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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903998/shape-form-function-and-leishmania-pathogenicity-from-textbook-descriptions-to-biological-understanding
#1
REVIEW
Jack Sunter, Keith Gull
The shape and form of protozoan parasites are inextricably linked to their pathogenicity. The evolutionary pressure associated with establishing and maintaining an infection and transmission to vector or host has shaped parasite morphology. However, there is not a 'one size fits all' morphological solution to these different pressures, and parasites exhibit a range of different morphologies, reflecting the diversity of their complex life cycles. In this review, we will focus on the shape and form of Leishmania spp...
September 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903997/mitotic-post-translational-modifications-of-histones-promote-chromatin-compaction-in-vitro
#2
Alisa Zhiteneva, Juan Jose Bonfiglio, Alexandr Makarov, Thomas Colby, Paola Vagnarelli, Eric C Schirmer, Ivan Matic, William C Earnshaw
How eukaryotic chromosomes are compacted during mitosis has been a leading question in cell biology since the nineteenth century. Non-histone proteins such as condensin complexes contribute to chromosome shaping, but appear not to be necessary for mitotic chromatin compaction. Histone modifications are known to affect chromatin structure. As histones undergo major changes in their post-translational modifications during mitotic entry, we speculated that the spectrum of cell-cycle-specific histone modifications might contribute to chromosome compaction during mitosis...
September 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878044/progress-and-prospects-of-early-detection-in-lung-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Sean Blandin Knight, Phil A Crosbie, Haval Balata, Jakub Chudziak, Tracy Hussell, Caroline Dive
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. It is broadly divided into small cell (SCLC, approx. 15% cases) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, approx. 85% cases). The main histological subtypes of NSCLC are adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, with the presence of specific DNA mutations allowing further molecular stratification. If identified at an early stage, surgical resection of NSCLC offers a favourable prognosis, with published case series reporting 5-year survival rates of up to 70% for small, localized tumours (stage I)...
September 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878043/the-rapid-in-vivo-evolution-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-patients-leads-to-attenuated-virulence
#4
Ke Wang, Yi-Qiang Chen, May M Salido, Gurjeet S Kohli, Jin-Liang Kong, Hong-Jie Liang, Zi-Ting Yao, Yan-Tong Xie, Hua-Yu Wu, Shuang-Qi Cai, Daniela I Drautz-Moses, Aaron E Darling, Stephan C Schuster, Liang Yang, Yichen Ding
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that causes severe airway infections in humans. These infections are usually difficult to treat and associated with high mortality rates. While colonizing the human airways, P. aeruginosa could accumulate genetic mutations that often lead to its better adaptability to the host environment. Understanding these evolutionary traits may provide important clues for the development of effective therapies to treat P. aeruginosa infections. In this study, 25 P. aeruginosa isolates were longitudinally sampled from the airways of four ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) patients...
September 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878042/interactions-of-the-bacillus-subtilis-dnae-polymerase-with-replisomal-proteins-modulate-its-activity-and-fidelity
#5
Vasileios Paschalis, Emmanuelle Le Chatelier, Matthew Green, François Képès, Panos Soultanas, Laurent Janniere
During Bacillus subtilis replication two replicative polymerases function at the replisome to collectively carry out genome replication. In a reconstituted in vitro replication assay, PolC is the main polymerase while the lagging strand DnaE polymerase briefly extends RNA primers synthesized by the primase DnaG prior to handing-off DNA synthesis to PolC. Here, we show in vivo that (i) the polymerase activity of DnaE is essential for both the initiation and elongation stages of DNA replication, (ii) its error rate varies inversely with PolC concentration, and (iii) its misincorporations are corrected by the mismatch repair system post-replication...
