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Mahmoud Al-Majdoub, Katharina Herzog, Bledar Daka, Martin Magnusson, Lennart Råstam, Ulf Lindblad, Peter Spégel
The plasma metabolome is associated with multiple phenotypes and diseases. However, a systematic study investigating clinical determinants that control the metabolome has not yet been conducted. In the present study, therefore, we aimed to identify the major determinants of the plasma metabolite profile. We used ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (QTOF-MS) to determine 106 metabolites in plasma samples from 2503 subjects in a cross-sectional study...
November 15, 2018: Metabolites
Shreya Shaw, Robin Ghosh
The Kulka resorcinol assay (Kulka, R.G., Biochemistry 1956, 63 , 542⁻548) for ketoses has been widely used in the literature but suffers from two major disadvantages: (a) it employs large amounts of potentially harmful reagents for a general biology laboratory environment; and (b) in its original formulation, it is unsuited for modern high-throughput applications. Here, we have developed a modified Kulka assay, which contains a safer formulation, employing approx. 5.4 M HCl in 250 µL aliquots, and is suitable for use in high-throughput systems biology or enzymatic applications...
November 8, 2018: Metabolites
Paul L Wood
In a paradigm shift, cancer research efforts are being dedicated to the discovery of chemopreventive agents. The goal of this approach is to delay or prevent the progression of augmented cell division to established cancer. Research has focused on dietary supplements, drugs, and endogenous lipids that possess anti-inflammatory properties. We undertook a lipidomics analysis of potential endogenous anti-inflammatory/anti-proliferative lipids in human plasma. We performed high-resolution mass spectrometric lipidomics analyses of plasma samples from controls and patients with colorectal, kidney, pancreatic, glioblastoma, and breast cancers...
November 3, 2018: Metabolites
Oliver Gould, Ben de Lacy Costello, Amy Smart, Peter Jones, Angus Macmaster, Karen Ransley, Norman Ratcliffe
It has become increasingly important to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the volatile metabolites in a range of bodily fluids for use in monitoring health. There has been relatively little work on the quantitative analysis of compounds, particularly with respect to the effects of ethnicity or geographic location. A novel method for the quantification of compounds in stool using 13 C labelled compounds as internal standards is presented. Using thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry, stool samples from 38 healthy volunteers were analysed...
October 31, 2018: Metabolites
Baiquan Ma, Yangyang Yuan, Meng Gao, Cuiying Li, Collins Ogutu, Mingjun Li, Fengwang Ma
Significant variation in organic acid components was detected in mature fruits of 101 apple accessions using high-performance liquid chromatography. The Malus species predominantly accumulated malic acid and citric acid, whereas wild fruits exhibited significantly higher levels of organic acid content than that in cultivated fruits. Differential accumulation patterns during fruit developmental stages was detected between malic acid and citric acid, thus suggesting a complex genetic regulation mechanism of organic acid metabolism in apple fruit...
October 31, 2018: Metabolites
Antonio de Castro, Antonio Higinio Sánchez, Antonio López-López, Amparo Cortés-Delgado, Eduardo Medina, Alfredo Montaño
The aim of the present study was to assess the malodorous spoilages of Spanish-style green table olives through microbial and metabolite composition using current measuring techniques (e.g., high-throughput DNA sequencing, headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry). Under different alkaline and washing conditions, the spoilage fermentations were reproduced with Gordal and Manzanilla olive cultivars using a low salt concentration (71 g L-1 NaCl) in the initial brine...
October 31, 2018: Metabolites
Rahul Vijay Kapoore, Seetharaman Vaidyanathan
Capturing a valid snapshot of the metabolome requires rapid quenching of enzyme activities. This is a crucial step in order to halt the constant flux of metabolism and high turnover rate of metabolites. Quenching with cold aqueous methanol is treated as a gold standard so far, however, reliability of metabolomics data obtained is in question due to potential problems connected to leakage of intracellular metabolites. Therefore, we investigated the influence of various parameters such as quenching solvents, methanol concentration, inclusion of buffer additives, quenching time and solvent to sample ratio on intracellular metabolite leakage from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii ...
