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Journal of Obsessive-compulsive and related Disorders

Jennifer R Alexander, David C Houghton, Michael P Twohig, Martin E Franklin, Stephen M Saunders, Angela M Neal-Barnett, Scott N Compton, Douglas W Woods
The Milwaukee Inventory for Subtypes of Trichotillomania-Adult Version (MIST-A; Flessner et al., 2008) measures the degree to which hair pulling in Trichotillomania (TTM) can be described as "automatic" (i.e., done without awareness and unrelated to affective states) and/or "focused" (i.e., done with awareness and to regulate affective states). Despite preliminary evidence in support of the psychometric properties of the MIST-A, emerging research suggests the original factor structure may not optimally capture TTM phenomenology...
October 2016: Journal of Obsessive-compulsive and related Disorders
Benjamin Kelmendi, Thomas Adams, Ewgeni Jakubovski, Keith A Hawkins, Vladimir Coric, Christopher Pittenger
Deficits in implicit learning, a process by which knowledge is acquired accretively through practice independent of conscious awareness, have been implicated in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). The weather-prediction task (WPT) was used to assess implicit learning in 26 unmedicated patients with OCD and 23 healthy controls. An additional analysis compared these two groups with 25 medicated patients with OCD. In the comparison of unmedicated patients with healthy controls there was a subtle but statistically significant group-by-block interaction...
April 2016: Journal of Obsessive-compulsive and related Disorders
Hilary Weingarden, Keith D Renshaw, June P Tangney, Sabine Wilhelm
Body shame is described as central in clinical literature on body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). However, empirical investigations of body shame within BDD are rare. One potential reason for the scarcity of such research may be that existing measures of body shame focus on eating and weight-based content. Within BDD, however, body shame likely focuses more broadly on shame felt in response to perceived appearance flaws in one's body parts. We describe the development and validation of the Body-Focused Shame and Guilt Scale (BF-SGS), a measure of BDD-relevant body shame, across two studies: a two time-point study of undergraduates, and a follow-up study in two Internet-recruited clinical samples (BDD, obsessive compulsive disorder) and healthy controls...
January 1, 2016: Journal of Obsessive-compulsive and related Disorders
Kristen G Benito, Michael Walther
The current paper outlines the habituation model of exposure process, which is a behavioral model emphasizing use of individually tailored functional analysis during exposures. This is a model of therapeutic process rather than one meant to explain the mechanism of change underlying exposure-based treatments. Habitation, or a natural decrease in anxiety level in the absence of anxiety-reducing behavior, might be best understood as an intermediate treatment outcome that informs therapeutic process, rather than as a mechanism of change...
July 1, 2015: Journal of Obsessive-compulsive and related Disorders
Randy O Frost, Gail Steketee, David F Tolin, Nicole Sinopoli, Dylan Ruby
Hoarding Disorder (HD) was classified as a separate disorder in DSM-5 (APA, 2013). However, only recently has research on hoarding begun in earnest, and as of yet, very little research exists on the motivation to acquire and save the excessive volume of possessions seen in patients with this disorder. This investigation examined the frequency of four motives for acquiring and saving possessions that are often reported anecdotally by people with HD (information, emotional reasons, avoid waste, and aesthetic reasons)...
January 1, 2015: Journal of Obsessive-compulsive and related Disorders
Anthony Pinto, Ashley L Greene, Eric A Storch, H Blair Simpson
Identifying risk factors of psychopathology has been an important research challenge. Prior studies examining the impact of childhood temperament on adult disorder have largely focused on undercontrolled and inhibited presentations, with little study of overcontrolled traits such as obsessive-compulsive personality traits (OCPTs). We compared rates of childhood OCPTs in adults with OCD (without OCPD) (n = 28) to adults with OCPD (without OCD) (n = 27), adults with both OCD and OCPD (n = 28), and healthy controls (HC) (n= 28), using the Childhood Retrospective Perfectionism Questionnaire, a validated measure of perfectionism, inflexibility, and drive for order...
January 1, 2015: Journal of Obsessive-compulsive and related Disorders
Alison J Athey, Jason A Elias, Jesse M Crosby, Michael A Jenike, Harrison G Pope, James I Hudson, Brian P Brennan
OBJECTIVES: Disgust is a well-established phenomenon with known neurobiological correlates. However, it remains unclear how or whether disgust changes with clinical treatment, because few longitudinal studies have tracked the association of disgust vulnerability and clinical symptoms in patient populations. METHODS: We assessed disgust propensity and symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in 134 patients receiving intensive residential treatment for OCD...
