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Infection Ecology & Epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906126/foreword
#1
Lotta Berg, Björn Olsen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906125/one-health-capacity-building-in-sub-saharan-africa
#2
REVIEW
Innocent B Rwego, Olutayo Olajide Babalobi, Protus Musotsi, Serge Nzietchueng, Christian Keambo Tiambo, John David Kabasa, Irene Naigaga, Gladys Kalema-Zikusoka, Katherine Pelican
BACKGROUND: Africa of late has been faced with challenges that require a multidisciplinary and multisectoral approach to address them, and academic and non-academic institutions have played a key role in training and conducting research that would promote the One Health approach. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to document networks and organizations conducting One Health training, research, and outreach in Africa, as one of a series of articles around the world...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906124/one-health-in-china
#3
REVIEW
Jianyong Wu, Lanlan Liu, Guoling Wang, Jiahai Lu
As a result of rapid economic growth over the previous three decades, China has become the second largest economy worldwide since 2010. However, as a developing country with the largest population, this rapid economic growth primarily based on excessive consumption and waste of resources. Thus, China has been facing particularly severe ecological and environmental problems in speeding up industrialization and urbanization. The impact of the health risk factors is complex and difficult to accurately predict...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906123/one-health-research-and-training-and-government-support-for-one-health-in-south-asia
#4
REVIEW
Joanna S McKenzie, Rojan Dahal, Manish Kakkar, Nitish Debnath, Mahmudur Rahman, Sithar Dorjee, Khalid Naeem, Tikiri Wijayathilaka, Barun Kumar Sharma, Nasir Maidanwal, Asmatullah Halimi, Eunmi Kim, Pranab Chatterjee, Brecht Devleesschauwer
INTRODUCTION: Considerable advocacy, funding, training, and technical support have been provided to South Asian countries to strengthen One Health (OH) collaborative approaches for controlling diseases with global human pandemic potential since the early 2000s. It is essential that the OH approach continues to be strengthened given South Asia is a hot spot for emerging and endemic zoonotic diseases. The objectives of this article are to describe OH research and training and capacity building activities and the important developments in government support for OH in these countries to identify current achievements and gaps...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906122/one-health-research-and-training-in-australia-and-new-zealand
#5
REVIEW
Simon A Reid, Joanna McKenzie, Solomon M Woldeyohannes
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: This review was performed to create a repository of information on One Health research and training in Australia and New Zealand (ANZ). The review sought to determine 1) how many training activities there are in ANZ, 2) how much research on zoonotic diseases is undertaken by multidisciplinary teams, and 3) how collaborative and integrated they are. RECENT FINDINGS: There are few opportunities for training in One Health in ANZ. The majority require enrolment in a postgraduate degree programme, and there is only one postgraduate level course that is also available for continuing professional development (CPD)...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906121/one-health-training-and-research-activities-in-western-europe
#6
REVIEW
Reina Sikkema, Marion Koopmans
INTRODUCTION: The increase in emerging human infectious diseases that have a zoonotic origin and the increasing resistance of microorganisms to antimicrobial drugs have shown the need for collaborations between the human, animal and environmental health sectors. The One Health concept increasingly receives recognition from policy makers and researchers all over the world. This overview compiled research and education activities in the area of One Health in Western Europe (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Iceland, Ireland, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Monaco, the Netherlands, Portugal, Scandinavia, Spain, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom (UK), with a focus on infectious diseases...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906120/one-health-training-research-and-outreach-in-north-america
#7
REVIEW
Cheryl Stroud, Bruce Kaplan, Jenae E Logan, Gregory C Gray
BACKGROUND: The One Health (OH) concept, formerly referred to as 'One Medicine' in the later part of the 20th century, has gained exceptional popularity in the early 21st century, and numerous academic and non-academic institutions have developed One Health programs. OBJECTIVES: To summarize One Health training, research, and outreach activities originating in North America. METHODS: We used data from extensive electronic records maintained by the One Health Commission (OHC) (www...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863533/ecological-niche-modelling-of-rift-valley-fever-virus-vectors-in-baringo-kenya
#8
