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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330934/fundamental-mechanisms-of-telomerase-action-in-yeasts-and-mammals-understanding-telomeres-and-telomerase-in-cancer-cells
#1
REVIEW
Christine A Armstrong, Kazunori Tomita
Aberrant activation of telomerase occurs in 85-90% of all cancers and underpins the ability of cancer cells to bypass their proliferative limit, rendering them immortal. The activity of telomerase is tightly controlled at multiple levels, from transcriptional regulation of the telomerase components to holoenzyme biogenesis and recruitment to the telomere, and finally activation and processivity. However, studies using cancer cell lines and other model systems have begun to reveal features of telomeres and telomerase that are unique to cancer...
March 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298310/atypical-centrioles-are-present-in-tribolium-sperm
#2
E L Fishman, Kyoung Jo, Andrew Ha, Rachel Royfman, Ashtyn Zinn, Malathi Krishnamurthy, Tomer Avidor-Reiss
Typical centrioles are made of microtubules organized in ninefold symmetry. Most animal somatic cells have two centrioles for normal cell division and function. These centrioles originate from the zygote, but because the oocyte does not provide any centrioles, it is surprising that the zygotes of many animals are thought to inherit only one centriole from the sperm. Recently, in the sperm of Drosophila melanogaster, we discovered a second centriolar structure, the proximal centriole-like structure (PCL), which functions in the zygote...
March 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298309/the-genetics-of-phenotypic-plasticity-in-nematode-feeding-structures
#3
REVIEW
Ralf J Sommer, Mohannad Dardiry, Masa Lenuzzi, Suryesh Namdeo, Tess Renahan, Bogdan Sieriebriennikov, Michael S Werner
Phenotypic plasticity has been proposed as an ecological and evolutionary concept. Ecologically, it can help study how genes and the environment interact to produce robust phenotypes. Evolutionarily, as a facilitator it might contribute to phenotypic novelty and diversification. However, the discussion of phenotypic plasticity remains contentious in parts due to the absence of model systems and rigorous genetic studies. Here, we summarize recent work on the nematode Pristionchus pacificus, which exhibits a feeding plasticity allowing predatory or bacteriovorous feeding...
March 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275106/transfer-of-disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1-aggregates-between-neuronal-like-cells-occurs-in-tunnelling-nanotubes-and-is-promoted-by-dopamine
#4
Seng Zhu, Saïda Abounit, Carsten Korth, Chiara Zurzolo
The disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) gene was identified as a genetic risk factor for chronic mental illnesses (CMI) such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and severe recurrent depression. Insoluble aggregated DISC1 variants were found in the cingular cortex of sporadic, i.e. non-genetic, CMI patients. This suggests protein pathology as a novel, additional pathogenic mechanism, further corroborated in a recent transgenic rat model presenting DISC1 aggregates. Since the potential role of aggregation of DISC1 in sporadic CMI is unknown, we investigated whether DISC1 undergoes aggregation in cell culture and could spread between neuronal cells in a prion-like manner, as shown for amyloid proteins in neurodegenerative diseases...
March 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250106/parallel-analysis-of-arabidopsis-circadian-clock-mutants-reveals-different-scales-of-transcriptome-and-proteome-regulation
#5
Alexander Graf, Diana Coman, R Glen Uhrig, Sean Walsh, Anna Flis, Mark Stitt, Wilhelm Gruissem
The circadian clock regulates physiological processes central to growth and survival. To date, most plant circadian clock studies have relied on diurnal transcriptome changes to elucidate molecular connections between the circadian clock and observable phenotypes in wild-type plants. Here, we have integrated RNA-sequencing and protein mass spectrometry data to comparatively analyse the lhycca1, prr7prr9, gi and toc1 circadian clock mutant rosette at the end of day and end of night. Each mutant affects specific sets of genes and proteins, suggesting that the circadian clock regulation is modular...
March 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250105/neuronal-function-of-the-mrna-decapping-complex-determines-survival-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-at-high-temperature-through-temporal-regulation-of-heterochronic-gene-expression
#6
Fivos Borbolis, Christina-Maria Flessa, Fani Roumelioti, George Diallinas, Dimitrios J Stravopodis, Popi Syntichaki
In response to adverse environmental cues, Caenorhabditis elegans larvae can temporarily arrest development at the second moult and form dauers, a diapause stage that allows for long-term survival. This process is largely regulated by certain evolutionarily conserved signal transduction pathways, but it is also affected by miRNA-mediated post-transcriptional control of gene expression. The 5'-3' mRNA decay mechanism contributes to miRNA-mediated silencing of target mRNAs in many organisms but how it affects developmental decisions during normal or stress conditions is largely unknown...
March 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228471/novel-layers-of-rna-polymerase-iii-control-affecting-trna-gene-transcription-in-eukaryotes
#7
REVIEW
Ewa Leśniewska, Magdalena Boguta
RNA polymerase III (Pol III) transcribes a limited set of short genes in eukaryotes producing abundant small RNAs, mostly tRNA. The originally defined yeast Pol III transcriptome appears to be expanding owing to the application of new methods. Also, several factors required for assembly and nuclear import of Pol III complex have been identified recently. Models of Pol III based on cryo-electron microscopy reconstructions of distinct Pol III conformations reveal unique features distinguishing Pol III from other polymerases...
