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Infection Ecology & Epidemiology

Anna Gillman
Oseltamivir is the best available anti-influenza drug and has therefore been stockpiled worldwide in large quantities as part of influenza pandemic preparedness planning. The active metabolite oseltamivir carboxylate (OC) is stable and is not removed by conventional sewage treatment. Active OC has been detected in river water at concentrations up to 0.86 µg/L. Although the natural reservoir hosts of influenza A virus (IAV) are wild waterfowl that reside in aquatic environments, the ecologic risks associated with environmental OC release and its potential to generate resistant viral variants among wild birds has largely been unknown...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Clara Atterby, Andrew M Ramey, Gabriel Gustafsson Hall, Josef Järhult, Stefan Börjesson, Jonas Bonnedahl
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic-resistant bacteria pose challenges to healthcare delivery systems globally; however, limited information is available regarding the prevalence and spread of such bacteria in the environment. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in large-bodied gulls (Larus spp.) at urban and remote locations in Southcentral Alaska to gain inference into the association between antibiotic resistance in wildlife and anthropogenically influenced habitats...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Denise Anete Madureira de Alvarenga, Anielle de Pina-Costa, Patrícia Brasil, Cristiana Ferreira Alves de Brito, Cláudio Tadeu Daniel-Ribeiro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Estelle C C Ågren, Helene Wahlström, Catrin Vesterlund-Carlson, Elina Lahti, Lennart Melin, Robert Söderlund
BACKGROUND: Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is becoming a routine tool for infectious disease outbreak investigations. The Swedish situation provides an excellent opportunity to test the usefulness of WGS for investigation of outbreaks with Salmonella Dublin (S. Dublin) as epidemiological investigations are always performed when Salmonella is detected in livestock production, and index isolates from all detected herds are stored and therefore available for analysis. This study was performed to evaluate WGS as a tool in forward and backward tracings from herds infected with S...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Anne-Lie Blomström, Isabelle Scharin, Hedvig Stenberg, Jaquline Figueiredo, Ofélia Nhambirre, Ana Abilio, Mikael Berg, José Fafetine
BACKGROUND: The Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a vector-borne virus that causes disease in ruminants, but it can also infect humans. In humans, the infection can be asymptomatic but can also lead to illness, ranging from a mild disease with fever, headache and muscle pain to a severe disease with encephalitis and haemorrhagic fever. In rare cases, death can occur. In infected animals, influenza-like symptoms can occur, and abortion and mortality in young animals are indicative of RVFV infection...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Shaun Smith, Joseph Meade, James Gibbons, Kevina McGill, Declan Bolton, Paul Whyte
INTRODUCTION: Campylobacter jejuni is the leading bacterial food-borne pathogen within the European Union, and poultry meat is an important vehicle for its transmission to humans. However, there is limited knowledge about how this organism persists in broiler litter and faeces. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a number of environmental parameters, such as temperature, humidity, and oxygen, on Campylobacter survival in both broiler litter and faeces. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Used litter was collected from a Campylobacter-negative broiler house after final depopulation and fresh faeces were collected from transport crates...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Oskar Ljungquist, Ditte Ljungquist, Mattias Myrenås, Cecilia Rydén, Maria Finn, Björn Bengtsson
BACKGROUND: Extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (ESCRE) are an increasing healthcare problem in both human and veterinary medicine. The spread of ESCRE is complex with multiple reservoirs and different transmission routes. The aim of this study was to investigate if ESCRE carriage in dogs is more prevalent in households with a known human carrier, compared to households where humans are known to be negative for ESCRE. Identical ESCRE strains in humans and dogs of the same household would suggest a possible spread between humans and dogs...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Tabitha Kimani, Margaret Ngigi, Esther Schelling, Tom Randolph
INTRODUCTION: One Health (OH) can be considered a complex emerging policy to resolve health issues at the animal-human and environmental interface. It is expected to drive system changes in terms of new formal and informal institutional and organisational arrangements. This study, using Rift Valley fever (RVF) as a zoonotic problem requiring an OH approach, sought to understand the institutionalisation process at national and subnational levels in an early adopting country, Kenya. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Social network analysis methodologies were used...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Mare Lõhmus, Jenny Verner-Carlsson, Oliva Borg, Ann Albihn, Åke Lundkvist
In Sweden, human cases of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) infections are reported from the northern endemic regions. We found hantavirus-specific antibodies in yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis) trapped in human dwellings in the surroundings of the cities of Uppsala and Stockholm, which are situated far south from the traditional endemic areas of PUUV. Because the yellow-necked mouse is the most common rodent in human dwellings, hantaviruses in this rodent species may be important for the public health.