Alfred O Ochieng, Mark Nanyingi, Edwin Kipruto, Isabella M Ondiba, Fred A Amimo, Christopher Oludhe, Daniel O Olago, Isaac K Nyamongo, Benson B A Estambale
BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a vector-borne zoonotic disease that has an impact on human health and animal productivity. Here, we explore the use of vector presence modelling to predict the distribution of RVF vector species under climate change scenario to demonstrate the potential for geographic spread of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of climate change on RVF vector distribution in Baringo County, Kenya, with an aim of developing a risk map for spatial prediction of RVF outbreaks...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852421/individual-and-environmental-factors-associated-with-the-seroprevalence-of-borrelia-burgdorferi-in-belgian-farmers-and-veterinarians
#9
Mathilde De Keukeleire, Annie Robert, Benoît Kabamba, Elise Dion, Victor Luyasu, Sophie O Vanwambeke
BACKGROUND: Lyme disease (LD) is a common tick-borne disease in Europe. Diverse factors at various scales determine the spatial distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi infection risk and a better understanding of those factors in a spatially explicit framework is needed for disease management and prevention. While the ecology of ticks and the landscape favoring their abundance have been extensively studied, the environmental conditions favoring an intense contact with susceptible humans, including groups at risk, are sparse...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27839533/molecular-detection-and-characterization-of-brucella-species-in-raw-informally-marketed-milk-from-uganda
#10
Tove Hoffman, Kim Rock, Denis Rwabiita Mugizi, Shaman Muradrasoli, Elisabeth Lindahl-Rajala, Joseph Erume, Ulf Magnusson, Åke Lundkvist, Sofia Boqvist
This study identified and characterized Brucella species in the informal milk chain in Uganda. A total of 324 cattle bulk milk samples were screened for the genus Brucella by real-time PCR with primers targeting the bcsp31 gene and further characterized by the omp25 gene. Of the samples tested, 6.5% were positive for Brucella species. In the omp25 phylogeny, the study sequences were found to form a separate clade within the branch containing B. abortus sequences. The study shows that informally marketed cattle milk in Uganda is a likely risk factor for human brucellosis and confirms that B...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834174/a-metagenomic-analysis-displays-the-diverse-microbial-community-of-a-vermicomposting-system-in-uganda
#11
Anne-Lie Blomström, Cecilia Lalander, Allan John Komakech, Björn Vinnerås, Sofia Boqvist
BACKGROUND: Vermicomposting is a mesophilic process using earthworms to efficiently and at low cost process large volumes of organic waste. It has been suggested to not only increase soil fertility but also increase biomass of beneficial bacteria while reducing harmful bacteria. The aim of this study was to set up a strategy to investigate and characterise the viral as well as the bacterial composition of a vermicomposting system. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The vermicomposting unit used in this study was placed at the Makerere University Agricultural Research Institute Kabanyolo on the outskirts of Kampala, Uganda, and was fed with 80% cattle manure and 20% food waste...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790972/introduction-and-persistence-of-tularemia-in-bulgaria
#12
Kerstin Myrtennäs, Krustyu Marinov, Anders Johansson, Marcin Niemcewicz, Edvin Karlsson, Mona Byström, Mats Forsman
INTRODUCTION: Outbreaks of the zoonotic disease tularemia occurred in north-east Bulgaria in the 1960s. Then came 30 years of epidemiological silence until new outbreaks occurred in west Bulgaria in the 1990s. To investigate how bacterial strains of Francisella tularensis causing tularemia in wildlife and humans in the 1960s and the 1990s were related, we explored their genetic diversity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten F. tularensis genomes from the 1960s (n=3) and the 1990s (n=7) were sequenced, assigned to canonical single-nucleotide polymorphism (canSNP) clades, and compared to reference genomes...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770516/history-and-current-status-of-peste-des-petits-ruminants-virus-in-tanzania
#13
Emeli Torsson, Tebogo Kgotlele, Mikael Berg, Niwael Mtui-Malamsha, Emanuel S Swai, Jonas Johansson Wensman, Gerald Misinzo
Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes the acute, highly contagious disease peste des petits ruminants (PPR) that affects small domestic and wild ruminants. PPR is of importance in the small livestock-keeping industry in Tanzania, especially in rural areas as it is an important source of livelihood. Morbidity and case fatality rate can be as high as 80-100% in naïve herds; however, in endemic areas, morbidity and case fatality range between 10 and 100% where previous immunity, age, and species of infected animal determine severity of outcome...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733236/risk-of-resistant-avian-influenza-a-virus-in-wild-waterfowl-as-a-result-of-environmental-release-of-oseltamivir
#14
Anna Gillman
