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Current Obesity Reports

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737493/obesity-prevention-strategies-and-challenges-in-latin-america
#1
REVIEW
Louise Cominato, Georgia Finardi Di Biagio, Denise Lellis, Ruth Rocha Franco, Marcio Correa Mancini, Maria Edna de Melo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this study is to present changes of policies and norms aimed to reduce obesity levels that have been adopted in some Latin American countries. RECENT FINDINGS: The global increase of the excess weight within the population has been demanding governmental actions aimed at preventing health impacts generated by obesity. Over recent years, many Latin American countries have established a number of regulations aimed at reducing weight in the population using interventions that could effectively prevent childhood obesity, including the taxation of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), increasing physical activity in open spaces, and, especially, front-of-package labeling...
May 8, 2018: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704182/early-childhood-obesity-risk-factors-socioeconomic-adversity-family-dysfunction-offspring-distress-and-junk-food-self-medication
#2
REVIEW
Erik Hemmingsson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To explore the sequence and interaction of infancy and early childhood risk factors, particularly relating to disturbances in the social environment, and how the consequences of such exposures can promote weight gain and obesity. RECENT FINDINGS: This review will argue that socioeconomic adversity is a key upstream catalyst that sets the stage for critical midstream risk factors such as family strain and dysfunction, offspring insecurity, stress, emotional turmoil, low self-esteem, and poor mental health...
June 2018: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700718/intermittent-fasting-is-the-wait-worth-the-weight
#3
REVIEW
Mary-Catherine Stockman, Dylan Thomas, Jacquelyn Burke, Caroline M Apovian
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review the underlying mechanisms and potential benefits of intermittent fasting (IF) from animal models and recent clinical trials. RECENT FINDINGS: Numerous variations of IF exist, and study protocols vary greatly in their interpretations of this weight loss trend. Most human IF studies result in minimal weight loss and marginal improvements in metabolic biomarkers, though outcomes vary. Some animal models have found that IF reduces oxidative stress, improves cognition, and delays aging...
June 2018: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696560/prevention-of-excessive-gestational-weight-gain-and-postpartum-weight-retention
#4
REVIEW
Nemencio A Nicodemus
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize the current evidence on the prevention of excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) and reduction of postpartum weight retention (PPWR) by lifestyle intervention and pharmacotherapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent findings demonstrate that tailored nutrition counseling and adapting certain eating patterns, supervised exercise programs aiming at achieving at least moderate level of physical activity, and interactive and monitored behavior change interventions are effective in reducing excessive GWG and PPWR...
June 2018: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667158/obesity-prevention-and-management-strategies-in-canada-shifting-paradigms-and-putting-people-first
#5
REVIEW
Arya M Sharma, Ximena Ramos Salas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this study was to review public and private sector obesity policies in Canada and to make recommendations for future evidence-based obesity prevention and management strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: Synthesis of obesity prevention and management policies and research studies are presented in three primary themes: (1) Increased awareness about the impact of weight bias and obesity stigma in Canada; (2) Inadequate government obesity prevention and management policies and strategies; and (3) Lack of comprehensive private sector obesity prevention and management policies...
June 2018: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667157/devices-and-endoscopic-bariatric-therapies-for-obesity
#6
REVIEW
Katherine H Saunders, Leon I Igel, Monica Saumoy, Reem Z Sharaiha, Louis J Aronne
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we describe the FDA-approved and investigational devices and endoscopic bariatric therapies for the treatment of obesity. We focus on literature published in the past few years and present mechanisms of action as well as efficacy and safety data. RECENT FINDINGS: Devices and endoscopic procedures are emerging options to fill the significant treatment gap in the management of obesity. Not only are these devices and procedures minimally invasive and reversible, but they are potentially more effective than antiobesity medications, often safer for poor surgical candidates and possibly less expensive than bariatric surgery...
June 2018: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663153/stress-and-obesity-are-there-more-susceptible-individuals
#7
REVIEW
Eline S van der Valk, Mesut Savas, Elisabeth F C van Rossum
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Stress has long been suspected to be interrelated to (abdominal) obesity. However, interindividual differences in this complex relationship exist. We suggest that the extent of glucocorticoid action partly explains these interindividual differences. We provide latest insights with respect to multiple types of stressors. RECENT FINDINGS: Increased long-term cortisol levels, as measured in scalp hair, are strongly related to abdominal obesity and to specific mental disorders...
