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Journal of Global Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770215/heterogeneity-in-geographical-trends-of-hiv-epidemics-among-key-populations-in-pakistan-a-mathematical-modeling-study-of-survey-data
#1
Dessalegn Y Melesse, Leigh Anne Shafer, Faran Emmanuel, Tahira Reza, Baseer K Achakzai, Sofia Furqan, James F Blanchard
Background: Assessing patterns and trends in new infections is key to better understanding of HIV epidemics, and is best done through monitoring changes in incidence over time. In this study, we examined disparities in geographical trends of HIV epidemics among people who inject drugs (PWIDs), female sex workers (FSWs) and hijra /transgender/male sex workers (H/MSWs), in Pakistan. Methods: The UNAIDS Estimation and Projection Package (EPP) mathematical model was used to explore geographical trends in HIV epidemics...
June 2018: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740502/estimating-the-incidence-of-breast-cancer-in-africa-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
Davies Adeloye, Olaperi Y Sowunmi, Wura Jacobs, Rotimi A David, Adeyemi A Adeosun, Ann O Amuta, Sanjay Misra, Muktar Gadanya, Asa Auta, Michael O Harhay, Kit Yee Chan
Background: Breast cancer is estimated to be the most common cancer worldwide. We sought to assemble publicly available data from Africa to provide estimates of the incidence of breast cancer on the continent. Methods: A systematic search of Medline, EMBASE, Global Health and African Journals Online (AJOL) was conducted. We included population- or hospital-based registry studies on breast cancer conducted in Africa, and providing estimates of the crude incidence of breast cancer among women...
June 2018: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740501/risk-factors-of-neonatal-mortality-and-child-mortality-in-bangladesh
#3
Md Maniruzzaman, Harman S Suri, Nishith Kumar, Md Menhazul Abedin, Md Jahanur Rahman, Ayman El-Baz, Makrand Bhoot, Jagjit S Teji, Jasjit S Suri
Background: Child and neonatal mortality is a serious problem in Bangladesh. The main objective of this study was to determine the most significant socio-economic factors (covariates) between the years 2011 and 2014 that influences on neonatal and child mortality and to further suggest the plausible policy proposals. Methods: We modeled the neonatal and child mortality as categorical dependent variable (alive vs death of the child) while 16 covariates are used as independent variables using χ2 statistic and multiple logistic regression (MLR) based on maximum likelihood estimate...
June 2018: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740500/have-geopolitics-influenced-decisions-on-american-health-foreign-assistance-efforts-during-the-obama-presidency
#4
REVIEW
Vin Gupta, Alexander C Tsai, Alexandre Mason-Sharma, Eric P Goosby, Ashish K Jha, Vanessa B Kerry
Background: This study sought to characterize the possible relationship between US geopolitical priorities and annual decisions on health foreign assistance among recipient nations between 2009 and 2016. Methods: Data on total planned United States (US) foreign aid and health aid were collected for the 194 member nations of the World Health Organization (WHO) from publicly available databases. Trends in per-capita spending were examined between 2009 and 2016 across the six regions of the WHO (Africa, Americas, Eastern Mediterranean, Europe, Southeast Asia, and the Western Pacific)...
June 2018: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713463/zinc-as-an-adjunct-therapy-in-the-management-of-severe-pneumonia-among-gambian-children-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Stephen Howie, Christian Bottomley, Osaretin Chimah, Readon Ideh, Bernard Ebruke, Uduak Okomo, Charles Onyeama, Simon Donkor, Onike Rodrigues, Mary Tapgun, Marie Janneh, Claire Oluwalana, Bankole Kuti, Godwin Enwere, Pamela Esangbedo, Conor Doherty, Grant Mackenzie, Brian Greenwood, Tumani Corrah, Andrew Prentice, Richard Adegbola, Syed Zaman
Background: The benefit of zinc as an adjunct therapy for severe pneumonia is not established. We assessed the benefit of adjunct zinc therapy for severe pneumonia in children and determined whether the study children were zinc deficient. Methods: This was a randomized, parallel group, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with an allocation ratio of 1:1 conducted in children with severe pneumonia to evaluate the efficacy of daily zinc as an adjunct treatment in preventing 'treatment failure' (presence of any sign of severe pneumonia) on day-5 and day-10 and in reducing the time to resolution of signs of severe pneumonia...
June 2018: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713462/immigration-analysis-trends-and-outlook-on-the-global-research-activity
#6
Matthias Trost, Eileen M Wanke, Daniela Ohlendorf, Doris Klingelhöfer, Markus Braun, Jan Bauer, David A Groneberg, David Quarcoo, Dörthe Brüggmann
Background: Immigration has a strong impact on the development of health systems, medicine and science worldwide. Therefore, this article provides a descriptive study on the overall research output. Methods: Utilizing the scientific database Web of Science, data research was performed. The gathered bibliometric data was analyzed using the established platform NewQIS, a benchmarking system to visualize research quantity and quality indices. Findings: Between 1900 and 2016 a total of 6763 articles on immigration were retrieved and analyzed...
