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Biology Open

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522431/wnk1-and-p38-mapk-distribution-in-ionocytes-and-accessory-cells-of-euryhaline-teleost-fish-implies-ionoregulatory-function
#1
W S Marshall, R R F Cozzi, M Spieker
Ionocytes of euryhaline teleost fish secrete NaCl, under regulation by serine and threonine kinases, including with-no-lysine kinase (WNK1) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Mummichogs (Fundulus heteroclitus L.) were acclimated to freshwater (FW), full strength seawater (SW) and hypersaline conditions (2SW). Immunocytochemistry of ionocytes in opercular epithelia of fish acclimated to SW and 2SW revealed that WNK1-anti-pT58 phosphoantibody localized strongly to accessory cells and was present in the cytosol of ionocytes close to, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in the apical membrane and sodium, potassium, 2 chloride cotransporter (NKCC) in basolateral membrane...
May 18, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522430/the-drosophila-lin54-homolog-mip120-controls-two-aspects-of-oogenesis
#2
Mei-Hsin Cheng, Laura Andrejka, Paul J Vorster, Albert Hinman, Joseph S Lipsick
The conserved multi-protein MuvB core associates with the Myb oncoproteins and with the RB-E2F-DP tumor suppressor proteins in complexes that regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Drosophila Mip120, a homolog of LIN54, is a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein within the MuvB core. A mutant of Drosophila mip120 was previously shown to cause female and male sterility. We now show that Mip120 regulates two different aspects of oogenesis. First, in the absence of the Mip120 protein, egg chambers arrest during the transition from stage 7 to 8 with a failure of the normal program of chromosomal dynamics in the ovarian nurse cells...
May 18, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512118/epstein-barr-virus-encoded-lmp2a-stimulates-migration-of-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-cells-via-egfr-ca-2-calpain-itg%C3%AE-4-axis
#3
Jiezhen Liang, Shixing Zheng, Xue Xiao, Jiazhang Wei, Zhe Zhang, Ingemar Ernberg, Liudmila Matskova, Guangwu Huang, Xiaoying Zhou
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A) promotes the motility of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells. Previously, we have shown that the localization of integrin β4 (ITGβ4) was regulated by LMP2A, with ITGβ4 concentrated at the cellular protrusions in LMP2A expressing NPC cells. In the present study, we aim to further investigate mechanisms involved in this process and its contribution to cell motility. We show that expression of LMP2A was correlated with increased EGFR activation, elevated levels of intracellular Ca(2+), calpain activation and accelerated cleavage of ITGβ4...
May 16, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500033/proteomic-responses-to-elevated-ocean-temperature-in-ovaries-of-the-ascidian-ciona-intestinalis
#4
Chelsea E Lopez, Hannah C Sheehan, David A Vierra, Paul A Azzinaro, Thomas H Meedel, Niall G Howlett, Steven Q Irvine
Ciona intestinalis, a common sea squirt, exhibits lower reproductive success at the upper extreme of water temperatures it experiences in coastal New England. In order to understand the changes in protein expression associated with elevated temperatures, and possible response to global temperature change, we reared C. intestinalis from embryos to adults at 18°C (a temperature at which they reproduce normally at our collection site in Rhode Island) and 22°C (the upper end of the local temperature range). We then dissected ovaries from animals at each temperature, extracted protein, and measured proteomic levels using shotgun mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
May 12, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500032/senescence-gives-insights-into-the-morphogenetic-evolution-of-anamniotes
#5
Éric Villiard, Jean-François Denis, Faranak Sadat Hashemi, Sebastian Igelmann, Gerardo Ferbeyre, Stéphane Roy
Senescence represents a mechanism to avoid undesired cell proliferation that plays a role in tumor suppression, wound healing and embryonic development. In order to gain insight on the evolution of senescence, we looked at its presence in developing axolotls (urodele amphibians) and in zebrafish (teleost fish), which are both anamniotes. Our data indicate that cellular senescence is present in various developing structures in axolotls (pronephros, olfactory epithelium of nerve fascicles, lateral organs, gums) and in zebrafish (epithelium of the yolk sac and in the lower part of the gut)...
