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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29973397/on-the-networked-architecture-of-genotype-spaces-and-its-critical-effects-on-molecular-evolution
#1
REVIEW
Jacobo Aguirre, Pablo Catalán, José A Cuesta, Susanna Manrubia
Evolutionary dynamics is often viewed as a subtle process of change accumulation that causes a divergence among organisms and their genomes. However, this interpretation is an inheritance of a gradualistic view that has been challenged at the macroevolutionary, ecological and molecular level. Actually, when the complex architecture of genotype spaces is taken into account, the evolutionary dynamics of molecular populations becomes intrinsically non-uniform, sharing deep qualitative and quantitative similarities with slowly driven physical systems: nonlinear responses analogous to critical transitions, sudden state changes or hysteresis, among others...
July 2018: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29973396/cultured-cells-and-wing-disc-size-of-silkworm-can-be-controlled-by-the-hippo-pathway
#2
Zi Liang, Yahong Lu, Ying Qian, Liyuan Zhu, Sulan Kuang, Fei Chen, Yongjie Feng, Xiaolong Hu, Guangli Cao, Renyu Xue, Chengliang Gong
Hippo signalling represents a cell proliferation and organ-size control pathway. Yorki (Yki), a component of the Hippo pathway, induces the transcription of a number of targets that promote cell proliferation and survival. The functions of Yki have been characterized in Drosophila and mammals, while there are few reports on silkworm, Bombyx mori In the present study, we found that BmYki3 facilitates cell migration and cell division, and enlarges the cultured cell and wing disc size. Co-immunoprecipitation results indicated that BmYki3 may interact with thymosin, E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase, protein kinase ASK1, dedicator of cytokinesis protein 1, calcium-independent phospholipase A2 and beta-spectrin...
July 2018: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29950452/exploring-the-links-between-cancer-and-placenta-development
#3
Vincenzo Costanzo, Alberto Bardelli, Salvatore Siena, Sergio Abrignani
The development of metastatic cancer is a multistage process, which often requires decades to complete. Impairments in DNA damage control and DNA repair in cancer cell precursors generate genetically heterogeneous cell populations. However, despite heterogeneity most solid cancers have stereotypical behaviours, including invasiveness and suppression of immune responses that can be unleashed with immunotherapy targeting lymphocyte checkpoints. The mechanisms leading to the acquisition of stereotypical properties remain poorly understood...
June 2018: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925633/multimodal-sensory-processing-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#4
REVIEW
Athanasios Metaxakis, Dionysia Petratou, Nektarios Tavernarakis
Multisensory integration is a mechanism that allows organisms to simultaneously sense and understand external stimuli from different modalities. These distinct signals are transduced into neuronal signals that converge into decision-making neuronal entities. Such decision-making centres receive information through neuromodulators regarding the organism's physiological state and accordingly trigger behavioural responses. Despite the importance of multisensory integration for efficient functioning of the nervous system, and also the implication of dysfunctional multisensory integration in the aetiology of neuropsychiatric disease, little is known about the relative molecular mechanisms...
June 2018: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925632/lim-kinase1-regulates-mitotic-centrosome-integrity-via-its-activity-on-dynein-light-intermediate-chains
#5
Sirong Ou, Mei-Hua Tan, Ting Weng, HoiYeung Li, Cheng-Gee Koh
Abnormal centrosome number and function have been implicated in tumour development. LIM kinase1 (LIMK1), a regulator of actin cytoskeleton dynamics, is found to localize at the mitotic centrosome. However, its role at the centrosome is not fully explored. Here, we report that LIMK1 depletion resulted in multi-polar spindles and defocusing of centrosomes, implicating its involvement in the regulation of mitotic centrosome integrity. LIMK1 could influence centrosome integrity by modulating centrosomal protein localization at the spindle pole...
June 2018: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899122/structural-centrosome-aberrations-sensitize-polarized-epithelia-to-basal-cell-extrusion
#6
Olivier Ganier, Dominik Schnerch, Erich A Nigg
Centrosome aberrations disrupt tissue architecture and may confer invasive properties to cancer cells. Here we show that structural centrosome aberrations, induced by overexpression of either Ninein-like protein (NLP) or CEP131/AZI1, sensitize polarized mammalian epithelia to basal cell extrusion. While unperturbed epithelia typically dispose of damaged cells through apical dissemination into luminal cavities, certain oncogenic mutations cause a switch in directionality towards basal cell extrusion, raising the potential for metastatic cell dissemination...
