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Application of Clinical Genetics

Kiyoshi Hayasaka, Chikahiko Numakura
Citrin deficiency is a recessively inherited metabolic disorder with age-dependent clinical manifestations. It causes neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis (NICCD) and adult-onset type II citrullinemia (CTLN2). Patients with NICCD present with intrahepatic cholestasis in the neonatal period and usually respond to the treatment with medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) supplement and lactose-restricted formula. In adulthood, CTLN2 develops in <10 % of the patients showing hyperammonemic encephalopathy. Patients with CTLN2 required liver transplantation for the most promising prognosis; however, they were successfully treated with MCT supplement with a low carbohydrate formula...
2018: Application of Clinical Genetics
Lady J Ríos-Serna, Lorena Díaz-Ordoñez, Estephania Candelo, Harry Pachajoa
Holt-Oram syndrome (HOS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by congenital cardiac defects and congenital deformities of the upper limbs. Herein, we report the case of a 2-year-old patient presenting with clinical diagnostic criteria of HOS with interatrial and interventricular communication associated with hip dysplasia and upper limb reduction composed of radial ray anomaly. A novel de novo, potentially pathogenic variant in the TBX5 gene at NM_181486.2:c.243-1G>C was identified.
2018: Application of Clinical Genetics
Gabriela Caicedo-Herrera, Estephania Candelo, Juan Pinilla, Andrés Vidal, Santiago Cruz, Harry Mauricio Pachajoa
Background: Menkes disease is a congenital neurodegenerative disorder caused by ATP7A gene mutations. Clinical features include epilepsy, growth delay, reduced muscle strength, skin laxity, abnormal hair, and urologic abnormalities. Case presentation: We describe an infant with developmental delay, neurologic degeneration, and kinky hair. Molecular test revealed a novel heterozygous mutation in exon 21 of the ATP7A gene. The genotype and phenotype of the patient were compared with those of the patients reported in the literature...
2018: Application of Clinical Genetics
Ahmed Abu-Siniyeh, Omar F Khabour, Arwa I Owais
Background: The congenital absence of one or few teeth, hypodontia, is considered one of the utmost dental ageneses in human beings. Several genes have been shown to be involved in the development of hypodontia such as paired box gene 9 ( PAX9 ). The expression of PAX9 is controlled by several polymorphic elements in the promoter region of the gene on 14q13.3 locus. The aim of this study was to find any association between PAX9 c.-912T>C (rs2073247) and c.-1031G>A (rs2073244) promoter polymorphisms and the development of hypodontia among the Jordanian population...
2018: Application of Clinical Genetics
John Bishara, Thomas G Keens, Iris A Perez
Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) is a rare genetic disorder of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and respiratory control. This disorder, formerly referred to as Ondine's curse, is due to a mutation in the PHOX2B gene that affects the development of the neural crest cells. CCHS has an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. Majority of the patients have a polyalanine repeat mutation (PARM) of the PHOX2B , while a small group has non-PARM (NPARM). Knowledge of the patient's PHOX2B gene mutation helps predict a patient's clinical presentation and outcome and aids in anticipatory management of the respiratory and ANS dysfunction...
2018: Application of Clinical Genetics
Abdulaziz Alsemari, Mohanned Alsuhaibani, Rawabi Alhathlool, Bayan Mamdouh Ali
The interaction of multiple genetic factors, as opposed to monogenic inheritance, has been suspected to play a role in many diseases. This interaction has been described as an oligogenic inheritance model, which may be a useful tool in explaining certain clinical observations. The purpose of this study was to search for novel genetic defects among members of a family with traits that include mental retardation, short stature, osteopetrosis, calcification of basal ganglia, and thinning of the corpus callosum...
2018: Application of Clinical Genetics
Paul Y Takahashi, Gregory D Jenkins, Benjamin P Welkie, Shannon K McDonnell, Jared M Evans, James R Cerhan, Janet E Olson, Stephen N Thibodeau, Mine S Cicek, Euijung Ryu
Purpose: In aging adults, mitochondrial dysfunction may be an important contributor. We evaluated the association between mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number, which is a biomarker for mitochondrial function, and self-rated health status. Patients and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of patients enrolled within the Mayo Clinic Biobank. We utilized the questionnaire and sequence data from 944 patients. We examined the association between mtDNA copy number and self-rated health status with 3 collapsed categories for the latter variable (excellent/very good, good, and fair/poor)...
