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Current Obesity Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290153/viral-infections-and-obesity
#1
REVIEW
Jameson D Voss, Nikhil V Dhurandhar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity is a multifactorial disease that is now endemic throughout most of the world. Although addressing proximate causes of obesity (excess energy intake and reduced energy expenditure) have been longstanding global health priorities, the problem has continued to worsen at the global level. RECENT FINDINGS: Numerous microbial agents cause obesity in various experimental models-a phenomena known as infectobesity. Several of the same agents alter metabolic function in human cells and are associated with human obesity or metabolic dysfunction in humans...
March 13, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243840/what-is-driving-obesity-a-review-on-the-connections-between-obesity-and-motorized-transportation
#2
REVIEW
Douglas M King, Sheldon H Jacobson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Traveling by automobile rather than walking or cycling can encourage obesity by eliminating physical activity. As national obesity rates in the USA have reached 37.9% in 2014, understanding the connections between obesity and transportation choices can help policymakers in the public health community propose effective obesity interventions at the national level. RECENT FINDINGS: Following from foundational studies examining associations between the built environment and leisure walking, recent studies consider a diverse set of transportation choices regarding mode (e...
February 27, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243839/a-festschrift-to-professor-jane-wardle-colleague-and-pioneer-in-obesity-science-health-behaviour-change-and-cancer-research-born-october-30-th-1950-in-oxford-died-october-20-th-2015-london
#3
EDITORIAL
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243838/psychological-aspects-of-bariatric-surgery-as-a-treatment-for-obesity
#4
REVIEW
Sandra Jumbe, Claire Hamlet, Jane Meyrick
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Little is known about the psychological effects on life after bariatric surgery despite the high prevalence of psychological disorders in candidates seeking this procedure. Our review discusses the literature around the psychological impact of bariatric surgery, exploring whether the procedure addresses underlying psychological conditions that can lead to morbid obesity and the effect on eating behaviour postoperatively. RECENT FINDINGS: Findings show that despite undisputed significant weight loss and improvements in comorbidities, current literature suggests some persisting disorder in psychological outcomes like depression and body image for patients at longer term follow-up, compared to control groups...
February 27, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236287/behavioural-susceptibility-theory-professor-jane-wardle-and-the-role-of-appetite-in-genetic-risk-of-obesity
#5
REVIEW
Clare H Llewellyn, Alison Fildes
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is considerable variability in human body weight, despite the ubiquity of the 'obesogenic' environment. Human body weight has a strong genetic basis and it has been hypothesised that genetic susceptibility to the environment explains variation in human body weight, with differences in appetite being implicated as the mediating mechanism; so-called 'behavioural susceptibility theory' (BST), first described by Professor Jane Wardle. This review summarises the evidence for the role of appetite as a mediator of genetic risk of obesity...
February 24, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233281/genetic-testing-for-obesity-implications-and-challenges
#6
REVIEW
Mary Segal
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the experimental literature on behavioral outcomes and psychological effects of genetic testing for obesity. Such tests, although of dubious value, are increasingly marketed to the public, and there has been concern that while results may encourage some consumers to increase the healthfulness of their lifestyles, others may interpret feedback in maladaptive ways. RECENT FINDINGS: Hypothetical vignettes have been used in artificial settings; few studies have investigated outcomes of actual test results...
February 23, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265869/portion-size-latest-developments-and-interventions
#7
REVIEW
Ingrid Steenhuis, Maartje Poelman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to provide an overview of (1) underlying mechanisms of the effect of portion size on energy intake, (2) external factors explaining the portion size effect and (3) interventions and measurements aimed at food portion size. RECENT FINDINGS: Previous studies have shown that portion sizes have increased in recent decades. Many experimental studies have been conducted to unravel the mechanisms underlying the portion-size effect on food intake (e...
March 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265868/applied-interventions-in-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-obesity-through-the-research-of-professor-jane-wardle
#8
REVIEW
Helen Croker, Rebecca J Beeken
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity presents a challenge for practitioners, policy makers, researchers and for those with obesity themselves. This review focuses on psychological approaches to its management and prevention in children and adults. RECENT FINDINGS: Through exploring the work of the late Professor Jane Wardle, we look at the earliest behavioural treatment approaches and how psychological theory has been used to develop more contemporary approaches, for example incorporating genetic feedback and habit formation theory into interventions...
March 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220456/obesity-in-children-and-the-myth-of-psychological-maladjustment-self-esteem-in-the-spotlight
#9
REVIEW
Andrew J Hill
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There are contrasting views regarding the psychological well-being of children with obesity. Responding to limitations of existing evidence, Jane Wardle in 2005 argued for a 'myth of psychological maladjustment'. This review looks again at self-esteem. RECENT FINDINGS: The different characterisations of self-esteem each offer value. Global self-esteem is reduced in nearly all studies of youth with obesity. Dimensional self-esteem reveals physical appearance, athletic and social competence as the most affected areas, confirmed by research that has operationalised low self-competence...
March 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205158/understanding-food-fussiness-and-its-implications-for-food-choice-health-weight-and-interventions-in-young-children-the-impact-of-professor-jane-wardle
#10
REVIEW
E Leigh Gibson, Lucy Cooke
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review examines the concepts of fussy eating and food neophobia in the context of key determinants of the development of children's food preferences. We discuss the evidence for genetic versus parental and other environmental influences on the ontogeny of these behavioural traits and the implications of current knowledge for interventions that attempt to lessen the impact of these traits on children's diets. Finally, we consider whether these traits increase the risk of a child becoming obese, or alternatively, underweight and malnourished...
