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Infection Ecology & Epidemiology

Rebekah C Kading, Robert M Kityo, Eric C Mossel, Erin M Borland, Teddie Nakayiki, Betty Nalikka, Luke Nyakarahuka, Jeremy P Ledermann, Nicholas A Panella, Amy T Gilbert, Mary B Crabtree, Julian Kerbis Peterhans, Jonathan S Towner, Brian R Amman, Tara K Sealy, Stuart T Nichol, Ann M Powers, Julius J Lutwama, Barry R Miller
Introduction: A number of arboviruses have previously been isolated from naturally-infected East African bats, however the role of bats in arbovirus maintenance is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the exposure history of Ugandan bats to a panel of arboviruses. Materials and methods: Insectivorous and fruit bats were captured from multiple locations throughout Uganda during 2009 and 2011-2013. All serum samples were tested for neutralizing antibodies against West Nile virus (WNV), yellow fever virus (YFV), dengue 2 virus (DENV-2), Zika virus (ZIKV), Babanki virus (BBKV), and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT)...
2018: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Belisário Moiane, Lourenço Mapaco, Peter Thompson, Mikael Berg, Ann Albihn, José Fafetine
Introduction: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an arthropod-borne disease that affects both animals and humans. RVF phlebovirus (RVFPV) is widespread in Africa and Arabian Peninsula. In Mozambique, outbreaks were reported in South; seroprevalence studies performed in livestock and water buffaloes were limited to central and south regions. We evaluated the seroprevalence of RVFPV among domestic ruminants and African buffaloes from 7 of 10 provinces of Mozambique, to understand the distribution of RVFPV and provide data for further RVF control programs...
2017: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Siri Kulberg Sjurseth, Britt Gjerset, Karoline Bragstad, Olav Hungnes, Helene Wisløff, Chiek Er, Mette Valheim, Siri M Løtvedt, Bruce David, Skjalg A Hanssen, Siri H Hauge, Merete Hofshagen
Introduction : Routine surveillance samples disclosed seropositivity to influenza A virus (IAV) in a Norwegian turkey breeder flock. Simultaneous reports of influenza-like symptoms in farm workers and a laboratory confirmed influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (H1N1pdm09) infection in one person led to the suspicion of a H1N1pdm09 infection in the turkeys. Animals and methods : H1N1pdm09 infection was confirmed by a positive haemaggutinin inhibition test using H1N1pdm09 antigens, and detection of H1N1pdm09 nucleic acid in reproductive organs of turkey hens...
2017: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Karin Söderqvist
As part of a trend toward healthy convenience foods, ready-to-eat (RTE) mixed-ingredient salads have become popular products among consumers. A mixed-ingredient salad contains combinations of raw ( e.g . leafy vegetables and tomatoes) and processed ( e.g . chicken, salmon, ham, pasta and couscous) ingredients. Contamination of leafy vegetables can occur during any step in the production chain and, since there is no step that kills pathogens, a completely safe final product can never be guaranteed. Meat ingredients, for example poultry meat and ham, are generally heat-treated before preparation, but may be contaminated after this treatment, e...
2017: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Per Eriksson, Evangelos Mourkas, Daniel González-Acuna, Björn Olsen, Patrik Ellström
Introduction: Advances in the development of nucleic acid-based methods have dramatically facilitated studies of host-microbial interactions. Fecal DNA analysis can provide information about the host's microbiota and gastrointestinal pathogen burden. Numerous studies have been conducted in mammals, yet birds are less well studied. Avian fecal DNA extraction has proved challenging, partly due to the mixture of fecal and urinary excretions and the deficiency of optimized protocols. This study presents an evaluation of the performance in avian fecal DNA extraction of six commercial kits from different bird species, focusing on penguins...