September 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878041/characteristics-of-29-novel-atypical-solute-carriers-of-major-facilitator-superfamily-type-evolutionary-conservation-predicted-structure-and-neuronal-co-expression
#6
Emelie Perland, Sonchita Bagchi, Axel Klaesson, Robert Fredriksson
Solute carriers (SLCs) are vital as they are responsible for a major part of the molecular transport over lipid bilayers. At present, there are 430 identified SLCs, of which 28 are called atypical SLCs of major facilitator superfamily (MFS) type. These are MFSD1, 2A, 2B, 3, 4A, 4B, 5, 6, 6 L, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13A, 14A and 14B; SV2A, SV2B and SV2C; SVOP and SVOPL; SPNS1, SPNS2 and SPNS3; and UNC93A and UNC93B1. We studied their fundamental properties, and we also included CLN3, an atypical SLC not yet belonging to any protein family (Pfam) clan, because its involvement in the same neuronal degenerative disorders as MFSD8...
September 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878040/glareosin-a-novel-sexually-dimorphic-urinary-lipocalin-in-the-bank-vole-myodes-glareolus
#7
Grace M Loxley, Jennifer Unsworth, Michael J Turton, Alexandra Jebb, Kathryn S Lilley, Deborah M Simpson, Daniel J Rigden, Jane L Hurst, Robert J Beynon
The urine of bank voles (Myodes glareolus) contains substantial quantities of a small protein that is expressed at much higher levels in males than females, and at higher levels in males in the breeding season. This protein was purified and completely sequenced at the protein level by mass spectrometry. Leucine/isoleucine ambiguity was completely resolved by metabolic labelling, monitoring the incorporation of dietary deuterated leucine into specific sites in the protein. The predicted mass of the sequenced protein was exactly consonant with the mass of the protein measured in bank vole urine samples, correcting for the formation of two disulfide bonds...
September 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878039/discovery-of-novel-representatives-of-bilaterian-neuropeptide-families-and-reconstruction-of-neuropeptide-precursor-evolution-in-ophiuroid-echinoderms
#8
Meet Zandawala, Ismail Moghul, Luis Alfonso Yañez Guerra, Jérôme Delroisse, Nikara Abylkassimova, Andrew F Hugall, Timothy D O'Hara, Maurice R Elphick
Neuropeptides are a diverse class of intercellular signalling molecules that mediate neuronal regulation of many physiological and behavioural processes. Recent advances in genome/transcriptome sequencing are enabling identification of neuropeptide precursor proteins in species from a growing variety of animal taxa, providing new insights into the evolution of neuropeptide signalling. Here, detailed analysis of transcriptome sequence data from three brittle star species, Ophionotus victoriae, Amphiura filiformis and Ophiopsila aranea, has enabled the first comprehensive identification of neuropeptide precursors in the class Ophiuroidea of the phylum Echinodermata...
September 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878038/the-requirement-of-mettl3-promoted-myod-mrna-maintenance-in-proliferative-myoblasts-for-skeletal-muscle-differentiation
#9
Kensuke Kudou, Tetsuro Komatsu, Jumpei Nogami, Kazumitsu Maehara, Akihito Harada, Hiroshi Saeki, Eiji Oki, Yoshihiko Maehara, Yasuyuki Ohkawa
Myogenic progenitor/stem cells retain their skeletal muscle differentiation potential by maintaining myogenic transcription factors such as MyoD. However, the mechanism of how MyoD expression is maintained in proliferative progenitor cells has not been elucidated. Here, we found that MyoD expression was reduced at the mRNA level by cell cycle arrest in S and G2 phases, which in turn led to the absence of skeletal muscle differentiation. The reduction of MyoD mRNA was correlated with the reduced expression of factors regulating RNA metabolism, including methyltransferase like 3 (Mettl3), which induces N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) modifications of RNA...