October 31, 2018: Metabolites
Stewart F Graham, Nolwen L Rey, Zafer Ugur, Ali Yilmaz, Eric Sherman, Michael Maddens, Ray O Bahado-Singh, Katelyn Becker, Emily Schulz, Lindsay K Meyerdirk, Jennifer A Steiner, Jiyan Ma, Patrik Brundin
For people with Parkinson's disease (PD), considered the most common neurodegenerative disease behind Alzheimer's disease, accurate diagnosis is dependent on many factors; however, misdiagnosis is extremely common in the prodromal phases of the disease, when treatment is thought to be most effective. Currently, there are no robust biomarkers that aid in the early diagnosis of PD. Following previously reported work by our group, we accurately measured the concentrations of 18 bile acids in the serum of a prodromal mouse model of PD...
October 31, 2018: Metabolites
Kim A Caldwell, Jennifer L Thies, Guy A Caldwell
While progress has been made in discerning genetic associations with Parkinson's disease (PD), identifying elusive environmental contributors necessitates the application of unconventional hypotheses and experimental strategies. Here, we provide an overview of studies that we conducted on a neurotoxic metabolite produced by a species of common soil bacteria, Streptomyces venezuelae (S. ven ), indicating that the toxicity displayed by this bacterium causes stress in diverse cellular mechanisms, such as the ubiquitin proteasome system and mitochondrial homeostasis...
October 29, 2018: Metabolites
Muhammad L Nasaruddin, Xiaobei Pan, Bernadette McGuinness, Peter Passmore, Patrick G Kehoe, Christian Hölscher, Stewart F Graham, Brian D Green
Brain is a lipid-rich tissue, and fatty acids (FAs) play a crucial role in brain function, including neuronal cell growth and development. This study used GC-MS to survey all detectable FAs in the human parietal cortex (Brodmann area 7). These FAs were accurately quantified in 27 cognitively normal age-matched controls, 16 cases of moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD), 30 severe AD, and 14 dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). A total of 24 FA species were identified. Multiple comparison procedures, using stepdown permutation tests, noted higher levels of 13 FAs but the majority of changes were in moderate AD and DLB, rather than severe AD...
October 26, 2018: Metabolites
Rachel S Kelly, Michael J McGeachie, Kathleen A Lee-Sarwar, Priyadarshini Kachroo, Su H Chu, Yamini V Virkud, Mengna Huang, Augusto A Litonjua, Scott T Weiss, Jessica Lasky-Su
To explore novel methods for the analysis of metabolomics data, we compared the ability of Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) and Bayesian networks (BN) to build predictive plasma metabolite models of age three asthma status in 411 three year olds ( n = 59 cases and 352 controls) from the Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial (VDAART) study. The standard PLS-DA approach had impressive accuracy for the prediction of age three asthma with an Area Under the Curve Convex Hull (AUCCH) of 81%...
October 23, 2018: Metabolites
Vinshi Khan, Nagireddy Putluri, Arun Sreekumar, Ayse L Mindikoglu
Metabolomics is the identification and quantification of all or specified metabolites in a living system under a specific condition or disease. Metabolomics in cirrhosis can be used in diagnosing complications, determining prognosis and assessment of response to therapy. In this review, we summarized representative applications of metabolomics in cirrhosis and significant metabolites associated with cirrhosis and its complications.
October 22, 2018: Metabolites
Manu Shree, Shyam K Masakapalli
The goal of this study is to map the metabolic pathways of poorly understood bacterial phytopathogen, Xanthomonas oryzae (Xoo) BXO43 fed with plant mimicking media XOM2 containing glutamate, methionine and either 40% [13 C₅] xylose or 40% [13 C₆] glucose. The metabolic networks mapped using the KEGG mapper and the mass isotopomer fragments of proteinogenic amino acids derived from GC-MS provided insights into the activities of Xoo central metabolic pathways. The average 13 C in histidine, aspartate and other amino acids confirmed the activities of PPP, the TCA cycle and amino acid biosynthetic routes, respectively...
October 15, 2018: Metabolites
Thomas Sydney, Jo-Ann Marshall-Thompson, Rahul Vijay Kapoore, Seetharaman Vaidyanathan, Jagroop Pandhal, J Patrick A Fairclough
Currently, the energy required to produce biofuel from algae is 1.38 times the energy available from the fuel. Current methods do not deliver scalable, commercially viable cell wall disruption, which creates a bottleneck on downstream processing. This is primarily due to the methods depositing energy within the water as opposed to within the algae. This study investigates ultraviolet B (UVB) as a disruption method for the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii , Dunaliella salina and Micractinium inermum to enhance solvent lipid extraction...