2017: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Emeli Torsson, Mikael Berg, Gerald Misinzo, Ida Herbe, Tebogo Kgotlele, Malin Päärni, Nils Roos, Anne-Lie Blomström, Karl Ståhl, Jonas Johansson Wensman
Introduction: Livestock husbandry is critical for food security and poverty reduction in a low-income country like Tanzania. Infectious disease is one of the major constraints reducing the productivity in this sector. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is one of the most important diseases affecting small ruminants, but other infectious diseases may also be present. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors for exposure to PPR, contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP), foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), bluetongue (BT), and bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) in sheep and goats in Tanzania...
2017: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Bengt Rönnberg, Olli Vapalahti, Marco Goeijenbier, Chantal Reusken, Åke Gustafsson, Jonas Blomberg, Åke Lundkvist
Introduction: Hantaviruses are globally distributed zoonotic pathogens. Great diversity and high antigenic cross-reactivity makes diagnosis by traditional methods cumbersome. Materials and methods: 'Megapeptides', 119-120-mers from the amino terminus of the nucleoprotein of 16 hantaviruses, representing the four major branches of the hantavirus phylogenetic tree, were utilized in a novel IgG-based hantavirus suspension multiplex immunoassay (HSMIA) for detection of past hantavirus infections in 155 North European human samples...
2017: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Kenneth Nilsson, Katarina Wallménius, Pernilla Rundlöf-Nygren, Susanne Strömdahl, Carl Påhlson
Introduction: African tick-bite fever, caused by Rickettsia africae, is endemic in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa and a possible cause of fever in returning Swedish travellers. Two patients are presented, and the advantages and disadvantages of different diagnostic methods are discussed. Patients and methods: Two middle-aged men fell ill with fever after returning home from South Africa. Both had single eschars and one also presented with a lymph node swelling. Samples were taken for serology, general bacterial culture from the wound (Patient 1) using a swab and additionally for Patient 2 PCR of a skin biopsy from the eschar...
2017: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Arja Helena Kautto, Ivar Vågsholm, Rauni Niskanen
Background: ​This study scrutinized carcass conditions recorded in post mortem inspections (PMI) of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus, L.) during 2015-2016 because of the importance for monitoring food safety and animal and environmental health threats. Material and methods: PMI results were retrieved from the National Food Agency. A negative binomial regression model was applied. For actual parameters, incident risk rate (IRR) with confidence intervals was calculated. Results and discussion: The number of conditions found in PMI varied widely between years and batches...
2017: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Ulrike Zieger, Sonia Cheetham, Sharlene E Santana, Leith Leiser-Miller, Vanessa Matthew-Belmar, Hooman Goharriz, Anthony R Fooks
Introduction: Grenada is a rabies endemic country, where terrestrial rabies is maintained in the small Indian mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus). The role of bats in the epidemiology of rabies in Grenada is unknown. A 1974 report described one rabies virus positive Jamaican fruit bat (Artibeus jamaicensis), and a high seroprevalence in this species. In the current study, the natural exposure to rabies virus in Grenadian bats was re-evaluated. It is postulated that bats serve as a natural rabies reservoir, probably circulating a bat-specific rabies virus variant...
2017: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Kerstin Myrtennäs, Krustyu Marinov, Anders Johansson, Marcin Niemcewicz, Edvin Karlsson, Mona Byström, Mats Forsman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Malik Sallam, Gülşen Özkaya Şahin, Hlynur Indriðason, Joakim Esbjörnsson, Arthur Löve, Anders Widell, Magnus Gottfreðsson, Patrik Medstrand
Introduction: Resistance to antiretroviral drugs can complicate the management of HIV-1 infection and impair control of its spread. The aim of the current study was to investigate the prevalence and transmission of HIV-1 drug resistance among 106 antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve patients diagnosed in Iceland (1996-2012). Methods: HIV-1 polymerase sequences were analysed using the Calibrated Population Resistance tool. Domestic spread of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) was investigated through maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches...
