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Stem Cells Translational Medicine

Stuart P Atkinson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 13, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Franca M R Witjas, Bernard M van den Berg, Cathelijne W van den Berg, Marten A Engelse, Ton J Rabelink
All tissues are surrounded by a mixture of noncellular matrix components, that not only provide physical and mechanical support to cells, but also mediate biochemical signaling between cells. The extracellular matrix (ECM) of endothelial cells, also known as the perivascular matrix, forms an organ specific vascular niche that orchestrates mechano-, growth factor, and angiocrine signaling required for tissue homeostasis and organ repair. This concise review describes how this perivascular ECM functions as a signaling platform and how this knowledge can impact the field of regenerative medicine, for example, when designing artificial matrices or using decellularized scaffolds from organs...
December 11, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Rebecca M Marton, John P A Ioannidis
The potential applications of human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells has led to immense interest in developing new protocols to differentiate specific cell types or modifying existing protocols. To investigate to what extent and why new protocols for the same cell types are developed and adopted, we systematically evaluated 158 publications (2004-2017) that differentiated human stem cells into dopaminergic neurons. We categorized each article by degree of novelty and recorded motivations for protocol development...
December 10, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Daniel Skuk, Jacques P Tremblay
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Don Hayes, Benjamin T Kopp, Cynthia L Hill, Scott W Lallier, Cynthia M Schwartz, Mahelet Tadesse, Alfahdah Alsudayri, Susan D Reynolds
The human airway epithelium is regenerated by basal cells. Thus, basal cell therapy has the potential to cure cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. We previously reported that the human basal cells repopulated the mouse airway epithelium after transplantation, and we estimated that 60 million cells would be needed to treat a human patient. To further develop cell therapy, we compared the proliferation potential of non-CF and CF tissue-derived bronchial basal cells. Three methods were used: regenerative cell frequency, burst size, and cell division frequency...
December 1, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Kota Kojima, Hiroyuki Miyoshi, Narihito Nagoshi, Jun Kohyama, Go Itakura, Soya Kawabata, Masahiro Ozaki, Tsuyoshi Iida, Keiko Sugai, Shuhei Ito, Ryuji Fukuzawa, Kaori Yasutake, Francois Renault-Mihara, Shinsuke Shibata, Morio Matsumoto, Masaya Nakamura, Hideyuki Okano
Tumorigenesis is an important problem that needs to be addressed in the field of human stem/progenitor cell transplantation for the treatment of subacute spinal cord injury (SCI). When certain "tumorigenic" cell lines are transplanted into the spinal cord of SCI mice model, there is initial improvement of motor function, followed by abrupt deterioration secondary to the effect of tumor growth. A significant proportion of the transplanted cells remains undifferentiated after transplantation and is thought to increase the risk of tumorigenesis...
November 28, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Yang Woo Kwon, Seung Jun Lee, Soon Chul Heo, Tae Wook Lee, Gyu Tae Park, Jung Won Yoon, Seung-Chul Kim, Ho Jin Shin, Sang Chul Lee, Jae Ho Kim
Circulating angiogenic cells (CACs) have been implicated in the repair of ischemic tissues, and their mobilization from bone marrow is known to be regulated by the activations of chemokine receptors, including CXCR2 and CXCR4. This study was conducted to investigate the role of N-acetylated proline-glycine-proline (Ac-PGP; a collagen-derived chemotactic tripeptide) on CAC mobilization and its therapeutic potential for the treatment of peripheral artery diseases. Ac-PGP was administered daily to a murine hind limb ischemia model, and the effects of Ac-PGP on blood perfusion and CAC mobilization (Sca1+ Flk1+ cells) into peripheral blood were assessed...
November 26, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Johanna Kaindl, Ina Meiser, Julia Majer, Annika Sommer, Florian Krach, Alisa Katsen-Globa, Jürgen Winkler, Heiko Zimmermann, Julia C Neubauer, Beate Winner
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are an important tool for research and regenerative medicine, but their efficient cryopreservation remains a major challenge. The current gold standard is slow-rate freezing of dissociated colonies in suspension, but low recovery rates limit immediate post-thawing applicability. We tested whether ultrafast cooling by adherent vitrification improves post-thawing survival in a selection of hiPSCs and small molecule neural precursor cells (smNPCs) from Parkinson's disease and controls...
November 19, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Samuel J I Blackford, Soon Seng Ng, Joe M Segal, Aileen J F King, Amazon L Austin, Deniz Kent, Jennifer Moore, Michael Sheldon, Dusko Ilic, Anil Dhawan, Ragai R Mitry, S Tamir Rashid
Recent advancements in the production of hepatocytes from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC-Heps) afford tremendous possibilities for treatment of patients with liver disease. Validated current good manufacturing practice (cGMP) lines are an essential prerequisite for such applications but have only recently been established. Whether such cGMP lines are capable of hepatic differentiation is not known. To address this knowledge gap, we examined the proficiency of three recently derived cGMP lines (two hiPSC and one hESC) to differentiate into hepatocytes and their suitability for therapy...
November 19, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Sabine François, Benoit Usunier, Marie-Elisabeth Forgue-Lafitte, Bruno L'Homme, Marc Benderitter, Luc Douay, Norbert-Claude Gorin, Annette K Larsen, Alain Chapel
We here determine the influence of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy on the progression of solid tumors. The influence of MSCs was investigated in human colorectal cancer cells as well as in an immunocompetent rat model of colorectal carcinogenesis representative of the human pathology. Treatment with bone marrow (BM)-derived MSCs significantly reduced both cancer initiation and cancer progression by increasing the number of tumor-free animals as well as decreasing the number and the size of the tumors by half, thereby extending their lifespan...