June 2018: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619212/validity-of-maternal-report-of-care-seeking-for-childhood-illness
#7
Emily D Carter, Micky Ndhlovu, Melinda Munos, Emmy Nkhama, Joanne Katz, Thomas P Eisele
Background: Accurate data on care-seeking for child illness are needed to improve public health programs and reduce child mortality. The accuracy of maternal report of care-seeking for child illness as collected through household surveys has not been validated. Methods: A 2016 survey compared reported care-seeking against a gold-standard of health care provider documented care-seeking events among a random sample of mothers of children <5 years in Southern Province, Zambia...
June 2018: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619211/quantifying-bias-in-measuring-insecticide-treated-bednet-use-meta-analysis-of-self-reported-vs-objectively-measured-adherence
#8
Paul J Krezanoski, David R Bangsberg, Alexander C Tsai
Background: Insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs) are recommended for use by 3.4 billion people at risk of malaria world-wide. Policy makers rely on measurements of ITN use to optimize malaria prevention efforts. Self-reports are the most common means of assessing ITN use, but self-reports may be biased in a way that reduces their reliability as a proxy for ITN adherence. This meta-analysis compared self-reported and two methods which are more objective measures of ITN use to explore whether self-reports overestimate actual ITN adherence...
June 2018: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564087/applications-of-crowdsourcing-in-health-an-overview
#9
Kerri Wazny
Background: Crowdsourcing is a nascent phenomenon that has grown exponentially since it was coined in 2006. It involves a large group of people solving a problem or completing a task for an individual or, more commonly, for an organisation. While the field of crowdsourcing has developed more quickly in information technology, it has great promise in health applications. This review examines uses of crowdsourcing in global health and health, broadly. Methods: Semantic searches were run in Google Scholar for "crowdsourcing," "crowdsourcing and health," and similar terms...
June 2018: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564086/who-is-bearing-the-financial-burden-of-non-communicable-diseases-in-mongolia
#10
Otgontuya Dugee, Enkhtuya Palam, Bayarsaikhan Dorjsuren, Ajay Mahal
Background: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) pose a formidable health and development challenge for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, translating this challenge into resource allocation is seriously constrained by a lack of country specific evidence on NCD financing and its distributional implications. This study estimated expenditures associated with NCDs in Mongolia and their distributions across socioeconomic groups, focusing especially on private out-of-pocket (OOP) spending on the major NCDs...
June 2018: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564085/can-facility-delivery-reduce-the-risk-of-intrapartum-complications-related-perinatal-mortality-findings-from-a-cohort-study
#11
Rasheda Khanam, Abdullah H Baqui, Mamun Ibne Moin Syed, Meagan Harrison, Nazma Begum, Abdul Quaiyum, Samir K Saha, Saifuddin Ahmed
Background: Intrapartum complications increase the risk of perinatal deaths. However, population-based data from developing countries assessing the contribution of intrapartum complications to perinatal deaths is scarce. Methods: Using data from a cohort of pregnant women followed between 2011 and 2013 in Bangladesh, this study examined the rate and types of intrapartum complications, the association of intrapartum complications with perinatal mortality, and if facility delivery modified the risk of intrapartum-related perinatal deaths...
June 2018: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564084/health-systems-around-the-world-a-comparison-of-existing-health-system-rankings
#12
Stefanie Schütte, Paula N Marin Acevedo, Antoine Flahault
Background: Existing health systems all over the world are different due to the different combinations of components that can be considered for their establishment. The ranking of health systems has been a focal points for many years especially the issue of performance. In 2000 the World Health Organization (WHO) performed a ranking to compare the Performance of the health system of the member countries. Since then other health system rankings have been performed and it became an issue of public discussion...
June 2018: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497509/kangaroo-mother-care-for-clinically-unstable-neonates-weighing-%C3%A2-2000-g-is-it-feasible-at-a-hospital-in-uganda
#13
Melissa C Morgan, Harriet Nambuya, Peter Waiswa, Cally Tann, Diana Elbourne, Janet Seeley, Elizabeth Allen, Joy E Lawn
Background: Kangaroo mother care (KMC) for stable neonates ≤2000 g (g) is associated with decreased mortality, sepsis, hypothermia, and length of stay compared to conventional care. The World Health Organization states that KMC "should be initiated… as soon as newborns are clinically stable " [12]. However, the majority of deaths occur in unstable neonates. We aimed to determine the proportion of admitted neonates meeting proposed instability criteria, assess the feasibility of providing KMC to unstable neonates, and evaluate the acceptability of this intervention to parents and providers at Jinja Regional Referral Hospital in Uganda...
June 2018: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497508/linking-data-sources-for-measurement-of-effective-coverage-in-maternal-and-newborn-health-what-do-we-learn-from-individual-vs-ecological-linking-methods
#14
Barbara Willey, Peter Waiswa, Darious Kajjo, Melinda Munos, Joseph Akuze, Elizabeth Allen, Tanya Marchant
Background: Improving maternal and newborn health requires improvements in the quality of facility-based care. This is challenging to measure: routine data may be unreliable; respondents in population surveys may be unable to accurately report on quality indicators; and facility assessments lack population level denominators. We explored methods for linking access to skilled birth attendance (SBA) from household surveys to data on provision of care from facility surveys with the aim of estimating population level effective coverage reflecting access to quality care...