2018: Application of Clinical Genetics
Sumaiya Adam, Melantha Coetzee, Engela Magdalena Honey
Pena-Shokeir syndrome (PSS) type 1, also known as fetal akinesia deformation sequence, is a rare genetic syndrome that almost always results in intrauterine or early neonatal death. It is characterized by markedly decreased fetal movements, intrauterine growth restriction, joint contractures, short umbilical cord, and features of pulmonary hypoplasia. Antenatal diagnosis can be difficult. Ultrasound features are varied and may overlap with those of Trisomy 18. The poor prognosis of PSS is due to pulmonary hypoplasia, which is an important feature that distinguishes PSS from arthrogryposis multiplex congenital without pulmonary hypoplasia, which has a better prognosis...
2018: Application of Clinical Genetics
Saud Alsahli, Dalal K Bubshait, Zuhair A Rahbeeni, Majid Alfadhel
Gaucher disease is the most common sphingolipid storage disease and is present in all ethnic groups. Its symptoms span all systems including the cardiovascular system. The health care provider should be vigilant regarding this potentially fatal complication. Gaucher disease type IIIC has been linked to causing oculomotor apraxia and cardiac calcification. We report a Saudi girl who developed valvular and aortic calcification in late childhood and died as a result of her cardiovascular complications. This report further strengthens the association and reminds the clinicians that patients with D409H mutation need echocardiographic evaluation annually...
2018: Application of Clinical Genetics
Anas A Yousef, Eman G Behiry, Wafaa M Abd Allah, Ahmed M Hussien, Abdelmoneam A Abdelmoneam, Mahmoud H Imam, Doaa M Hikal
Background: Insulin receptor substrate (IRS) molecules are key mediators in insulin signaling. Several polymorphisms in the IRS genes have been identified, but only the Gly to Arg 972 substitution of IRS-1 seems to have a pathogenic role in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Many polymorphisms described in IRS-1 gene, especially Gly972Arg substitution, are shown to be associated with insulin resistance (IR) in T2DM. Subjects and methods: This prospective case-control study was performed during the period from November 2014 to May 2015...
2018: Application of Clinical Genetics
Thaise Nr Carneiro, Ana Cv Krepischi, Silvia S Costa, Israel Tojal da Silva, Angela M Vianna-Morgante, Renan Valieris, Suzana Am Ezquina, Debora R Bertola, Paulo A Otto, Carla Rosenberg
Introduction: Exome sequencing is recognized as a powerful tool for identifying the genetic cause of intellectual disability (ID). It is uncertain, however, whether only the exome of the proband should be sequenced or if the sequencing of parental genomes is also required, and the resulting increase in diagnostic yield justifies the increase in costs. Patients and methods: We sequenced the exomes of eight individuals with sporadic syndromic ID and their parents...
2018: Application of Clinical Genetics
Marina Guinda Ribeiro, Gabriella Lucato Zunta, Jéssica Silva Santos, Aparecida Machado Moraes, Carmen Silvia Passos Lima, Manoela Marques Ortega
Xeroderma pigmentosum is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disease characterized by extreme sensitivity due to solar radiation and deficiency in excision repair DNA. Those factors promote a set of skin abnormalities such as keratosis, hyperpigmentation, tumors in areas exposed to sunlight, and ocular and, eventually, neurological disorders. In the present review, we summarize the main clinical features related to a case of xeroderma pigmentosum in a man who was not diagnosed until he was 45 years old.
2018: Application of Clinical Genetics
Mohammed M El Shafae, Jehan H Sabry, Eman G Behiry, Hanan H Sabry, Mona A Salim, Alaaeldin G Fayez
Background: The microdeletion events that occur in the Y chromosome-azoospermia factor ( AZF ) region may lead to dyszoospermia. Also, the deleted azoospermia ( DAZ ) gene on AZFc and autosomal deleted azoospermia like gene ( DAZL ) are suggested to represent impairment, so it is interesting to determine the independency pattern of the AZF region and DAZL gene in azoospermic patients. Aim: To study the molecular characterization of AZFc and DAZL in 64 idiopathic non-obstructed azoospermia patients and 30 sexually reproductive men...