January 1, 2015: Journal of Obsessive-compulsive and related Disorders
David L Pauls, Thomas V Fernandez, Carol A Mathews, Matthew W State, Jeremiah M Scharf
Georges Gilles de la Tourette, in describing the syndrome that now bears his name, observed that the condition aggregated within families. Over the last three decades, numerous studies have confirmed this observation, and demonstrated that familial clustering is due in part to genetic factors. Recent studies are beginning to provide clues about the underlying genetic mechanisms important for the manifestation of some cases of Tourette Disorder (TD). Evidence has come from different study designs, such as nuclear families, twins, multigenerational families, and case-control samples, together examining the broad spectrum of genetic variation including cytogenetic abnormalities, copy number variants, genome-wide association of common variants, and sequencing studies targeting rare and/or de novo variation...
October 1, 2014: Journal of Obsessive-compulsive and related Disorders
Lawrence Scahill, Matthew Specht, Christopher Page
BACKGROUND: Prevalence is a simple statement about the frequency of a disease in the population. For many medical conditions, including Tourette syndrome, there are true cases that have not been previously diagnosed due to problems of access to appropriate clinical services. Therefore, to obtain a trustworthy estimate of prevalence, it is necessary to go beyond cases identified in clinical settings and evaluate community samples. METHOD: We reviewed 11 community surveys in children with Tourette syndrome (TS) published since 2000...
October 1, 2014: Journal of Obsessive-compulsive and related Disorders
Kevin J Black, Joseph Jankovic, Tamara Hershey, Kevin St P McNaught, Jonathan W Mink, John Walkup
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a heritable neuropsychiatric disorder commonly complicated by obsessions and compulsions, but defined by frequent unwanted movements (motor tics) and vocalizations (phonic tics) that develop in childhood or adolescence. In recent years, research on TS has progressed rapidly on several fronts. Inspired by the Fifth International Scientific Symposium on Tourette Syndrome, the articles in this special issue review advances in the phenomenology, epidemiology, genetics, pathophysiology, and treatment of TS...
October 1, 2014: Journal of Obsessive-compulsive and related Disorders
Jessica A Church, Bradley L Schlaggar
Tourette syndrome has been examined using many different neuroimaging techniques. There has been a recent surge of neuroimaging research papers related to Tourette syndrome that are exploring many different aspects of the disorder and its comorbidities. This brief review focuses on recent MRI-based imaging studies of pediatric Tourette syndrome, including anatomical, functional, resting state, and diffusion tensor MRI techniques. Consistencies across studies are explored, and particularly important issues involved in acquiring data from this special population are discussed...
October 1, 2014: Journal of Obsessive-compulsive and related Disorders
Elise M Clerkin, Joshua C Magee, E Marie Parsons
This study evaluated an adaptation of a Cognitive Bias Modification-Interpretation (CBM-I) procedure designed to shift interpretations of intrusive thoughts related to beliefs about the Importance and Control of Thoughts (ICT). Individuals high in the ICT belief domain were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: (a) a positive (n = 38) condition in which scenarios about intrusive thoughts were repeatedly paired with benign interpretations; or (b) a control (n = 39) condition in which scenarios about intrusive thoughts were paired with 50% benign and 50% threatening interpretations...
October 1, 2014: Journal of Obsessive-compulsive and related Disorders
Martha J Falkenstein, Kate Rogers, Elizabeth J Malloy, David A F Haaga
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to identify predictors of relapse in a behavior therapy trial for trichotillomania (TTM), or hair-pulling disorder. Relapse is common after treatment for TTM, and only a few studies have examined what might predict relapse. METHOD: Data was examined from a TTM treatment study with a stepped-care approach (step 1. web-based self-help; step 2. individual behavior therapy) (N = 60). Implications of significant predictive relations were illustrated by constructing Probability of Treatment Benefit (PTB) charts (Lindhiem, Kolko, & Cheng, 2012), which quantify the probability of maintaining gains according to predictors of maintenance...