Oseltamivir is the best available anti-influenza drug and has therefore been stockpiled worldwide in large quantities as part of influenza pandemic preparedness planning. The active metabolite oseltamivir carboxylate (OC) is stable and is not removed by conventional sewage treatment. Active OC has been detected in river water at concentrations up to 0.86 µg/L. Although the natural reservoir hosts of influenza A virus (IAV) are wild waterfowl that reside in aquatic environments, the ecologic risks associated with environmental OC release and its potential to generate resistant viral variants among wild birds has largely been unknown...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649798/increased-prevalence-of-antibiotic-resistant-e-coli-in-gulls-sampled-in-southcentral-alaska-is-associated-with-urban-environments
#15
Clara Atterby, Andrew M Ramey, Gabriel Gustafsson Hall, Josef Järhult, Stefan Börjesson, Jonas Bonnedahl
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic-resistant bacteria pose challenges to healthcare delivery systems globally; however, limited information is available regarding the prevalence and spread of such bacteria in the environment. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in large-bodied gulls (Larus spp.) at urban and remote locations in Southcentral Alaska to gain inference into the association between antibiotic resistance in wildlife and anthropogenically influenced habitats...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27580974/malaria-attack-in-southeastern-brazil-a-probable-locally-acquired-new-infection
#16
Denise Anete Madureira de Alvarenga, Anielle de Pina-Costa, Patrícia Brasil, Cristiana Ferreira Alves de Brito, Cláudio Tadeu Daniel-Ribeiro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27396609/comparison-of-whole-genome-sequencing-typing-results-and-epidemiological-contact-information-from-outbreaks-of-salmonella-dublin-in-swedish-cattle-herds
#17
Estelle C C Ågren, Helene Wahlström, Catrin Vesterlund-Carlson, Elina Lahti, Lennart Melin, Robert Söderlund
BACKGROUND: Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is becoming a routine tool for infectious disease outbreak investigations. The Swedish situation provides an excellent opportunity to test the usefulness of WGS for investigation of outbreaks with Salmonella Dublin (S. Dublin) as epidemiological investigations are always performed when Salmonella is detected in livestock production, and index isolates from all detected herds are stored and therefore available for analysis. This study was performed to evaluate WGS as a tool in forward and backward tracings from herds infected with S...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27388698/seroprevalence-of-rift-valley-fever-virus-in-sheep-and-goats-in-zamb%C3%A3-zia-mozambique
#18
Anne-Lie Blomström, Isabelle Scharin, Hedvig Stenberg, Jaquline Figueiredo, Ofélia Nhambirre, Ana Abilio, Mikael Berg, José Fafetine
BACKGROUND: The Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a vector-borne virus that causes disease in ruminants, but it can also infect humans. In humans, the infection can be asymptomatic but can also lead to illness, ranging from a mild disease with fever, headache and muscle pain to a severe disease with encephalitis and haemorrhagic fever. In rare cases, death can occur. In infected animals, influenza-like symptoms can occur, and abortion and mortality in young animals are indicative of RVFV infection...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27357236/the-impact-of-environmental-conditions-on-campylobacter-jejuni-survival-in-broiler-faeces-and-litter
#19
Shaun Smith, Joseph Meade, James Gibbons, Kevina McGill, Declan Bolton, Paul Whyte
INTRODUCTION: Campylobacter jejuni is the leading bacterial food-borne pathogen within the European Union, and poultry meat is an important vehicle for its transmission to humans. However, there is limited knowledge about how this organism persists in broiler litter and faeces. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a number of environmental parameters, such as temperature, humidity, and oxygen, on Campylobacter survival in both broiler litter and faeces. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Used litter was collected from a Campylobacter-negative broiler house after final depopulation and fresh faeces were collected from transport crates...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27330043/evidence-of-household-transfer-of-esbl-pampc-producing-enterobacteriaceae-between-humans-and-dogs-a-pilot-study
#20
Oskar Ljungquist, Ditte Ljungquist, Mattias Myrenås, Cecilia Rydén, Maria Finn, Björn Bengtsson
BACKGROUND: Extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (ESCRE) are an increasing healthcare problem in both human and veterinary medicine. The spread of ESCRE is complex with multiple reservoirs and different transmission routes. The aim of this study was to investigate if ESCRE carriage in dogs is more prevalent in households with a known human carrier, compared to households where humans are known to be negative for ESCRE. Identical ESCRE strains in humans and dogs of the same household would suggest a possible spread between humans and dogs...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
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