journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Biology Open

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302670/modelling-pulmonary-microthrombosis-coupled-to-metastasis-distinct-effects-of-thrombogenesis-on-tumorigenesis
#1
Colin E Evans, Asis Palazon, Jingwei Sim, Petros A Tyrakis, Alice Prodger, Xiao Lu, Saria Chan, Pär-Ola Bendahl, Mattias Belting, Love Von Euler, Helene Rundqvist, Randall S Johnson, Cristina Branco
Thrombosis can cause localized ischemia and tissue hypoxia, and both of these are linked to cancer metastasis. Vascular micro-occlusion can occur as a result of arrest of circulating tumor cells in small capillaries, giving rise to microthrombotic events that affect flow, creating localized hypoxic regions. To better understand the association between metastasis and thrombotic events, we generated an experimental strategy whereby we model the effect of microvascular occlusion in metastatic efficiency, by using inert microbeads to obstruct lung microvasculature before, during and after intravenous tumor cell injection...
March 16, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302669/propulsive-efficiency-of-frog-swimming-with-different-feet-and-swimming-patterns
#2
Fan Jizhuang, Zhang Wei, Yuan Bowen, Liu Gangfeng
Aquatic and terrestrial animals have different swimming performances and mechanical efficiencies based on their different swimming methods. To explore propulsion in swimming frogs, this paper calculated mechanical efficiencies based on data describing aquatic and terrestrial webbed foot shapes and swimming patterns. First, a simplified frog model and dynamic equation were established, and hydrodynamic forces on the foot were computed according to computational fluid dynamic calculations. Then, a two-link mechanism was used to stand in for the diverse and complicated hind legs found in different frog species, in order to simplify the input work calculation...
March 16, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302668/sulphated-glycosaminoglycans-support-an-assortment-of-planarian-rhabdite-structures
#3
Matthew J Hayes
Planaria are soft-bodied, bilateral flatworms of the phylum Playhelminthes. They are covered in cilia and use ciliary-gliding to traverse the substratum while hunting. Their body surface is covered in a layer of viscous slime primarily derived from specialised secretory granules known as rhabdites. The slime must somehow stay associated with the surface of the animal in aqueous environments whilst also lubricating the interface of the animal and the surfaces over which the animal moves. The slime prevents damage to the animal's soft body and also contributes to adhesion to the substratum...
March 16, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302667/novel-device-for-application-of-continuous-mechanical-tensile-strain-to-mammalian-cells
#4
Satoshi Wada, Hiroyuki Kanzaki, Tsuyoshi Narimiya, Yoshiki Nakamura
During orthodontic tooth movement, the periodontal ligament (PDL) is exposed to continuous mechanical strain. However, many researchers have applied cyclic tensile strain, not continuous tensile strain, to PDL cells in vitro, because there has been no adequate device to apply continuous tensile strain to cultured cells. In this study, we contrived a novel device designed to apply continuous tensile strain to cells in culture. The continuous tensile strain was applied to human immortalized periodontal ligament cell line (HPL cells) and the cytoskeletal structures of HPL cells were examined by immunohistochemistry...
March 16, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302666/mtorc1-signalling-mediates-pi3k-dependent-large-lipid-droplet-accumulation-in-drosophila-ovarian-nurse-cells
#5
Lawrence B Mensah, Deborah C I Goberdhan, Clive Wilson
Insulin and insulin-like growth factor signalling (IIS), which is primarily mediated by the PI3-kinase (PI3K)/PTEN/Akt kinase signalling cassette, is a highly evolutionary conserved pathway involved in co-ordinating growth, development, ageing and nutrient homeostasis with dietary intake. It controls transcriptional regulators, in addition to promoting signalling by mechanistic Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Complex 1 (mTORC1), which stimulates biosynthesis of proteins and other macromolecules, and drives organismal growth...
March 16, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302665/calpain-mobilizes-atg9-bif-1-vesicles-from-golgi-stacks-upon-autophagy-induction-by-thapsigargin
#6
Elena Marcassa, Marzia Raimondi, Tahira Anwar, Eeva-Liisa Eskelinen, Michael P Myers, Gianluca Triolo, Claudio Schneider, Francesca Demarchi
CAPNS1 is essential for stability and function of the ubiquitous calcium dependent proteases micro- and milli-calpain. Upon the inhibition of the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase by 100nM thapsigargin, both micro-calpain and autophagy are activated in human U2OS osteosarcoma cells in a CAPNS1 dependent manner. As reported for other autophagy triggers, thapsigargin treatment induces Golgi fragmentation and fusion of Atg9/Bif-1 containing vesicles with LC3 bodies in control cells. On the opposite, CAPNS1 depletion is coupled to an accumulation of LC3 bodies and Rab5 early endosomes...
