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Current Obesity Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30368736/bipolar-disorder-and-obesity-contributing-factors-impact-on-clinical-course-and-the-role-of-bariatric-surgery
#1
REVIEW
Noreen A Reilly-Harrington, Emily H Feig, Jeff C Huffman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe, common, and chronic affective disorder. This review highlights the BD and obesity connection and the role of treatments for obesity in this population. RECENT FINDINGS: Patients with BD are at a significantly increased risk for obesity, as compared to those without BD, with obesity serving as a proxy for severity and predictor of poorer outcome. BD is characterized by substantial medical burden, with obesity-related conditions contributing to premature mortality...
December 2018: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30361871/towards-an-individualized-nutrition-treatment-role-of-the-gastrointestinal-microbiome-in-the-interplay-between-diet-and-obesity
#2
REVIEW
Solveig A Adalsteinsdottir, Ola K Magnusdottir, Thorhallur I Halldorsson, Bryndis E Birgisdottir
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dietary treatments for obesity have relatively low long-term success. Recent studies have identified the gastrointestinal microbiome as a factor of high relevance. The current knowledge on the interplay between diet, obesity, and the gastrointestinal microbiome and the potential for individualized dietary treatment will be discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies indicate that each individual digests and metabolizes identical food substances differently depending on their gastrointestinal microbiome composition...
December 2018: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30349968/prevalence-of-overweight-and-obesity-in-bangladesh-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#3
REVIEW
Sujan Banik, Mitanoor Rahman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The increasing prevalence of overweight/obesity is a leading public health concern in high-, middle-, and low-income countries. Our study aimed to present published data on the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Bangladeshi children, adolescents, and adults. In this systemic literature review, electronic search engines of PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and the Bangladesh Journals Online were used to find relevant articles published between 2007 and 2017 based on predefined inclusion/exclusion principles...
December 2018: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30315490/risk-factors-and-implications-of-childhood-obesity
#4
REVIEW
Susann Weihrauch-Bl├╝her, Susanna Wiegand
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes our current understanding of factors associated with childhood obesity, including latest prevalence rates, effectiveness of intervention strategies, and risk for concomitant disease later in life. RECENT FINDINGS: Obesity has reached global dimensions, and prevalence of childhood obesity has increased eightfold since 1975. Interventions for obesity prevention have mainly focused on behavioral settings to date, i.e., interventions that have focused on behavioral changes of the individuum such as increasing daily physical exercise or optimizing diet...
December 2018: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30220074/obesity-and-sexual-functioning
#5
REVIEW
David B Sarwer, Alexis J Hanson, Jessica Voeller, Kristine Steffen
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Sexual functioning is an important, yet often overlooked, aspect of quality of life for many individuals with obesity. RECENT FINDINGS: With the growing recognition of obesity as a significant, international public health issue, a developing body of research has investigated the relationship between obesity and sexual functioning. Several studies have found that obesity is associated with impairments in sexual functioning. The mechanisms of this relationship, whether physiological, psychosocial, or a combination of the two, are yet to be fully elucidated...
December 2018: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30155850/epidemiology-of-obesity-in-adults-latest-trends
#6
REVIEW
Yosuke Inoue, Bo Qin, Jennifer Poti, Rebeccah Sokol, Penny Gordon-Larsen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: An increasing trend in obesity prevalence since the early 1980s has posed a significant population health burden across the globe. We conducted a systematic review for studies using measured anthropometry to examine trends in obesity in the USA published from 2012 to 2018 and for systematic reviews to document trends in obesity across the globe published from 2014 to 2018. RECENT FINDINGS: For the USA, the only nationally representative data source capturing trends in obesity in this period was the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which uses repeated cross-sectional data to document national trends in obesity in the USA...
December 2018: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30145771/classic-and-novel-adipocytokines-at-the-intersection-of-obesity-and-cancer-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-strategies
#7
REVIEW
Nikolaos Spyrou, Konstantinos I Avgerinos, Christos S Mantzoros, Maria Dalamaga
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we investigate the role of classic and novel adipocytokines in cancer pathogenesis synopsizing the mechanisms underlying the association between adipocytokines and malignancy. Special emphasis is given on novel adipocytokines as new evidence is emerging regarding their entanglement in neoplastic development. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent data have emphasized the role of the triad of overweight/obesity, insulin resistance and adipocytokines in cancer...
