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Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders

Gabriel Bsteh, Harald Hegen, Felix Ladstätter, Klaus Berek, Matthias Amprosi, Sebastian Wurth, Michael Auer, Franziska Di Pauli, Florian Deisenhammer, Andreas Lutterotti, Thomas Berger
BACKGROUND: Impairment of olfactory threshold is a feature of early and active relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). It predicts inflammatory disease activity and was reported to be transient. However, the timing of onset and resolve of olfactory threshold impairment remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To prospectively assess the development of olfactory threshold in acute MS relapse over time in comparison to stable MS patients. METHODS: In a prospective observational design, we measured olfactory threshold by performing the Sniffin' Sticks test (minimum score 0, maximum score 16 reflecting optimal olfactory function) at baseline and after 4, 12 and 24 weeks...
May 18, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Chao Zheng, Liang He, Lingling Liu, Jie Zhu, Tao Jin
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelination disorder in the central nervous system (CNS) leading to a high level of neurological disability. The pathogenesis of MS remains largely unknown, which explains the lack of significant efficacy of therapy in MS. Vitamin D deficiency is widely considered to be an environmental risk factor for MS. Many studies investigating the therapeutic effects of vitamin D on MS have been applied. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effectiveness of vitamin D in MS patients...
May 12, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Athanasia Printza, Maria Kalaitzi, Christos Bakirtzis, Ioannis Nikolaidis, Hariklia Proios, Nikolaos Grigoriadis
BACKGROUND: Recent research confirmed that at least a third of people with multiple sclerosis (MS) are suffering from swallowing difficulties. Dysphagia is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and has profound impact on physical ability and quality of life. Dysphagia related complications can be prevented through an effective screening protocol. The Dysphagia in Multiple Sclerosis (DYMUS) questionnaire is the first dysphagia questionnaire developed specifically for patients with MS...
May 10, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Maureen A Mealy, Lawrence J Cook, Florence Pache, Diego L Velez, Nadja Borisow, Daniel Becker, Jorge A Jimenez Arango, Friedemann Paul, Michael Levy
BACKGROUND: It is unknown if vaccines cause non-specific immune activation in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder and no consensus on the use of vaccines exists for this population. We investigated the temporal association of vaccinations with relapses in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. METHODS: This is a multi-center retrospective analysis of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder for whom immunization history and clinical records from disease onset were available...
May 7, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Kathryn C Fitzgerald, Diane Vizthum, Bobbie Henry-Barron, Amy Schweitzer, Sandra D Cassard, Eric Kossoff, Adam L Hartman, Dimitrios Kapogiannis, Patrick Sullivan, David J Baer, Mark P Mattson, Lawrence J Appel, Ellen M Mowry
An intermittent fasting or calorie restriction diet has favorable effects in the mouse forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) and may provide additional anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective advantages beyond benefits obtained from weight loss alone. We conducted a pilot randomized controlled feeding study in 36 people with MS to assess safety and feasibility of different types of calorie restriction (CR) diets and assess their effects on weight and patient reported outcomes in people with MS. Patients were randomized to receive 1 of 3 diets for 8 weeks: daily CR diet (22% daily reduction in energy needs), intermittent CR diet (75% reduction in energy needs, 2 days/week; 0% reduction, 5 days/week), or a weight-stable diet (0% reduction in energy needs, 7 days/week)...
May 5, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Kristine Bihrmann, Nete Munk Nielsen, Melinda Magyari, Nils Koch-Henriksen, Rikke Baastrup Nordsborg, Annette Kjær Ersbøll
BACKGROUND: The aetiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) is largely unknown, but commonly assumed to be a complex interaction between genes and environmental exposures, presumably during early life. To evaluate the possible importance and timing of environmental exposures we investigated the spatial variation in the risk of MS in Denmark according to residence at birth, age 15, and clinical onset of disease. METHODS: We carried out a nationwide, register-based case-control study including 12 993 Danish MS cases with onset of disease 1971-2013...
