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Current Obesity Reports

Martin A Alpert, Jad Omran, Brian P Bostick
Obesity produces a variety of hemodynamic alterations that may cause changes in cardiac morphology which predispose to left and right ventricular dysfunction. Various neurohormonal and metabolic alterations commonly associated with obesity may contribute to these abnormalities of cardiac structure and function. These changes in cardiovascular hemodynamics, cardiac morphology, and ventricular function may, in severely obese patients, predispose to heart failure, even in the absence of other forms of heart disease (obesity cardiomyopathy)...
October 15, 2016: Current Obesity Reports
David L Katz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2016: Current Obesity Reports
Dimitrios Minos, Iris Butzlaff, Kathrin Maria Demmler, Ramona Rischke
Human and planetary health as well as economic growth are firmly interlinked and subject to complex interaction effects. In this paper, we provide an overview of interlinkages between economic growth, climate change, and obesity focusing on recent advances in the literature. In addition to empirical findings, we discuss different theoretical frameworks used to conceptualize these complex links and highlight policy options and challenges. We conclude that policies addressing both climate change and obesity simultaneously are particularly promising and often suitable for ensuring sustainable development...
October 6, 2016: Current Obesity Reports
Priya Sumithran, Joseph Proietto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 3, 2016: Current Obesity Reports
Emilie H Zobel, Tine W Hansen, Peter Rossing, Bernt Johan von Scholten
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We explore how a global shift in the food system caused by global economic growth, increase in available food per capita and in food processing is a driver of the obesity epidemic. RECENT FINDINGS: Economic development in most areas of the world has resulted in increased purchasing power and available per capita food. Supermarkets and a growing fast-food industry have transformed our dietary pattern. Ultra-processed food rich on sugars and saturated fat is now the major source of energy in most countries...
September 30, 2016: Current Obesity Reports
David H Ipsen, Pernille Tveden-Nyborg, Jens Lykkesfeldt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Purpose of review: It is becoming increasingly clear that some obese individuals do not develop dyslipidemia and instead remain healthy, while some normal weight individuals become dyslipidemic and unhealthy. RECENT FINDINGS: The present review examines the similarities and differences between healthy and unhealthy individuals with and without obesity and discusses putative underlying mechanisms of dyslipidemia. The presence of dyslipidemia and compromised metabolic health in both lean and obese individuals suggests that the obese phenotype per se does not represent a main independent risk factor for the development of dyslipidemia and that dyslipidemia, rather than obesity, may be the driver of metabolic diseases...
September 29, 2016: Current Obesity Reports
Jennifer Collins, Chelsea Meng, Anna Eng
The causes of severe obesity are multifactorial and include metabolic, dietary, physical, and psychological aspects. Additionally, the impact of severe obesity affects more than one's physical health. This article attempts to explore the psychological impact of severe obesity specifically in the areas of mood, eating disorders, sleep disturbance, chronic pain, and quality of life. Additionally, obesity treatment options of lifestyle modification and bariatric surgery that include psychological assessment and/or cognitive behavioral intervention are discussed...
September 27, 2016: Current Obesity Reports
Manfred J Müller, Janna Enderle, Anja Bosy-Westphal
Metabolic adaptation to weight changes relates to body weight control, obesity and malnutrition. Adaptive thermogenesis (AT) refers to changes in resting and non-resting energy expenditure (REE and nREE) which are independent from changes in fat-free mass (FFM) and FFM composition. AT differs in response to changes in energy balance. With negative energy balance, AT is directed towards energy sparing. It relates to a reset of biological defence of body weight and mainly refers to REE. After weight loss, AT of nREE adds to weight maintenance...
December 2016: Current Obesity Reports
Balyssa B Bell, Kamal Rahmouni
Hypertension and associated cardiovascular diseases represent the most common health complication of obesity and the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in overweight and obese patients. Emerging evidence suggests a critical role for the central nervous system particularly the brain action of the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin in linking obesity and hypertension. The preserved ability of leptin to cause cardiovascular sympathetic nerve activation despite the resistance to the metabolic actions of the hormone appears essential in this pathological process...
December 2016: Current Obesity Reports
Carlene A Johnson Stoklossa, Mary Forhan, Raj S Padwal, Maria Cristina Gonzalez, Carla M Prado
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to explore the practical considerations for body composition assessment of adults with class II/III obesity. Studies assessing adults (18-64 years) with a body mass index (BMI) ≥35 kg/m(2) with bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and/or dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were included. RECENT FINDINGS: Twelve studies met inclusion criteria. Five considerations were identified: variances in equipment and technology, equipment weight capacity, subject positioning, tissue penetration, and total body hydration...
September 3, 2016: Current Obesity Reports
Nipun Shrestha, Zeljko Pedisic, Sarah Neil-Sztramko, Katriina T Kukkonen-Harjula, Veerle Hermans
This narrative review summarized findings from previous reviews and the most recently published studies, regarding the following: (1) the association between two occupational risk factors-shift work and sedentary work-and obesity, (2) the effects of obesity on workplace productivity and (3) the effectiveness of workplace interventions aimed at preventing or reducing obesity. Despite some inconsistencies in findings, there is convincing evidence that shift work increases the risk of obesity, while most studies did not show a significant association between sedentary work and obesity...
