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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432106/prohibitin-induced-obesity-leads-to-anovulation-and-polycystic-ovary-in-mice
#1
Sudharsana Rao Ande, Khanh Hoa Nguyen, Yang Xin Zi Xu, Suresh Mishra
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent endocrine disorder and the most common cause of female infertility. However, the etiology of the disease and the mechanisms by which this disorder progress remain unclear. Here we report that a transgenic obese mouse (Mito-Ob) developed by overexpressing prohibitin in adipocytes develops polycystic ovaries. Initially, the female Mito-Ob mice were equally fertile to their wild-type littermates. Mito-Ob mice begin to gain weight after puberty, become significantly obese between 3-6 months of age, and roughly 25% of them become infertile by 9 months of age...
April 21, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432105/centrin-diversity-and-basal-body-patterning-across-evolution-new-insights-from-paramecium
#2
Anne Aubusson-Fleury, Guillaume Balavoine, Michel Lemullois, Khaled Bouhouche, Janine Beisson, France Koll
First discovered in unicellular eukaryotes, centrins play crucial roles in basal body duplication and anchoring mechanisms. While the evolutionary status of the founding members of the family, Centrin2/Vfl2 and Centrin3/cdc31 has long been investigated, the evolutionary origin of other members of the family has received less attention. Using a phylogeny of ciliate centrins, we identify two other centrin families, the ciliary centrins and the centrins present in the contractile filaments (ICL centrins). In this paper, we carry on the functional analysis of still not well known centrins, the ICL1e subfamily identified in Paramecium, and show their requirement for correct basal body anchoring through interactions with Centrin2 and Centrin3...
April 21, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432104/dancing-attraction-followers-of-honey-bee-tremble-and-waggle-dances-exhibit-similar-behaviors
#3
Calvin Lam, Yanlei Li, Tim Landgraf, James Nieh
The function of the honey bee tremble dance and how it attracts signal receivers is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that tremble followers and waggle followers exhibit the same dance following behavior. If correct, this would unify our understanding of dance following, provide insight into dance information transfer, and offer a way to identify the signal receivers of tremble dance information. Followers showed similar initial attraction to and tracking of dancers. However, waggle dancers were faster than tremble dancers, and follower forward, sideways, and angular velocities were generally similar to the velocities of their respective dancers...
April 21, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432103/morphology-and-cardiac-physiology-are-differentially-affected-by-temperature-in-developing-larvae-of-the-marine-fish-mahi-mahi-coryphaena-hippurus
#4
Prescilla Perrichon, Christina Pasparakis, Edward M Mager, John D Stieglitz, Daniel D Benetti, Martin Grosell, Warren W Burggren
Cardiovascular performance is altered by temperature in larval fishes, but how acute vs. chronic temperature exposures independently affect cardiac morphology and physiology in the growing larva is poorly understood. Consequently, the influence of water temperature on cardiac plasticity was investigated in developing mahi-mahi. Morphological (e.g. standard length, heart angle) and physiological cardiac variables (e.g. heart rate fH, stroke volume, cardiac output) were recorded under two conditions by imaging: i) under acute temperature exposure where embryos were reared at 25°C up to 128 hours post-fertilization (hpf) and then acutely exposed to 25° (rearing temperature), 27° and 30°C; ii) at two rearing (chronic) temperatures of 26° and 30°C and performed at 32 and 56 hpf...
April 21, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404559/surviving-murine-experimental-sepsis-affects-the-function-and-morphology-of-the-inner-ear
#5
Natalie Fischer, Nina Maria Mathonia, Georges Hoellerich, Julian Veser, Leyla Pinggera, Daniel Dejaco, Rudolf Glueckert, Anneliese Schrott-Fischer, Peter Lackner, Herbert Riechelmann, Joachim Schmutzhard
OBJECTIVE: Severe sepsis is known to result in various neurological long-term deficits in human. Recently, a link between severe, lethal sepsis and significant hearing loss with correlating histomorphological inner ear changes in mice (C57BL/6) was observed. However, if similar observations can be made in severe, non-lethal sepsis in mice is unclear. This study evaluates mice after severe, non-lethal sepsis for analogue functional and histomorphological alterations of the inner ear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 63 C57BL/6 mice were included in the study...
