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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515224/activin-a-regulates-activation-of-mouse-neutrophils-by-smad3-signalling
#1
Yan Qi, Jingyan Ge, Chunhui Ma, Na Wu, Xueling Cui, Zhonghui Liu
Activin A, a member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily, acts as a pro-inflammatory factor in acute phase response, and influences the pathological progress of neutrophil-mediated disease. However, whether activin A can exert an effect on the activities of neutrophils remains unclear. In this study, we found that the release of activin A was enhanced from neutrophils of mouse when stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. Furthermore, neutrophils were not only the source of activin A but also the target cells in response to activin A, in which canonical activin signalling components existed, and levels of ACTRIIA, SMAD3 and p-SMAD3 proteins were elevated in activin A-treated neutrophils...
May 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490658/reviewers-in-2016
#2
EDITORIAL
David M Glover
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490657/targeting-endogenous-proteins-for-degradation-through-the-affinity-directed-protein-missile-system
#3
Luke J Fulcher, Luke D Hutchinson, Thomas J Macartney, Craig Turnbull, Gopal P Sapkota
Targeted proteolysis of endogenous proteins is desirable as a research toolkit and in therapeutics. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene knockouts are irreversible and often not feasible for many genes. Similarly, RNA interference approaches necessitate prolonged treatments, can lead to incomplete knockdowns and are often associated with off-target effects. Targeted proteolysis can overcome these limitations. In this report, we describe an affinity-directed protein missile (AdPROM) system that harbours the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) protein, the substrate receptor of the Cullin2 (CUL2) E3 ligase complex, tethered to polypeptide binders that selectively bind and recruit endogenous target proteins to the CUL2-E3 ligase complex for ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation...
May 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469008/the-early-response-during-the-interaction-of-fungal-phytopathogen-and-host-plant
#4
REVIEW
Yilin Shen, Na Liu, Chuang Li, Xin Wang, Xiaomeng Xu, Wan Chen, Guozhen Xing, Wenming Zheng
Plants can be infected by a variety of pathogens, most of which can cause severe economic losses. The plants resist the invasion of pathogens via the innate or acquired immune system for surviving biotic stress. The associations between plants and pathogens are sophisticated beyond imaging and the interactions between them can occur at a very early stage after their touching each other. A number of researchers in the past decade have shown that many biochemical events appeared even as early as 5 min after their touching for plant disease resistance response...
May 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469007/golgi-anti-apoptotic-protein-a-tale-of-camels-calcium-channels-and-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Guia Carrara, Maddy Parsons, Nuno Saraiva, Geoffrey L Smith
Golgi anti-apoptotic protein (GAAP), also known as transmembrane Bax inhibitor-1 motif-containing 4 (TMBIM4) or Lifeguard 4 (Lfg4), shares remarkable amino acid conservation with orthologues throughout eukaryotes, prokaryotes and some orthopoxviruses, suggesting a highly conserved function. GAAPs regulate Ca(2+) levels and fluxes from the Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum, confer resistance to a broad range of apoptotic stimuli, promote cell adhesion and migration via the activation of store-operated Ca(2+) entry, are essential for the viability of human cells, and affect orthopoxvirus virulence...
May 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469006/shaping-development-by-stochasticity-and-dynamics-in-gene-regulation
#6
REVIEW
Peng Dong, Zhe Liu
Animal development is orchestrated by spatio-temporal gene expression programmes that drive precise lineage commitment, proliferation and migration events at the single-cell level, collectively leading to large-scale morphological change and functional specification in the whole organism. Efforts over decades have uncovered two 'seemingly contradictory' mechanisms in gene regulation governing these intricate processes: (i) stochasticity at individual gene regulatory steps in single cells and (ii) highly coordinated gene expression dynamics in the embryo...
May 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446711/chemical-roots-of-biological-evolution-the-origins-of-life-as-a-process-of-development-of-autonomous-functional-systems
#7
REVIEW
Kepa Ruiz-Mirazo, Carlos Briones, Andrés de la Escosura
In recent years, an extension of the Darwinian framework is being considered for the study of prebiotic chemical evolution, shifting the attention from homogeneous populations of naked molecular species to populations of heterogeneous, compartmentalized and functionally integrated assemblies of molecules. Several implications of this shift of perspective are analysed in this critical review, both in terms of the individual units, which require an adequate characterization as self-maintaining systems with an internal organization, and also in relation to their collective and long-term evolutionary dynamics, based on competition, collaboration and selection processes among those complex individuals...
