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Journal of Global Health

Naoko Kozuki, Katja Ericson, Bethany Marron, Yolanda Barbera Lainez, Nathan P Miller
Background: An active conflict in South Sudan in late 2013/early 2014 displaced approximately 2 million people over the course of several months. In May 2015, the International Rescue Committee and UNICEF conducted a mixed-methods case study of the impact of that acute emergency on integrated community case management (iCCM) of childhood illness programming in Payinjiar County, Unity State. The objective was to document the operations of an iCCM program during an acute crisis and to assess the program's ability to continue operations...
December 2018: Journal of Global Health
Yingxi Zhao, Kaci Kennedy, Kun Tang
Background: China has been described as a "rogue" donor suspected of using foreign assistance to obtain raw materials, promote exports, and strengthen its business links with aid recipient countries. However, the factors influencing China's development assistance policy have rarely been analysed, particularly those related to its health aid. This study explores the factors that could affect the allocation of China's development assistance for health (DAH) from three key aspects: recipient need, recipient merit, and donor interest...
December 2018: Journal of Global Health
Marthelise Gm Eersel, Stephen Gs Vreden, Edward D van Eer, Dennis Ra Mans
Background: The Amazonian Amerindian populations living in the southern and southwestern hinterlands of Suriname (South America) have come into contact with western health care since approximately fifty years ago. In this study, secondary data were used to assess the impact of Medical Mission's fifty-year old primary health care program on the health status of these populations. Methods: Using data from the primary health care facilities of Medical Mission for 1965-1970, 1973-1977, 1982-1985, and 1997-2014, temporal trends in incidence and mortality of respiratory tract infections, gastroenteritis, and malaria; population composition; birth and death rates; and polyclinic consultations in these communities have been assessed over the period between 1965 and 2014...
December 2018: Journal of Global Health
Karen T Chang, Luke C Mullany, Subarna K Khatry, Steven C LeClerq, Melinda K Munos, Joanne Katz
Background: Quantitative validation studies alone may not be able to distinguish between instances when participants did not accurately report an event vs when participants did not understand a question. We used an explanatory qualitative study design to acquire an in-depth understanding of why some mothers in rural Nepal overestimate birth size of their newborn and their length of pregnancy. Methods: We conducted two focus group discussions (FGDs) with study staff who administered a quantitative questionnaire and 12 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with mothers who had participated in a quantitative validation study...
December 2018: Journal of Global Health
Peige Song, Wei Xia, Manli Wang, Xinlei Chang, Jingpin Wang, Shuai Jin, Jiawen Wang, Wei Wei, Igor Rudan
Background: Dry eye disease (DED) is one of the most prevalent ocular diseases in the world. In China, new lifestyles driven by information technology and the rapid ageing process have brought DED a severe public health concern. The aim of our study was to obtain the pooled prevalence of DED in China and explore its potential correlates. Methods: A comprehensive systematic review was conducted to identify all relevant literature published since 1990. Meta-analysis and meta-regression approaches were adopted to estimate the prevalence of DED...
December 2018: Journal of Global Health
Melinda K Munos, Ann K Blanc, Emily D Carter, Thomas P Eisele, Steve Gesuale, Joanne Katz, Tanya Marchant, Cynthia K Stanton, Harry Campbell
Background: Population-based intervention coverage indicators are widely used to track country and program progress in improving health and to evaluate health programs. Indicator validation studies that compare survey responses to a "gold standard" measure are useful to understand whether the indicator provides accurate information. The Improving Coverage Measurement (ICM) Core Group has developed and implemented a standard approach to validating coverage indicators measured in household surveys, described in this paper...
December 2018: Journal of Global Health
Peter Lambert, Tri-Hung Nguyen, Claire McEvoy, Rajpreet Singh Minhas, Philip Wright, Kim Deadman, Luc Mulimbalimba Masururu, Michelle P McIntosh
Background: Oxytocin injection is the first line therapy for the prevention and treatment of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH), the leading cause of maternal mortality. Currently access to high quality oxytocin in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) is compromised by variable manufacturing quality and the requirement for cold chain supply and storage to prevent product deterioration. Previous studies of oxytocin ampoules sampled from Africa, the region with highest maternal mortality rates, indicate that over half do not contain the specified amount of oxytocin...
