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Infection Ecology & Epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815001/serogrouping-and-seroepidemiology-of-north-european-hantaviruses-using-a-novel-broadly-targeted-synthetic-nucleoprotein-antigen-array
#1
Bengt Rönnberg, Olli Vapalahti, Marco Goeijenbier, Chantal Reusken, Åke Gustafsson, Jonas Blomberg, Åke Lundkvist
Introduction: Hantaviruses are globally distributed zoonotic pathogens. Great diversity and high antigenic cross-reactivity makes diagnosis by traditional methods cumbersome. Materials and methods: 'Megapeptides', 119-120-mers from the amino terminus of the nucleoprotein of 16 hantaviruses, representing the four major branches of the hantavirus phylogenetic tree, were utilized in a novel IgG-based hantavirus suspension multiplex immunoassay (HSMIA) for detection of past hantavirus infections in 155 North European human samples...
2017: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815000/african-tick-bite-fever-in-returning-swedish-travellers-report-of-two-cases-and-aspects-of-diagnostics
#2
Kenneth Nilsson, Katarina Wallménius, Pernilla Rundlöf-Nygren, Susanne Strömdahl, Carl Påhlson
Introduction: African tick-bite fever, caused by Rickettsia africae, is endemic in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa and a possible cause of fever in returning Swedish travellers. Two patients are presented, and the advantages and disadvantages of different diagnostic methods are discussed. Patients and methods: Two middle-aged men fell ill with fever after returning home from South Africa. Both had single eschars and one also presented with a lymph node swelling. Samples were taken for serology, general bacterial culture from the wound (Patient 1) using a swab and additionally for Patient 2 PCR of a skin biopsy from the eschar...
2017: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811870/meat-inspection-of-reindeer-a-rich-source-of-data-for-monitoring-food-safety-and-animal-and-environmental-health-in-sweden
#3
Arja Helena Kautto, Ivar Vågsholm, Rauni Niskanen
Background: ​This study scrutinized carcass conditions recorded in post mortem inspections (PMI) of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus, L.) during 2015-2016 because of the importance for monitoring food safety and animal and environmental health threats. Material and methods: PMI results were retrieved from the National Food Agency. A negative binomial regression model was applied. For actual parameters, incident risk rate (IRR) with confidence intervals was calculated. Results and discussion: The number of conditions found in PMI varied widely between years and batches...
2017: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804595/natural-exposure-of-bats-in-grenada-to-rabies-virus
#4
Ulrike Zieger, Sonia Cheetham, Sharlene E Santana, Leith Leiser-Miller, Vanessa Matthew-Belmar, Hooman Goharriz, Anthony R Fooks
Introduction: Grenada is a rabies endemic country, where terrestrial rabies is maintained in the small Indian mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus). The role of bats in the epidemiology of rabies in Grenada is unknown. A 1974 report described one rabies virus positive Jamaican fruit bat (Artibeus jamaicensis), and a high seroprevalence in this species. In the current study, the natural exposure to rabies virus in Grenadian bats was re-evaluated. It is postulated that bats serve as a natural rabies reservoir, probably circulating a bat-specific rabies virus variant...
2017: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649307/authors-reply
#5
Kerstin Myrtennäs, Krustyu Marinov, Anders Johansson, Marcin Niemcewicz, Edvin Karlsson, Mona Byström, Mats Forsman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649306/decreasing-prevalence-of-transmitted-drug-resistance-among-art-naive-hiv-1-infected-patients-in-iceland-1996-2012
#6
Malik Sallam, Gülşen Özkaya Şahin, Hlynur Indriðason, Joakim Esbjörnsson, Arthur Löve, Anders Widell, Magnus Gottfreðsson, Patrik Medstrand
Introduction: Resistance to antiretroviral drugs can complicate the management of HIV-1 infection and impair control of its spread. The aim of the current study was to investigate the prevalence and transmission of HIV-1 drug resistance among 106 antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve patients diagnosed in Iceland (1996-2012). Methods: HIV-1 polymerase sequences were analysed using the Calibrated Population Resistance tool. Domestic spread of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) was investigated through maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches...
