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Systematic Reviews

Mapa Mudiyanselage Prabhath Nishantha Piyasena, Gudlavalleti Venkata S Murthy, Jennifer L Y Yip, Clare Gilbert, Tunde Peto, Iris Gordon, Suwin Hewage, Sureshkumar Kamalakannan
BACKGROUND: Visual impairment from diabetic retinopathy (DR) is an increasing global public health concern, which is preventable with screening and early treatment. Digital retinal imaging has become a preferred choice as it enables higher coverage of screening. The aim of this review is to evaluate how different characteristics of the DR screening (DRS) test impact on diagnostic test accuracy (DTA) and its relevance to a low-income setting. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature search to identify clinic-based studies on DRS using digital retinal imaging of people with DM (PwDM)...
November 7, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Emily Belita, Jennifer Yost, Janet E Squires, Rebecca Ganann, Trish Burnett, Maureen Dobbins
BACKGROUND: There are growing professional expectations for nurses to engage in and develop competence in evidence-informed decision-making (EIDM) due to opportunities for improved client and community outcomes and provision of the highest quality of care. However, EIDM is underdeveloped, with low implementation rates among nurses. The use of indicators to assess EIDM performance has potential to encourage nurses' engagement in EIDM through competence recognition and support assessment of strengths and competency gaps for individual nurses and organizations...
November 3, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Harriet Hunt, Rebecca Whear, Kate Boddy, Leanna Wakely, Alison Bethel, Christopher Morris, Rebecca Abbott, Susan Prosser, Andrew Collinson, Jennifer Kurinczuk, Jo Thompson-Coon
BACKGROUND: Parents of babies admitted to neonatal units experience an arduous emotional journey. Feelings of helplessness, fear, sadness, guilt, grief and anger are common. These feelings can lead to anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress which may persist long after discharge from the unit. Support from a parent with first-hand experience able to empathise with problems and challenges may help. This systematic review will identify quantitative and qualitative evidence to address the role of parent-to-parent support interventions for families of babies cared for in neonatal units, and combine the findings in an integrated synthesis...
October 31, 2018: Systematic Reviews
François Martin Carrier, Michaël Chassé, Han Ting Wang, Pierre Aslanian, Marc Bilodeau, Alexis F Turgeon
BACKGROUND: Liver transplant recipients suffer many complications, but few intraoperative interventions supported by high-quality evidence have been found effective to reduce their incidence or severity. Fluid balance has been proposed as an important aspect of perioperative care in high-risk recipients. We will conduct a systematic review aimed at evaluating the effects of restrictive perioperative fluid management strategies compared to liberal ones on clinically significant postoperative outcomes...
October 31, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Susan Paudel, Alice J Owen, Ebenezer Owusu-Addo, Ben J Smith
BACKGROUND: Chronic diseases contribute to about half of the adult disease burden in the South Asian region. Meanwhile, physical activity levels are declining despite the global evidence of its role in the prevention of chronic diseases. While there are a plethora of systematic reviews on the effects of physical activity on chronic diseases, there has not yet been a synthesis of the evidence concerning the nature of this relationship among people living in South Asian countries incorporating multiple chronic diseases and a focus on physical activity domains...
October 30, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Parisa Amiri, Elham Kazemian, Mohammad Masih Mansouri-Tehrani, Ahmad Khalili, Atieh Amouzegar
BACKGROUND: Data on the effects of motivational interviewing (MI) on modifying unhealthy lifestyles and promoting weight status during childhood is controversial. Adolescents are more prone to assume higher personal responsibilities for behavioral changes. This study aims to investigate whether MI will improve weight management process in adolescents. METHODS/DESIGN: A systematic review will be conducted on clinical trials, assessing the effect of MI on weight management processes in adolescents, aged 10 to 19 years...