April 12, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396492/the-geometric-framework-for-nutrition-reveals-interactions-between-protein-and-carbohydrate-during-larval-growth-in-honey-bees
#6
Bryan R Helm, Garett Slater, Arun Rajamohan, George D Yocum, Kendra J Greenlee, Julia H Bowsher
In holometabolous insects, larval nutrition affects adult body size, a life history trait with a profound influence on performance and fitness. Individual nutritional components of larval diets are often complex and may interact with one another, necessitating the use of a geometric framework for elucidating nutritional effects. In the honey bee, Apis mellifera, nurse bees provision food to developing larvae, directly moderating growth rates and caste development. However, the eusocial nature of honey bees makes nutritional studies challenging, because diet components cannot be systematically manipulated in the hive...
April 10, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396491/differences-in-swimming-ability-and-its-response-to-starvation-among-male-and-female-gambusia-affinis
#7
Jiangtao Li, Xiaotao Lin, Zhongneng Xu, Jun Sun
To explore the differences in the swimming ability and environmental adaptive abilities between male and female Gambusia affinis, we assessed the differences in burst swimming speeds (Uburst), critical swimming speeds (Ucrit) and their related fin areas, and consumption of energy substances after starvation at 0 (control group), 15, 30, 45, and 60 days, respectively. The results showed that the pectoral and caudal fin areas did not differ significantly between male and female G. affinis However, the dry mass, condition factors, and absolute contents of glycogen, lipids, and proteins were significantly elevated in females in the control group (P<0...
April 10, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396490/trehalose-metabolism-genes-of-aphelenchoides-besseyi-nematoda-aphelenchoididae-in-hypertonic-osmotic-pressure-survival
#8
Qiaoli Chen, Danlei Li, Feng Wang, Ruizhi Zhang, Yaming Ling
Some organisms can survive extreme desiccation caused by hypertonic osmotic pressure by entering a state of suspended animation known as osmobiosis. The free-living mycophagous nematode Aphelenchoides besseyi can be induced to enter osmobiosis by soaking in osmolytes. It is assumed that sugars (in particular trehalose) are instrumental for survival under environmental stress. In A. besseyi two putative trehalose-6-phosphate synthase genes (TPS) encode enzymes catalyzing trehalose synthesis and a putative trehalase genes (TRE) encodes enzymes that catalyze hydrolysis of trehalose were identified and then characterized based on its transcriptome...
April 10, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396489/does-air-breathing-meet-metabolic-demands-of-the-juvenile-snakehead-channa-argus-in-multiple-conditions
#9
Yongli Li, Xiao Lv, Jing Zhou, Chenchen Shi, Ting Duan, Yiping Luo
The objective of this study was to examine how the respiratory metabolism of the snakehead Channa argus changed when it shifted from breathing water to breathing air and how increased metabolic demands caused by temperature, feeding, and exhaustive exercise affect its survival in air. The results demonstrated that the oxygen consumption rate (MO2) of the snakehead was lower for aerial respiration than aquatic respiration by 12.1%, 24.5%, and 20.4% at 20, 25, and 30°C, respectively. Survival time was significantly shortened with increasing temperature and was negatively correlated with the resting MO2 in air (MO2Air)...
April 10, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396488/do-you-see-what-i-see-optical-morphology-and-visual-capability-of-disco-clams-ctenoides-ales
#10
Lindsey F Dougherty, Richard R Dubielzig, Charles S Schobert, Leandro B Teixeira, Jingchun Li
The 'disco' clam Ctenoides ales (Finlay, 1927) is a marine bivalve that has a unique, vivid flashing display that is the result of light scattering by silica nanospheres and rapid mantle movement. The eyes of C. ales were examined to determine their visual capabilities and whether the clams can see the flashing of conspecifics. Similar to the congener C. scaber, C. ales exhibits an off-response (shadow reflex) and an on-response (light reflex). In field observations, a shadow caused a significant increase in flash rate from a mean of 3...
