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Current Obesity Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718091/nutritional-and-micronutrient-care-of-bariatric-surgery-patients-current-evidence-update
#1
REVIEW
Michael A Via, Jeffrey I Mechanick
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The continued success of bariatric surgery to treat obesity and obesity-associated metabolic conditions creates a need for a strong understanding of clinical nutrition both before and after these procedures. RECENT FINDINGS: Surgically induced alteration of gastrointestinal physiology can affect the nutrition of individuals, especially among those who have undergone malabsorptive procedures. While uncommon, a subset of patients may develop protein-calorie malnutrition...
July 17, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707209/anaesthetic-preparation-of-obese-patients-current-status-on-optimal-work-up
#2
REVIEW
Asta Lukosiute, Anil Karmali, Jonathan Mark Cousins
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With the prevalence of obesity rapidly growing, bariatric anaesthesia becomes everyday anaesthesia rather than a subspecialty. In this review, we are aiming to draw attention to this complex group of patients and their comorbidities, relevant to everyday practice for contemporary anaesthetists. RECENT FINDINGS: We wanted to focus greatly on sleep-related breathing disorders, because preoperative screening, diagnosis and treatment of the aforementioned make a huge impact in the improvement of preoperative morbidity and mortality, including positive effects on the cardiovascular system...
July 13, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699145/shifts-in-food-preferences-after-bariatric-surgery-observational-reports-and-proposed-mechanisms
#3
REVIEW
Natasha Kapoor, Werd Al-Najim, Carel W le Roux, Neil G Docherty
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective treatment for obesity. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is the most commonly performed bariatric procedure and results in long-term weight loss. Alterations in food preference and choices may contribute to the long-term benefits of RYGB. This manuscript reviews the available literature documenting changes in food preference in both humans and experimental animals after RYGB and discusses the current theory on the underlying mechanisms involved...
July 11, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695352/longitudinal-associations-between-childhood-obesity-and-academic-achievement-systematic-review-with-focus-group-data
#4
REVIEW
Anne Martin, Josephine N Booth, Sarah McGeown, Ailsa Niven, John Sproule, David H Saunders, John J Reilly
PURPOSE: The purposes of this study were to review the evidence on longitudinal associations between child and adolescent obesity and academic achievement and to provide perceptions of adolescents with obesity and their parents on this topic. RECENT FINDINGS: Synthesis of 31 studies (from 17 cohorts) suggested that relationships between obesity and academic achievement are not well established, except for adolescent girls' maths attainment, potentially mediated by both weight-related bullying and executive cognitive functions...
July 10, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639063/erratum-to-screen-time-other-sedentary-behaviours-and-obesity-risk-in-adults-a-review-of-reviews
#5
Stuart J H Biddle, Enrique García Bengoechea, Zeljko Pedisic, Jason Bennie, Ineke Vergeer, Glen Wiesner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466413/obesity-prevention-in-the-military
#6
REVIEW
Marissa Shams-White, Patricia Deuster
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The objective was to review prevention efforts and approaches attempting to limit the problem of obesity in the military. RECENT FINDINGS: Various individual-level initiatives have emerged, including programs promoting healthy cooking, meal planning, and other behavior changes among service members. Importantly, the military is attempting to tackle environmental factors contributing to the rise of obesity, by focusing on many recent environmental-level interventions and initiatives to improve military dining facilities and examine and modify other aspects of installations' built environments...
May 2, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455677/obesity-prevention-for-individuals-with-spina-bifida
#7
REVIEW
Michele Polfuss, Linda G Bandini, Kathleen J Sawin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity is a common comorbidity in individuals with spina bifida. Carrying excess weight exacerbates the inherent health challenges associated with spina bifida, impedes the individual's ability to self-manage their condition, and creates further challenges for family members and caregivers. This manuscript provides a narrative review of key issues for understanding and prevention of obesity in persons with spina bifida within the context of the social ecological model...
April 28, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547122/trauma-and-bmi-mortality
#8
REVIEW
Tejal S Brahmbhatt, Michael Hernon, Charles Jeffrey Siegert, Leneé Plauché, Lorrie S Young, Peter Burke
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity has been recognized as an impactful comorbid condition. It has been demonstrated to be an independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality following trauma. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple studies and reviews have strongly suggested obesity to be associated with increased risk for post-injury morbidity and mortality. As obesity is associated with a pro-inflammatory state, it has been suggested to negatively affect the respiratory, cardiovascular, coagulation, and renal systems and the ability and manner in which an obese patient heals...
June 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527103/quality-of-life-after-bariatric-surgery
#9
REVIEW
Laura M Mazer, Dan E Azagury, John M Morton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide an introduction to quality of life (QOL) outcomes after bariatric surgery and a summary of the current evidence. RECENT FINDINGS: QOL has been emphasized in bariatric surgery since the NIH Consensus Conference statement in 1991. Initial studies were limited to 1- and 2-year follow-up. More recent findings have expanded the follow-up period up to 12 years, providing a better description of the impact on long-term QOL...
June 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466412/hyperinsulinemia-a-cause-of-obesity
#10
REVIEW
Karel A Erion, Barbara E Corkey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This perspective is motivated by the need to question dogma that does not work: that the problem is insulin resistance (IR). We highlight the need to investigate potential environmental obesogens and toxins. RECENT FINDINGS: The prequel to severe metabolic disease includes three interacting components that are abnormal: (a) IR, (b) elevated lipids and (c) elevated basal insulin (HI). HI is more common than IR and is a significant independent predictor of diabetes...