May 4, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Leigh E Charvet, Michael T Shaw, Kathleen Sherman, Shannon Haas, Lauren B Krupp
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive impairment is a common symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS) that can lead to declines in daily functioning. Timed instrumental activities of daily living (TIADLs) have been useful to bridge between cognitive testing and real-world functioning in disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. However, these have not been standardized for general use, and the tasks that are typically employed have not been sensitive to the detection of milder forms of cognitive deficits...
May 3, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Simon B N Thompson, Alister Coleman, Nicola Williams
Yawning is a significant behavioural response and, together with cortisol, is potentially a new diagnostic marker of neurological diseases. Evidence of an association between yawning and cortisol was found which supports the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis and thermoregulation hypotheses, indication that brain cooling occurs when yawning. 117 volunteers aged 18-69 years were randomly allocated to experimentally controlled conditions to provoke yawning. Thirty-three had been diagnosed with multiple sclerosis. Saliva cortisol samples were collected before and after yawning or after stimuli presentation in the absence of yawning...
May 2, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Maria Donata Benedetti, Antonio Marangi, Silvia Bozzetti, Francesca Gobbin, Marco Turatti, Maurizio Pea, Alberto Gajofatto, Stelio Mocella
Fingolimod is a commonly used treatment for highly active relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). We describe the case of a 50-year old man on fingolimod since 2011 who presented, in April 2017, with a voluminous swelling of the left tonsil. A left tonsillectomy was performed, and histological exam disclosed a papillary squamous cell carcinoma of the palatine tonsil, with an in situ hybridization positive for human papillomavirus (HPV)-16 DNA. Neither lymph nodes involvement nor other metastases were detected...
May 2, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Beuy Joob, Viroj Wiwanitkit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 30, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Konstantina G Yiannopoulou, Dimitra Papadimitriou, Aikaterini I Anastasiou, Marina Siakantaris
A 47-year-old Caucasian female with relapsing- remitting Multiple Sclerosis, received alemtuzumab after a serious relapse. She had ceased receiving any treatment during the previous year. 23 days after alemtuzumab infusion she developed severe early neutropenia, which resulted in septic shock by Staphylococcus aureus and death. This is the first report of alemtuzumab infusion-related death due to early neutropenia in non-immunocompromised MS patients. We suggest that the long existing safety guidelines for alemtuzumab infusion in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia might be also beneficial in the MS setting...
April 28, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Felipe von Glehn, Rafael P C Dias-Carneiro, Adriel S Moraes, Alessandro S Farias, Veronica A P G Silva, Francisco T M Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo B G Silva, Fabricio de Carvalho, Elaine Rahal, Clare Baecher-Allan, Leonilda M B Santos
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms of action of dimethyl fumarate (DMF), and its metabolite, monomethyl fumarate (MMF), for the treatment of multiple sclerosis are not completely elucidated. OBJECTIVES: To discuss the role of DMF/MMF-induced hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 2 (HCA2 /GPR109A) pathway activation in the immune response and treatment of MS. METHODS: A narrative (traditional) review of the current literature. RESULTS: Studies have shown that binding of DMF/MMF to HCA2 on dendritic cells inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in vitro and in MS murine models...
April 25, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Şerife Deniz Aktura, Vuslat Yılmaz, Duygu Özkan-Yaşargün, Canan Ulusoy, Erdem Tüzün, Recai Türkoğlu
BACKGROUND: Starting from the first attack, activated B cells are found in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and are associated with disease activity. METHODS: Peripheral blood cells of 17 clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) patients were collected during the first attack. CIS patients were divided as those converting to MS (CIS-MS+, n = 8) and not converting to MS (CIS-MS-, n = 9) in three years. Age-gender matched MS patients (n = 19) and healthy individuals (n = 20) were included as controls...
