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Current Obesity Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439846/partnership-for-a-healthier-america-creating-change-through-private-sector-partnerships
#1
REVIEW
Caitlin Simon, S Lawrence Kocot, William H Dietz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides background on the formation of the Partnership for a Healthier America (PHA), that was created in conjunction with the Let's Move! initiative, and an overview of its work to date. RECENT FINDINGS: To encourage industry to offer and promote healthier options, PHA partners with the private sector. Principles that guide PHA partnerships include ensuring that partnerships represent meaningful change, partners sign a legally binding contract and progress is monitored and publicly reported...
April 24, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434109/insights-into-the-link-between-obesity-and-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Sarah E Ackerman, Olivia A Blackburn, François Marchildon, Paul Cohen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adipocytes have adapted to store energy in the form of lipid and also secrete circulating factors called adipokines that signal to other tissues to coordinate energy homeostasis. These functions are disrupted in the setting of obesity, promoting the development of diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: Obesity is linked to an increased risk of many types of cancer and increased cancer-related mortality...
April 22, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434108/emotional-eating-binge-eating-and-animal-models-of-binge-type-eating-disorders
#3
REVIEW
Robert Turton, Rayane Chami, Janet Treasure
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The objective of this paper is to review the role that hedonic factors, emotions and self-regulation systems have over eating behaviours from animal models to humans. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence has been found to suggest that for some high-risk individuals, obesity/binge eating may develop as an impulsive reaction to negative emotions that over time becomes a compulsive habit. Animal models highlight the neural mechanisms that might underlie this process and suggest similarities with substance use disorders...
April 22, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434107/early-life-obesity-prevention-critique-of-intervention-trials-during-the-first-one-thousand-days
#4
REVIEW
John J Reilly, Anne Martin, Adrienne R Hughes
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To critique the evidence from recent and ongoing obesity prevention interventions in the first 1000 days in order to identify evidence gaps and weaknesses, and to make suggestions for more informative future intervention trials. RECENT FINDINGS: Completed and ongoing intervention trials have had fairly modest effects, have been limited largely to high-income countries, and have used relatively short-term interventions and outcomes. Comparison of the evidence from completed prevention trials with the evidence from systematic reviews of behavioral risk factors shows that some life-course stages have been neglected (pre-conception and toddlerhood), and that interventions have neglected to target some important behavioral risk factors (maternal smoking during pregnancy, infant and child sleep)...
April 22, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421472/screen-time-other-sedentary-behaviours-and-obesity-risk-in-adults-a-review-of-reviews
#5
REVIEW
Stuart J H Biddle, Enrique Bengoechea García, Zeljko Pedisic, Jason Bennie, Ineke Vergeer, Glen Wiesner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this paper is to assess the association between sedentary behaviours, including screen time, and risk of obesity in adults. A review of 10 systematic reviews was undertaken. RECENT FINDINGS: Available evidence is generally not supportive of associations between sedentary behaviour and obesity in adults. Most studies that found significant associations indicated mostly small effect sizes. Somewhat more consistent associations were shown for screen time (mainly TV viewing), among older adults, and for pre-adult sedentary behaviour to increase the risk of obesity in adulthood...
April 18, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421471/social-marketing-as-a-framework-for-youth-physical-activity-initiatives-a-10-year-retrospective-on-the-legacy-of-cdc-s-verb-campaign
#6
REVIEW
Marian Huhman, Ryan P Kelly, Timothy Edgar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In 2002, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) launched the VERB. It's what you do! campaign to increase physical activity among tweens and concomitantly respond to the rise in childhood obesity. This retrospective study summarizes the history of the VERB campaign's social marketing approach and its effectiveness in promoting behavior change in the targeted population. RECENT FINDINGS: The legacy of VERB, which ended in 2006, is discussed, with an emphasis on examining initiatives over the last decade and the degree to which they followed (or did not follow) the structural and thematic lead of the campaign...