September 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855394/an-in-vivo-genetic-screen-in-drosophila-identifies-the-orthologue-of-human-cancer-testis-gene-spo11-among-a-network-of-targets-to-inhibit-lethal-3-malignant-brain-tumour-growth
#10
Fabrizio Rossi, Cristina Molnar, Kazuya Hashiyama, Jan P Heinen, Judit Pampalona, Salud Llamazares, José Reina, Tomomi Hashiyama, Madhulika Rai, Giulia Pollarolo, Ismael Fernández-Hernández, Cayetano Gonzalez
Using transgenic RNAi technology, we have screened over 4000 genes to identify targets to inhibit malignant growth caused by the loss of function of lethal(3)malignant brain tumour in Drosophila in vivo We have identified 131 targets, which belong to a wide range of gene ontologies. Most of these target genes are not significantly overexpressed in mbt tumours hence showing that, rather counterintuitively, tumour-linked overexpression is not a good predictor of functional requirement. Moreover, we have found that most of the genes upregulated in mbt tumours remain overexpressed in tumour-suppressed double-mutant conditions, hence revealing that most of the tumour transcriptome signature is not necessarily correlated with malignant growth...
August 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855393/fgfr3-tacc3-cancer-gene-fusions-cause-mitotic-defects-by-removal-of-endogenous-tacc3-from-the-mitotic-spindle
#11
Sourav Sarkar, Ellis L Ryan, Stephen J Royle
Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3-transforming acidic coiled-coil containing protein 3 (FGFR3-TACC3; FT3) is a gene fusion resulting from rearrangement of chromosome 4 that has been identified in many cancers including those of the urinary bladder. Altered FGFR3 signalling in FT3-positive cells is thought to contribute to cancer progression. However, potential changes in TACC3 function in these cells have not been explored. TACC3 is a mitotic spindle protein required for accurate chromosome segregation. Errors in segregation lead to aneuploidy, which can contribute to cancer progression...
August 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835571/an-ancient-fmrfamide-related-peptide-receptor-pair-induces-defence-behaviour-in-a-brachiopod-larva
#12
Daniel Thiel, Philipp Bauknecht, Gáspár Jékely, Andreas Hejnol
Animal behaviour often comprises spatially separated sub-reactions and even ciliated larvae are able to coordinate sub-reactions of complex behaviours (metamorphosis, feeding). How these sub-reactions are coordinated is currently not well understood. Neuropeptides are potential candidates for triggering larval behaviour. However, although their immunoreactivity has been widely analysed, their function in trochozoan larvae has only been studied for a few cases. Here, we investigate the role of neuropeptides in the defence behaviour of brachiopod larvae...
August 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835570/amp-activated-protein-kinase-a-therapeutic-target-in-intestinal-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Xiaofei Sun, Mei-Jun Zhu
Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a highly conserved energy sensor, has a crucial role in cardiovascular, neurodegenerative and inflammatory diseases, as well as in cancer and metabolic disorders. Accumulating studies have demonstrated that AMPK activation enhances paracellular junctions, nutrient transporters, autophagy and apoptosis, and suppresses inflammation and carcinogenesis in the intestine, indicating an essential role of AMPK in intestinal health. AMPK inactivation is an aetiological factor in intestinal dysfunctions...
August 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835569/zebrafish-nephrosin-helps-host-defence-against-escherichia-coli-infection
#14
Qianqian Di, Qing Lin, Zhibin Huang, Yali Chi, Xiaohui Chen, Wenqing Zhang, Yiyue Zhang
Neutrophils play important roles in innate immunity and are mainly dependent on various enzyme-containing granules to kill engulfed microorganisms. Zebrafish nephrosin (npsn) is specifically expressed in neutrophils; however, its function is largely unknown. Here, we generated an npsn mutant (npsn(smu5) ) via CRISPR/Cas9 to investigate the in vivo function of Npsn. The overall development and number of neutrophils remained unchanged in npsn-deficient mutants, whereas neutrophil antibacterial function was defective...
August 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814649/wnt-ligand-presentation-and-reception-from-the-stem-cell-niche-to-tissue-engineering
#15
REVIEW
Kate M Mills, James L A Szczerkowski, Shukry J Habib
Stem cells reside in niches where spatially restricted signals maintain a delicate balance between stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. Wnt family proteins are particularly suited for this role as they are modified by lipids, which constrain and spatially regulate their signalling range. In recent years, Wnt/β-catenin signalling has been shown to be essential for the self-renewal of a variety of mammalian stem cells. In this review, we discuss Wnt-responsive stem cells in their niche, and mechanisms by which Wnt ligands are presented to responsive cells...