June 2018: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899121/constitutive-regulation-of-mitochondrial-morphology-by-aurora-a-kinase-depends-on-a-predicted-cryptic-targeting-sequence-at-the-n-terminus
#7
Rhys Grant, Ahmed Abdelbaki, Alessia Bertoldi, Maria P Gavilan, Jörg Mansfeld, David M Glover, Catherine Lindon
Aurora A kinase (AURKA) is a major regulator of mitosis and an important driver of cancer progression. The roles of AURKA outside of mitosis, and how these might contribute to cancer progression, are not well understood. Here, we show that a fraction of cytoplasmic AURKA is associated with mitochondria, co-fractionating in cell extracts and interacting with mitochondrial proteins by reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation. We have also found that the dynamics of the mitochondrial network are sensitive to AURKA inhibition, depletion or overexpression...
June 2018: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875200/epichromatin-and-chromomeres-a-fuzzy-perspective
#8
REVIEW
Donald E Olins, Ada L Olins
'Epichromatin', the surface of chromatin beneath the interphase nuclear envelope (NE) or at the surface of mitotic chromosomes, was discovered by immunostaining with a specific bivalent mouse monoclonal anti-nucleosome antibody (mAb PL2-6). 'Chromomeres', punctate chromatin particles approximately 200-300 nm in diameter, identified throughout the interphase chromatin and along mitotic chromosomes, were observed by immunostaining with the monovalent papain-derived Fab fragments of bivalent PL2-6. The specific target for PL2-6 appears to include the nucleosome acidic patch...
June 2018: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875199/cancer-immunotherapy-broadening-the-scope-of-targetable-tumours
#9
REVIEW
Jitske van den Bulk, Els Me Verdegaal, Noel Fcc de Miranda
Cancer immunotherapy has experienced remarkable advances in recent years. Striking clinical responses have been achieved for several types of solid cancers (e.g. melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, bladder cancer and mismatch repair-deficient cancers) after treatment of patients with T-cell checkpoint blockade therapies. These have been shown to be particularly effective in the treatment of cancers with high mutation burden, which places tumour-mutated antigens (neo-antigens) centre stage as targets of tumour immunity and cancer immunotherapy...
June 2018: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29848640/correction-to-foxj1a-is-expressed-in-ependymal-precursors-controls-central-canal-position-and-is-activated-in-new-ependymal-cells-during-regeneration-in-zebrafish
#10
Ana Ribeiro, Joana F Monteiro, Ana C Certal, Ana M Cristovão, Leonor Saúde
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29794033/prediction-of-response-to-drug-therapy-in-psychiatric-disorders
#11
REVIEW
Shani Stern, Sara Linker, Krishna C Vadodaria, Maria C Marchetto, Fred H Gage
Personalized medicine has become increasingly relevant to many medical fields, promising more efficient drug therapies and earlier intervention. The development of personalized medicine is coupled with the identification of biomarkers and classification algorithms that help predict the responses of different patients to different drugs. In the last 10 years, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved several genetically pre-screened drugs labelled as pharmacogenomics in the fields of oncology, pulmonary medicine, gastroenterology, haematology, neurology, rheumatology and even psychiatry...
May 2018: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29794032/sequence-analysis-and-structure-prediction-of-abhd16a-and-the-roles-of-the-abhd-family-members-in-human-disease
#12
REVIEW
Jun Xu, Weizhen Gu, Kai Ji, Zhao Xu, Haihua Zhu, Wenming Zheng
Abhydrolase domain containing 16A (ABHD16A) is a member of the α/β hydrolase domain-containing (ABHD) protein family and is expressed in a variety of animal cells. Studies have shown that ABHD16A has acylglycerol lipase and phosphatidylserine lipase activities. Its gene location in the main histocompatibility complex (MHC) III gene cluster suggests that this protein may participate in the immunomodulation of the body. The results of studies investigating nearly 20 species of ABHDs reveal that the ABHD proteins are key factors in metabolic regulation and disease occurrence and development...
May 2018: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769323/targeting-bcl-2-regulated-apoptosis-in-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Kirsteen J Campbell, Stephen W G Tait
The ability of a cell to undergo mitochondrial apoptosis is governed by pro- and anti-apoptotic members of the BCL-2 protein family. The equilibrium of pro- versus anti-apoptotic BCL-2 proteins ensures appropriate regulation of programmed cell death during development and maintains organismal health. When unbalanced, the BCL-2 family can act as a barrier to apoptosis and facilitate tumour development and resistance to cancer therapy. Here we discuss the BCL-2 family, their deregulation in cancer and recent pharmaceutical developments to target specific members of this family as cancer therapy...