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Karolina Gullsby, Kåre Bondeson
BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common cause of respiratory infections which can cause life-threatening pneumonia and serious extrapulmonary manifestations. Since the year 2000, the emergence of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae strains has increased with varying incidences across countries. In China more than 90% of the strains are resistant. M. pneumoniae diagnostics is mostly done with molecular methods, and in Sweden antibiotic resistance surveillance is not routinely performed...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Diana Tilevik
BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of penicillin non-susceptible pneumococci (PNSP) throughout the world threatens successful treatment of infections caused by this important bacterial pathogen. The rate at which PNSP clones spread in the community is thought to mainly be determined by two key determinants; the volume of penicillin use and the magnitude of the fitness cost in the absence of treatment. The aim of the study was to determine the impacts of penicillin consumption and fitness cost on pneumococcal transmission dynamics in a developed country setting...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Pankaj Dhaka, Deepthi Vijay, Jess Vergis, Mamta Negi, Manesh Kumar, Vysakh Mohan, Swapnil Doijad, Krupali V Poharkar, Satyaveer Singh Malik, Sukhadeo Baliram Barbuddhe, Deepak B Rawool
INTRODUCTION: Infectious diarrhoea particularly due to pathogenic bacteria is a major health problem in developing countries, including India. Despite significant reports of diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) pathotypes around the globe, studies which address genetic relatedness, antibiogram profile and their correlation with respect to their isolation from different sources are sparse. The present study determines isolation and identification of DEC pathotypes from different sources, their genetic characterisation, antibiogram profile and their correlation if any...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Michelle M S Chen, Wayne S J Boardman, Melissa H Brown
BACKGROUND: Infection with methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) can be life-threatening in humans and its presence in animals is a cause for public health concern. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of MRS in captive and free-ranging wallabies over a 16-month period in South Australia, Australia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-nine purified staphylococcal isolates recovered from 98 captive and free-ranging wallabies' anterior nasal swabs were used in this study...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Frits Franssen, Arno Swart, Frans van Knapen, Joke van der Giessen
BACKGROUND: Rattus norvegicus (brown rat) and Rattus rattus (black rat) are known carriers of bacteria, viruses, and parasites of zoonotic and veterinary importance. Moreover, rats may play a role in the transmission of muscle larvae of the zoonotic nematode Trichinella spiralis to farm animals. We aimed to study the intestinal and intramuscular helminths in wild rats from three different environments to assess the relevance of rats as carrier of zoonotic parasites for public health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wild brown rats (117 individuals) and black rats (44 individuals) were captured at farms, in suburban and in rural environments in the Netherlands...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Shaun Smith, Locksley L McV Messam, Joseph Meade, James Gibbons, Kevina McGill, Declan Bolton, Paul Whyte
BACKGROUND: Campylobacter jejuni is the leading bacterial food-borne pathogen within the European Union (EU), and poultry meat is the primary route for transmission to humans. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study examined the impact of partial depopulation (thinning), season, and farm performance (economic, hygiene, and biosecurity) on Campylobacter prevalence in Irish broilers over a 13-month period. Ten caecal samples were taken per flock, for a total of 211 flocks from 23 farms during the duration of the study...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Bilal Zahoor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Alison J Peel, Hume E Field, Peter A Reid, Raina K Plowright, Christopher C Broder, Lee F Skerratt, David T S Hayman, Olivier Restif, Melanie Taylor, Gerardo Martin, Gary Crameri, Ina Smith, Michelle Baker, Glenn A Marsh, Jennifer Barr, Andrew C Breed, James L N Wood, Navneet Dhand, Jenny-Ann Toribio, Andrew A Cunningham, Ian Fulton, Wayne L Bryden, Cristy Secombe, Lin-Fa Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Krishna Regmi, Anju Kunwar, Leonard Ortega
BACKGROUND: Malaria is one of the deadliest mosquito-borne diseases in the world. More than 80% of the total populations are at risk of malaria in the 22 countries in Asia and the Pacific. South Asia alone is home to an estimated 1.4 billion people at risk of contracting malaria. Despite the remarkable progress in reducing the burden of malaria, evidence of the disease based on knowledge of the social and cultural contexts from a South Asian perspective is limited. Our objective was to understand the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about malaria in South Asian communities...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Salah Shanan, Magdi Bayoumi, Amir Saeed, Gunnar Sandström, Hadi Abd
Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative bacterium that occurs naturally in aquatic environment. Only V. cholerae O1 and V. cholerae O139 produce cholera toxin and cause cholera, other serogroups can cause gastroenteritis, open wounds infection, and septicaemia. V. cholerae O1 and V. cholerae O139 grow and survive inside Acanthamoeba castellanii. The aim of this study is to investigate the interactions of the Swedish clinical isolates V. cholerae O3, V. cholerae O4, V. cholerae O5, V. cholerae O11, and V. cholerae O160 with A...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Sophie Roelandt, Vanessa Suin, Yves Van der Stede, Sophie Lamoral, Sylvie Marche, Marylène Tignon, Juan Carlos Saiz, Estela Escribano-Romero, Jim Casaer, Bernard Brochier, Steven Van Gucht, Stefan Roels, Muriel Vervaeke
In the frame of a Flemish wildlife surveillance in 2013, a serological screening was performed on sera from wild boar (Sus scrofa; n=238) in order to detect tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV)-specific antibodies. Neutralising antibodies were titrated with a seroneutralisation test (SNT), using two cut-off titres (1/10-1/15). Seven wild boars were found TBEV-seropositive and showed moderate (>1/15) to high (>1/125) SNT-titres; three individuals had borderline results (1/10-1/15). This study demonstrated the presence of TBEV-specific antibodies in wild boar and highlighted potential TBEV-foci in Flanders...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
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