May 12, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500031/labeling-glycans-on-living-cells-by-a-chemoenzymatic-glycoengineering-approach
#6
Ruben T Almaraz, Yanhong Li
Structural glycobiology has traditionally been a challenging field due to a limited set of tools available to investigate the diverse and complexity of Glycan molecules. However, we cannot ignore that glycans play critical roles in health as well as in disease, are present in more than 50% of all proteins and on over 80% of all surface proteins. Chemoenzymatic Glycoengineering (CEG) methods are a powerful set of tools to synthesize complex glycans but its full potential has not been explored in cell biology yet...
May 12, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495965/pias3-is-necessary-for-dorso-ventral-patterning-and-visual-response-of-retinal-cones-but-is-not-required-for-rod-photoreceptor-differentiation
#7
Christie K Campla, Hannah Breit, Lijin Dong, Jessica D Gumerson, Jerome E Roger, Anand Swaroop
Protein inhibitor of activated Stat 3 (Pias3) is implicated in guiding specification of rod and cone photoreceptors through posttranslational modification of key retinal transcription factors. To investigate its role during retinal development, we deleted exon 2-5 of the mouse Pias3 gene, which resulted in complete loss of the Pias3 protein. Pias3(-/-) mice did not show any overt phenotype, and retinal lamination appeared normal even at 18 months. We detected reduced photopic b-wave amplitude by electroretinography following green light stimulation of postnatal day (P) 21 Pias3(-/-) retina, suggesting a compromised visual response of medium wavelength (M) cones...
May 11, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495964/transition-zone-cells-reach-g2-phase-before-initiating-elongation-in-maize-root-apex
#8
M Victoria Alarcón, Julio Salguero
Root elongation requires cell divisions in the meristematic zone and cell elongation that occurs in the elongation zone. The boundary between dividing and elongating cells is called transition zone. In the meristem zone, initial cells are continuously dividing, but in the basal side of the meristem, cells exit the meristem through the transition zone and enter in the elongation zone, where they stop division and rapidly elongate. In this journey, cells are accompanied by changes in cell cycle progression. Flow cytometry analysis showed that meristematic cells are in cycle, but they exit the cell cycle when they enter the elongation zone...
May 11, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495963/arabidopsis-dna-topoisomerase-i-alpha-is-required-for-adaptive-response-to-light-and-flower-development
#9
Evgenia V Kupriyanova, Evgeniy V Albert, Aleksandra I Bliznina, Polina O Mamoshina, Tatiana A Ezhova
DNA topoisomerase TOP1α plays a specific role in Arabidopsis thaliana development and is required for stem cell regulation in shoot and floral meristems. Recently, a new role independent of meristem functioning has been described for TOP1α, namely, flowering time regulation. The same feature had been detected by us earlier for fas5, a mutant allele of TOP1α In this study we clarify the effects of fas5 on bolting initiation and analyze the molecular basis of its role in flowering time regulation. We show that fas5 mutation leads to a constitutive shade avoidance syndrome, accompanied by leaf hyponasty, petiole elongation, lighter leaf color and early bolting...
May 11, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495962/dietary-supplementation-of-heat-treated-gracilaria-and-ulva-seaweeds-enhanced-acute-hypoxia-tolerance-in-gilthead-seabream-sparus-aurata
#10
Leonardo J Magnoni, Juan António Martos-Sitcha, Augusto Queiroz, Josep Alvar Calduch-Giner, José Fernando Magalhães Gonçalves, Cristina M R Rocha, Helena T Abreu, Johan W Schrama, Rodrigo O A Ozorio, Jaume Pérez-Sánchez
Intensive aquaculture practices involve rearing fish at high densities. In these conditions, fish may be exposed to suboptimal dissolved O2 levels with an increased formation of reactive O2 species (ROS) in tissues. Seaweeds (SW) contain biologically active substances with efficient antioxidant capacities. This study evaluated the effects of dietary supplementation of heat-treated SW (5% Gracilaria vermiculophylla or 5% Ulva lactuca) on stress bioindicators in seabream subjected to a hypoxic challenge. One hundred and sixty-eight fish (104...