March 16, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298319/analysis-of-axonal-trafficking-via-a-novel-live-imaging-technique-reveals-distinct-hedgehog-transport-kinetics
#7
Joseph R Daniele, Rehan M Baqri, Samuel Kunes
The Drosophila melanogaster (Dmel) eye is an ideal model to study development, intracellular signaling, behavior, and neurodegenerative disease. Interestingly, dynamic data is not commonly employed to investigate eye-specific disease models. Using axonal transport of the morphogen Hedgehog (Hh), which is integral to Dmel eye-brain development and implicated in stem cell maintenance and neoplastic disease, we demonstrate the ability to comprehensively quantify and characterize its trafficking in various neuron types and a neurodegeneration model in live early 3(rd) instar larval Drosophila We find that neuronal Hh, whose kinetics have not been reported previously, favors fast anterograde transport and varies in speed and flux with respect to axonal position...
March 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298318/a-novel-proteolytic-event-controls-hedgehog-intracellular-sorting-and-distribution-to-receptive-fields
#8
Joseph R Daniele, Tehyen Chu, Sam Kunes
The patterning activity of a morphogen depends on secretion and dispersal mechanisms that shape its distribution to the cells of a receptive field. In the case of the protein Hedgehog (Hh), these mechanisms of secretion and transmission remain unclear. In the developing Drosophila visual system, Hedgehog is partitioned for release at opposite poles of photoreceptor neurons. Release into the retina regulates the progression of eye development; axon transport and release at axon termini trigger the development of postsynaptic neurons in the brain...
March 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288970/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-cpn60-2-groel2-blocks-macrophage-apoptosis-via-interaction-with-mitochondrial-mortalin
#9
Sunil Joseph, Alex Yuen, Vijender Singh, Zakaria Hmama
Earlier studies suggested that Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) proteins exported within the host macrophage play an essential role in tuberculosis pathogenesis. In fact, Mtb proteins interact with and deactivate key regulators of many macrophage functions such as phago-lysosome fusion and antigen presentation, resulting in the intracellular persistence of pathogenic mycobacteria. Cpn60.2 is an abundant Mtb chaperone protein, restricted to cell cytoplasm and surface, that was reported to be essential for bacterial growth...
March 13, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288969/visualizing-endoderm-cell-populations-and-their-dynamics-in-the-mouse-embryo-with-a-hex-tdtomato-reporter
#10
Tao Wu, Anna-Katerina Hadjantonakis, Sonja Nowotschin
Live imaging is the requisite tool for studying cell behaviors driving embryonic development and tissue formation. Genetically-encoded reporters expressed under cell type-specific cis-regulatory elements that drive fluorescent protein expression at sufficient levels for visualization in living specimens have become indispensable for these studies. Increasingly dual-color (red-green) imaging is used for studying the coordinate behaviors if two cell populations of interest, identifying and characterizing subsets of within broader cell populations or subcellular features...
March 13, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288968/depletion-of-tcf3-and-lef1-maintains-mouse-embryonic-stem-cell-self-renewal
#11
Shoudong Ye, Tao Zhang, Chang Tong, Xingliang Zhou, Kan He, Qian Ban, Dahai Liu, Qi-Long Ying
Mouse and rat embryonic stem cell (ESC) self-renewal can be maintained by dual inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK). Inhibition of GSK3 promotes ESC self-renewal by abrogating T-cell factor 3 (TCF3)-mediated repression of the pluripotency network. How inhibition of MEK mediates ESC self-renewal, however, remains largely unknown. Here, we show that inhibition of MEK can significantly suppress lymphoid enhancer factor 1 (LEF1) expression in mouse ESCs...
March 13, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288967/in-air-hearing-of-the-great-cormorant-phalacrocorax-carbo
#12
Alyssa Maxwell, Kirstin Anderson Hansen, Sara Torres Ortiz, Ole Næsbye Larsen, Ursula Siebert, Magnus Wahlberg
Many aquatic birds use sounds extensively for in-air communication. Regardless of this, we know very little about their hearing abilities. The in-air audiogram of a male adult great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) was determined using psychophysical methods (method of constants). Hearing thresholds were derived using pure tones of five different frequencies. The lowest threshold was at 2 kHz: 18 dB re 20 µPa rms. Thresholds derived using signal detection theory were within 2 dB of the ones derived using classical psychophysics...
March 13, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258056/novel-immunodeficient-pde6b-rd1-mouse-model-of-retinitis-pigmentosa-to-investigate-potential-therapeutics-and-pathogenesis-of-retinal-degeneration
#13
Alaknanda Mishra, Barun Das, Madhu Nath, Srikanth Iyer, Ashwani Kesarwani, Jashdeep Bhattacharjee, Shailendra Arindkar, Preeti Sahay, Kshama Jain, Parul Sahu, Prakriti Sinha, Thirumurthy Velpandian, Perumal Nagarajan, Pramod Upadhyay
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a common retinal degeneration disease caused by mutation in any gene of the photo transduction cascade and results in photoreceptor dystrophy. Over decades, several animal models have been used to address the need for elucidation of effective therapeutics and factors regulating retinal degeneration to prohibit or renew the damaged retina. However, controversies over immune privilege of retina during cell transplantation and role of immune modulation during RP still remain largely uninvestigated due to lack of proper animal models...