2017: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649305/emerging-microbiota-during-cold-storage-and-temperature-abuse-of-ready-to-eat-salad%C3%A2
#7
Karin Söderqvist, Omneya Ahmed Osman, Cecilia Wolff, Stefan Bertilsson, Ivar Vågsholm, Sofia Boqvist
Introduction: Ready-to-eat (RTE) leafy vegetables have a natural leaf microbiota that changes during different processing and handling steps from farm to fork. The objectives of this study were (i) to compare the microbiota of RTE baby spinach and mixed-ingredient salad before and after seven days of storage at 8°C or 15°C; (ii) to explore associations between bacterial communities and the foodborne pathogens Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica, and pathogen model organism Escherichia coli O157:H7 gfp+ when experimentally inoculated into the salads before storage; and (iii) to investigate if bacterial pathogens may be detected in the 16S rRNA amplicon dataset...
2017: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649304/a-nationwide-outbreak-of-listeriosis-associated-with-cold-cuts-sweden-2013-2014
#8
Viktor Dahl, Lena Sundqvist, Ingela Hedenström, Margareta Löfdahl, Erik Alm, Håkan Ringberg, Mats Lindblad, Anders Wallensten, Susanne Thisted Lambertz, Cecilia Jernberg
In January 2014, the Public Health Agency of Sweden noticed an increase in listeriosis cases. Isolates from 10 cases had identical pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles, suggesting a common source. We investigated the outbreak to identify the source and stop transmission. We looked for cases in 2013-2014 and also compared cases notified after February 2014 to randomly selected controls. We surveyed food items consumed two weeks prior to symptom onset. Listeria monocytogenes isolates found by food producers were PFGE-typed...
2017: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649303/introduction-and-persistence-of-tularemia-in-bulgaria
#9
Mohammad Khan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567211/methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-not-detected-in-swedish-nucleus-and-multiplying-pig-herds
#10
Helle Ericsson Unnerstad, Helene Wahlström, Benedicta Molander, Björn Bengtsson
Introduction: Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) has emerged among pigs in many countries. MRSA in the pig population constitute a reservoir with risk for transmission to humans in close contact with pigs. Absence of MRSA in the top of the breeding pyramid would prevent spread to the rest of the pig population. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of MRSA in nucleus and multiplying pig herds in Sweden. Materials and methods: All nucleus and multiplying pig herds in Sweden present in 2011 (n = 53) and 2014 (n = 39) were sampled for MRSA...
2017: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567210/potential-disease-transmission-from-wild-geese-and-swans-to-livestock-poultry-and-humans-a-review-of-the-scientific-literature-from-a-one-health-perspective
#11
Johan Elmberg, Charlotte Berg, Henrik Lerner, Jonas Waldenström, Rebecca Hessel
There are more herbivorous waterfowl (swans and geese) close to humans, livestock and poultry than ever before. This creates widespread conflict with agriculture and other human interests, but also debate about the role of swans and geese as potential vectors of disease of relevance for human and animal health. Using a One Health perspective, we provide the first comprehensive review of the scientific literature about the most relevant viral, bacterial, and unicellular pathogens occurring in wild geese and swans...
2017: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567209/modelling-human-puumala-hantavirus-infection-in-relation-to-bank-vole-abundance-and-masting-intensity-in-the-netherlands
#12
Arno Swart, Dick L Bekker, Miriam Maas, Ankje de Vries, Roan Pijnacker, Chantal B E M Reusken, Joke W B van der Giessen
This paper deals with modelling the relationship between human Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) infection, the abundance and prevalence of infection of the host (the bank vole), mast, and temperature. These data were used to build and parametrise generalised regression models, and parametrise them using datasets on these factors pertaining to the Netherlands. The performance of the models was assessed by considering their predictive power. Models including mast and monthly temperature performed well, and showed that mast intensity influences vole abundance and hence human exposure for the following year...