May 11, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483982/akt3-is-responsible-for-the-survival-and-proliferation-of-embryonic-stem-cells
#11
Ling Wang, Delun Huang, Zongliang Jiang, Yan Luo, Carol Norris, Ming Zhang, Xiuchun Tian, Young Tang
The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) pathway plays an important role in regulating cell proliferation, metabolism, and survival. However, the distinct roles of Akt isoforms - Akt1, Akt2, and Akt3 in pluripotent stem cell maintenance are not fully defined. Using mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), we show that direct inhibition of Akt activity leads to ESC apoptosis. The Akt3, but not Akt1 or Akt2 activity specifically regulates this effect. Inhibiting Akt3 also leads to a cell cycle arrest at G1 phase...
May 8, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483981/the-role-of-nitric-oxide-during-embryonic-epidermis-development-of-xenopus-laevis
#12
Silvie Tomankova, Pavel Abaffy, Radek Sindelka
Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent radical molecule that participates during various biological processes such as vasodilation, cell proliferation, immune response and neurotransmission. NO mainly activates soluble guanylate cyclase, leading to cGMP production and activation of protein kinase G and its downstream targets. Here we report the essential role of NO during embryonic epidermis development. Xenopus embryonic epidermis has become a useful model reflecting human epithelial tissue composition. The developing epidermis of Xenopus laevis is formed from specialized ionocytes, multi-ciliated, goblet and small secretory cells...
May 8, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483980/endogenous-ajap1-associates-with-the-cytoskeleton-and-attenuates-angiogenesis-in-endothelial-cells
#13
Katharina Hötte, Isabell Smyrek, Anna Starzinski-Powitz, Ernst H K Stelzer
The adherence junction associated protein 1 (AJAP1, aka shrew-1) is presumably a type-I transmembrane protein localizing and interacting with the E-cadherin-catenin complex. In various tumors, AJAP1 expression is reduced or lost, including hepatocellular and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and glial-derived tumors. The aberrant expression of AJAP1 is associated with alterations in cell migration, invasion, increased tumor growth, and tumor vascularization, suggesting AJAP1 as a putative tumor suppressor...
May 8, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455357/fission-yeast-neddylation-ligase-dcn1-facilitates-cohesin-cleavage-and-chromosome-segregation-at-anaphase
#14
Lan Lin, Li Chen, Phong T Tran
Posttranslational protein modification such as phosphorylation and ubiquitination are critical during mitosis to ensure proper timing and progression of chromosome segregation. It has been recently recognized that another type of protein modification - neddylation - may also regulate mitosis and chromosome segregation. The conserved protein DCN1 (defective cullin neddylation 1) has been shown, when knock-downed by RNAi, to result in multinucleated cells and/or blockage of cell proliferation. However, how DCN1 functions in mitosis and chromosome segregation is not known...
April 28, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455356/the-coordinating-role-of-iqgap1-in-the-regulation-of-local-endosome-specific-actin-networks
#15
Edward B Samson, David S Tsao, Jan Zimak, R Tyler McLaughlin, Nicholaus J Trenton, Emily M Mace, Jordan S Orange, Volker Schweikhard, Michael R Diehl
IQGAP1 is a large, multi-domain scaffold that helps orchestrate cell signaling and cytoskeletal mechanics by controlling interactions among a spectrum of receptors, signaling intermediates, and cytoskeletal proteins. While this coordination is known to impact cell morphology, motility, cell adhesion, and vesicular traffic, among other functions, the spatiotemporal properties and regulatory mechanisms of IQGAP1 have not been fully resolved. Herein, we describe a series of super-resolution and live-cell imaging analyses that identified a role for IQGAP1 in the regulation of an actin cytoskeletal shell surrounding a novel membranous compartment that localizes selectively to the basal cortex of polarized epithelial cells (MCF-10A)...