October 30, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Marisa de Cássia Registro Fonseca, Valéria Meireles Carril Elui, Emily Lalone, Natália Claro da Silva, Rafael Inácio Barbosa, Alexandre Márcio Marcolino, Flávia Pessoni Faleiros Macedo Ricci, Joy C MacDermid
BACKGROUND: Outcome after nerve repair of the hand needs standardized psychometrically robust measures. We aimed to systematically review the psychometric properties of available functional, motor, and sensory assessment instruments after nerve repair. METHODS: This systematic review of health measurement instruments searched databases from 1966 to 2017. Pairs of raters conducted data extraction and quality assessment using a structured tool for clinical measurement studies...
October 27, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Mike Clarke
Six years after the launch of Systematic Reviews by Biomed Central, this article is part of the celebration of the journal. It contains personal reflections on the past, present and future of systematic reviews, using examples relevant to the role of systematic reviews in cataloguing and analysing research, assessing quality and planning new studies. The focus is on the most common of the various types of systematic review in health and social care, namely those assessing the effects of interventions.
October 27, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Fabian Marcel Rast, Rob Labruyère
BACKGROUND: People with mobility impairments may have difficulties in everyday life motor activities, and assessing these difficulties is crucial to plan rehabilitation interventions and evaluate their effectiveness. Wearable inertial sensors enable long-term monitoring of motor activities in a patient's habitual environment and complement clinical assessments which are conducted in a standardised environment. The application of wearable sensors requires appropriate data processing algorithms to estimate clinically meaningful outcome measures, and this review will provide an overview of previously published measures, their underlying algorithms, sensor placement, and measurement properties such as validity, reproducibility, and feasibility...
October 24, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Marian S McDonagh, Sujata Thakurta, Kim Peterson
BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews (SRs) depend on comprehensive searches for evidence to provide balanced, accurate results. Requesting published and unpublished studies from pharmaceutical manufacturers has been proposed as a method to engage industry stakeholders and potentially reduce reporting bias. The Drug Effectiveness Review Project (DERP) has been requesting such evidence since 2003; the purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the type and impact of the evidence received...
October 22, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Thomas P Clyde, Michael Coletta, Christopher Jones, Hope Kilgannon, Brian M Fuller, Stephen Trzeciak, Brian W Roberts
BACKGROUND: Respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation is a common manifestation of end-organ damage among patients with sepsis and has a high morbidity and mortality rate, as well as substantial associated treatment costs. Considering the burden of this condition, there is great need to identify novel, pragmatic therapies to improve outcomes in this population. Hypercapnia has shown benefits in several different ex vivo and in vivo models of lung injury. However, it is currently unclear if hypercapnia can confer clinical benefit among patients with sepsis...
October 22, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Maria P Barrett, David Moore, Fang Gao Smith, Indranil Dasgupta
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) refers to a broad spectrum of kidney damage and is attributed a high morbidity and mortality rate at all degrees of severity. Obesity increases the risk for developing AKI. However, some studies have shown that obesity at onset of AKI is paradoxically associated with greater survival. The aim of this review is to explore the relationship between body mass index and survival in patients with AKI. METHODS: An electronic search will be conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and CENTRAL using predefined search strategies...
October 22, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Mohamed A Abd El Aziz, Ahmed Iraqi, Parvin Abedi, Shayesteh Jahanfar
BACKGROUND: Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) and the amount of blood loss are directly related to management of the third stage of labor. No previous report has compared the effects of carbetocin to those of misoprostol. The aim of this systematic review was to compare the effects of carbetocin to those of misoprostol for management of the third stage of labor and for the prevention of PPH. METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Library (Central), Web of Science, Scopus, Science Direct, Ovid, clinicaltrial...
October 20, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Øystein Eiring, Kjetil Gundro Brurberg, Kari Nytrøen, Magne Nylenna
BACKGROUND: Conducting systematic reviews is time-consuming but crucial to construct evidence-based patient decision aids, clinical practice guidelines and decision analyses. New methods might enable developers to produce a knowledge base more rapidly. However, trading off scientific rigour for speed when creating a knowledge base is controversial, and the consequences are insufficiently known. We developed and applied faster methods including systematic reviews and network meta-analyses, assessed their feasibility and compared them to a gold standard approach...