April 10, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396487/culture-time-of-vitrified-warmed-zygotes-before-microinjection-affects-the-production-efficiency-of-crispr-cas9-mediated-knock-in-mice
#11
Yoshiko Nakagawa, Tetsushi Sakuma, Norihisa Nishimichi, Yasuyuki Yokosaki, Toru Takeo, Naomi Nakagata, Takashi Yamamoto
Robust reproductive engineering techniques are required for the efficient and rapid production of genetically modified mice. We have reported the efficient production of genome-edited mice using reproductive engineering techniques, such as ultra-superovulation, in vitro fertilization (IVF) and vitrification/warming of zygotes. We usually use vitrified/warmed fertilized oocytes created by IVF for microinjection because of work efficiency and flexible scheduling. Here, we investigated whether the culture time of zygotes before microinjection influences the efficiency of producing knock-in mice...
April 10, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396486/investigation-of-span-chordwise-bending-anisotropy-of-honeybee-forewings
#12
JianGuo Ning, Yun Ma, HuiLan Ren, PengFei Zhang
In this study, the spanwise and chordwise bending stiffness EI of honeybee forewings were measured by a cantilevered bending test. The interesting test results indicate that the spanwise EI of the forewing is two orders of magnitude larger than the chordwise EI Three structural aspects result in this span-chordwise bending anisotropy: the distribution of resilin patches, the corrugation along the span and the leading edge vein of the venation. It was found that flexion lines formed by resilin patches revealed through fluorescence microscopy promoted the chordwise bending of the forewing during flapping flight...
April 10, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396485/alteration-of-swing-leg-work-and-power-during-human-accelerated-sprinting
#13
Ryu Nagahara, Takeo Matsubayashi, Akifumi Matsuo, Koji Zushi
This study investigated changes in lower-extremity joint work and power during the swing phase in a maximal accelerated sprinting. Twelve male sprinters performed 60-m maximal sprints while motion data was recorded. Lower-extremity joint work and power during the swing phase of each stride for both legs were calculated. Positive hip and negative knee work (≈4.3 and ≈-2.9 J·kg(-1)) and mean power (≈13.4 and ≈-8.7 W·kg(-1)) during the entire swing phase stabilized or decreased after the 26.2±1.1 (9...
April 10, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377456/a-role-for-planar-cell-polarity-during-early-endoderm-morphogenesis
#14
Lee B Miles, Takamasa Mizoguchi, Yutaka Kikuchi, Heather Verkade
The zebrafish endoderm begins to develop at gastrulation stages as a monolayer of cells. The behaviour of the endoderm during gastrulation stages is well understood. However, knowledge of the morphogenic movements of the endoderm during somitogenesis stages, as it forms a mesenchymal rod, is lacking. Here we characterise endodermal development during somitogenesis stages, and describe the morphogenic movements as the endoderm transitions from a monolayer of cells into a mesenchymal endodermal rod. We demonstrate that, unlike the overlying mesoderm, endodermal cells are not polarised during their migration to the midline at early somitogenesis stages...
April 4, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373172/mouse-embryonic-dorsal-root-ganglia-contain-pluripotent-stem-cells-that-show-features-similar-to-es-cells-and-ips-cells
#15
Ryuhei Ogawa, Kyohei Fujita, Kazuo Ito
In the present study, we showed that the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in the mouse embryo contains pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) that have developmental capacities equivalent to those of embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. Mouse embryonic DRG cells expressed pluripotency-related transcription factors (octamer-binding transcription factor 4, SRY (sex determining region Y)-box containing gene (Sox) 2, and Nanog) that play essential roles in maintaining the pluripotency of ES cells. Furthermore, the DRG cells differentiated into ectoderm-, mesoderm- and endoderm-derived cells...