April 28, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432106/prohibitin-induced-obesity-leads-to-anovulation-and-polycystic-ovary-in-mice
#16
Sudharsana Rao Ande, Khanh Hoa Nguyen, Yang Xin Zi Xu, Suresh Mishra
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent endocrine disorder and the most common cause of female infertility. However, the etiology of the disease and the mechanisms by which this disorder progress remain unclear. Here we report that a transgenic obese mouse (Mito-Ob) developed by overexpressing prohibitin in adipocytes develops polycystic ovaries. Initially, the female Mito-Ob mice were equally fertile to their wild-type littermates. Mito-Ob mice begin to gain weight after puberty, become significantly obese between 3-6 months of age, and roughly 25% of them become infertile by 9 months of age...
April 21, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432105/centrin-diversity-and-basal-body-patterning-across-evolution-new-insights-from-paramecium
#17
Anne Aubusson-Fleury, Guillaume Balavoine, Michel Lemullois, Khaled Bouhouche, Janine Beisson, France Koll
First discovered in unicellular eukaryotes, centrins play crucial roles in basal body duplication and anchoring mechanisms. While the evolutionary status of the founding members of the family, Centrin2/Vfl2 and Centrin3/cdc31 has long been investigated, the evolutionary origin of other members of the family has received less attention. Using a phylogeny of ciliate centrins, we identify two other centrin families, the ciliary centrins and the centrins present in the contractile filaments (ICL centrins). In this paper, we carry on the functional analysis of still not well known centrins, the ICL1e subfamily identified in Paramecium, and show their requirement for correct basal body anchoring through interactions with Centrin2 and Centrin3...
April 21, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432104/dancing-attraction-followers-of-honey-bee-tremble-and-waggle-dances-exhibit-similar-behaviors
#18
Calvin Lam, Yanlei Li, Tim Landgraf, James Nieh
The function of the honey bee tremble dance and how it attracts signal receivers is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that tremble followers and waggle followers exhibit the same dance following behavior. If correct, this would unify our understanding of dance following, provide insight into dance information transfer, and offer a way to identify the signal receivers of tremble dance information. Followers showed similar initial attraction to and tracking of dancers. However, waggle dancers were faster than tremble dancers, and follower forward, sideways, and angular velocities were generally similar to the velocities of their respective dancers...
April 21, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432103/morphology-and-cardiac-physiology-are-differentially-affected-by-temperature-in-developing-larvae-of-the-marine-fish-mahi-mahi-coryphaena-hippurus
#19
Prescilla Perrichon, Christina Pasparakis, Edward M Mager, John D Stieglitz, Daniel D Benetti, Martin Grosell, Warren W Burggren
Cardiovascular performance is altered by temperature in larval fishes, but how acute vs. chronic temperature exposures independently affect cardiac morphology and physiology in the growing larva is poorly understood. Consequently, the influence of water temperature on cardiac plasticity was investigated in developing mahi-mahi. Morphological (e.g. standard length, heart angle) and physiological cardiac variables (e.g. heart rate fH, stroke volume, cardiac output) were recorded under two conditions by imaging: i) under acute temperature exposure where embryos were reared at 25°C up to 128 hours post-fertilization (hpf) and then acutely exposed to 25° (rearing temperature), 27° and 30°C; ii) at two rearing (chronic) temperatures of 26° and 30°C and performed at 32 and 56 hpf...
April 21, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404559/surviving-murine-experimental-sepsis-affects-the-function-and-morphology-of-the-inner-ear
#20
Natalie Fischer, Nina Maria Mathonia, Georges Hoellerich, Julian Veser, Leyla Pinggera, Daniel Dejaco, Rudolf Glueckert, Anneliese Schrott-Fischer, Peter Lackner, Herbert Riechelmann, Joachim Schmutzhard
OBJECTIVE: Severe sepsis is known to result in various neurological long-term deficits in human. Recently, a link between severe, lethal sepsis and significant hearing loss with correlating histomorphological inner ear changes in mice (C57BL/6) was observed. However, if similar observations can be made in severe, non-lethal sepsis in mice is unclear. This study evaluates mice after severe, non-lethal sepsis for analogue functional and histomorphological alterations of the inner ear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 63 C57BL/6 mice were included in the study...
April 12, 2017: Biology Open
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