June 2018: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497507/research-priorities-for-adolescent-health-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-mixed-methods-synthesis-of-two-separate-exercises
#15
Jason M Nagata, Sejal Hathi, B Jane Ferguson, Michele J Hindin, Sachiyo Yoshida, David A Ross
Background: In order to clarify priorities and stimulate research in adolescent health in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), the World Health Organization (WHO) conducted two priority-setting exercises based on the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) methodology related to 1) adolescent sexual and reproductive health and 2) eight areas of adolescent health including communicable diseases prevention and management, injuries and violence, mental health, non-communicable diseases management, nutrition, physical activity, substance use, and health policy...
June 2018: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497506/behavioural-and-clinical-predictors-for-loiasis
#16
Johannes Mischlinger, Luzia Veletzky, Gildas B Tazemda-Kuitsouc, Paul Pitzinger, Pierre B Matsegui, Markus Gmeiner, Heimo Lagler, Tamirat Gebru, Jana Held, Benjamin Mordmüller, Michael Ramharter
Background: Loiasis is a vector-borne disease in Central and West Africa. While there is still uncertainty to what extent loiasis is responsible for population morbidity, individuals having both loiasis and onchocerciasis have a high risk of fatal encephalopathy when treatment (ie, ivermectin) for onchocerciasis is given. Therefore it is current policy that communities of high loiasis-burden are excluded from mass drug administration programmes of ivermectin. To address this treatment gap we present diagnostic scores, based on clinical and behavioural predictors that may help to rapidly identify sub-groups with loiasis within high-burden communities...
June 2018: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497505/an-emergency-cash-transfer-program-promotes-weight-gain-and-reduces-acute-malnutrition-risk-among-children-6-24-months-old-during-a-food-crisis-in-niger
#17
Jessica Bliss, Kate Golden, Leila Bourahla, Rebecca Stoltzfus, David Pelletier
Background: Assessment of the impact of emergency cash transfer programs on child nutritional status has been difficult to achieve due to the considerable logistic and ethical constraints that characterize humanitarian settings. Methods: We present the findings from a quasi-experimental longitudinal study of a conditional emergency cash transfer program implemented by Concern Worldwide in 2012 during a food crisis in Tahoua, Niger, in which the use of a concurrent control group permits estimation of the program's impact on child weight gain...
June 2018: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497504/an-observational-study-of-monitoring-of-vital-signs-in-children-admitted-to-kenyan-hospitals-an-insight-into-the-quality-of-nursing-care
#18
Morris Ogero, Philip Ayieko, Boniface Makone, Thomas Julius, Lucas Malla, Jacquie Oliwa, Grace Irimu, Mike English
Background: Measurement and correct interpretation of vital signs is part of routine clinical care. Repeated measurement enhances early recognition of deterioration, may help prevent morbidity and mortality and is a standard of care in most countries. Objective: To examine documentation of vital signs by clinicians for admissions to paediatric wards in Kenyan hospitals, to describe monitoring frequency by nurses and explore factors influencing frequency. Methods: Vital signs information (temperature, respiratory and pulse rate) for the first 48 hours of admission was collected from case records of children admitted with non-surgical conditions to 13 Kenyan county hospitals between September 2013 and April 2016...
June 2018: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497503/carrying-water-may-be-a-major-contributor-to-disability-from-musculoskeletal-disorders-in-low-income-countries-a-cross-sectional-survey-in-south-africa-ghana-and-vietnam
#19
Jo-Anne Geere, Jamie Bartram, Laura Bates, Leslie Danquah, Barbara Evans, Michael B Fisher, Nora Groce, Batsirai Majuru, Michael M Mokoena, Murembiwa S Mukhola, Hung Nguyen-Viet, Phuc Pham Duc, Ashley Rhoderick Williams, Wolf-Peter Schmidt, Paul R Hunter
Background: The Sustainable Development Goals include commitments to end poverty, and promote education for all, gender equality, the availability of water and decent work for all. An important constraint is the fact that each day, many millions of women and children, and much less frequently men, carry their household's water home from off-plot sources. The burden of fetching water exacerbates gender inequality by keeping women out of education and paid employment. Despite speculation about the potential health impacts of fetching water, there is very little empirical evidence...
June 2018: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497502/association-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-with-hypertension-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Haifeng Hou, Yange Zhao, Wenqing Yu, Hualei Dong, Xiaotong Xue, Jian Ding, Weijia Xing, Wei Wang
Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a sleep disorder characterized as complete or partial upper airflow cessation during sleep. Although it has been widely accepted that OSA is a risk factor for the development of hypertension, the studies focusing on this topic revealed inconsistent results. We aimed to clarify the association between OSA and hypertension, including essential and medication-resistant hypertension. Methods: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) was followed...
June 2018: Journal of Global Health
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