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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321241/evolution-of-the-shut-off-steps-of-vertebrate-phototransduction
#1
Trevor D Lamb, Hardip R Patel, Aaron Chuah, David M Hunt
Different isoforms of the genes involved in phototransduction are expressed in vertebrate rod and cone photoreceptors, providing a unique example of parallel evolution via gene duplication. In this study, we determine the molecular phylogeny of the proteins underlying the shut-off steps of phototransduction in the agnathan and jawed vertebrate lineages. For the G-protein receptor kinases (GRKs), the GRK1 and GRK7 divisions arose prior to the divergence of tunicates, with further expansion during the two rounds of whole-genome duplication (2R); subsequently, jawed and agnathan vertebrates retained different subsets of three isoforms of GRK...
January 2018: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321240/pigment-dispersing-factor-expressing-neurons-convey-circadian-information-in-the-honey-bee-brain
#2
Katharina Beer, Esther Kolbe, Noa B Kahana, Nadav Yayon, Ron Weiss, Pamela Menegazzi, Guy Bloch, Charlotte Helfrich-Förster
Pigment-Dispersing Factor (PDF) is an important neuropeptide in the brain circadian network of Drosophila and other insects, but its role in bees in which the circadian clock influences complex behaviour is not well understood. We combined high-resolution neuroanatomical characterizations, quantification of PDF levels over the day and brain injections of synthetic PDF peptide to study the role of PDF in the honey bee Apis mellifera We show that PDF co-localizes with the clock protein Period (PER) in a cluster of laterally located neurons and that the widespread arborizations of these PER/PDF neurons are in close vicinity to other PER-positive cells (neurons and glia)...
January 2018: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321239/comparative-genomic-analysis-of-the-pseudofungus-hyphochytrium-catenoides
#3
Guy Leonard, Aurélie Labarre, David S Milner, Adam Monier, Darren Soanes, Jeremy G Wideman, Finlay Maguire, Sam Stevens, Divya Sain, Xavier Grau-Bové, Arnau Sebé-Pedrós, Jason E Stajich, Konrad Paszkiewicz, Matthew W Brown, Neil Hall, Bill Wickstead, Thomas A Richards
Eukaryotic microbes have three primary mechanisms for obtaining nutrients and energy: phagotrophy, photosynthesis and osmotrophy. Traits associated with the latter two functions arose independently multiple times in the eukaryotes. The Fungi successfully coupled osmotrophy with filamentous growth, and similar traits are also manifested in the Pseudofungi (oomycetes and hyphochytriomycetes). Both the Fungi and the Pseudofungi encompass a diversity of plant and animal parasites. Genome-sequencing efforts have focused on host-associated microbes (mutualistic symbionts or parasites), providing limited comparisons with free-living relatives...
January 2018: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298909/evolution-of-the-spx-gene-family-in-plants-and-its-role-in-the-response-mechanism-to-phosphorus-stress
#4
REVIEW
Na Liu, Wenyan Shang, Chuang Li, Lihua Jia, Xin Wang, Guozhen Xing, WenMing Zheng
Molecular and genomic studies have shown the presence of a large number of SPX gene family members in plants, some of which have been proved to act in P signalling and homeostasis. In this study, the molecular and evolutionary characteristics of the SPX gene family in plants were comprehensively analysed, and the mechanisms underlying the function of SPX genes in P signalling and homeostasis in the model plant species Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and rice (Oryza sativa), and in important crops, including wheat (Triticum aestivum), soya beans (Glycine max) and rapeseed (Brassica napus), were described...