2017: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Karin Söderqvist, Omneya Ahmed Osman, Cecilia Wolff, Stefan Bertilsson, Ivar Vågsholm, Sofia Boqvist
Introduction: Ready-to-eat (RTE) leafy vegetables have a natural leaf microbiota that changes during different processing and handling steps from farm to fork. The objectives of this study were (i) to compare the microbiota of RTE baby spinach and mixed-ingredient salad before and after seven days of storage at 8°C or 15°C; (ii) to explore associations between bacterial communities and the foodborne pathogens Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica, and pathogen model organism Escherichia coli O157:H7 gfp+ when experimentally inoculated into the salads before storage; and (iii) to investigate if bacterial pathogens may be detected in the 16S rRNA amplicon dataset...
2017: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Viktor Dahl, Lena Sundqvist, Ingela Hedenström, Margareta Löfdahl, Erik Alm, Håkan Ringberg, Mats Lindblad, Anders Wallensten, Susanne Thisted Lambertz, Cecilia Jernberg
In January 2014, the Public Health Agency of Sweden noticed an increase in listeriosis cases. Isolates from 10 cases had identical pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles, suggesting a common source. We investigated the outbreak to identify the source and stop transmission. We looked for cases in 2013-2014 and also compared cases notified after February 2014 to randomly selected controls. We surveyed food items consumed two weeks prior to symptom onset. Listeria monocytogenes isolates found by food producers were PFGE-typed...
2017: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Mohammad Khan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Helle Ericsson Unnerstad, Helene Wahlström, Benedicta Molander, Björn Bengtsson
Introduction: Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) has emerged among pigs in many countries. MRSA in the pig population constitute a reservoir with risk for transmission to humans in close contact with pigs. Absence of MRSA in the top of the breeding pyramid would prevent spread to the rest of the pig population. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of MRSA in nucleus and multiplying pig herds in Sweden. Materials and methods: All nucleus and multiplying pig herds in Sweden present in 2011 (n = 53) and 2014 (n = 39) were sampled for MRSA...
2017: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Johan Elmberg, Charlotte Berg, Henrik Lerner, Jonas Waldenström, Rebecca Hessel
There are more herbivorous waterfowl (swans and geese) close to humans, livestock and poultry than ever before. This creates widespread conflict with agriculture and other human interests, but also debate about the role of swans and geese as potential vectors of disease of relevance for human and animal health. Using a One Health perspective, we provide the first comprehensive review of the scientific literature about the most relevant viral, bacterial, and unicellular pathogens occurring in wild geese and swans...
2017: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Arno Swart, Dick L Bekker, Miriam Maas, Ankje de Vries, Roan Pijnacker, Chantal B E M Reusken, Joke W B van der Giessen
This paper deals with modelling the relationship between human Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) infection, the abundance and prevalence of infection of the host (the bank vole), mast, and temperature. These data were used to build and parametrise generalised regression models, and parametrise them using datasets on these factors pertaining to the Netherlands. The performance of the models was assessed by considering their predictive power. Models including mast and monthly temperature performed well, and showed that mast intensity influences vole abundance and hence human exposure for the following year...
2017: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Anna-Lena Hammarin, Louise Treiberg Berndtsson, Kerstin Falk, Marie Nedinge, Gert Olsson, Åke Lundkvist
INTRODUCTION: To study the presence of European bat lyssavirus (EBLV) infections in bat reservoirs in Sweden, active surveillance was performed during the summers from 2008 to 2013. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Bat specimens were collected at >20 bat colonies in the central, southeastern, and southern parts of Sweden. In total, blood and saliva of 452 bats were examined by a virus neutralization test and by reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCRs)...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Jorge Hernández, Daniel González-Acuña
Anthropogenic influences in the southern polar region have been rare, but lately microorganisms associated with humans have reached Antarctica, possibly from military bases, fishing boats, scientific expeditions, and/or ship-borne tourism. Studies of seawater in areas of human intervention and proximal to fresh penguin feces revealed the presence of Escherichia coli strains least resistant to antibiotics in penguins, whereas E. coli from seawater elsewhere showed resistance to one or more of the following antibiotics: ampicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin, and trim-sulfa...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
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