April 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446710/linear-ubiquitin-chains-enzymes-mechanisms-and-biology
#8
REVIEW
Katrin Rittinger, Fumiyo Ikeda
Ubiquitination is a versatile post-translational modification that regulates a multitude of cellular processes. Its versatility is based on the ability of ubiquitin to form multiple types of polyubiquitin chains, which are recognized by specific ubiquitin receptors to induce the required cellular response. Linear ubiquitin chains are linked through Met 1 and have been established as important players of inflammatory signalling and apoptotic cell death. These chains are generated by a ubiquitin E3 ligase complex called the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC) that is thus far the only E3 ligase capable of forming linear ubiquitin chains...
April 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446709/control-of-mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-function-by-the-ubiquitin-proteasome-system
#9
REVIEW
Piotr Bragoszewski, Michal Turek, Agnieszka Chacinska
Mitochondria are pivotal organelles in eukaryotic cells. The complex proteome of mitochondria comprises proteins that are encoded by nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. The biogenesis of mitochondrial proteins requires their transport in an unfolded state with a high risk of misfolding. The mislocalization of mitochondrial proteins is deleterious to the cell. The electron transport chain in mitochondria is a source of reactive oxygen species that damage proteins. Mitochondrial dysfunction is linked to many pathological conditions and, together with the loss of cellular protein homeostasis (proteostasis), are hallmarks of ageing and ageing-related degeneration diseases...
April 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446708/structural-and-functional-analysis-of-oceanobacillus-iheyensis-macrodomain-reveals-a-network-of-waters-involved-in-substrate-binding-and-catalysis
#10
Rubén Zapata-Pérez, Fernando Gil-Ortiz, Ana Belén Martínez-Moñino, Antonio Ginés García-Saura, Jordi Juanhuix, Álvaro Sánchez-Ferrer
Macrodomains are ubiquitous conserved domains that bind or transform ADP-ribose (ADPr) metabolites. In humans, they are involved in transcription, X-chromosome inactivation, neurodegeneration and modulating PARP1 signalling, making them potential targets for therapeutic agents. Unfortunately, some aspects related to the substrate binding and catalysis of MacroD-like macrodomains still remain unclear, since mutation of the proposed catalytic aspartate does not completely abolish enzyme activity. Here, we present a functional and structural characterization of a macrodomain from the extremely halotolerant and alkaliphilic bacterium Oceanobacillus iheyensis (OiMacroD), related to hMacroD1/hMacroD2, shedding light on substrate binding and catalysis...
April 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446707/deterministic-versus-stochastic-model-of-reprogramming-new-evidence-from-cellular-barcoding-technique
#11
Anastasia M Yunusova, Veniamin S Fishman, Gennady V Vasiliev, Nariman R Battulin
Factor-mediated reprogramming of somatic cells towards pluripotency is a low-efficiency process during which only small subsets of cells are successfully reprogrammed. Previous analyses of the determinants of the reprogramming potential are based on average measurements across a large population of cells or on monitoring a relatively small number of single cells with live imaging. Here, we applied lentiviral genetic barcoding, a powerful tool enabling the identification of familiar relationships in thousands of cells...
April 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446706/a-sister-of-nanog-regulates-genes-expressed-in-pre-implantation-human-development
#12
Thomas L Dunwell, Peter W H Holland
The NANOG homeobox gene plays a pivotal role in self-renewal and maintenance of pluripotency in human, mouse and other vertebrate embryonic stem cells, and in pluripotent cells of the blastocyst inner cell mass. There is a poorly studied and atypical homeobox locus close to the Nanog gene in some mammals which could conceivably be a cryptic paralogue of NANOG, even though the loci share only 20% homeodomain identity. Here we argue that this gene, NANOGNB (NANOG Neighbour), is an extremely divergent duplicate of NANOG that underwent radical sequence change in the mammalian lineage...
April 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446705/diverse-integrin-adhesion-stoichiometries-caused-by-varied-actomyosin-activity
#13
Natalia A Bulgakova, Jutta Wellmann, Nicholas H Brown
Cells in an organism are subjected to numerous sources of external and internal forces, and are able to sense and respond to these forces. Integrin-mediated adhesion links the extracellular matrix outside cells to the cytoskeleton inside, and participates in sensing, transmitting and responding to forces. While integrin adhesion rapidly adapts to changes in forces in isolated migrating cells, it is not known whether similar or more complex responses occur within intact, developing tissues. Here, we studied changes in integrin adhesion composition upon different contractility conditions in Drosophila embryonic muscles...
April 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424321/the-drosophila-zo-1-protein-polychaetoid-suppresses-deltex-regulated-notch-activity-to-modulate-germline-stem-cell-niche-formation
#14
Hideyuki Shimizu, Marian B Wilkin, Simon A Woodcock, Alessandro Bonfini, Yvonne Hung, Sabine Mazaleyrat, Martin Baron
The developmental signalling protein Notch can be proteolytically activated following ligand-interaction at the cell surface, or can be activated independently of its ligands, following Deltex (Dx)-induced Notch endocytosis and trafficking to the lysosomal membrane. The means by which different pools of Notch are directed towards these alternative outcomes remains poorly understood. We found that the Drosophila ZO-1 protein Polychaetoid (Pyd) suppresses specifically the Dx-induced form of Notch activation both in vivo and in cell culture assays...