April 18, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401491/faith-based-institutions-as-venues-for-obesity-prevention
#7
REVIEW
Maria J Maynard
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this current narrative review is to critique the scope and value of recent studies with a focus on obesity-related health promotion in faith organizations. RECENT FINDINGS: Electronic database searches, scanning of the reference lists of identified articles, and hand searching of journals for articles written in English and published in 2013-2016 revealed 16 studies. Half of the studies involved African-Americans, in churches and with predominantly female participants...
April 11, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401490/the-report-card-on-bmi-report-cards
#8
REVIEW
Hannah R Thompson, Kristine A Madsen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Half of states in the USA have legislation requiring that schools conduct body mass index (BMI) screening among students; just under half of these states report results to parents. The effectiveness of school-based BMI screening and reporting in reducing childhood obesity is not established and the practice has raised concerns about the potential for increased weight-based stigmatization. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent experimental studies of BMI screening and reporting have not demonstrated a positive impact on students' weight status...
April 11, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290153/viral-infections-and-obesity
#9
REVIEW
Jameson D Voss, Nikhil V Dhurandhar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity is a multifactorial disease that is now endemic throughout most of the world. Although addressing proximate causes of obesity (excess energy intake and reduced energy expenditure) have been longstanding global health priorities, the problem has continued to worsen at the global level. RECENT FINDINGS: Numerous microbial agents cause obesity in various experimental models-a phenomena known as infectobesity. Several of the same agents alter metabolic function in human cells and are associated with human obesity or metabolic dysfunction in humans...
March 13, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243840/what-is-driving-obesity-a-review-on-the-connections-between-obesity-and-motorized-transportation
#10
REVIEW
Douglas M King, Sheldon H Jacobson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Traveling by automobile rather than walking or cycling can encourage obesity by eliminating physical activity. As national obesity rates in the USA have reached 37.9% in 2014, understanding the connections between obesity and transportation choices can help policymakers in the public health community propose effective obesity interventions at the national level. RECENT FINDINGS: Following from foundational studies examining associations between the built environment and leisure walking, recent studies consider a diverse set of transportation choices regarding mode (e...
February 27, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243839/a-festschrift-to-professor-jane-wardle-colleague-and-pioneer-in-obesity-science-health-behaviour-change-and-cancer-research-born-october-30-th-1950-in-oxford-died-october-20-th-2015-london
#11
EDITORIAL
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233281/genetic-testing-for-obesity-implications-and-challenges
#12
REVIEW
Mary Segal
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the experimental literature on behavioral outcomes and psychological effects of genetic testing for obesity. Such tests, although of dubious value, are increasingly marketed to the public, and there has been concern that while results may encourage some consumers to increase the healthfulness of their lifestyles, others may interpret feedback in maladaptive ways. RECENT FINDINGS: Hypothetical vignettes have been used in artificial settings; few studies have investigated outcomes of actual test results...
February 23, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265869/portion-size-latest-developments-and-interventions
#13
REVIEW
Ingrid Steenhuis, Maartje Poelman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to provide an overview of (1) underlying mechanisms of the effect of portion size on energy intake, (2) external factors explaining the portion size effect and (3) interventions and measurements aimed at food portion size. RECENT FINDINGS: Previous studies have shown that portion sizes have increased in recent decades. Many experimental studies have been conducted to unravel the mechanisms underlying the portion-size effect on food intake (e...
March 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265868/applied-interventions-in-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-obesity-through-the-research-of-professor-jane-wardle
#14
REVIEW
Helen Croker, Rebecca J Beeken
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity presents a challenge for practitioners, policy makers, researchers and for those with obesity themselves. This review focuses on psychological approaches to its management and prevention in children and adults. RECENT FINDINGS: Through exploring the work of the late Professor Jane Wardle, we look at the earliest behavioural treatment approaches and how psychological theory has been used to develop more contemporary approaches, for example incorporating genetic feedback and habit formation theory into interventions...
