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American Journal of Stem Cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853631/stepping-back-to-move-forward-a-current-review-of-ipscs-in-the-fight-against-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
REVIEW
Aditya Devineni, Scarlett Tohme, Michael T Kody, R Adams Cowley, Brent T Harris
The successful generation of the first iPSCs about ten years ago has provided deeper insight into previously unknown disease mechanisms and therapeutic opportunities for many diseases. In particular, iPSCs are becoming an important tool in advancing modeling and therapeutic intervention for Alzheimer's disease. In this manuscript, we assess the research climate surrounding the application of iPSCs to familial and sporadic Alzheimer's disease, including the generation and isolation of individualized neural stem cells, the introduction of neural stem cell transplants using iPSCs, and an estimation of the potential use of iPSCs as research models for Alzheimer's treatments and therapies...
2016: American Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853630/current-stem-cell-based-therapies-in-diabetes
#2
REVIEW
Meredith A Lilly, Meghan F Davis, Josh E Fabie, Elizabeth B Terhune, G Ian Gallicano
Diabetes is a disease with wide-ranging personal and societal impacts that has been managed medicinally for over half a century. Since the discovery of stem cells, pancreatic islet regeneration has become a central target for clinical application that has the potential to decrease or eliminate the need for insulin administration and adjunctive medications. The discovery of alternative routes to pluripotency that bypass the ethical implications of embryonic stem cells has significantly expanded the horizons of stem cell based therapy...
2016: American Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853629/current-progress-of-human-trials-using-stem-cell-therapy-as-a-treatment-for-diabetes-mellitus
#3
REVIEW
Shuk Kei Cheng, Elisse Y Park, Andjela Pehar, Alexandra C Rooney, G Ian Gallicano
Diabetes mellitus affects millions of people worldwide, and is associated with serious complications that affect nearly all body systems. Because of the severity of this global health concern, there is a great deal of research being performed on alternative treatments and possible cures. Previous treatments for diabetes have included exogenous insulin injection and pancreatic islet transplantations. These treatment methods have several limitations; thus, the use of stem cells in treating diabetes is currently a significant area of research...
2016: American Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725917/human-somatic-cells-acquire-the-plasticity-to-generate-embryoid-like-metamorphosis-via-the-actin-cytoskeleton-in-injured-tissues
#4
Jairo A Diaz, Mauricio F Murillo, Jhonan A Mendoza, Ana M Barreto, Lina S Poveda, Lina K Sanchez, Laura C Poveda, Katherine T Mora
Emergent biological responses develop via unknown processes dependent on physical collision. In hypoxia, when the tissue architecture collapses but the geometric core is stable, actin cytoskeleton filament components emerge, revealing a hidden internal order that identifies how each molecule is reassembled into the original mold, using one common connection, i.e., a fractal self-similarity that guides the system from the beginning in reverse metamorphosis, with spontaneous self-assembly of past forms that mimics an embryoid phenotype...
2016: American Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725916/crispr-cas9-and-mitochondrial-gene-replacement-therapy-promising-techniques-and-ethical-considerations
#5
Sarah Fogleman, Casey Santana, Casey Bishop, Alyssa Miller, David G Capco
Thousands of mothers are at risk of transmitting mitochondrial diseases to their offspring each year, with the most severe form of these diseases being fatal [1]. With no cure, transmission prevention is the only current hope for decreasing the disease incidence. Current methods of prevention rely on low mutant maternal mitochondrial DNA levels, while those with levels close to or above threshold (>60%) are still at a very high risk of transmission [2]. Two novel approaches may offer hope for preventing and treating mitochondrial disease: mitochondrial replacement therapy, and CRISPR/Cas9...
2016: American Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27335700/pharmacological-preconditioning-for-short-term-ex-vivo-expansion-of-human-umbilical-cord-blood-hematopoietic-stem-cells-by-filgrastim
#6
Nikolaos G Grigoriadis, Ioannis G Grigoriadis, Sofia Markoula, Minas Paschopoulos, Konstantinos Zikopoulos, Panagiotis Gr Apostolakopoulos, Ioannis S Vizirianakis, Ioannis Georgiou
Although umbilical cord blood (UCB) hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (UCBT) has emerged as a promising haematological reconstitution therapy for leukemias and other related disorders, the insufficient UCB stem cell dosage still hinders better clinical outcomes. Previous research efforts, by focusing on ex vivo UCB expansion capabilities have sought to benefit from well-known mechanisms of self-renewal characteristics of UCB stem cells. However, the long-term (> 21 days) in vitro culture period and the low neutrophil recovery significantly reduce the transplantability of such ex vivo expanded UCB stem cells...
