible with the principles of a systematic search. We present an approach to address some of the challenges. This is particularly relevant when websites are relied upon to identify important literature for a review...
November 15, 2016: Systematic Reviews
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