March 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205157/a-conceptual-neurocognitive-affect-related-model-for-the-promotion-of-exercise-among-obese-adults
#11
REVIEW
Meghan K Edwards, Ovuokerie Addoh, Skyla M Herod, Ryan E Rhodes, Paul D Loprinzi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity remains a prominent societal threat and burden despite well-promoted prevention and treatment strategies, such as regular engagement in physical activity. Obese individuals, in particular, may be prone to inactivity as a result of a variety of displeasure-related parameters resulting from exercise, such as dyspnea, for instance. RECENT FINDINGS: This brief conceptual review discusses the integral roles of exercise-induced affective responses within a novel conceptual-based neurocognitive affect-related model...
March 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205156/restrained-eating-and-food-cues-recent-findings-and-conclusions
#12
REVIEW
Janet Polivy, C Peter Herman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purposes of the present review are to organize the recent literature on the effects of food cues on restrained and unrestrained eaters and to determine current directions in such work. RECENT FINDINGS: Research over the last several years involves both replicating the work showing that restrained eaters respond to attractive food cues by eating more but unrestrained eaters show less responsiveness and extending this work to examine the mechanisms that might underlie this differential responsiveness...
March 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205155/endocrine-disruptors-and-obesity
#13
REVIEW
Philippa D Darbre
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review was to summarise current evidence that some environmental chemicals may be able to interfere in the endocrine regulation of energy metabolism and adipose tissue structure. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent findings demonstrate that such endocrine-disrupting chemicals, termed "obesogens", can promote adipogenesis and cause weight gain. This includes compounds to which the human population is exposed in daily life through their use in pesticides/herbicides, industrial and household products, plastics, detergents, flame retardants and as ingredients in personal care products...
March 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744513/effects-of-obesity-on-cardiovascular-hemodynamics-cardiac-morphology-and-ventricular-function
#14
REVIEW
Martin A Alpert, Jad Omran, Brian P Bostick
Obesity produces a variety of hemodynamic alterations that may cause changes in cardiac morphology which predispose to left and right ventricular dysfunction. Various neurohormonal and metabolic alterations commonly associated with obesity may contribute to these abnormalities of cardiac structure and function. These changes in cardiovascular hemodynamics, cardiac morphology, and ventricular function may, in severely obese patients, predispose to heart failure, even in the absence of other forms of heart disease (obesity cardiomyopathy)...
December 2016: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739007/changes-in-energy-expenditure-with-weight-gain-and-weight-loss-in-humans
#15
REVIEW
Manfred J Müller, Janna Enderle, Anja Bosy-Westphal
Metabolic adaptation to weight changes relates to body weight control, obesity and malnutrition. Adaptive thermogenesis (AT) refers to changes in resting and non-resting energy expenditure (REE and nREE) which are independent from changes in fat-free mass (FFM) and FFM composition. AT differs in response to changes in energy balance. With negative energy balance, AT is directed towards energy sparing. It relates to a reset of biological defence of body weight and mainly refers to REE. After weight loss, AT of nREE adds to weight maintenance...
December 2016: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739006/the-mass-of-humanity-and-the-weight-of-the-world-obesity-and-the-environment-at-a-confluence-of-causes
#16
REVIEW
David L Katz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714641/economic-growth-climate-change-and-obesity
#17
REVIEW
Dimitrios Minos, Iris Butzlaff, Kathrin Maria Demmler, Ramona Rischke
Human and planetary health as well as economic growth are firmly interlinked and subject to complex interaction effects. In this paper, we provide an overview of interlinkages between economic growth, climate change, and obesity focusing on recent advances in the literature. In addition to empirical findings, we discuss different theoretical frameworks used to conceptualize these complex links and highlight policy options and challenges. We conclude that policies addressing both climate change and obesity simultaneously are particularly promising and often suitable for ensuring sustainable development...
December 2016: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699645/maintaining-weight-loss-an-ongoing-challenge
#18
REVIEW
Priya Sumithran, Joseph Proietto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696237/global-changes-in-food-supply-and-the-obesity-epidemic
#19
REVIEW
Emilie H Zobel, Tine W Hansen, Peter Rossing, Bernt Johan von Scholten
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We explore how a global shift in the food system caused by global economic growth, increase in available food per capita and in food processing is a driver of the obesity epidemic. RECENT FINDINGS: Economic development in most areas of the world has resulted in increased purchasing power and available per capita food. Supermarkets and a growing fast-food industry have transformed our dietary pattern. Ultra-processed food rich on sugars and saturated fat is now the major source of energy in most countries...
December 2016: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687811/dyslipidemia-obese-or-not-obese-that-is-not-the-question
#20
REVIEW
David H Ipsen, Pernille Tveden-Nyborg, Jens Lykkesfeldt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Purpose of review: It is becoming increasingly clear that some obese individuals do not develop dyslipidemia and instead remain healthy, while some normal weight individuals become dyslipidemic and unhealthy. RECENT FINDINGS: The present review examines the similarities and differences between healthy and unhealthy individuals with and without obesity and discusses putative underlying mechanisms of dyslipidemia. The presence of dyslipidemia and compromised metabolic health in both lean and obese individuals suggests that the obese phenotype per se does not represent a main independent risk factor for the development of dyslipidemia and that dyslipidemia, rather than obesity, may be the driver of metabolic diseases...
December 2016: Current Obesity Reports
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