March 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243838/psychological-aspects-of-bariatric-surgery-as-a-treatment-for-obesity
#15
REVIEW
Sandra Jumbe, Claire Hamlet, Jane Meyrick
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Little is known about the psychological effects on life after bariatric surgery despite the high prevalence of psychological disorders in candidates seeking this procedure. Our review discusses the literature around the psychological impact of bariatric surgery, exploring whether the procedure addresses underlying psychological conditions that can lead to morbid obesity and the effect on eating behaviour postoperatively. RECENT FINDINGS: Findings show that despite undisputed significant weight loss and improvements in comorbidities, current literature suggests some persisting disorder in psychological outcomes like depression and body image for patients at longer term follow-up, compared to control groups...
March 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236287/behavioural-susceptibility-theory-professor-jane-wardle-and-the-role-of-appetite-in-genetic-risk-of-obesity
#16
REVIEW
Clare H Llewellyn, Alison Fildes
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is considerable variability in human body weight, despite the ubiquity of the 'obesogenic' environment. Human body weight has a strong genetic basis and it has been hypothesised that genetic susceptibility to the environment explains variation in human body weight, with differences in appetite being implicated as the mediating mechanism; so-called 'behavioural susceptibility theory' (BST), first described by Professor Jane Wardle. This review summarises the evidence for the role of appetite as a mediator of genetic risk of obesity...
March 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220456/obesity-in-children-and-the-myth-of-psychological-maladjustment-self-esteem-in-the-spotlight
#17
REVIEW
Andrew J Hill
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There are contrasting views regarding the psychological well-being of children with obesity. Responding to limitations of existing evidence, Jane Wardle in 2005 argued for a 'myth of psychological maladjustment'. This review looks again at self-esteem. RECENT FINDINGS: The different characterisations of self-esteem each offer value. Global self-esteem is reduced in nearly all studies of youth with obesity. Dimensional self-esteem reveals physical appearance, athletic and social competence as the most affected areas, confirmed by research that has operationalised low self-competence...
March 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205158/understanding-food-fussiness-and-its-implications-for-food-choice-health-weight-and-interventions-in-young-children-the-impact-of-professor-jane-wardle
#18
REVIEW
E Leigh Gibson, Lucy Cooke
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review examines the concepts of fussy eating and food neophobia in the context of key determinants of the development of children's food preferences. We discuss the evidence for genetic versus parental and other environmental influences on the ontogeny of these behavioural traits and the implications of current knowledge for interventions that attempt to lessen the impact of these traits on children's diets. Finally, we consider whether these traits increase the risk of a child becoming obese, or alternatively, underweight and malnourished...
March 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205157/a-conceptual-neurocognitive-affect-related-model-for-the-promotion-of-exercise-among-obese-adults
#19
REVIEW
Meghan K Edwards, Ovuokerie Addoh, Skyla M Herod, Ryan E Rhodes, Paul D Loprinzi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity remains a prominent societal threat and burden despite well-promoted prevention and treatment strategies, such as regular engagement in physical activity. Obese individuals, in particular, may be prone to inactivity as a result of a variety of displeasure-related parameters resulting from exercise, such as dyspnea, for instance. RECENT FINDINGS: This brief conceptual review discusses the integral roles of exercise-induced affective responses within a novel conceptual-based neurocognitive affect-related model...
March 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205156/restrained-eating-and-food-cues-recent-findings-and-conclusions
#20
REVIEW
Janet Polivy, C Peter Herman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purposes of the present review are to organize the recent literature on the effects of food cues on restrained and unrestrained eaters and to determine current directions in such work. RECENT FINDINGS: Research over the last several years involves both replicating the work showing that restrained eaters respond to attractive food cues by eating more but unrestrained eaters show less responsiveness and extending this work to examine the mechanisms that might underlie this differential responsiveness...
March 2017: Current Obesity Reports
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