August 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814648/zc4h2-stabilizes-smads-to-enhance-bmp-signalling-which-is-involved-in-neural-development-in-xenopus
#16
Pengcheng Ma, Biyu Ren, Xiangcai Yang, Bin Sun, Xiaoliang Liu, Qinghua Kong, Chaocui Li, Bingyu Mao
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play vital roles in regulating stem cell maintenance, differentiation and embryonic development. Intracellularly, BMP signalling is mediated by Smad proteins, which are regulated post-transcriptionally through reversible phosphorylation and ubiquitination. ZC4H2 is a small nuclear protein associated with intellectual disability and neural development in humans. Here, we report that ZC4H2 is highly expressed in the developing neural system and is involved in neural patterning and BMP signalling in Xenopus Knockdown of ZC4H2 led to expansion of the expression of the pan neural plate marker Sox2 in Xenopus embryos...
August 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814647/substrate-triggered-position-switching-of-tata-and-tatb-during-tat-transport-in-escherichia-coli
#17
Johann Habersetzer, Kristoffer Moore, Jon Cherry, Grant Buchanan, Phillip J Stansfeld, Tracy Palmer
The twin-arginine protein transport (Tat) machinery mediates the translocation of folded proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane of prokaryotes and the thylakoid membrane of plant chloroplasts. The Escherichia coli Tat system comprises TatC and two additional sequence-related proteins, TatA and TatB. The active translocase is assembled on demand, with substrate-binding at a TatABC receptor complex triggering recruitment and assembly of multiple additional copies of TatA; however, the molecular interactions mediating translocase assembly are poorly understood...
August 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747406/lncrnas-in-development-and-disease-from-functions-to-mechanisms
#18
REVIEW
M Joaquina Delás, Gregory J Hannon
Differential expression of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) during differentiation and their misregulation in cancer highlight their potential as cell fate regulators. While some example lncRNAs have been characterized in great detail, the functional in vivo relevance of others has been called into question. Finding functional lncRNAs will most probably require a combination of complementary approaches that will greatly vary depending on their mode of action. In this review, we discuss the different tools available to dissect genetically lncRNA requirements and how each is best suited to studies in particular contexts...
July 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747405/nmda-receptor-dependent-presynaptic-inhibition-at-the-calyx-of-held-synapse-of-rat-pups
#19
Tomoko Oshima-Takago, Hideki Takago
N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play diverse roles in synaptic transmission, synaptic plasticity, neuronal development and neurological diseases. In addition to their postsynaptic expression, NMDARs are also expressed in presynaptic terminals at some central synapses, and their activation modulates transmitter release. However, the regulatory mechanisms of NMDAR-dependent synaptic transmission remain largely unknown. In the present study, we demonstrated that activation of NMDARs in a nerve terminal at a central glutamatergic synapse inhibits presynaptic Ca(2+) currents (ICa) in a GluN2C/2D subunit-dependent manner, thereby decreasing nerve-evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents...
July 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724695/caryolan-1-ol-an-antifungal-volatile-produced-by-streptomyces-spp-inhibits-the-endomembrane-system-of-fungi
#20
Gyeongjun Cho, Junheon Kim, Chung Gyoo Park, Corey Nislow, David M Weller, Youn-Sig Kwak
Streptomyces spp. have the ability to produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites that interact with the environment. This study aimed to discover antifungal volatiles from the genus Streptomyces and to determine the mechanisms of inhibition. Volatiles identified from Streptomyces spp. included three major terpenes, geosmin, caryolan-1-ol and an unknown sesquiterpene. antiSMASH and KEGG predicted that the volatile terpene synthase gene clusters occur in the Streptomyces genome. Growth inhibition was observed when fungi were exposed to the volatiles...
July 2017: Open Biology
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