May 2018: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769322/insights-into-the-regulatory-function-of-the-%C3%A9-subunit-from-bacterial-f-type-atp-synthases-a-comparison-of-structural-biochemical-and-biophysical-data
#14
REVIEW
Alexander Krah, Mariel Zarco-Zavala, Duncan G G McMillan
ATP synthases catalyse the formation of ATP, the most common chemical energy storage unit found in living cells. These enzymes are driven by an electrochemical ion gradient, which allows the catalytic evolution of ATP by a binding change mechanism. Most ATP synthases are capable of catalysing ATP hydrolysis to varying degrees, and to prevent wasteful ATP hydrolysis, bacteria and mitochondria have regulatory mechanisms such as ADP inhibition. Additionally, ɛ subunit inhibition has also been described in three bacterial systems, Escherichia coli , Bacillus PS3 and Caldalkalibacillus thermarum TA2...
May 2018: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720420/the-contribution-of-non-essential-schizosaccharomyces-pombe-genes-to-fitness-in-response-to-altered-nutrient-supply-and-target-of-rapamycin-activity
#15
Shervi Lie, Peter Banks, Conor Lawless, David Lydall, Janni Petersen
Nutrient fluctuations in the cellular environment promote changes in cell metabolism and growth to adapt cell proliferation accordingly. The target of rapamycin (TOR) signalling network plays a key role in the coordination of growth and cell proliferation with the nutrient environment and, importantly, nutrient limitation reduces TOR complex 1 (TORC1) signalling. We have performed global quantitative fitness profiling of the collection of Schizosaccharomyces pombe strains from which non-essential genes have been deleted...
May 2018: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695619/critical-review-involvement-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-the-aetiology-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
REVIEW
Shoko Hashimoto, Takaomi C Saido
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response is regarded as an important process in the aetiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The accumulation of pathogenic misfolded proteins and the disruption of intracellular calcium (Ca2+ ) signalling are considered to be fundamental mechanisms that underlie the induction of ER stress, leading to neuronal cell death. Indeed, a number of studies have proposed molecular mechanisms linking ER stress to AD pathogenesis based on results from in vitro systems and AD mouse models...
April 2018: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695618/bacterial-transmembrane-signalling-systems-and-their-engineering-for-biosensing
#17
REVIEW
Kirsten Jung, Florian Fabiani, Elisabeth Hoyer, Jürgen Lassak
Every living cell possesses numerous transmembrane signalling systems that receive chemical and physical stimuli from the environment and transduce this information into an intracellular signal that triggers some form of cellular response. As unicellular organisms, bacteria require these systems for survival in rapidly changing environments. The receptors themselves act as 'sensory organs', while subsequent signalling circuits can be regarded as forming a 'neural network' that is involved in decision making, adaptation and ultimately in ensuring survival...
April 2018: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695617/pathways-for-maintenance-of-telomeres-and-common-fragile-sites-during-dna-replication-stress
#18
REVIEW
Özgün Özer, Ian D Hickson
Oncogene activation during tumour development leads to changes in the DNA replication programme that enhance DNA replication stress. Certain regions of the human genome, such as common fragile sites and telomeres, are particularly sensitive to DNA replication stress due to their inherently 'difficult-to-replicate' nature. Indeed, it appears that these regions sometimes fail to complete DNA replication within the period of interphase when cells are exposed to DNA replication stress. Under these conditions, cells use a salvage pathway, termed 'mitotic DNA repair synthesis (MiDAS)', to complete DNA synthesis in the early stages of mitosis...
April 2018: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669826/structural-and-functional-studies-of-spr1654-an-essential-aminotransferase-in-teichoic-acid-biosynthesis-in-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#19
Xiao Han, Renhua Sun, Tatyana Sandalova, Adnane Achour
Spr1654 from Streptococcus pneumoniae plays a key role in the production of unusual sugars, presumably functioning as a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent aminotransferase. Spr1654 was predicted to catalyse the transferring of amino group to form the amino sugar 2-acetamido-4-amino-2, 4, 6-trideoxygalactose moiety (AATGal), representing a crucial step in biosynthesis of teichoic acids in S. pneumoniae We have determined the crystal structures of the apo-, PLP- and PMP-bound forms of Spr1654. Spr1654 forms a homodimer, in which each monomer contains one active site...
April 2018: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669825/single-cardiac-ventricular-myosins-are-autonomous-motors
#20
Yihua Wang, Chen-Ching Yuan, Katarzyna Kazmierczak, Danuta Szczesna-Cordary, Thomas P Burghardt
Myosin transduces ATP free energy into mechanical work in muscle. Cardiac muscle has dynamically wide-ranging power demands on the motor as the muscle changes modes in a heartbeat from relaxation, via auxotonic shortening, to isometric contraction. The cardiac power output modulation mechanism is explored in vitro by assessing single cardiac myosin step-size selection versus load. Transgenic mice express human ventricular essential light chain (ELC) in wild- type (WT), or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-linked mutant forms, A57G or E143K, in a background of mouse α-cardiac myosin heavy chain...
April 2018: Open Biology
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