2016: American Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27335699/induction-of-sensory-neurons-from-neuroepithelial-stem-cells-by-the-isx9-small-molecule
#7
Rouknuddin Qasim Ali, Evelina Blomberg, Anna Falk, Lars Ährlund-Richter, Mats Ulfendahl
Hearing impairment most often involves loss of sensory hair cells and auditory neurons. As this loss is permanent in humans, a cell therapy approach has been suggested to replace damaged cells. It is thus of interest to generate lineage restricted progenitor cells appropriate for cell based therapies. Human long-term self-renewing neuroepithelial stem (lt-NES) cell lines exhibit in vitro a developmental potency to differentiate into CNS neural lineages, and importantly lack this potency in vivo, i.e do not form teratomas...
2016: American Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27335698/influence-of-paternal-preconception-exposures-on-their-offspring-through-epigenetics-to-phenotype
#8
REVIEW
Jonathan Day, Soham Savani, Benjamin D Krempley, Matthew Nguyen, Joanna B Kitlinska
Historically, research into congenital defects has focused on maternal impacts on the fetal genome during gestation and prenatal periods. However, recent findings have sparked interest in epigenetic alterations of paternal genomes and its effects on offspring. This emergent field focuses on how environmental influences can epigenetically alter gene expression and ultimately change the phenotype and behavior of progeny. There are three primary mechanisms implicated in these changes: DNA methylation, histone modification, and miRNA expression...
2016: American Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27335697/comparison-of-stem-cell-therapies-for-acute-kidney-injury
#9
REVIEW
Carol J Barnes, Casey T Distaso, Kristin M Spitz, Valerie A Verdun, Aviad Haramati
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is the rapid onset of decreased kidney function that ultimately increases mortality and morbidity. Stem cell research is a promising avenue for curative and preventative therapies of kidney injury, however, there are many types of stem cells under investigation. Currently there is no research to compare the value of one stem cell method over another. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) have been shown to differentiate into renal cells, though further clinical research is needed to fully explore potential therapeutic strategies...
2016: American Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25973331/the-effect-of-autologous-bone-marrow-mononuclear-cell-transplantation-on-the-survival-duration-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-a-retrospective-controlled-study
#10
Alok K Sharma, Hemangi M Sane, Amruta A Paranjape, Nandini Gokulchandran, Anjana Nagrajan, Myola D'sa, Prerna B Badhe
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disorder with fatal prognosis. Cellular therapy has been studied for ALS in various animal models and these advances have highlighted its potential to be a treatment modality. This is a retrospective controlled cohort study of total 57 patients. Out of these, 37 patients underwent autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell transplantation in addition to standard rehabilitation and Riluzole. Control group consisted of 20 patients who did not receive cell transplantation...
2015: American Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25973330/an-effective-freezing-thawing-method-for-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-cultured-in-chemically-defined-and-feeder-free-conditions
#11
Naoki Nishishita, Marie Muramatsu, Shin Kawamata
Culturing human Pluripotent Stem Cells (hPSC)s in chemically defined medium and feeder-free condition can facilitate metabolome and proteome analysis of culturing cells and medium, and reduce regulatory concerns for clinical application of cells. And in addition, if hPSC are passaged and cryopreserved in single cells it also facilitates quality control of cells at single cell level. Here we report a robust single cell freezing and thawing method of hPSCs cultured in chemically-defined medium TeSR(TM)-E8(TM) and on cost-effective recombinant human Vitronectin-N (rhVTN-N)-coated dish...
2015: American Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25973329/experimental-approaches-to-derive-cd34-progenitors-from-human-and-nonhuman-primate-embryonic-stem-cells
#12
REVIEW
Qiang Shi, John L VandeBerg
Traditionally, CD34 positive cells are predominantly found in the umbilical cord and bone marrow, thus are considered as hematopoietic progenitors. Increasing evidence has suggested that the CD34+ cells represent a distinct subset of cells with enhanced progenitor activity; CD34 is a general marker of progenitor cells in a variety of cell types. Because the CD34 protein shows expression early on in hematopoietic and vascular-associated tissues, CD34+ cells have enormous potential as cellular agents for research and for clinical cell transplantation...
2015: American Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25973328/stem-cells-for-the-cell-and-molecular-therapy-of-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-t1d-the-gap-between-dream-and-reality
#13
REVIEW
Riccardo Calafiore, Giuseppe Basta
In spite of intense research, over the past 2-3 decades, targeted to validating methods for the cure of T1D, based on cell substitution therapy in the place of exogenously administered insulin injections, achievement of the final goal continues to remain out of reach. In fact, aside of very limited clinical success of the few clinical trials of pancreatic islet cell transplantation in totally immunosuppressed patients with T1D, the vast majority of these diabetic patients invariably is insulin-dependent. New advances for cell and molecular therapy for T1D, including use of stem cells, are reviewed and discussed in an attempt to clearly establish where we are and where are we may go for the final cure for T1DM...