November 19, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Tao Xiao, Yu Fu, Weiwen Zhu, Rongyao Xu, Ling Xu, Ping Zhang, Yifei Du, Jie Cheng, Hongbing Jiang
Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a disease of postnatal skeletal stem cells caused by activating mutations of guanine nucleotide-binding protein alpha-stimulating activity polypeptide (GNAS). FD is characterized by high proliferation and osteogenesis disorder of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), resulting in bone pain, deformities, and fractures. The cAMP-CREB pathway, which is activated by GNAS mutations, is known to be closely associated with the occurrence of FD. However, so far there is no available targeted therapeutic strategy for FD, as a critical issue that remains largely unknown is how this pathway is involved in FD...
November 13, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Soraia C Abreu, Debora G Xisto, Tainá B de Oliveira, Natalia G Blanco, Lígia Lins de Castro, Jamil Zola Kitoko, Priscilla C Olsen, Miquéias Lopes-Pacheco, Marcelo M Morales, Daniel J Weiss, Patricia R M Rocco
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by airway inflammation and remodeling, which can lead to progressive decline of lung function. Although mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have shown beneficial immunomodulatory properties in preclinical models of allergic asthma, effects on airway remodeling have been limited. Mounting evidence suggests that prior exposure of MSCs to specific inflammatory stimuli or environments can enhance their immunomodulatory properties. Therefore, we investigated whether stimulating MSCs with bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) or serum from asthmatic mice could potentiate their therapeutic properties in experimental asthma...
November 13, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Isabella Saggio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 13, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Carole A Welsch, William L Rust, Marie Csete
We examined data and patterns in clinical islet transplant studies registered on (CTgov) for treatment of type 1 diabetes (T1D), with a goal of extracting insights to apply in the design of a pluripotent stem cell-derived islet therapy. Clinical islet transplantation, as a cell therapy (rather than solid organ transplant) is a unique precedent for stem cell-based islet therapies. Registration activity shows that the field is not growing significantly, and newer registrations suggest that the reasons for stagnation include need for a more optimal site of infusion/transplantation, and especially a need for better immune protective strategies to advance a more effective and durable therapy for T1D...
November 12, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Shinichi Esaki, Sachiyo Katsumi, Yuki Hamajima, Yoshihisa Nakamura, Shingo Murakami
Olfactory mucosa contains neural stem cells, called olfactory stem cells (OSCs), which produce trophic support required for promoting axonal regeneration after nerve injury. However, the local tissue environment can reduce the viability/function of transplanted cells when placed directly on the injury. Although gelatin hydrogels have been shown to aid cell survival during transplantation, such OSC-hydrogel combinations have not been extensively tested, particularly during recovery from facial nerve palsy. In this study, OSCs were isolated from the olfactory mucosae of newborn mice and were shown to express neural stem cell markers before differentiation, as well as cell-type specific markers after differentiation, confirming their multipotency...
November 12, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Shawn Johnson, Anthony Atala
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 9, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Yusuke Watanabe, Atsunori Tsuchiya, Satoshi Seino, Yuzo Kawata, Yuichi Kojima, Shunzo Ikarashi, Philip J Starkey Lewis, Wei-Yu Lu, Junichi Kikuta, Hirokazu Kawai, Satoshi Yamagiwa, Stuart J Forbes, Masaru Ishii, Shuji Terai
We describe a novel therapeutic approach for cirrhosis using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and colony-stimulating factor-1-induced bone marrow-derived macrophages (id-BMMs) and analyze the mechanisms underlying fibrosis improvement and regeneration. Mouse MSCs and id-BMMs were cultured from mouse bone marrow and their interactions analyzed in vitro. MSCs, id-BMMs, and a combination therapy using MSCs and id-BMMs were administered to mice with CCl4 -induced cirrhosis. Fibrosis regression, liver regeneration, and liver-migrating host cells were evaluated...
November 5, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Iina Korkka, Taina Viheriälä, Kati Juuti-Uusitalo, Hannele Uusitalo-Järvinen, Heli Skottman, Jari Hyttinen, Soile Nymark
Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) performs important functions for the maintenance of photoreceptors and vision. Malfunctions within the RPE are implicated in several retinal diseases for which transplantations of stem cell-derived RPE are promising treatment options. Their success, however, is largely dependent on the functionality of the transplanted cells. This requires correct cellular physiology, which is highly influenced by the various ion channels of RPE, including voltage-gated Ca2+ (CaV ) channels...
November 4, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Yingchao Xue, Xiping Zhan, Shisheng Sun, Senthilkumar S Karuppagounder, Shuli Xia, Valina L Dawson, Ted M Dawson, John Laterra, Jianmin Zhang, Mingyao Ying
Proneural transcription factors (TFs) drive highly efficient differentiation of pluripotent stem cells to lineage-specific neurons. However, current strategies mainly rely on genome-integrating viruses. Here, we used synthetic mRNAs coding two proneural TFs (Atoh1 and Ngn2) to differentiate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons. mRNAs coding Atoh1 and Ngn2 with defined phosphosite modifications led to higher and more stable protein expression, and induced more efficient neuron conversion, as compared to mRNAs coding wild-type proteins...
November 1, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Amar Desai, Yan Yan, Stanton L Gerson
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subpopulation of cells within tumors that possess the stem cell characteristics of self-renewal, quiescence, differentiation, and the ability to recapitulate the parental tumor when transplanted into a host. CSCs are correlated with poor clinical outcome due to their contribution to chemotherapy resistance and metastasis. Multiple cell surface and enzymatic markers have been characterized to identify CSCs within a heterogeneous tumor, and here we summarize ongoing preclinical and clinical efforts to therapeutically target these cells and improve patient outcomes...
October 17, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
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