June 2018: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644576/the-state-of-the-summer-a-review-of-child-summer-weight-gain-and-efforts-to-prevent-it
#8
REVIEW
Lindsay A Tanskey, Jeanne Goldberg, Kenneth Chui, Aviva Must, Jennifer Sacheck
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Accumulating evidence shows that children in the USA gain weight more rapidly during the summer, when school is not in session. This narrative review spanning 2007 to 2017 summarizes efforts to characterize the problem, identify key determinants, and intervene to prevent excess summer weight gain. RECENT FINDINGS: Summer weight gain remains a concern for elementary-age youth. Few studies have examined its determinants, but unfavorable summertime shifts in diet, physical activity, sedentary time, screen media use, and sleep have been reported...
June 2018: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29637413/intestinal-and-gastric-origins-for-diabetes-resolution-after-bariatric-surgery
#9
REVIEW
Caroline A Andrew, Devika Umashanker, Louis J Aronne, Alpana P Shukla
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper will review the intestinal and gastric origins for diabetes resolution after bariatric surgery. RECENT FINDINGS: In addition to the known metabolic effects of changes in the gut hormonal milieu, more recent studies investigating the role of the microbiome and bile acids and changes in nutrient sensing mechanisms have been shown to have glycemic effects in human and animal models. Independent of weight loss, there are multiple mechanisms that may lead to amelioration or resolution of diabetes following bariatric surgery...
June 2018: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29637412/media-and-its-influence-on-obesity
#10
REVIEW
Fatima Cody Stanford, Zujaja Tauqeer, Theodore K Kyle
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review how the media frames obesity and the effect it has upon on public perceptions. RECENT FINDINGS: The scientific and public health understanding of obesity increasingly points away from individual behaviors and toward medical and community factors, but diffusion of this knowledge is slow. Growing awareness of the importance of body positivity is driving attention to the harms of weight bias and fat shaming. Health science reporting related to obesity, nutrition, and physical activity tends to perpetuate myths and misunderstandings...
June 2018: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619632/food-cues-and-obesity-overpowering-hormones-and-energy-balance-regulation
#11
REVIEW
Renata Belfort-DeAguiar, Dongju Seo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the modern obesogenic environment, food cues play a crucial role in the development of obesity by disrupting hormone and energy balance mechanisms. Thus, it is critical to understand the neurobiology of feeding behaviors and obesity in the context of ubiquitous food cues. The current paper reviews the physiology of feeding, hormonal regulation of energy balance, and food cue responses and discusses their contributions to obesity. RECENT FINDINGS: Food cues have strong impact on human physiology...
June 2018: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616469/racial-disparities-in-obesity-treatment
#12
REVIEW
Angel S Byrd, Alexander T Toth, Fatima Cody Stanford
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity rates in the USA have reached pandemic levels with one third of the population with obesity in 2015-2016 (39.8% of adults and 18.5% of youth). It is a major public health concern, and it is prudent to understand the factors which contribute. Racial and ethnic disparities are pronounced in both the prevalence and treatment of obesity and must be addressed in the efforts to combat obesity. RECENT FINDINGS: Disparities in prevalence of obesity in racial/ethnic minorities are apparent as early as the preschool years and factors including genetics, diet, physical activity, psychological factors, stress, income, and discrimination, among others, must be taken into consideration...
June 2018: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504049/future-pharmacotherapy-for-obesity-new-anti-obesity-drugs-on-the-horizon
#13
REVIEW
Gitanjali Srivastava, Caroline Apovian
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity is a global health crisis with detrimental effects on all organ systems leading to worsening disease state and rising costs of care. Persons with obesity failing lifestyle therapies need to be escalated to appropriate pharmacological treatment modalities, medical devices, and/or bariatric surgery if criteria are met and more aggressive intervention is needed. The progression of severe obesity in the patient population coupled with related co-morbidities necessitates the development of novel therapies for the treatment of obesity...