December 2018: Journal of Global Health
Sk Masum Billah, Dm Emdadul Hoque, Muntasirur Rahman, Aliki Christou, Ngatho Samuel Mugo, Khadija Begum, Tazeen Tahsina, Qazi Sadeq-Ur Rahman, Enayet K Chowdhury, Twaha Mansurun Haque, Rasheda Khan, Ashraf Siddik, Jennifer Bryce, Robert E Black, Shams El Arifeen
Background: Informal health care providers particularly "village doctors" are the first point of care for under-five childhood illnesses in rural Bangladesh. We engaged village doctors as part of the Multi-Country Evaluation (MCE) of Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) and assessed their management of sick under-five children before and after a modified IMCI training, supplemented with ongoing monitoring and supportive supervision. Methods: In 2003-2004, 144 village doctors across 131 IMCI intervention villages in Matlab Bangladesh participated in a two-day IMCI training; 135 of which completed pre- and post-training evaluation tests...
December 2018: Journal of Global Health
Parisa Mansoori
Background: A substantial growth has been reported in Iran's number of clinical, biomedical, and public health research publications over the last 30 years. It is of interest to investigate whether this quantitative growth has also led to a larger number of papers with a high citation impact; to explore where the capacity for performing research lies; and which fields/institutions are lagging behind. Methods: This was a bibliometric study. Web of Science Core Collection and its different tools were used for retrieving and analysing the publications...
December 2018: Journal of Global Health
Hongjiang Wu, Caroline A Jackson, Sarah H Wild, Weiyan Jian, Jianqun Dong, Danijela Gasevic
Background: A rapid epidemiological transition is taking place in China and the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and diabetes prevalence is not clear and may vary by population characteristics and geography within the country. We describe the associations between educational level, annual household living expenditure (AHLE) and diabetes prevalence in a large middle-aged and elderly Chinese population using data from a nationwide cross-sectional study. Methods: We used data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study, which collected information from interviews and blood tests from a nationwide sample of people over 44 years of age in 2011-2012...
December 2018: Journal of Global Health
Julianne Williams, Luke Allen, Kremlin Wickramasinghe, Bente Mikkelsen, Nia Roberts, Nick Townsend
Background: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of death globally. Eighty-two percent of premature NCD deaths occur within low- and lower middle-income countries (LLMICs). Research to date, largely drawn from high-income countries, suggests that disadvantaged and marginalized groups have a higher NCD burden, but there has been a dearth of research studying this relationship within LLMICs. The purpose of this systematic review is to map the literature on evidence from LLMICs on the socio-economic status (SES) gradient of four particular NCDs: cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, and chronic respiratory diseases...
December 2018: Journal of Global Health
Khurshid Alam, Andre Renzaho, Ajay Mahal
Background: Existing literature on the impacts of adult illness on household labour supply and income in low- and middle-income countries shows that adverse health conditions significantly affect household labour supply, work participation and earnings. Most of the studies, however, are not equipped to distinguish between short- and long-term consequences of adult illness. We measured the impact of adult illness on household employment outcomes both in the short- and the long-run, using a unique longitudinal data set from rural India...
December 2018: Journal of Global Health
Laurent Gétaz, Alejandra Casillas, Claire-Anne Siegrist, François Chappuis, Giuseppe Togni, Nguyen-Toan Tran, Stéphanie Baggio, Francesco Negro, Jean-Michel Gaspoz, Hans Wolff
Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major health concern in prison, but data are scarce in European prisons. This study aims to measure the prevalence of HBV infection, risk factors, awareness about infection, and HBV knowledge among inmates in Switzerland's largest pre-trial prison. Methods: Serological blood tests (HBsAg, anti-HBs, and anti-HBc) and a standardized socio-demographic and sexual health survey were offered to consenting prisoners in 2009 and 2011...