February 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228470/a-conditional-mutant-of-the-fatty-acid-synthase-unveils-unexpected-cross-talks-in-mycobacterial-lipid-metabolism
#8
Matías Cabruja, Sonia Mondino, Yi Ting Tsai, Julia Lara, Hugo Gramajo, Gabriela Gago
Unlike most bacteria, mycobacteria rely on the multi-domain enzyme eukaryote-like fatty acid synthase I (FAS I) to make fatty acids de novo. These metabolites are precursors of the biosynthesis of most of the lipids present both in the complex mycobacteria cell wall and in the storage lipids inside the cell. In order to study the role of the type I FAS system in Mycobacterium lipid metabolism in vivo, we constructed a conditional mutant in the fas-acpS operon of Mycobacterium smegmatis and analysed in detail the impact of reduced de novo fatty acid biosynthesis on the global architecture of the cell envelope...
February 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202626/cancer-cells-exhibit-clonal-diversity-in-phenotypic-plasticity
#9
Robert Austin Mathis, Ethan S Sokol, Piyush B Gupta
Phenotypic heterogeneity in cancers is associated with invasive progression and drug resistance. This heterogeneity arises in part from the ability of cancer cells to switch between phenotypic states, but the dynamics of this cellular plasticity remain poorly understood. Here we apply DNA barcodes to quantify and track phenotypic plasticity across hundreds of clones in a population of cancer cells exhibiting epithelial or mesenchymal differentiation phenotypes. We find that the epithelial-to-mesenchymal cell ratio is highly variable across the different clones in cancer cell populations, but remains stable for many generations within the progeny of any single clone-with a heritability of 0...
February 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179500/ninein-is-essential-for-apico-basal-microtubule-formation-and-clip-170-facilitates-its-redeployment-to-non-centrosomal-microtubule-organizing-centres
#10
Deborah A Goldspink, Chris Rookyard, Benjamin J Tyrrell, Jonathan Gadsby, James Perkins, Elizabeth K Lund, Niels Galjart, Paul Thomas, Tom Wileman, Mette M Mogensen
Differentiation of columnar epithelial cells involves a dramatic reorganization of the microtubules (MTs) and centrosomal components into an apico-basal array no longer anchored at the centrosome. Instead, the minus-ends of the MTs become anchored at apical non-centrosomal microtubule organizing centres (n-MTOCs). Formation of n-MTOCs is critical as they determine the spatial organization of MTs, which in turn influences cell shape and function. However, how they are formed is poorly understood. We have previously shown that the centrosomal anchoring protein ninein is released from the centrosome, moves in a microtubule-dependent manner and accumulates at n-MTOCs during epithelial differentiation...
February 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179499/structural-mechanistic-and-functional-insight-into-gliotoxin-bis-thiomethylation-in-aspergillus-fumigatus
#11
Stephen K Dolan, Tobias Bock, Vanessa Hering, Rebecca A Owens, Gary W Jones, Wulf Blankenfeldt, Sean Doyle
Gliotoxin is an epipolythiodioxopiperazine (ETP) class toxin, contains a disulfide bridge that mediates its toxic effects via redox cycling and is produced by the opportunistic fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus Self-resistance against gliotoxin is effected by the gliotoxin oxidase GliT, and attenuation of gliotoxin biosynthesis is catalysed by gliotoxin S-methyltransferase GtmA. Here we describe the X-ray crystal structures of GtmA-apo (1.66 Å), GtmA complexed to S-adenosylhomocysteine (1.33 Å) and GtmA complexed to S-adenosylmethionine (2...
February 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148823/spatial-distribution-and-characterization-of-non-apical-progenitors-in-the-zebrafish-embryo-central-nervous-system
#12
Rebecca McIntosh, Joseph Norris, Jon D Clarke, Paula Alexandre
Studies of non-apical progenitors (NAPs) have been largely limited to the developing mammalian cortex. They are postulated to generate the increase in neuron numbers that underlie mammalian brain expansion. Recently, NAPs have also been reported in the retina and central nervous system of non-mammalian species; in the latter, however, they remain poorly characterized. Here, we characterize NAP location along the zebrafish central nervous system during embryonic development, and determine their cellular and molecular characteristics and renewal capacity...
February 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148822/transcriptional-responses-to-hyperplastic-mrl-signalling-in-drosophila
#13
Vincent Jonchère, Nada Alqadri, John Herbert, Lauren Dodgson, David Mason, Giovanni Messina, Francesco Falciani, Daimark Bennett
Recent work has implicated the actin cytoskeleton in tissue size control and tumourigenesis, but how changes in actin dynamics contribute to hyperplastic growth is still unclear. Overexpression of Pico, the only Drosophila Mig-10/RIAM/Lamellipodin adapter protein family member, has been linked to tissue overgrowth via its effect on the myocardin-related transcription factor (Mrtf), an F-actin sensor capable of activating serum response factor (SRF). Transcriptional changes induced by acute Mrtf/SRF signalling have been largely linked to actin biosynthesis and cytoskeletal regulation...
