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Current Obesity Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220456/obesity-in-children-and-the-myth-of-psychological-maladjustment-self-esteem-in-the-spotlight
#1
REVIEW
Andrew J Hill
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There are contrasting views regarding the psychological well-being of children with obesity. Responding to limitations of existing evidence, Jane Wardle in 2005 argued for a 'myth of psychological maladjustment'. This review looks again at self-esteem. RECENT FINDINGS: The different characterisations of self-esteem each offer value. Global self-esteem is reduced in nearly all studies of youth with obesity. Dimensional self-esteem reveals physical appearance, athletic and social competence as the most affected areas, confirmed by research that has operationalised low self-competence...
February 20, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205158/understanding-food-fussiness-and-its-implications-for-food-choice-health-weight-and-interventions-in-young-children-the-impact-of-professor-jane-wardle
#2
REVIEW
E Leigh Gibson, Lucy Cooke
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review examines the concepts of fussy eating and food neophobia in the context of key determinants of the development of children's food preferences. We discuss the evidence for genetic versus parental and other environmental influences on the ontogeny of these behavioural traits and the implications of current knowledge for interventions that attempt to lessen the impact of these traits on children's diets. Finally, we consider whether these traits increase the risk of a child becoming obese, or alternatively, underweight and malnourished...
February 16, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205157/a-conceptual-neurocognitive-affect-related-model-for-the-promotion-of-exercise-among-obese-adults
#3
REVIEW
Meghan K Edwards, Ovuokerie Addoh, Skyla M Herod, Ryan E Rhodes, Paul D Loprinzi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity remains a prominent societal threat and burden despite well-promoted prevention and treatment strategies, such as regular engagement in physical activity. Obese individuals, in particular, may be prone to inactivity as a result of a variety of displeasure-related parameters resulting from exercise, such as dyspnea, for instance. RECENT FINDINGS: This brief conceptual review discusses the integral roles of exercise-induced affective responses within a novel conceptual-based neurocognitive affect-related model...
February 16, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205156/restrained-eating-and-food-cues-recent-findings-and-conclusions
#4
REVIEW
Janet Polivy, C Peter Herman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purposes of the present review are to organize the recent literature on the effects of food cues on restrained and unrestrained eaters and to determine current directions in such work. RECENT FINDINGS: Research over the last several years involves both replicating the work showing that restrained eaters respond to attractive food cues by eating more but unrestrained eaters show less responsiveness and extending this work to examine the mechanisms that might underlie this differential responsiveness...
February 15, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205155/endocrine-disruptors-and-obesity
#5
REVIEW
Philippa D Darbre
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review was to summarise current evidence that some environmental chemicals may be able to interfere in the endocrine regulation of energy metabolism and adipose tissue structure. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent findings demonstrate that such endocrine-disrupting chemicals, termed "obesogens", can promote adipogenesis and cause weight gain. This includes compounds to which the human population is exposed in daily life through their use in pesticides/herbicides, industrial and household products, plastics, detergents, flame retardants and as ingredients in personal care products...
February 15, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744513/effects-of-obesity-on-cardiovascular-hemodynamics-cardiac-morphology-and-ventricular-function
#6
REVIEW
Martin A Alpert, Jad Omran, Brian P Bostick
Obesity produces a variety of hemodynamic alterations that may cause changes in cardiac morphology which predispose to left and right ventricular dysfunction. Various neurohormonal and metabolic alterations commonly associated with obesity may contribute to these abnormalities of cardiac structure and function. These changes in cardiovascular hemodynamics, cardiac morphology, and ventricular function may, in severely obese patients, predispose to heart failure, even in the absence of other forms of heart disease (obesity cardiomyopathy)...