2017: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974131/lyssavirus-reactive-antibodies-in-swedish-bats
#13
Anna-Lena Hammarin, Louise Treiberg Berndtsson, Kerstin Falk, Marie Nedinge, Gert Olsson, Åke Lundkvist
INTRODUCTION: To study the presence of European bat lyssavirus (EBLV) infections in bat reservoirs in Sweden, active surveillance was performed during the summers from 2008 to 2013. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Bat specimens were collected at >20 bat colonies in the central, southeastern, and southern parts of Sweden. In total, blood and saliva of 452 bats were examined by a virus neutralization test and by reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCRs)...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938628/anthropogenic-antibiotic-resistance-genes-mobilization-to-the-polar-regions
#14
REVIEW
Jorge Hernández, Daniel González-Acuña
Anthropogenic influences in the southern polar region have been rare, but lately microorganisms associated with humans have reached Antarctica, possibly from military bases, fishing boats, scientific expeditions, and/or ship-borne tourism. Studies of seawater in areas of human intervention and proximal to fresh penguin feces revealed the presence of Escherichia coli strains least resistant to antibiotics in penguins, whereas E. coli from seawater elsewhere showed resistance to one or more of the following antibiotics: ampicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin, and trim-sulfa...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906126/foreword
#15
Lotta Berg, Björn Olsen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906125/one-health-capacity-building-in-sub-saharan-africa
#16
REVIEW
Innocent B Rwego, Olutayo Olajide Babalobi, Protus Musotsi, Serge Nzietchueng, Christian Keambo Tiambo, John David Kabasa, Irene Naigaga, Gladys Kalema-Zikusoka, Katherine Pelican
BACKGROUND: Africa of late has been faced with challenges that require a multidisciplinary and multisectoral approach to address them, and academic and non-academic institutions have played a key role in training and conducting research that would promote the One Health approach. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to document networks and organizations conducting One Health training, research, and outreach in Africa, as one of a series of articles around the world...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906124/one-health-in-china
#17
REVIEW
Jianyong Wu, Lanlan Liu, Guoling Wang, Jiahai Lu
As a result of rapid economic growth over the previous three decades, China has become the second largest economy worldwide since 2010. However, as a developing country with the largest population, this rapid economic growth primarily based on excessive consumption and waste of resources. Thus, China has been facing particularly severe ecological and environmental problems in speeding up industrialization and urbanization. The impact of the health risk factors is complex and difficult to accurately predict...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906123/one-health-research-and-training-and-government-support-for-one-health-in-south-asia
#18
REVIEW
Joanna S McKenzie, Rojan Dahal, Manish Kakkar, Nitish Debnath, Mahmudur Rahman, Sithar Dorjee, Khalid Naeem, Tikiri Wijayathilaka, Barun Kumar Sharma, Nasir Maidanwal, Asmatullah Halimi, Eunmi Kim, Pranab Chatterjee, Brecht Devleesschauwer
INTRODUCTION: Considerable advocacy, funding, training, and technical support have been provided to South Asian countries to strengthen One Health (OH) collaborative approaches for controlling diseases with global human pandemic potential since the early 2000s. It is essential that the OH approach continues to be strengthened given South Asia is a hot spot for emerging and endemic zoonotic diseases. The objectives of this article are to describe OH research and training and capacity building activities and the important developments in government support for OH in these countries to identify current achievements and gaps...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906122/one-health-research-and-training-in-australia-and-new-zealand
#19
REVIEW
Simon A Reid, Joanna McKenzie, Solomon M Woldeyohannes
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: This review was performed to create a repository of information on One Health research and training in Australia and New Zealand (ANZ). The review sought to determine 1) how many training activities there are in ANZ, 2) how much research on zoonotic diseases is undertaken by multidisciplinary teams, and 3) how collaborative and integrated they are. RECENT FINDINGS: There are few opportunities for training in One Health in ANZ. The majority require enrolment in a postgraduate degree programme, and there is only one postgraduate level course that is also available for continuing professional development (CPD)...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906121/one-health-training-and-research-activities-in-western-europe
#20
REVIEW
Reina Sikkema, Marion Koopmans
INTRODUCTION: The increase in emerging human infectious diseases that have a zoonotic origin and the increasing resistance of microorganisms to antimicrobial drugs have shown the need for collaborations between the human, animal and environmental health sectors. The One Health concept increasingly receives recognition from policy makers and researchers all over the world. This overview compiled research and education activities in the area of One Health in Western Europe (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Iceland, Ireland, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Monaco, the Netherlands, Portugal, Scandinavia, Spain, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom (UK), with a focus on infectious diseases...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
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