December 2018: Journal of Global Health
Abdulrahman M El-Sayed, Daniel Vail, Margaret E Kruk
Background: Recent health policy efforts have sought to promote universal health coverage (UHC) as a means of providing affordable access to health services to populations. However, insurance schemes are heterogeneous, and some schemes may not provide necessary services to those covered. We explored the prevalence and determinants of ineffective insurance across 42 lower and middle income countries (LMICs) from the 2002-2004 World Health Survey. Methods: Respondents were defined as having ineffective health insurance if they reported being insured and: were forced to borrow or sell personal items to pay for health services; had an untreated chronic condition; or had recently delivered a child outside of a skilled health facility (women only)...
December 2018: Journal of Global Health
Hannah L Nathan, Paul T Seed, Natasha L Hezelgrave, Annemarie De Greeff, Elodie Lawley, Frances Conti-Ramsden, John Anthony, Wilhelm Steyn, David R Hall, Lucy C Chappell, Andrew H Shennan
Background: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy contribute to 14% of all maternal deaths, the majority of which occur in low- and middle-income countries. The aim of the study was to describe the maternal and perinatal clinical outcomes of women with pre-eclampsia living in middle- and low-income countries. Methods: The study was a prospective observational study of women with pre-eclampsia (n = 1547, 42 twin pregnancies) at three South African tertiary facilities...
December 2018: Journal of Global Health
Lee Stoner, Zachary Y Kerr, Dianne S Ward
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Journal of Global Health
Nathan P Miller, Penelope Milsom, Ginger Johnson, Juliet Bedford, Aline Simen Kapeu, Abdoulaye Oumar Diallo, Kebir Hassen, Nuzhat Rafique, Kamrul Islam, Robert Camara, Joseph Kandeh, Chea Sanford Wesseh, Kumanan Rasanathan, Jerome Pfaffmann Zambruni, Heather Papowitz
Background: The role of community health workers (CHWs) in the West Africa Ebola outbreak has been highlighted to advocate for increasing numbers of CHWs globally to build resilience, strengthen health systems, and provide emergency response capacity. However, the roles CHWs played, the challenges they faced, and their effectiveness during the outbreak are not well documented. This study assessed the impact of Ebola on community-based maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) services, documented the contribution of CHWs and other community-based actors to the Ebola response, and identified lessons learned to strengthen resilience in future emergencies...
December 2018: Journal of Global Health
Abdullah H Baqui, Salahuddin Ahmed, Nazma Begum, Rasheda Khanam, Diwakar Mohan, Meagan Harrison, Ahmed Al Kabir, Catharine McKaig, Neal Brandes, Maureen Norton, Saifuddin Ahmed
Background: Short birth intervals are associated with an increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes. However, reduction of rates of short birth intervals is challenging in low-resource settings where majority of the women deliver at home with limited access to family planning services immediately after delivery. This study examines the feasibility of integrating a post-partum family planning intervention package within a community-based maternal and newborn health intervention package, and evaluates the impact of integration on reduction of rates of short birth intervals and preterm births...
December 2018: Journal of Global Health
Kemi Ogunsina, Daniel T Dibaba, Tomi Akinyemiju
Background: The burden of non-communicable diseases has increased rapidly in low- and middle-income countries. Past studies have reported an association between socioeconomic status (SES) and cardio-metabolic risk factors, but most have focused on upper income countries. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between SES over the life-course and the burden of cardio-metabolic risk factors in middle-income countries. Methods: A total of 38 297 adults from China, Mexico, India, South Africa and Russia were included in this cross-sectional study...
December 2018: Journal of Global Health
David W Brown
Background: The Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP) Monitoring and Accountability Framework includes an indicator to reach 90% national vaccination coverage and 80% vaccination coverage in every district or equivalent administrative unit with three doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis containing vaccines (DTP) across all 194 country signatories to GVAP by 2020. Assessment of progress against the district indicator component requires GVAP defined "valid" coverage. GVAP defines district coverage "valid" if the WHO and UNICEF estimate of national immunization coverage for DTP3 in the most recent year is 1) ≥90%, or 2) is identical to the reported national administrative coverage for DTP3 (regardless of coverage level)...
December 2018: Journal of Global Health
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