September 2016: Current Obesity Reports
Lili Huo, Jasmine Lyons, Dianna J Magliano
Over the last two decades, the prevalence of obesity has increased rapidly. While it is intuitively appealing to believe that the causes of obesity are manifestly related to excess dietary intake, combined with a reduced expenditure of energy via a decrease in physical activity, it is also been noted that the evidence for these as the sole causes of the obesity epidemic is incomplete. This has led to the search for other causes of obesity, particularly those which stem from the environment we live in. This review will explore two putative causes of obesity: infections and environmental pollutants...
September 2016: Current Obesity Reports
Ella Ewart-Pierce, María José Mejía Ruiz, Joel Gittelsohn
The causes of obesity worldwide are complex and multilevel, including changing food environments, physical activity levels, policies, and food production systems. This intricate context requires multilevel and multicomponent (MLMC) interventions to improve health outcomes. We conducted a literature review of MLMC interventions for obesity prevention and mitigation; 14 studies meeting search criteria were identified. We found examples of successes in preventing obesity, reducing overweight, improving healthful behaviors, and enhancing some psychosocial indicators...
September 2016: Current Obesity Reports
Jenny Theorell-Haglöw, Eva Lindberg
Collectively, cross-sectional and longitudinal studies on self-reported sleep duration and obesity do not show a clear pattern of association with some showing a negative linear relationship, some showing a U-shaped relationship, and some showing no relationship. Associations between sleep duration and obesity seem stronger in younger adults. Cross-sectional studies using objectively measured sleep duration (actigraphy or polysomnography (PSG)) also show this mixed pattern whereas all longitudinal studies to date using actigraphy or PSG have failed to show a relationship with obesity/weight gain...
September 2016: Current Obesity Reports
Matthew S Capehorn, David W Haslam, Richard Welbourn
In the UK, as in most other countries in the world, levels of obesity are increasing. According to the Kinsey report, obesity has the second largest public health impact after smoking, and it is inextricably linked to physical inactivity. Since the UK Health and Social Care Act reforms of 2012, there has been a significant restructuring of the National Health Service (NHS). As a consequence, NHS England and the Department of Health have issued new policy guidelines regarding the commissioning of obesity treatment...
September 2016: Current Obesity Reports
Adam G Tsai, Trina Histon, W Troy Donahoo, Shahid Hashmi, Sameer Murali, Peggy Latare, Lajune Oliver, Jennifer Slovis, Sarah Grall, David Fisher, Loel Solomon
Kaiser Permanente, an integrated health care delivery system in the USA, takes a "whole systems" approach to the chronic disease of obesity that begins with efforts to prevent it by modifying the environment in communities and schools. Aggressive case-finding and substantial investment in intensive lifestyle modification programs target individuals at high risk of diabetes and other weight-related conditions. Kaiser Permanente regions are increasingly standardizing their approach when patients with obesity require treatment intensification using medically supervised diets, prescription medication to treat obesity, or weight loss surgery...
September 2016: Current Obesity Reports
Denise Campbell-Scherer, Arya Mitra Sharma
Obesity is a major risk factor for chronic diseases with significant morbidity, mortality and health care cost. There is concern due to the dramatic increase in overweight and obesity in Canada in the last 20 years. The causes of obesity are multifactorial, with underestimation by patients and healthcare providers of the long-term nature of the condition, and its complexity. Solutions related to prevention and management will require multifaceted strategies involving education, health policy, public health and health systems across the care continuum...
September 2016: Current Obesity Reports
Jennifer M Vesely, Nicolaas P Pronk, Thomas E Kottke, Peter S Marshall
The purpose of this paper is to describe how HealthPartners health system in Minneapolis, MN, has translated a clinical guideline for obesity among adults into an efficient care delivery practice operations system. Based on a foundation provided by the physician-led Institute of Clinical Systems Improvement (ICSI)-developed Prevention and Management of Obesity for Adults Health Care Guideline, HealthPartners adapted the guideline into an electronic health record-based "Smart Set" that provides frontline physicians with the information, treatment options, and referral steps necessary to care for their patients with obesity...
September 2016: Current Obesity Reports
Kartik Sampath, Amreen M Dinani, Richard I Rothstein
The obesity epidemic, recognized by the World Health Organization in 1997, refers to the rising incidence of obesity worldwide. Lifestyle modification and pharmacotherapy are often ineffective long-term solutions; bariatric surgery remains the gold standard for long-term obesity weight loss. Despite the reported benefits, it has been estimated that only 1% of obese patients will undergo surgery. Endoscopic treatment for obesity represents a potential cost-effective, accessible, minimally invasive procedure that can function as a bridge or alternative intervention to bariatric surgery...
June 2016: Current Obesity Reports
Stella Lucia Volpe, Deeptha Sukumar, Brandy-Joe Milliron
The number of older adults living in the USA, 65 years of age and older, has been steadily increasing. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007-2010, indicate that more than one-third of older adults, 65 years of age and older, were obese. With the increased rate of obesity in older adults, the purpose of this paper is to present research on different methods to prevent or manage obesity in older adults, namely dietary interventions, physical activity interventions, and a combination of dietary and physical activity interventions...
June 2016: Current Obesity Reports
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