January 2018: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29263250/two-step-phosphorylation-of-ana2-by-plk4-is-required-for-the-sequential-loading-of-ana2-and-sas6-to-initiate-procentriole-formation
#5
Nikola S Dzhindzhev, George Tzolovsky, Zoltan Lipinszki, Mohammed Abdelaziz, Janus Debski, Michal Dadlez, David M Glover
The conserved process of centriole duplication requires Plk4 kinase to recruit and promote interactions between Sas6 and Sas5/Ana2/STIL (respective nomenclature of worms/flies/humans). Plk4-mediated phosphorylation of Ana2/STIL in its conserved STAN motif has been shown to promote its interaction with Sas6. However, STAN motif phosphorylation is not required for recruitment of Ana2 to the centriole. Here we show that in Drosophila, Ana2 loads onto the site of procentriole formation ahead of Sas6 in a process that also requires Plk4...
December 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29263249/cadherin-7-enhances-sonic-hedgehog-signalling-by-preventing-gli3-repressor-formation-during-neural-tube-patterning
#6
Rie Kawano, Kunimasa Ohta, Giuseppe Lupo
Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) is a ventrally enriched morphogen controlling dorsoventral patterning of the neural tube. In the dorsal spinal cord, Gli3 protein bound to suppressor-of-fused (Sufu) is converted into Gli3 repressor (Gli3R), which inhibits Shh-target genes. Activation of Shh signalling prevents Gli3R formation, promoting neural tube ventralization. We show that cadherin-7 (Cdh7) expression in the intermediate spinal cord region is required to delimit the boundary between the ventral and the dorsal spinal cord...
December 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29263248/autocrine-paracrine-and-necrotic-nmda-receptor-signalling-in-mouse-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumour-cells
#7
Hugh P C Robinson, Leanne Li
N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activation is implicated in the malignant progression of many cancer types, as previously shown by the growth-inhibitory effects of NMDAR antagonists. NMDAR-mediated calcium influx and its downstream signalling depend critically, however, on the dynamics of membrane potential and ambient glutamate concentration, which are poorly characterized in cancer cells. Here, we have used low-noise whole-cell patch-clamp recording to investigate the electrophysiology of glutamate signalling in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour (PanNET) cells derived from a genetically-engineered mouse model (GEMM) of PanNET, in which NMDAR signalling is known to promote cancer progression...
December 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29263247/angiogenesis-revisited-from-a-metabolic-perspective-role-and-therapeutic-implications-of-endothelial-cell-metabolism
#8
REVIEW
Nihed Draoui, Pauline de Zeeuw, Peter Carmeliet
Endothelial cell (EC) metabolism has lately emerged as a novel and promising therapeutic target to block vascular dysregulation associated with diseases like cancer and blinding eye disease. Glycolysis, fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and, more recently, glutamine/asparagine metabolism emerged as key regulators of EC metabolism, able to impact angiogenesis in health and disease. ECs are highly glycolytic as they require ATP and biomass for vessel sprouting. Notably, a regulator of the glycolytic pathway, 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase 3, controls vessel sprouting during the angiogenic switch and its inhibition in tumour ECs leads to vessel normalization, thereby reducing metastasis and ameliorating chemotherapy...
December 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29263246/cyclic-nucleotide-signalling-in-malaria-parasites
#9
REVIEW
David A Baker, Laura G Drought, Christian Flueck, Stephanie D Nofal, Avnish Patel, Maria Penzo, Eloise M Walker
The cyclic nucleotides 3', 5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and 3', 5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) are intracellular messengers found in most animal cell types. They usually mediate an extracellular stimulus to drive a change in cell function through activation of their respective cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases, PKA and PKG. The enzymatic components of the malaria parasite cyclic nucleotide signalling pathways have been identified, and the genetic and biochemical studies of these enzymes carried out to date are reviewed herein...
December 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29263245/deciphering-pathogenicity-and-antibiotic-resistance-islands-in-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-genomes
#10
Mehul Jani, Soham Sengupta, Kelsey Hu, Rajeev K Azad
Staphylococcus aureus is a versatile pathogen that is capable of causing infections in both humans and animals. It can cause furuncles, septicaemia, pneumonia and endocarditis. Adaptation of S. aureus to the modern hospital environment has been facilitated, in part, by the horizontal acquisition of drug resistance genes, such as mecA gene that imparts resistance to methicillin. Horizontal acquisitions of islands of genes harbouring virulence and antibiotic resistance genes have made S. aureus resistant to commonly used antibiotics...