December 2018: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30099727/australia-s-progress-in-improving-diets-and-preventing-obesity-clear-opportunities-for-action
#8
REVIEW
Jane Martin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Australia, like other developed countries, has a high prevalence of overweight and obesity, in both adults and children. This review examines progress in food policy in Australia, particularly at a national level, around key policy domains as well as in relation to public education. RECENT FINDINGS: Australia lacks a national nutrition strategy or an obesity prevention strategy, incorporating best practice recommendations to improve diets. Examination of current progress shows patchy implementation of key food policy initiatives and significant gaps, particularly at the federal level...
September 2018: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30069717/disordered-eating-attitudes-and-behaviors-in-youth-with-overweight-and-obesity-implications-for-treatment
#9
REVIEW
Jacqueline F Hayes, Ellen E Fitzsimmons-Craft, Anna M Karam, Jessica Jakubiak, Mackenzie L Brown, Denise E Wilfley
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Children with obesity experience disordered eating attitudes and behaviors at high rates, which increases their risk for adult obesity and eating disorder development. As such, it is imperative to screen for disordered eating symptoms and identify appropriate treatments. RECENT FINDINGS: Family-based multicomponent behavioral weight loss treatment (FBT) is effective at treating childhood obesity and demonstrates positive outcomes on psychosocial outcomes, including disordered eating...
September 2018: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30051313/personality-traits-and-weight-loss-surgery-outcome
#10
REVIEW
Irene Generali, Chiara De Panfilis
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: To update the recent findings on the influence of personality features on postoperative weight loss in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. RECENT FINDINGS: Several studies investigated the influence of pre-surgical psychological variables on the outcome of bariatric surgery, but the effective role of personality factors (i.e., both normal personality traits and personality disturbances) in shaping bariatric surgery outcome is still unclear...
September 2018: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30022469/investing-for-health-potential-mechanisms-for-the-investment-community-to-contribute-to-obesity-prevention-and-improved-nutrition
#11
REVIEW
Gary Sacks, Ella Robinson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is a critical need for corporations to be part of the solutions to major societal issues, such as obesity. Investment decisions can have a substantial impact on both corporate practices and population health. This paper aimed to explore potential mechanisms for incorporating obesity and related nutrition considerations into responsible investment (RI) approaches. RECENT FINDINGS: We found that there are a number of available strategies for the investment community to incorporate obesity considerations into their decisions...
September 2018: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704182/early-childhood-obesity-risk-factors-socioeconomic-adversity-family-dysfunction-offspring-distress-and-junk-food-self-medication
#12
REVIEW
Erik Hemmingsson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To explore the sequence and interaction of infancy and early childhood risk factors, particularly relating to disturbances in the social environment, and how the consequences of such exposures can promote weight gain and obesity. RECENT FINDINGS: This review will argue that socioeconomic adversity is a key upstream catalyst that sets the stage for critical midstream risk factors such as family strain and dysfunction, offspring insecurity, stress, emotional turmoil, low self-esteem, and poor mental health...
June 2018: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700718/intermittent-fasting-is-the-wait-worth-the-weight
#13
REVIEW
Mary-Catherine Stockman, Dylan Thomas, Jacquelyn Burke, Caroline M Apovian
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review the underlying mechanisms and potential benefits of intermittent fasting (IF) from animal models and recent clinical trials. RECENT FINDINGS: Numerous variations of IF exist, and study protocols vary greatly in their interpretations of this weight loss trend. Most human IF studies result in minimal weight loss and marginal improvements in metabolic biomarkers, though outcomes vary. Some animal models have found that IF reduces oxidative stress, improves cognition, and delays aging...
June 2018: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696560/prevention-of-excessive-gestational-weight-gain-and-postpartum-weight-retention
#14
REVIEW
Nemencio A Nicodemus
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize the current evidence on the prevention of excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) and reduction of postpartum weight retention (PPWR) by lifestyle intervention and pharmacotherapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent findings demonstrate that tailored nutrition counseling and adapting certain eating patterns, supervised exercise programs aiming at achieving at least moderate level of physical activity, and interactive and monitored behavior change interventions are effective in reducing excessive GWG and PPWR...