December 2016: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739007/changes-in-energy-expenditure-with-weight-gain-and-weight-loss-in-humans
#7
REVIEW
Manfred J Müller, Janna Enderle, Anja Bosy-Westphal
Metabolic adaptation to weight changes relates to body weight control, obesity and malnutrition. Adaptive thermogenesis (AT) refers to changes in resting and non-resting energy expenditure (REE and nREE) which are independent from changes in fat-free mass (FFM) and FFM composition. AT differs in response to changes in energy balance. With negative energy balance, AT is directed towards energy sparing. It relates to a reset of biological defence of body weight and mainly refers to REE. After weight loss, AT of nREE adds to weight maintenance...
December 2016: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739006/the-mass-of-humanity-and-the-weight-of-the-world-obesity-and-the-environment-at-a-confluence-of-causes
#8
REVIEW
David L Katz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714641/economic-growth-climate-change-and-obesity
#9
REVIEW
Dimitrios Minos, Iris Butzlaff, Kathrin Maria Demmler, Ramona Rischke
Human and planetary health as well as economic growth are firmly interlinked and subject to complex interaction effects. In this paper, we provide an overview of interlinkages between economic growth, climate change, and obesity focusing on recent advances in the literature. In addition to empirical findings, we discuss different theoretical frameworks used to conceptualize these complex links and highlight policy options and challenges. We conclude that policies addressing both climate change and obesity simultaneously are particularly promising and often suitable for ensuring sustainable development...
December 2016: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699645/maintaining-weight-loss-an-ongoing-challenge
#10
REVIEW
Priya Sumithran, Joseph Proietto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696237/global-changes-in-food-supply-and-the-obesity-epidemic
#11
REVIEW
Emilie H Zobel, Tine W Hansen, Peter Rossing, Bernt Johan von Scholten
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We explore how a global shift in the food system caused by global economic growth, increase in available food per capita and in food processing is a driver of the obesity epidemic. RECENT FINDINGS: Economic development in most areas of the world has resulted in increased purchasing power and available per capita food. Supermarkets and a growing fast-food industry have transformed our dietary pattern. Ultra-processed food rich on sugars and saturated fat is now the major source of energy in most countries...
December 2016: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687811/dyslipidemia-obese-or-not-obese-that-is-not-the-question
#12
REVIEW
David H Ipsen, Pernille Tveden-Nyborg, Jens Lykkesfeldt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Purpose of review: It is becoming increasingly clear that some obese individuals do not develop dyslipidemia and instead remain healthy, while some normal weight individuals become dyslipidemic and unhealthy. RECENT FINDINGS: The present review examines the similarities and differences between healthy and unhealthy individuals with and without obesity and discusses putative underlying mechanisms of dyslipidemia. The presence of dyslipidemia and compromised metabolic health in both lean and obese individuals suggests that the obese phenotype per se does not represent a main independent risk factor for the development of dyslipidemia and that dyslipidemia, rather than obesity, may be the driver of metabolic diseases...
December 2016: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679429/psychological-impact-of-severe-obesity
#13
REVIEW
Jennifer Collins, Chelsea Meng, Anna Eng
The causes of severe obesity are multifactorial and include metabolic, dietary, physical, and psychological aspects. Additionally, the impact of severe obesity affects more than one's physical health. This article attempts to explore the psychological impact of severe obesity specifically in the areas of mood, eating disorders, sleep disturbance, chronic pain, and quality of life. Additionally, obesity treatment options of lifestyle modification and bariatric surgery that include psychological assessment and/or cognitive behavioral intervention are discussed...
December 2016: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665107/leptin-as-a-mediator-of-obesity-induced-hypertension
#14
REVIEW
Balyssa B Bell, Kamal Rahmouni
Hypertension and associated cardiovascular diseases represent the most common health complication of obesity and the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in overweight and obese patients. Emerging evidence suggests a critical role for the central nervous system particularly the brain action of the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin in linking obesity and hypertension. The preserved ability of leptin to cause cardiovascular sympathetic nerve activation despite the resistance to the metabolic actions of the hormone appears essential in this pathological process...