March 3, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235844/tbrd-1-and-tbrd-2-regulate-expression-of-genes-necessary-for-spermatid-differentiation
#14
Ina Theofel, Marek Bartkuhn, Thomas Boettger, Stefanie M K Gärtner, Judith Kreher, Alexander Brehm, Christina Rathke
Male germ cell differentiation proceeds to a large extent in the absence of active gene transcription. In Drosophila, hundreds of genes whose proteins are required during post-meiotic spermatid differentiation (spermiogenesis) are transcribed in primary spermatocytes. Transcription of these genes depends on the sequential action of the testis meiotic arrest complex (tMAC), Mediator complex, and testis-specific TFIID (tTFIID) complex. How the action of these protein complexes is coordinated and which other factors are involved in the regulation of transcription in spermatocytes is not well understood...
February 24, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228376/xenopus-laevis-kif18a-is-a-highly-processive-kinesin-required-for-meiotic-spindle-integrity
#15
Martin M Möckel, Andreas Heim, Thomas Tischer, Thomas U Mayer
The assembly and functionality of the mitotic spindle depends on the coordinated activities of microtubule-associated motor-proteins of the dynein and kinesin superfamily. Our current understanding of the function of motor-proteins is significantly shaped by studies using Xenopus laevis egg extract as its open structure allows complex experimental manipulations hardly feasible in other model systems. Yet, the Kinesin-8 orthologue of human Kif18A has not been described in Xenopus laevis so far. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of Xenopus laevis (Xl) Kif18A...
February 22, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202466/time-varying-auditory-gain-control-in-response-to-double-pulse-stimuli-in-harbour-porpoises-is-not-mediated-by-a-stapedial-reflex
#16
Asger Emil Munch Schrøder, Kristian Beedholm, Peter Teglberg Madsen
Echolocating animals reduce their output level and hearing sensitivity, presumably to stabilize the perceived echo intensity during target approaches. In bats this variation in hearing sensitivity is formed by a call-induced stapedial reflex that tapers off over time after the call. Here we test the hypothesis that a similar mechanism exists in toothed whales by subjecting a trained harbour porpoise to a series of double sound pulses varying in delay and frequency, while measuring the magnitudes of the evoked ABRs...
February 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202465/metabolic-rate-and-hypoxia-tolerance-are-affected-by-group-interactions-and-sex-in-the-fruit-fly-drosophila-melanogaster-new-data-and-a-literature-survey
#17
Warren Burggren, BriAnna M Souder, Dao H Ho
Population density and associated behavioral adjustments are potentially important in regulating physiological performance in many animals. In r-selected species like the fruit fly (Drosophila), where population density rapidly shifts in unpredictable and unstable environments, density-dependent physiological adjustments may aid survival of individuals living in a social environment. Yet, how population density (and associated social behaviors) affects physiological functions like metabolism is poorly understood in insects...
February 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298363/mutual-interaction-between-endothelial-cells-and-mural-cells-enhances-bmp9-signaling-in-endothelial-cells
#18
Yuki Tachida, Nanae Izumi, Toyo Sakurai, Hideki Kobayashi
Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia is characterized by the formation of abnormal vascular networks and caused by the mutation of genes involved in BMP9 signaling. It is also known that the interaction between endothelial cells (ECs) and mural cells (MCs) is critical to maintain vessel integrity. However, it has not yet fully been uncovered whether the EC-MC interaction affects BMP9 signaling or not. To elucidate this point, we analyzed BMP9 signaling in a co-culture of several types of human primary culture ECs and MCs...
March 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202467/a-key-centriole-assembly-interaction-interface-between-human-plk4-and-stil-appears-to-not-be-conserved-in-flies
#19
Matthew A Cottee, Steven Johnson, Jordan W Raff, Susan M Lea
A small number of proteins form a conserved pathway of centriole duplication. In humans and flies, the binding of PLK4/Sak to STIL/Ana2 initiates daughter centriole assembly. In humans, this interaction is mediated by an interaction between the Polo-Box-3 (PB3) domain of PLK4 and the coiled-coil domain of STIL (HsCCD). We showed previously that the Drosophila Ana2 coiled-coil domain (DmCCD) is essential for centriole assembly, but it forms a tight parallel tetramer in vitro that likely precludes an interaction with PB3...
March 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193602/preference-for-and-learning-of-amino-acids-in-larval-drosophila
#20
Nana Kudow, Daisuke Miura, Michael Schleyer, Naoko Toshima, Bertram Gerber, Teiichi Tanimura
Relative to other nutrients, less is known about how animals sense amino acids and how behaviour is organized accordingly. This is a significant gap in our knowledge because amino acids are required for protein synthesis - and hence for life as we know it. Choosing Drosophila larvae as a case study, we provide the first systematic analysis of both the preference behaviour for, and the learning of, all 20 canonical amino acids in Drosophila We report that preference for individual amino acids differs according to the kind of amino acid, both in first-instar and in third-instar larvae...
March 15, 2017: Biology Open
journal
journal
43939
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"