June 2018: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667158/obesity-prevention-and-management-strategies-in-canada-shifting-paradigms-and-putting-people-first
#15
REVIEW
Arya M Sharma, Ximena Ramos Salas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this study was to review public and private sector obesity policies in Canada and to make recommendations for future evidence-based obesity prevention and management strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: Synthesis of obesity prevention and management policies and research studies are presented in three primary themes: (1) Increased awareness about the impact of weight bias and obesity stigma in Canada; (2) Inadequate government obesity prevention and management policies and strategies; and (3) Lack of comprehensive private sector obesity prevention and management policies...
June 2018: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667157/devices-and-endoscopic-bariatric-therapies-for-obesity
#16
REVIEW
Katherine H Saunders, Leon I Igel, Monica Saumoy, Reem Z Sharaiha, Louis J Aronne
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we describe the FDA-approved and investigational devices and endoscopic bariatric therapies for the treatment of obesity. We focus on literature published in the past few years and present mechanisms of action as well as efficacy and safety data. RECENT FINDINGS: Devices and endoscopic procedures are emerging options to fill the significant treatment gap in the management of obesity. Not only are these devices and procedures minimally invasive and reversible, but they are potentially more effective than antiobesity medications, often safer for poor surgical candidates and possibly less expensive than bariatric surgery...
June 2018: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663153/stress-and-obesity-are-there-more-susceptible-individuals
#17
REVIEW
Eline S van der Valk, Mesut Savas, Elisabeth F C van Rossum
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Stress has long been suspected to be interrelated to (abdominal) obesity. However, interindividual differences in this complex relationship exist. We suggest that the extent of glucocorticoid action partly explains these interindividual differences. We provide latest insights with respect to multiple types of stressors. RECENT FINDINGS: Increased long-term cortisol levels, as measured in scalp hair, are strongly related to abdominal obesity and to specific mental disorders...
June 2018: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644576/the-state-of-the-summer-a-review-of-child-summer-weight-gain-and-efforts-to-prevent-it
#18
REVIEW
Lindsay A Tanskey, Jeanne Goldberg, Kenneth Chui, Aviva Must, Jennifer Sacheck
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Accumulating evidence shows that children in the USA gain weight more rapidly during the summer, when school is not in session. This narrative review spanning 2007 to 2017 summarizes efforts to characterize the problem, identify key determinants, and intervene to prevent excess summer weight gain. RECENT FINDINGS: Summer weight gain remains a concern for elementary-age youth. Few studies have examined its determinants, but unfavorable summertime shifts in diet, physical activity, sedentary time, screen media use, and sleep have been reported...
June 2018: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29637413/intestinal-and-gastric-origins-for-diabetes-resolution-after-bariatric-surgery
#19
REVIEW
Caroline A Andrew, Devika Umashanker, Louis J Aronne, Alpana P Shukla
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper will review the intestinal and gastric origins for diabetes resolution after bariatric surgery. RECENT FINDINGS: In addition to the known metabolic effects of changes in the gut hormonal milieu, more recent studies investigating the role of the microbiome and bile acids and changes in nutrient sensing mechanisms have been shown to have glycemic effects in human and animal models. Independent of weight loss, there are multiple mechanisms that may lead to amelioration or resolution of diabetes following bariatric surgery...
June 2018: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29637412/media-and-its-influence-on-obesity
#20
REVIEW
Fatima Cody Stanford, Zujaja Tauqeer, Theodore K Kyle
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review how the media frames obesity and the effect it has upon on public perceptions. RECENT FINDINGS: The scientific and public health understanding of obesity increasingly points away from individual behaviors and toward medical and community factors, but diffusion of this knowledge is slow. Growing awareness of the importance of body positivity is driving attention to the harms of weight bias and fat shaming. Health science reporting related to obesity, nutrition, and physical activity tends to perpetuate myths and misunderstandings...
June 2018: Current Obesity Reports
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