December 2016: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591783/practical-considerations-for-body-composition-assessment-of-adults-with-class-ii-iii-obesity-using-bioelectrical-impedance-analysis-or-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry
#15
Carlene A Johnson Stoklossa, Mary Forhan, Raj S Padwal, Maria Cristina Gonzalez, Carla M Prado
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to explore the practical considerations for body composition assessment of adults with class II/III obesity. Studies assessing adults (18-64 years) with a body mass index (BMI) ≥35 kg/m(2) with bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and/or dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were included. RECENT FINDINGS: Twelve studies met inclusion criteria. Five considerations were identified: variances in equipment and technology, equipment weight capacity, subject positioning, tissue penetration, and total body hydration...
December 2016: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27447869/the-impact-of-obesity-in-the-workplace-a-review-of-contributing-factors-consequences-and-potential-solutions
#16
REVIEW
Nipun Shrestha, Zeljko Pedisic, Sarah Neil-Sztramko, Katriina T Kukkonen-Harjula, Veerle Hermans
This narrative review summarized findings from previous reviews and the most recently published studies, regarding the following: (1) the association between two occupational risk factors-shift work and sedentary work-and obesity, (2) the effects of obesity on workplace productivity and (3) the effectiveness of workplace interventions aimed at preventing or reducing obesity. Despite some inconsistencies in findings, there is convincing evidence that shift work increases the risk of obesity, while most studies did not show a significant association between sedentary work and obesity...
September 2016: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27394433/infectious-and-environmental-influences-on-the-obesity-epidemic
#17
REVIEW
Lili Huo, Jasmine Lyons, Dianna J Magliano
Over the last two decades, the prevalence of obesity has increased rapidly. While it is intuitively appealing to believe that the causes of obesity are manifestly related to excess dietary intake, combined with a reduced expenditure of energy via a decrease in physical activity, it is also been noted that the evidence for these as the sole causes of the obesity epidemic is incomplete. This has led to the search for other causes of obesity, particularly those which stem from the environment we live in. This review will explore two putative causes of obesity: infections and environmental pollutants...
September 2016: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27379620/-whole-of-community-obesity-prevention-a-review-of-challenges-and-opportunities-in-multilevel-multicomponent-interventions
#18
REVIEW
Ella Ewart-Pierce, María José Mejía Ruiz, Joel Gittelsohn
The causes of obesity worldwide are complex and multilevel, including changing food environments, physical activity levels, policies, and food production systems. This intricate context requires multilevel and multicomponent (MLMC) interventions to improve health outcomes. We conducted a literature review of MLMC interventions for obesity prevention and mitigation; 14 studies meeting search criteria were identified. We found examples of successes in preventing obesity, reducing overweight, improving healthful behaviors, and enhancing some psychosocial indicators...
September 2016: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27372108/sleep-duration-and-obesity-in-adults-what-are-the-connections
#19
REVIEW
Jenny Theorell-Haglöw, Eva Lindberg
Collectively, cross-sectional and longitudinal studies on self-reported sleep duration and obesity do not show a clear pattern of association with some showing a negative linear relationship, some showing a U-shaped relationship, and some showing no relationship. Associations between sleep duration and obesity seem stronger in younger adults. Cross-sectional studies using objectively measured sleep duration (actigraphy or polysomnography (PSG)) also show this mixed pattern whereas all longitudinal studies to date using actigraphy or PSG have failed to show a relationship with obesity/weight gain...
September 2016: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27352180/obesity-treatment-in-the-uk-health-system
#20
REVIEW
Matthew S Capehorn, David W Haslam, Richard Welbourn
In the UK, as in most other countries in the world, levels of obesity are increasing. According to the Kinsey report, obesity has the second largest public health impact after smoking, and it is inextricably linked to physical inactivity. Since the UK Health and Social Care Act reforms of 2012, there has been a significant restructuring of the National Health Service (NHS). As a consequence, NHS England and the Department of Health have issued new policy guidelines regarding the commissioning of obesity treatment...
September 2016: Current Obesity Reports
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