June 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455679/weight-loss-and-improvement-in-comorbidity-differences-at-5-10-15-and-over
#11
REVIEW
Donna H Ryan, Sarah Ryan Yockey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: One begins to see improvement in glycemic measures and triglycerides with small amounts of weight loss, but with greater levels of weight loss there is even greater improvement. In fact, the relationship between weight loss and glycemia is one that is very close. RECENT FINDINGS: This is fortunate for diabetes prevention; it takes only small amounts of weight loss to prevent progression to type 2 diabetes from impaired glucose tolerance, and after the 10 kg of weight loss, one cannot demonstrate much additional improvement in risk reduction...
June 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455678/early-nutrition-and-physical-activity-interventions-in-childhood-cancer-survivors
#12
REVIEW
Fang Fang Zhang, Michael J Kelly, Aviva Must
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Childhood cancer survivors experience excessive weight gain early in treatment. Lifestyle interventions need to be initiated early in cancer care to prevent the early onset of obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We reviewed the existing literature on early lifestyle interventions in childhood cancer survivors and consider implications for clinical care. RECENT FINDINGS: Few lifestyle interventions focus on improving nutrition in childhood cancer survivors...
June 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439846/partnership-for-a-healthier-america-creating-change-through-private-sector-partnerships
#13
REVIEW
Caitlin Simon, S Lawrence Kocot, William H Dietz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides background on the formation of the Partnership for a Healthier America (PHA), that was created in conjunction with the Let's Move! initiative, and an overview of its work to date. RECENT FINDINGS: To encourage industry to offer and promote healthier options, PHA partners with the private sector. Principles that guide PHA partnerships include ensuring that partnerships represent meaningful change, partners sign a legally binding contract and progress is monitored and publicly reported...
June 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434107/early-life-obesity-prevention-critique-of-intervention-trials-during-the-first-one-thousand-days
#14
REVIEW
John J Reilly, Anne Martin, Adrienne R Hughes
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To critique the evidence from recent and ongoing obesity prevention interventions in the first 1000 days in order to identify evidence gaps and weaknesses, and to make suggestions for more informative future intervention trials. RECENT FINDINGS: Completed and ongoing intervention trials have had fairly modest effects, have been limited largely to high-income countries, and have used relatively short-term interventions and outcomes. Comparison of the evidence from completed prevention trials with the evidence from systematic reviews of behavioral risk factors shows that some life-course stages have been neglected (pre-conception and toddlerhood), and that interventions have neglected to target some important behavioral risk factors (maternal smoking during pregnancy, infant and child sleep)...
June 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421472/screen-time-other-sedentary-behaviours-and-obesity-risk-in-adults-a-review-of-reviews
#15
REVIEW
Stuart J H Biddle, Enrique Bengoechea García, Zeljko Pedisic, Jason Bennie, Ineke Vergeer, Glen Wiesner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this paper is to assess the association between sedentary behaviours, including screen time, and risk of obesity in adults. A review of 10 systematic reviews was undertaken. RECENT FINDINGS: Available evidence is generally not supportive of associations between sedentary behaviour and obesity in adults. Most studies that found significant associations indicated mostly small effect sizes. Somewhat more consistent associations were shown for screen time (mainly TV viewing), among older adults, and for pre-adult sedentary behaviour to increase the risk of obesity in adulthood...
June 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401491/faith-based-institutions-as-venues-for-obesity-prevention
#16
REVIEW
Maria J Maynard
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this current narrative review is to critique the scope and value of recent studies with a focus on obesity-related health promotion in faith organizations. RECENT FINDINGS: Electronic database searches, scanning of the reference lists of identified articles, and hand searching of journals for articles written in English and published in 2013-2016 revealed 16 studies. Half of the studies involved African-Americans, in churches and with predominantly female participants...
June 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434109/insights-into-the-link-between-obesity-and-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Sarah E Ackerman, Olivia A Blackburn, François Marchildon, Paul Cohen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adipocytes have adapted to store energy in the form of lipid and also secrete circulating factors called adipokines that signal to other tissues to coordinate energy homeostasis. These functions are disrupted in the setting of obesity, promoting the development of diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: Obesity is linked to an increased risk of many types of cancer and increased cancer-related mortality...
April 22, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434108/emotional-eating-binge-eating-and-animal-models-of-binge-type-eating-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Robert Turton, Rayane Chami, Janet Treasure
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The objective of this paper is to review the role that hedonic factors, emotions and self-regulation systems have over eating behaviours from animal models to humans. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence has been found to suggest that for some high-risk individuals, obesity/binge eating may develop as an impulsive reaction to negative emotions that over time becomes a compulsive habit. Animal models highlight the neural mechanisms that might underlie this process and suggest similarities with substance use disorders...
April 22, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421471/social-marketing-as-a-framework-for-youth-physical-activity-initiatives-a-10-year-retrospective-on-the-legacy-of-cdc-s-verb-campaign
#19
REVIEW
Marian Huhman, Ryan P Kelly, Timothy Edgar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In 2002, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) launched the VERB. It's what you do! campaign to increase physical activity among tweens and concomitantly respond to the rise in childhood obesity. This retrospective study summarizes the history of the VERB campaign's social marketing approach and its effectiveness in promoting behavior change in the targeted population. RECENT FINDINGS: The legacy of VERB, which ended in 2006, is discussed, with an emphasis on examining initiatives over the last decade and the degree to which they followed (or did not follow) the structural and thematic lead of the campaign...
April 18, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401490/the-report-card-on-bmi-report-cards
#20
REVIEW
Hannah R Thompson, Kristine A Madsen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Half of states in the USA have legislation requiring that schools conduct body mass index (BMI) screening among students; just under half of these states report results to parents. The effectiveness of school-based BMI screening and reporting in reducing childhood obesity is not established and the practice has raised concerns about the potential for increased weight-based stigmatization. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent experimental studies of BMI screening and reporting have not demonstrated a positive impact on students' weight status...
April 11, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
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