June 2018: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460067/a-systematic-review-of-physical-activity-interventions-in-individuals-with-binge-eating-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Claudine Blanchet, Marie-Ève Mathieu, Audrey St-Laurent, Shirley Fecteau, Nathalie St-Amour, Vicky Drapeau
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Our systematic review aims to assess the overall evidence available in the literature regarding the role of physical activity (PA) in individuals with binge eating disorder (BED) and better understand the potential underlying mechanisms of action. RECENT FINDINGS: Currently, the most effective and well-established psychological treatment for BED is cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with a remission rate around 80%. CBT is sometimes combined with pharmacotherapy targeting comorbidities associated with BED, such as obesity and depression...
March 2018: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446037/developing-healthy-food-preferences-in-preschool-children-through-taste-exposure-sensory-learning-and-nutrition-education
#15
REVIEW
Chandani Nekitsing, Marion M Hetherington, Pam Blundell-Birtill
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review was undertaken in order to summarize and evaluate recent research investigating taste exposure, sensory learning, and nutrition education interventions for promoting vegetable intake in preschool children. RECENT FINDINGS: Overall, taste exposure interventions yielded the best outcomes for increasing vegetable intake in early childhood. Evidence from sensory learning strategies such as visual exposure and experiential learning also show some success...
March 2018: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446036/mindfulness-approaches-and-weight-loss-weight-maintenance-and-weight-regain
#16
REVIEW
Carolyn Dunn, Megan Haubenreiser, Madison Johnson, Kelly Nordby, Surabhi Aggarwal, Sarah Myer, Cathy Thomas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is an urgent need for effective weight management techniques, as more than one third of US adults are overweight or obese. Recommendations for weight loss include a combination of reducing caloric intake, increasing physical activity, and behavior modification. Behavior modification includes mindful eating or eating with awareness. The purpose of this review was to summarize the literature and examine the impact of mindful eating on weight management. RECENT FINDINGS: The practice of mindful eating has been applied to the reduction of food cravings, portion control, body mass index, and body weight...
March 2018: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435959/hyperpalatability-and-the-generation-of-obesity-roles-of-environment-stress-exposure-and-individual-difference
#17
REVIEW
Sarah-Jane Leigh, Frances Lee, Margaret J Morris
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review investigates how exposure to palatable food and its associated cues alters appetite regulation and feeding behaviour to drive overeating and weight gain. RECENT FINDINGS: Both supraphysiological and physiological feeding systems are affected by exposure to palatable foods and its associated cues. Preclinical research, largely using rodents, has demonstrated that palatable food modulates feeding-related neural systems and food-seeking behaviour by recruiting the mesolimbic reward pathway...
March 2018: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435958/understanding-the-relationship-between-food-variety-food-intake-and-energy-balance
#18
REVIEW
Hollie A Raynor, Maya Vadiveloo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In accordance with US dietary guidance, incorporating variety into the diet can align with energy balance, though greater food variety in some categories may make energy balance more challenging. Thus, experimental and epidemiologic evidence is summarized on the relationship between food variety, food and energy intake, and energy balance. RECENT FINDINGS: Lab-based, experimental research consistently demonstrates that greater variety within foods or sensory characteristics of food increases food and energy intake within an eating occasion...
March 2018: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430616/cognitive-control-of-eating-the-role-of-memory-in-appetite-and-weight-gain
#19
Suzanne Higgs, Maartje S Spetter
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review organises the recent literature on the role of memory in eating behaviours and provides an overview of the current evidence relating to the associations between memory and weight gain. RECENT FINDINGS: Research over the last few years has highlighted working memory as an important cognitive process that underpins many aspects of appetite control. Recent work on episodic memory and appetite has replicated work showing that manipulating memory for recent eating affects later consumption and extended this work to examine associations between individual differences in memory and eating behaviours...
March 2018: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427047/are-personality-characteristics-as-measured-by-the-temperament-and-character-inventory-tci-associated-with-obesity-treatment-outcomes-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Riccardo Dalle Grave, Simona Calugi, Marwan El Ghoch
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Some personality traits seem to be associated with obesity, but there is little information available regarding their association with obesity treatment outcomes. The aim of this systematic review was therefore to assess the associations between personality traits-evaluated by means of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI)-and outcomes of obesity treatment, including attrition, weight loss, and weight loss maintenance. The PubMed database was searched, and studies were screened as per the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, and data were collated using a narrative approach...
March 2018: Current Obesity Reports
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