October 20, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Christian Ovesen, Jan Purrucker, Christian Gluud, Janus Christian Jakobsen, Hanne Christensen, Thorsten Steiner
BACKGROUND: Acute critical bleeding is one of the most feared complications during treatment with oral anticoagulating agents. As more patients undergo treatment with anticoagulating agents, critically bleeding episodes in patients with vitamin K antagonists, thrombin inhibitor, or factor Xa inhibitor-inducted coagulopathy will be encountered frequently by physicians. Hence, an effective treatment capable of reversing the iatrogenic coagulopathy in the acute setting is needed. In randomised clinical trials and observational studies, prothrombin complex concentrate has been reported to be superior to other acute interventions, and many guidelines recommend prothrombin complex concentrate in treatment of critically bleeding patients...
October 20, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Tawanda M Nyambuya, Phiwayinkosi V Dludla, Bongani B Nkambule
INTRODUCTION: The burden of non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) has drastically increased in developing countries over the years. Although recent evidence points to chronic immune activation to be a significant aspect in the pathogenesis and development of T2DM and CVDs, the exact role of T cells is not fully understood. Therefore, we aim to investigate T cell function and cardio vascular risk in T2DM. In addition, the therapeutic effect of blood glucose-lowering drugs to reverse hyperglycaemia induced T cell dysfunction and myocardial infarction will be reviewed...
October 20, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Siw Waffenschmidt, Elke Hausner, Wiebke Sieben, Thomas Jaschinski, Marco Knelangen, Inga Overesch
BACKGROUND: Systematic information retrieval generally requires a two-step selection process for studies, which is conducted by two persons independently of one another (double-screening approach). To increase efficiency, two methods seem promising, which will be tested in the planned study: the use of text mining to prioritize search results as well as the involvement of only one person in the study selection process (single-screening approach). The aim of the present study is to examine the following questions related to the process of study selection: Can the use of the Rayyan or EPPI Reviewer tools to prioritize the results of study selection increase efficiency? How accurately does a single-screening approach identify relevant studies? Which advantages or disadvantages (e...
October 20, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Patricia M Fortes, Solomar M Marques, Karolline A Viana, Luciane R Costa, Alessandra V Naghettini, Paulo Sucasas Costa
BACKGROUND: Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor in triggering cardiovascular events, which can lead to the death of millions of people around the world. Thus, several pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapeutic strategies have been developed in recent decades with the objective of improving lipid profiles, including the use of probiotics. Therefore, the purpose of this protocol is to describe the steps that will guide the construction of an overview to demonstrate the scientific evidence of the efficacy of probiotics in improving the lipid profile of dyslipidemic individuals and to propose specific recommendations regarding their use...
October 17, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Bogdan Chiva Giurca, William Hamilton, Tanimola Martins
BACKGROUND: Ethnic minorities in multi-ethnic societies like the UK and USA have poorer outcomes for some cancer types when compared with the majority. The causes of ethnic inequalities in cancer outcomes are complex and not fully understood. In particular, the potential role of health literacy on symptomatic presentation and diagnostic interval (the period between first consultation within primary care and definitive diagnosis of cancer) by ethnicity is unknown. Given the increasing need for shared decision-making and patient involvement in the diagnostic process, understanding the potential impact of the differences in health literacy may help redress ethnic inequality in cancer outcomes...
October 17, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Balewgizie Sileshi Tegegne, Melkamu Merid Mengesha, Andreas A Teferra, Mamaru Ayenew Awoke, Tesfa Dejenie Habtewold
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) poses a significant risk for the development of active tuberculosis (TB) and complicates its treatment. However, there is inconclusive evidence on whether the TB-DM co-morbidity is associated with a higher risk of developing multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The aim of this meta-analysis was to summarize available evidence on the association of DM and MDR-TB and to estimate a pooled effect measure. METHODS: PubMed, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), Web of Science, World Health Organization (WHO), and Global Health Library database were searched for all studies published in English until July 2018 and that reported the association of DM and MDR-TB among TB patients...
October 15, 2018: Systematic Reviews
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