February 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148821/the-notch-pathway-in-the-annelid-platynereis-insights-into-chaetogenesis-and-neurogenesis-processes
#14
Eve Gazave, Quentin I B Lemaître, Guillaume Balavoine
Notch is a key signalling pathway playing multiple and varied functions during development. Notch regulates the selection of cells with a neurogenic fate and maintains a pool of yet uncommitted precursors through lateral inhibition, both in insects and in vertebrates. Here, we explore the functions of Notch in the annelid Platynereis dumerilii (Lophotrochozoa). Conserved components of the pathway are identified and a scenario for their evolution in metazoans is proposed. Unexpectedly, neither Notch nor its ligands are expressed in the neurogenic epithelia of the larva at the time when massive neurogenesis begins...
February 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123056/human-embryos-cultured-in-vitro-to-14-days
#15
REVIEW
Samantha A Morris
We know a great deal about the development of the mammalian embryo until the time that the blastocyst implants into the uterus. With model organisms such as the mouse, we have also developed a considerable understanding of development immediately around gastrulation as embryos can be recovered at this stage for short-term in vitro culture. However, the intervening period of development remained a 'black box' because it takes place as the blastocyst is implanting into the uterus. Over the past 6 years, techniques pioneered and developed in Magdalena Zernicka-Goetz's laboratory for the in vitro culture of embryos through these implantation stages have opened up this box, affording the first glimpse of embryonic development through these previously hidden stages...
January 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123055/differential-structural-remodelling-of-heparan-sulfate-by-chemokines-the-role-of-chemokine-oligomerization
#16
Douglas P Dyer, Elisa Migliorini, Catherina L Salanga, Dhruv Thakar, Tracy M Handel, Ralf P Richter
Chemokines control the migration of cells in normal physiological processes and in the context of disease such as inflammation, autoimmunity and cancer. Two major interactions are involved: (i) binding of chemokines to chemokine receptors, which activates the cellular machinery required for movement; and (ii) binding of chemokines to glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), which facilitates the organization of chemokines into haptotactic gradients that direct cell movement. Chemokines can bind and activate their receptors as monomers; however, the ability to oligomerize is critical for the function of many chemokines in vivo Chemokine oligomerization is thought to enhance their affinity for GAGs, and here we show that it significantly affects the ability of chemokines to accumulate on and be retained by heparan sulfate (HS)...
January 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123054/tracing-the-dynamics-of-gene-transcripts-after-organismal-death
#17
Alex E Pozhitkov, Rafik Neme, Tomislav Domazet-Lošo, Brian G Leroux, Shivani Soni, Diethard Tautz, Peter A Noble
In life, genetic and epigenetic networks precisely coordinate the expression of genes-but in death, it is not known if gene expression diminishes gradually or abruptly stops or if specific genes and pathways are involved. We studied this by identifying mRNA transcripts that apparently increase in relative abundance after death, assessing their functions, and comparing their abundance profiles through postmortem time in two species, mouse and zebrafish. We found mRNA transcript profiles of 1063 genes became significantly more abundant after death of healthy adult animals in a time series spanning up to 96 h postmortem...
January 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123053/tgf%C3%AE-activin-signalling-is-required-for-ribosome-biogenesis-and-cell-growth-in-drosophila-salivary-glands
#18
Torcato Martins, Nadia Eusebio, Andreia Correia, Joana Marinho, Fernando Casares, Paulo S Pereira
Signalling by TGFβ superfamily factors plays an important role in tissue growth and cell proliferation. In Drosophila, the activity of the TGFβ/Activin signalling branch has been linked to the regulation of cell growth and proliferation, but the cellular and molecular basis for these functions are not fully understood. In this study, we show that both the RII receptor Punt (Put) and the R-Smad Smad2 are strongly required for cell and tissue growth. Knocking down the expression of Put or Smad2 in salivary glands causes alterations in nucleolar structure and functions...
January 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123052/bifidobacterium-breve-reduces-apoptotic-epithelial-cell-shedding-in-an-exopolysaccharide-and-myd88-dependent-manner
#19
K R Hughes, L C Harnisch, C Alcon-Giner, S Mitra, C J Wright, J Ketskemety, D van Sinderen, A J M Watson, L J Hall
Certain members of the microbiota genus Bifidobacterium are known to positively influence host well-being. Importantly, reduced bifidobacterial levels are associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, who also have impaired epithelial barrier function, including elevated rates of apoptotic extrusion of small intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) from villi-a process termed 'cell shedding'. Using a mouse model of pathological cell shedding, we show that mice receiving Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 exhibit significantly reduced rates of small IEC shedding...
January 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123051/a-new-world-for-open-biology
#20
EDITORIAL
David M Glover
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Open Biology
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