2018: Application of Clinical Genetics
Isabel Ochando, Melanie Cristine Alonzo Martínez, Ana María Serrano, Antonio Urbano, Eduardo Cazorla, Dolores Calvo, Joaquín Rueda
Reported cases of distal 15q interstitial duplications are uncommon and do not result in a recognizable pattern of abnormalities. Some studies report prenatal overgrowth, while others describe growth retardation. We present molecular cytogenetic characterization of a 14 Mb interstitial duplication, encompassing 81 Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) genes, in a fetus with single umbilical artery and short limbs. We propose that growth restriction, previously described and present in our patient, may be due to duplication of a gene or genes contained in the 15q24 region...
2018: Application of Clinical Genetics
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article on p. 15 in vol. 11, PMID: 29615845.].
2018: Application of Clinical Genetics
Sara Vanegas, Luz Fernanda Sua, Jaime López-Tenorio, Diana Ramírez-Montaño, Harry Pachajoa
Background: Achondrogenesis type IA (ACG1A) is a rare, lethal autosomal recessive chondrodysplasia affecting endochondral bone ossification and differentiation, causing intrauterine growth restriction, narrow thorax, and short limbs. Mutations in TRIP11 , which encodes Golgi microtubule-binding protein 210 in the Golgi apparatus, alter protein transport in tissues. Case presentation: A 28-week gestation male fetus was diagnosed with ACG1A by clinical, radiological, histologic, and molecular findings...
2018: Application of Clinical Genetics
Nidhi D Shah, Parth S Shah, Yash Y Panchal, Kalpesh H Katudia, Nikunj B Khatri, Hari Shankar P Ray, Upti R Bhatiya, Sandip C Shah, Bhavini S Shah, Mandava V Rao
Background: Germline mutations BRCA1 and BRCA2 contribute almost equally in the causation of breast cancer (BC). The type of mutations in the Indian population that cause this condition is largely unknown. Purpose: In this cohort, 79 randomized BC patients were screened for various types of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations including frameshift, nonsense, missense, in-frame and splice site types. Materials and methods: The purified extracted DNA of each referral patient was subjected to Sanger gene sequencing using Codon Code Analyzer and Mutation Surveyor and next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods with Ion torrent software, after appropriate care...
2018: Application of Clinical Genetics
Sandra M Tapiero-Rodriguez, Johanna C Acosta Guio, Gloria Liliana Porras-Hurtado, Natalia García, Martha Solano, Harry Pachajoa, Harvy M Velasco
Background: As mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA) is the most frequent MPS in Colombia, this paper aims to describe its clinical and mutational characteristics in 32 diagnosed patients included in this study. Methods: Genotyping was completed by amplification and Sanger sequencing of the GALNS gene. The SWISS-model platform was used for bioinformatic analysis, and mutant proteins were generated by homology from the wild-type GALNS code 4FDI template from the Protein Data Bank (PDB) database...
2018: Application of Clinical Genetics
Hadeel Alrukban, David Chitayat
Chondrodysplasia punctata (CDP) is a skeletal abnormality characterized by premature calcification that is usually noticeable in the prenatal period and infancy. Etiologically, the condition is heterogeneous, and the causes include fetal conditions such as chromosome abnormalities, peroxisomal disorders, lysosomal storage disorders, cholesterol synthesis defects and abnormal vitamin K metabolism, as well as maternal diseases such as severe malabsorption and exposure to teratogens. An association between CDP and maternal autoimmune disease was first observed and reported by Curry et al and Costa et al in 1993 and expanded by Chitayat et al in 2010...
2018: Application of Clinical Genetics
Chanchai Traivaree, Boonchai Boonyawat, Chalinee Monsereenusorn, Piya Rujkijyanont, Apichat Photia
Background: α-Thalassemia, one of the major thalassemia types in Thailand, is caused by either deletion or non-deletional mutation of one or both α-globin genes. Inactivation of three α-globin genes causes hemoglobin H (Hb H) disease, and the combination of Hb H disease with heterozygous hemoglobin E (Hb E) results in AE Bart's disease. Objective: This study aimed to characterize the clinical and hematological manifestations of 76 pediatric patients with Hb H and AE Bart's diseases treated at Phramongkutklao Hospital, a tertiary care center for thalassemia patients in central Thailand...
2018: Application of Clinical Genetics
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