2015: American Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25973327/transdifferentiation-of-endothelial-cells-to-smooth-muscle-cells-play-an-important-role-in-vascular-remodelling
#14
REVIEW
Núria Coll-Bonfill, Melina Mara Musri, Victor Ivo, Joan Albert Barberà, Olga Tura-Ceide
Pulmonary artery remodelling it is a major feature of pulmonary hypertension (PH). It is characterised by cellular and structural changes of the pulmonary arteries causing higher pulmonar vascular resistance and right ventricular failure. Abnormal deposition of smooth muscle-like (SM-like) cells in normally non-muscular, small diameter vessels and a deregulated control of endothelial cells are considered pathological features of PH. The origin of the SM-like cells and the mechanisms underlying the development and progression of this remodelling process are not understood...
2015: American Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25973326/adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-musculoskeletal-repair-in-veterinary-medicine
#15
REVIEW
Stefan Arnhold, Sabine Wenisch
Adipose tissue derived stem cells (ASCs) are mesenchymal stem cells which can be obtained from different adipose tissue sources within the body. It is an abundant cell pool, which is easy accessible and the cells can be obtained in large numbers, cultivated and expanded in vitro and prepared for tissue engineering approaches, especially for skeletal tissue repair. In the recent years this cell population has attracted a great amount of attention among researchers in human as well as in veterinary medicine. In the meantime ASCs have been well characterized and their use in regenerative medicine is very well established...
2015: American Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25232508/hematopoietic-stem-cells-derived-from-human-umbilical-cord-ameliorate-cisplatin-induced-acute-renal-failure-in-rats
#16
Rokaya H Shalaby, Laila A Rashed, Alaa E Ismaail, Naglaa K Madkour, Sherien H Elwakeel
Injury to a target organ can be sensed by bone marrow stem cells that migrate to the site of damage, undergo differentiation, and promote structural and functional repair. This remarkable stem cell capacity prompted an investigation of the potential of mesenchymal and hematopoietic stem cells to cure acute renal failure. On the basis of the recent demonstration that hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) can differentiate into renal cells, the current study tested the hypothesis that HSCs can contribute to the regeneration of renal tubular epithelial cells after renal injury...
2014: American Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25232507/the-oct4-protein-more-than-a-magic-stemness-marker
#17
REVIEW
Dana Zeineddine, Aya Abou Hammoud, Mohamad Mortada, Hélène Boeuf
The Oct4 protein, encoded by the Pou5f1 gene was the very first master gene, discovered 25 years ago, to be absolutely required for the stemness properties of murine and primate embryonic stem cells. This transcription factor, which has also been shown to be essential for somatic cell reprogrammation, displays various functions depending upon its level of expression and has been quoted as a "rheostat" gene. Oct4 protein is in complexes with many different partners and its activity depends upon fine post-translational modifications...
2014: American Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25232506/emerging-paradigms-of-long-non-coding-rnas-in-gastrointestinal-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Hui-Juan Jiang, Shuang Wang, Yanqing Ding
A large number of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been discovered by genome-wide transcriptional analyses. Emerging evidence has indicated that lncRNAs regulate gene expression at epigenetic, transcription, and post-transcription levels, are widely involved in various pathobiology of human diseases, and may play an important role in the biology of cancer stem cells. Alterations of specific lncRNAs have been revealed to interact with the major pathways of cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, invasion and metastasis in many human malignancies, such as gastrointestinal cancer...
2014: American Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25232505/metastatic-cancer-stem-cells-from-the-concept-to-therapeutics
#19
REVIEW
Wen-Ting Liao, Ya-Ping Ye, Yong-Jian Deng, Xiu-Wu Bian, Yan-Qing Ding
Metastatic cancer stem cells (MCSCs) refer to a subpopulation of cancer cells with both stem cell properties and invasion capabilities that contribute to cancer metastasis. MCSCs have capability of self-renewal, potentials of multiple differentiation and development and/or reconstruction of cancer tissues. As compared with stationary cancer stem cells, MCSCs are capable of invasion to normal tissues such as vasculatures, resistance to chemo- and/or radio-therapies, escape from immune surveillance, survival in circulation and formation of metastasis...
2014: American Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24660113/phenotype-dependent-role-of-the-l-type-calcium-current-in-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes
#20
Pauline Dan, Zheng Zeng, Ying Li, Yang Qu, Leif Hove-Madsen, Glen F Tibbits
Although the L-type Ca(2+) current (ICa,L) plays an important role in cardiac contractility and pacemaking, its role in embryonic stem-cell derived cardiomyocytes (ESC-CMs) has not yet been explored in detail. We used patch-clamp techniques to characterize ICa,L, action potential properties, and nifedipine (an ICa,L blocker) sensitivity on spontaneously contracting embryoid bodies (EBs) or isolated ESC-CMs. Cellular preparations exhibited differential sensitivity to nifedipine, with substantial variation in the dose required to abolish automaticity...
2014: American Journal of Stem Cells
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