December 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237809/the-role-of-astrocytes-in-amyloid-production-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
REVIEW
Georgia R Frost, Yue-Ming Li
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is marked by the presence of extracellular amyloid beta (Aβ) plaques, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) and gliosis, activated glial cells, in the brain. It is thought that Aβ plaques trigger NFT formation, neuronal cell death, neuroinflammation and gliosis and, ultimately, cognitive impairment. There are increased numbers of reactive astrocytes in AD, which surround amyloid plaques and secrete proinflammatory factors and can phagocytize and break down Aβ. It was thought that neuronal cells were the major source of Aβ...
December 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237808/human-fetal-liver-cultures-support-multiple-cell-lineages-that-can-engraft-immunodeficient-mice
#12
Marina E Fomin, Ashley I Beyer, Marcus O Muench
During prenatal development the liver is composed of multiple cell types with unique properties compared to their adult counterparts. We aimed to establish multilineage cultures of human fetal liver cells that could maintain stem cell and progenitor populations found in the developing liver. An aim of this study was to test if maturation of fetal hepatocytes in short-term cultures supported by epidermal growth factor and oncostatin M can improve their ability to engraft immunodeficient mice. Fetal liver cultures supported a mixture of albumin+ cytokertin-19+ hepatoblasts, hepatocytes, cholangiocytes, CD14++CD32+ liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) and CD34+CD133+ haematopoietic stem cells...
December 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212709/a-eukaryotic-nicotinate-inducible-gene-cluster-convergent-evolution-in-fungi-and-bacteria
#13
Judit Ámon, Rafael Fernández-Martín, Eszter Bokor, Antonietta Cultrone, Joan M Kelly, Michel Flipphi, Claudio Scazzocchio, Zsuzsanna Hamari
Nicotinate degradation has hitherto been elucidated only in bacteria. In the ascomycete Aspergillus nidulans, six loci, hxnS/AN9178 encoding the molybdenum cofactor-containing nicotinate hydroxylase, AN11197 encoding a Cys2/His2 zinc finger regulator HxnR, together with AN11196/hxnZ, AN11188/hxnY, AN11189/hxnP and AN9177/hxnT, are clustered and stringently co-induced by a nicotinate derivative and subject to nitrogen metabolite repression mediated by the GATA factor AreA. These genes are strictly co-regulated by HxnR...
December 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167311/the-human-ctf4-orthologue-and-1-interacts-with-dna-polymerase-%C3%AE-primase-via-its-unique-c-terminal-hmg-box
#14
Mairi L Kilkenny, Aline C Simon, Jack Mainwaring, David Wirthensohn, Sandro Holzer, Luca Pellegrini
A dynamic multi-protein assembly known as the replisome is responsible for DNA synthesis in eukaryotic cells. In yeast, the hub protein Ctf4 bridges DNA helicase and DNA polymerase and recruits factors with roles in metabolic processes coupled to DNA replication. An important question in DNA replication is the extent to which the molecular architecture of the replisome is conserved between yeast and higher eukaryotes. Here, we describe the biochemical basis for the interaction of the human CTF4-orthologue AND-1 with DNA polymerase α (Pol α)/primase, the replicative polymerase that initiates DNA synthesis...
November 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167310/the-first-cell-fate-decision-of-mouse-preimplantation-embryo-development-integrating-cell-position-and-polarity
#15
REVIEW
Aleksandar I Mihajlović, Alexander W Bruce
During the first cell-fate decision of mouse preimplantation embryo development, a population of outer-residing polar cells is segregated from a second population of inner apolar cells to form two distinct cell lineages: the trophectoderm and the inner cell mass (ICM), respectively. Historically, two models have been proposed to explain how the initial differences between these two cell populations originate and ultimately define them as the two stated early blastocyst stage cell lineages. The 'positional' model proposes that cells acquire distinct fates based on differences in their relative position within the developing embryo, while the 'polarity' model proposes that the differences driving the lineage segregation arise as a consequence of the differential inheritance of factors, which exhibit polarized subcellular localizations, upon asymmetric cell divisions...