April 24, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
A Shayganfar, A H Sarrami, S Fathi, V Shaygannejad, S Shamsian
BACKGROUND: In primary studies with 3 T Magnets, phase sensitive reconstruction of T1-weighted inversion recovery (PSIR) have showed ability to depict the cervical multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions some of which may not be detected by short tau inversion recovery (STIR). Regarding to more availability of 1.5 T MRI, this study was designed to evaluate the eligibility of PSIR in 1.5 T for detection of spinal cord MS lesions. METHOD: In a study between September 2016 till March 2017 the patients with proven diagnosis of MS enrolled to the study...
April 22, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Sara Nordio, Evanthia Bernitsas, Francesca Meneghello, Katie Palmer, Maria Rosaria Stabile, Laura Dipietro, Arianna Di Stadio
BACKGROUND: Speech disorders are common in patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). They can be assessed with several methods, which are however expensive, complex, and not easily accessible to physicians during routine clinic visits. This study aimed at measuring maximum phonation times, maximum expiratory times, and articulation abilities scores in patients with MS compared to healthy subjects and at investigating if any of these parameters could be used as a measure of MS progression...
April 21, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Jagannadha R Avasarala, Julie R Jones, Curtis R Rogers
A 34-year old Caucasian female was initially diagnosed with multiple small-vessel strokes at age 20 years which were etiologically classified as secondary to anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) although she had no history or laboratory data to suggest APS. Based on her MRI of brain findings, one of her neurologists was concerned she could have multiple sclerosis (MS) and hence the patient was referred to our clinic for further evaluation. The patient's MRI of brain showed confluent lesions in the periventricular and juxta-cortical lesions that fulfil 2017 McDonald criteria for dissemination in space...
April 21, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Evan A Jolliffe, B Mark Keegan, Eoin P Flanagan
Longitudinally-extensive T2-hyperintense spinal cord lesions (≥3 vertebral segments) are associated with neuromyelitis optical spectrum disorder but occur with other disorders including spinal cord sarcoidosis. When linear dorsal subpial enhancement is accompanied by central cord/canal enhancement the axial post-gadolinium sequences may reveal a "trident" pattern that has previously been shown to be strongly suggestive of spinal cord sarcoidosis. We report a case in which the patient was initially diagnosed with neuromyelitis optical spectrum disorder, but where the "trident" sign ultimately led to the correct diagnosis of spinal cord sarcoidosis...
April 21, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Jaime Toro, Luisa Blanco, Luis Felipe Orozco-Cabal, Camilo Díaz, Saúl Reyes, Lisseth Burbano, David Felipe Cuéllar-Giraldo, Alejandra Duque, Jorge Patiño, Fabián Cortés
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease with a lifetime prevalence of 4.41/100000 in Bogota, Colombia. It is known that it can be related with neuropsychiatric disorders, increasing by a factor of three the prevalence of depression in MS patients compared to general population. However, less attention has been given to the association between MS and impulsive behavior. METHODS: This cross-sectional study compared the levels of impulsivity controlling for the presence of MS...
April 18, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Dalia L Rotstein, Aditya Bharatha, Daniel Selchen
We report the case of an MS patient with aseptic temporal lobe encephalitis while on treatment with fingolimod. This 49-year-old woman developed headache and decreasing level of consciousness after 3.5 years of fingolimod therapy. Imaging, CSF studies, and rapid clinical response to acyclovir suggested a viral etiology, although CSF cultures and viral PCR were negative. This case illustrates the potential for severe manifestations of infectious illnesses on fingolimod, which may have a predilection for the CNS and also include herpes virus infections, cryptococcus, and PML...
April 16, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Julio C Furlan
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction is a relatively common secondary complication of tetraplegia. In addition to low baseline arterial blood pressure, tetraplegics can develop sudden-onset hypertensive episodes associated with a variety of symptoms and signs (so-called autonomic dysreflexia). Unfortunately, this potentially life-threatening medical entity is often overlooked and mismanaged. With this, a case of typical presentation of autonomic dysreflexia in an individual with acute severe cervical spinal cord impairment due to neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is reported and discussed...
April 16, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
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