April 3, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351835/cross-linking-mass-spectrometry-identifies-new-interfaces-of-augmin-required-to-localise-the-%C3%AE-tubulin-ring-complex-to-the-mitotic-spindle
#16
Jack W C Chen, Zhuo A Chen, Kacper B Rogala, Jeremy Metz, Charlotte M Deane, Juri Rappsilber, James G Wakefield
The hetero-octameric protein complex, Augmin, recruits γ-Tubulin Ring Complex (γ-TuRC) to pre-existing microtubules (MTs) to generate branched MTs during mitosis, facilitating robust spindle assembly. However, despite a recent partial reconstitution of the human Augmin complex in vitro, the molecular basis of this recruitment remains unclear. Here, we used immuno-affinity purification of in vivo Augmin from Drosophila and cross-linking/mass spectrometry to identify distance restraints between residues within the eight Augmin subunits in the absence of any other structural information...
March 28, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347990/reduced-%C3%AE-catenin-expression-affects-patterning-of-bone-primordia-but-not-bone-maturation
#17
Tobias Pflug, Uyen Huynh-Do, Stefan Rudloff
Wnt/β-catenin signaling is involved in patterning of bone primordia, but also plays an important role in the differentiation of chondrocytes and osteoblasts. During these processes the level of β-catenin, must be tightly regulated. Excess β-catenin leads to conditions with increased bone mass, whereas loss of β-catenin is associated with osteoporosis or in extreme cases the absence of limbs. In this study, we examined skeletogenesis in mice, which retain only 25% of β-catenin. These embryos showed severe morphological abnormalities of which the lack of hindlimbs and misshaped front paws were the most striking...
March 27, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347989/wrn-conditioned-media-is-sufficient-for-in-vitro-propagation-of-intestinal-organoids-from-large-farm-and-small-companion-animals
#18
Robin H Powell, Michael S Behnke
Recent years have seen significant developments in the ability to continuously propagate organoids derived from intestinal crypts. These advancements have been applied to mouse and human samples providing models for gastrointestinal tissue development and disease. We adapt these methods for the propagation of intestinal organoids (enteroids) from various large farm and small companion (LF/SC) animals, including cat, dog, cow, horse, pig, sheep, and chicken. We show that LF/SC enteroids propagate and expand in L-WRN conditioned media containing signaling factors Wnt3a, R-spondin-3, and Noggin (WRN)...
March 27, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302670/modelling-pulmonary-microthrombosis-coupled-to-metastasis-distinct-effects-of-thrombogenesis-on-tumorigenesis
#19
Colin E Evans, Asis Palazon, Jingwei Sim, Petros A Tyrakis, Alice Prodger, Xiao Lu, Saria Chan, Pär-Ola Bendahl, Mattias Belting, Love Von Euler, Helene Rundqvist, Randall S Johnson, Cristina Branco
Thrombosis can cause localized ischemia and tissue hypoxia, and both of these are linked to cancer metastasis. Vascular micro-occlusion can occur as a result of arrest of circulating tumor cells in small capillaries, giving rise to microthrombotic events that affect flow, creating localized hypoxic regions. To better understand the association between metastasis and thrombotic events, we generated an experimental strategy whereby we model the effect of microvascular occlusion in metastatic efficiency, by using inert microbeads to obstruct lung microvasculature before, during and after intravenous tumor cell injection...
March 16, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302668/sulphated-glycosaminoglycans-support-an-assortment-of-planarian-rhabdite-structures
#20
Matthew J Hayes
Planaria are soft-bodied, bilateral flatworms of the phylum Playhelminthes. They are covered in cilia and use ciliary-gliding to traverse the substratum while hunting. Their body surface is covered in a layer of viscous slime primarily derived from specialised secretory granules known as rhabdites. The slime must somehow stay associated with the surface of the animal in aqueous environments whilst also lubricating the interface of the animal and the surfaces over which the animal moves. The slime prevents damage to the animal's soft body and also contributes to adhesion to the substratum...
March 16, 2017: Biology Open
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