October 15, 2018: Metabolites
Kyle J Burghardt, Kristen M Ward, Elani J Sanders, Bradley H Howlett, Berhane Seyoum, Zhengping Yi
Atypical antipsychotics (AAPs) are a class of medications associated with significant metabolic side effects, including insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to analyze the skeletal muscle lipidome of patients on AAPs, compared to mood stabilizers, to further understand the molecular changes underlying AAP treatment and side effects. Bipolar patients on AAPs or mood stabilizers underwent a fasting muscle biopsy and assessment of insulin sensitivity. A lipidomic analysis of total fatty acids (TFAs), phosphatidylcholines (PCs) and ceramides (CERs) was performed on the muscle biopsies, then lipid species were compared between treatment groups, and correlation analyses were performed with insulin sensitivity...
October 13, 2018: Metabolites
Iman Zarei, Emily Luna, Jan E Leach, Anna McClung, Samuel Vilchez, Ousmane Koita, Elizabeth P Ryan
Rice ( Oryza sativa L.) processing yields ~60 million metric tons of bran annually. Rice genes producing bran metabolites of nutritional and human health importance were assessed across 17 diverse cultivars from seven countries using non-targeted metabolomics, and resulted in 378⁻430 metabolites. Gambiaka cultivar had the highest number and Njavara had the lowest number of metabolites. The 71 rice bran compounds of significant variation by cultivar included 21 amino acids, seven carbohydrates, two metabolites from cofactors and vitamins, 33 lipids, six nucleotides, and two secondary metabolites...
October 9, 2018: Metabolites
Ioannis Ilias, Sofia Apollonatou, Nikitas Nikitas, Maria Theodorakopoulou, Alice G Vassiliou, Anastasia Kotanidou, Ioanna Dimopoulou
Microdialysis (MD) can provide continuous information about tissue composition. To assess in critically ill patients adipose tissue metabolic patterns, the relationships between metabolic patterns and blood cytokine concentration associations of adipose tissue energy metabolism and clinical outcome we studied 203 mechanically ventilated general intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Upon ICU admission an MD catheter was inserted into the subcutaneous adipose tissue of the upper thigh to measure lactate (L), glucose, pyruvate (P), and glycerol...
October 6, 2018: Metabolites
Josiane Joseph, Dong Seong Cho, Jason D Doles
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a musculoskeletal disorder that causes severe morbidity and reduced lifespan. Individuals with DMD have an X-linked mutation that impairs their ability to produce functional dystrophin protein in muscle. No cure exists for this disease and the few therapies that are available do not dramatically delay disease progression. Thus, there is a need to better understand the mechanisms underlying DMD which may ultimately lead to improved treatment options. The muscular dystrophy (MDX) mouse model is frequently used to explore DMD disease traits...
October 3, 2018: Metabolites
Chiara Roberta Girelli, Laura Del Coco, Samanta Zelasco, Amelia Salimonti, Francesca Luisa Conforti, Andrea Biagianti, Daniele Barbini, Francesco Paolo Fanizzi
According to Coldiretti, Italy still continues to hold the European Quality record in extra virgin olive oils with origin designation and protected geographical indication (PDO and PGI). To date, 46 Italian brands are recognized by the European Union: 42 PDO and 4 PGI (Tuscan PGI, Calabria PGI; Tuscia PGI and PGI Sicily). Specific regulations, introduced for these quality marks, include the designation of both the geographical areas and the plant varieties contributing to the composition of the olive oil. However, the PDO and PGI assessment procedures are currently based essentially on farmer declarations...
September 30, 2018: Metabolites
Calena R Marchand, Farshad Farshidfar, Jodi Rattner, Oliver F Bathe
Despite the significant advantages of metabolomic biomarkers, no diagnostic tests based on metabolomics have been introduced to clinical use. There are many reasons for this, centered around substantial obstacles in developing clinically useful metabolomic biomarkers. Most significant is the need for interdisciplinary teams with expertise in metabolomics, analysis of complex clinical and metabolomic data, and clinical care. Importantly, the clinical need must precede biomarker discovery, and the experimental design for discovery and validation must reflect the purpose of the biomarker...
September 30, 2018: Metabolites
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