November 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167309/visualizing-the-complex-functions-and-mechanisms-of-the-anaphase-promoting-complex-cyclosome-apc-c
#16
REVIEW
Claudio Alfieri, Suyang Zhang, David Barford
The anaphase promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C) is a large multi-subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase that orchestrates cell cycle progression by mediating the degradation of important cell cycle regulators. During the two decades since its discovery, much has been learnt concerning its role in recognizing and ubiquitinating specific proteins in a cell-cycle-dependent manner, the mechanisms governing substrate specificity, the catalytic process of assembling polyubiquitin chains on its target proteins, and its regulation by phosphorylation and the spindle assembly checkpoint...
November 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162726/foxj1a-is-expressed-in-ependymal-precursors-controls-central-canal-position-and-is-activated-in-new-ependymal-cells-during-regeneration-in-zebrafish
#17
Ana Ribeiro, Joana F Monteiro, Ana C Certal, Ana M Cristovão, Leonor Saúde
Zebrafish are able to regenerate the spinal cord and recover motor and sensory functions upon severe injury, through the activation of cells located at the ependymal canal. Here, we show that cells surrounding the ependymal canal in the adult zebrafish spinal cord express Foxj1a. We demonstrate that ependymal cells express Foxj1a from their birth in the embryonic neural tube and that Foxj1a activity is required for the final positioning of the ependymal canal. We also show that in response to spinal cord injury, Foxj1a ependymal cells actively proliferate and contribute to the restoration of the spinal cord structure...
November 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142109/the-ndc80-complex-targets-bod1-to-human-mitotic-kinetochores
#18
Katharina Schleicher, Michael Porter, Sara Ten Have, Ramasubramanian Sundaramoorthy, Iain M Porter, Jason R Swedlow
Regulation of protein phosphatase activity by endogenous protein inhibitors is an important mechanism to control protein phosphorylation in cells. We recently identified Biorientation defective 1 (Bod1) as a small protein inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A containing the B56 regulatory subunit (PP2A-B56). This phosphatase controls the amount of phosphorylation of several kinetochore proteins and thus the establishment of load-bearing chromosome-spindle attachments in time for accurate separation of sister chromatids in mitosis...
November 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142108/growth-and-size-control-during-development
#19
REVIEW
Jannik Vollmer, Fernando Casares, Dagmar Iber
The size and shape of organs are characteristic for each species. Even when organisms develop to different sizes due to varying environmental conditions, such as nutrition, organ size follows species-specific rules of proportionality to the rest of the body, a phenomenon referred to as allometry. Therefore, for a given environment, organs stop growth at a predictable size set by the species's genotype. How do organs stop growth? How can related species give rise to organs of strikingly different size? No definitive answer has been given to date...
November 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142107/is-inflammatory-micronucleation-the-key-to-a-successful-anti-mitotic-cancer-drug
#20
REVIEW
T J Mitchison, J Pineda, J Shi, S Florian
Paclitaxel is a successful anti-cancer drug that kills cancer cells in two-dimensional culture through perturbation of mitosis, but whether it causes tumour regression by anti-mitotic actions is controversial. Drug candidates that specifically target mitosis, including inhibitors of kinesin-5, AurkA, AurkB and Plk1, disappointed in the clinic. Current explanations for this discrepancy include pharmacokinetic differences and hypothetical interphase actions of paclitaxel. Here, we discuss post-mitotic micronucleation as a special activity of taxanes that might explain their higher activity in solid tumours...
November 2017: Open Biology
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