October 1, 2014: Journal of Obsessive-compulsive and related Disorders
Jack Samuels, Marco A Grados, Mark A Riddle, O Joseph Bienvenu, Fernando S Goes, Bernadette Cullen, Ying Wang, Benjamin D Greenberg, Abby J Fyer, James T McCracken, Dan Geller, Dennis L Murphy, James A Knowles, Steven A Rasmussen, Nicole C McLaughlin, John Piacentini, David L Pauls, S Evelyn Stewart, Yin-Yao Shugart, Brion Maher, Ann E Pulver, Gerald Nestadt
Compared to studies in adults, there have been few studies of hoarding in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In the current study, we evaluated OCD clinical features, Axis I disorders, and social reciprocity scores in 641 children and adolescents with OCD, of whom 163 (25%) had hoarding compulsions and 478 did not. We found that, as a group, youth with hoarding had an earlier age at onset and more severe lifetime OCD symptoms, poorer insight, more difficulty making decisions and completing tasks, and more overall impairment...
October 1, 2014: Journal of Obsessive-compulsive and related Disorders
Caleb M Pardue, Nicholas J Sibrava, Christina L Boisseau, Maria C Mancebo, Jane L Eisen, Steven A Rasmussen
The familial nature of OCD has been well established. Clinical characteristics such as early age of onset, comorbidity with tic disorders, and higher rates of symmetry symptoms have been associated with the familial aggregation of OCD, though little research has examined the differential impact of paternal and maternal OCD. The current study explored parental influence on the expression of these characteristics and reports on 310 probands diagnosed with OCD as well as 1,580 of their biological first-degree relatives...
July 1, 2014: Journal of Obsessive-compulsive and related Disorders
John E Calamari, John L Woodard, Kerrie M Armstrong, Alma Molino, Noelle K Pontarelli, Jami Socha, Susan L Longley
The lack of Obsessive-Compulsive disorder (OCD) symptom measures validated for use with older adults has hindered research and treatment development for the age group. We evaluated the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R; Foa et al., 2002) with participants aged 65 and older (N = 180) to determine if the measure was an effective tool for evaluating obsessional symptoms. Participants completed the OCI-R and a comprehensive assessment battery up to four times over approximately 18 months. Results supported the well-replicated latent structure of the OCI-R (i...
April 1, 2014: Journal of Obsessive-compulsive and related Disorders
Hannah Frank, Elyse Stewart, Michael Walther, Kristen Benito, Jennifer Freeman, Christ Conelea, Abbe Garci
Previous research has shown that among the various subtypes of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), adults (e.g. Frost, Krause & Steketee, 1996) and older children and adolescents (Bloch et al., 2009; Storch et al., 2007) with problematic hoarding have distinct features and a poor treatment prognosis. However, there is limited information on the phenomenology and prevalence of hoarding behaviors in young children. The present study characterizes children ages 10 and under who present with OCD and hoarding behaviors...
January 1, 2014: Journal of Obsessive-compulsive and related Disorders
Ann E Lambert, Yueqin Hu, Joshua C Magee, Jessica R Beadel, Bethany A Teachman
Some studies have found that trying to suppress thoughts increases their long-term recurrence, a phenomenon associated with psychopathology, particularly obsessive-compulsive disorder. However, effect sizes in thought suppression studies have often been small and inconsistent. The present study sought to improve thought suppression conceptualization and measurement by examining two distinct dimensions of thought recurrence - frequency and duration of a thought's return - and how they evolve over time. After a thought focus period, 100 adults were assigned to either suppress or monitor the recurrence of an unpleasant thought for 4 min...
January 1, 2014: Journal of Obsessive-compulsive and related Disorders
Anthony Pinto, Barbara Van Noppen, Lisa Calvocoressi
Family accommodation (FA) in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) refers to family members' or significant others' participation in or facilitation of patients' rituals and/or avoidance. With recent studies pointing to FA as a predictor of poorer treatment outcome, there is heightened interest in developing family-based interventions for OCD aimed at reducing FA. The interviewer-rated Family Accommodation Scale for OCD (FAS-IR) is the gold standard for assessing the types and severity of FA in OCD families. However, the cost of training interviewers and the time required for administration may limit its use in some settings...
October 1, 2013: Journal of Obsessive-compulsive and related Disorders
Ashley S Hart, Katharine A Phillips
Symmetry obsessions are a common symptom of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and have several demographic and clinical correlates. Appearance-related symmetry concerns appear common in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD); however, no published studies have examined this topic. This study examined the clinical features, prevalence, and correlates of symmetry concerns involving physical appearance in two BDD samples (N=160 and N=115). More than 25% of participants in each sample reported symmetry concerns for a body part with which they were preoccupied (total of 18 body parts in sample 1 and 18 in sample 2)...
July 1, 2013: Journal of Obsessive-compulsive and related Disorders
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