April 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424320/trpa1-expression-and-its-functional-activation-in-rodent-cortex
#15
Ehsan Kheradpezhouh, Julian M C Choy, Vincent R Daria, Ehsan Arabzadeh
TRPA1 is a non-selective cation channel involved in pain sensation and neurogenic inflammation. Although TRPA1 is well established in a number of organs including the nervous system, its presence and function in the mammalian cortex remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate the expression of TRPA1 in rodent somatosensory cortex through immunostaining and investigate its functional activation by whole-cell electrophysiology, Ca(2+) imaging and two-photon photoswitching. Application of TRPA1 agonist (AITC) and antagonist (HC-030031) produced significant modulation of activity in layer 5 (L5) pyramidal neurons in both rats and mice; AITC increased intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations and depolarized neurons, and both effects were blocked by HC-030031...
April 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404797/self-adjuvanting-c18-lipid-vinil-sulfone-pp2a-vaccine-study-of-the-induced-immunomodulation-against-trichuris-muris-infection
#16
M Gomez-Samblas, J J García-Rodríguez, M Trelis, D Bernal, F J Lopez-Jaramillo, F Santoyo-Gonzalez, S Vilchez, A M Espino, F Bolás-Fernández, A Osuna
Despite the importance of the adjuvant in the immunization process, very few adjuvants merge with the antigens in vaccines. A synthetic self-adjuvant oleic-vinyl sulfone (OVS) linked to the catalytic region of recombinant serine/threonine phosphatase 2A from the nematode Angiostrongylus costaricensis (rPP2A) was used for intranasal immunization in mice previously infected with Trichuris muris The animal intranasal immunization with rPP2A-OVS showed a reduction of 99.01% in the number of the nematode eggs and 97...
April 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404796/tuning-cancer-fate-the-unremitting-role-of-host-immunity
#17
REVIEW
B Calì, B Molon, A Viola
Host immunity plays a central and complex role in dictating tumour progression. Solid tumours are commonly infiltrated by a large number of immune cells that dynamically interact with the surrounding microenvironment. At first, innate and adaptive immune cells successfully cooperate to eradicate microcolonies of transformed cells. Concomitantly, surviving tumour clones start to proliferate and harness immune responses by specifically hijacking anti-tumour effector mechanisms and fostering the accumulation of immunosuppressive immune cell subsets at the tumour site...
April 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381629/snps-in-microrna-target-sites-and-their-potential-role-in-human-disease
#18
REVIEW
Adrianna Moszyńska, Magdalena Gebert, James F Collawn, Rafał Bartoszewski
In the post-genomic era, the goal of personalized medicine is to determine the correlation between genotype and phenotype. Developing high-throughput genotyping technologies such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and the 1000 Genomes Project (http://www.internationalgenome.org/about/#1000G_PROJECT) has dramatically enhanced our ability to map where changes in the genome occur on a population level by identifying millions of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Polymorphisms, particularly those within the coding regions of proteins and at splice junctions, have received the most attention, but it is also now clear that polymorphisms in the non-coding regions are important...
April 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381628/a-puzzling-homology-a-brittle-star-using-a-putative-cnidarian-type-luciferase-for-bioluminescence
#19
Jérôme Delroisse, Esther Ullrich-Lüter, Stefanie Blaue, Olga Ortega-Martinez, Igor Eeckhaut, Patrick Flammang, Jérôme Mallefet
Bioluminescence relies on the oxidation of a luciferin substrate catalysed by a luciferase enzyme. Luciferins and luciferases are generic terms used to describe a large variety of substrates and enzymes. Whereas luciferins can be shared by phylogenetically distant organisms which feed on organisms producing them, luciferases have been thought to be lineage-specific enzymes. Numerous light emission systems would then have co-emerged independently along the tree of life resulting in a plethora of non-homologous luciferases...
April 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381627/characterization-of-rbp9-and-rbp10-two-developmentally-regulated-rna-binding-proteins-in-trypanosoma-brucei
#20
Luis Miguel De Pablos, Steve Kelly, Janaina de Freitas Nascimento, Jack Sunter, Mark Carrington
The fate of an mRNA is determined by its interaction with proteins and small RNAs within dynamic complexes called ribonucleoprotein complexes (mRNPs). In Trypanosoma brucei and related kinetoplastids, responses to internal and external signals are mainly mediated by post-transcriptional processes. Here, we used proximity-dependent biotin identification (BioID) combined with RNA-seq to investigate the changes resulting from ectopic expression of RBP10 and RBP9, two developmentally regulated RNA-binding proteins (RBPs)...
April 2017: Open Biology
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