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Biology Open

Raffaella Bonavita, Kathleen Vincent, Robert Pinelli, Chitra Lekha Dahia
In humans, the sacrum forms an important component of the pelvic arch, and it transfers the weight of the body to the lower limbs. The sacrum is formed by collapse of the intervertebral discs (IVDs) between the five sacral vertebrae during childhood, and their fusion to form a single bone. We show that collapse of the sacral discs in the mouse is associated with the down-regulation of sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling in the nucleus pulposus (NP) of the disc, and many aspects of this phenotype can be reversed by experimental postnatal activation of HH signaling...
May 21, 2018: Biology Open
Eleni Mente, Eleni Nikouli, Efthimia Antonopoulou, Samuel A M Martin, Konstantinos Ar Kormas
This study investigated the impact of different dietary ingredients with different protein/lipid sources on the midgut and feaces bacteria communities structure just before feeding and 3h after feeding a single meal on rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) individuals. Fish were kept in experimental rearing facilities and fed ad libitum two times daily for five weeks. Fish were fed three different commercial diets containing a higher marine fishmeal/fish oil and a lower marine fishmeal/fish oil content. DNA was extracted from midgut and faeces samples for the analysis of their bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity by targeting the V3-V4 region with 454 pyrosequencing...
May 18, 2018: Biology Open
Konner Winkley, Michael Veeman
Developmental biology research depends on careful staging of developing embryos, but the rate of development is extremely sensitive to the temperature at which embryos are raised. It is not always practical to grow embryos at a precisely controlled temperature, so here we describe a simple, inexpensive device based on an Arduino-compatible microprocessor and temperature sensor that provides a metric of developmental time that is compensated for changes in temperature. The underlying assumption is that the rate of development will be linear with respect to temperature over an organism's thermal tolerance range...
May 17, 2018: Biology Open
Geng Qin, Cara Johnson, Yuan Zhang, Huixian Zhang, Jianping Yin, Glen Miller, Ralph G Turingan, Eric Guisbert, Qiang Lin
Inshore-offshore migration occurs frequently in seahorse species either because of prey opportunities or because it is driven by reproduction, and variations in water temperature may dramatically change migratory seahorse behavior and physiology. The present study investigated the behavioral and physiological responses of the lined seahorse Hippocampus erectus under thermal stress and evaluated the potential effects of different temperatures on its reproduction. The results showed that the thermal tolerance of the seahorses was time dependent...
May 15, 2018: Biology Open
Xin Zhou, Siyuan Ma
Macrophages play crucial roles in combatting infectious disease by promoting inflammation and phagocytosis. The decline of macrophage phagocytic function will bring many serious consequence,include weakened pathogen clearance. As an avain antibody, IgY has been widely used in preventing and treating infectious diseases,but,whether it can enhance the phagocytic ability of mammalian macrophage in order to clear phathogens is still unknown. In this study, mouse peritoneal macrophages and THP-1 cells were cultured with anti-LPS IgY in vivo or in vitro respectively...
May 8, 2018: Biology Open
Libo Yu-Taeger, Viktoria Gaiser, Larissa Lotzer, Tina Roenisch, Benedikt Timo Fabry, Janice Stricker-Shaver, Nicolas Casadei, Michael Walter, Martin Schaller, Olaf Riess, Huu Phuc Nguyen, Thomas Ott, Kathrin Grundmann-Hauser
A three-base-pair deletion in the human TOR1A gene is causative for the most common form of primary dystonia, the early-onset dystonia type 1 (DYT1 dystonia). The pathophysiological consequences of this mutation are still unknown.To study the pathology of the mutant torsinA (TOR1A) protein, we have generated a transgenic rat line that overexpresses the human mutant protein under the control of the human TOR1A promoter. This new animal model was phenotyped with several approaches, including behavioral tests and neuropathological analyses...
May 8, 2018: Biology Open
Yu Nan Jiang, Jun Zhao, Feng Ting Chu, Yang Yang Jiang, Guo Hua Tang
Co-culture of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and vascular endothelial cells (VECs) is a promising strategy for better osteogenesis and pre-vascularization in bone tissue engineering. Recent reports have shown that mechanical stretching further promotes osteogenesis in BMSC/VEC co-culture systems, but the underlying mechanism of this process remains unclear. In this study, noncontact co-cultures of rat primary BMSCs and VECs were employed to interrogate paracrine cell-to-cell communications in response to tensions...
May 1, 2018: Biology Open
Tobias Sinnberg, Heike Niessner, Mitch P Levesque, Christoph Dettweiler, Claus Garbe, Christian Busch
Despite recent progress in melanoma therapy via inhibition of activated oncogenes or immune stimulation, most stage IV melanoma patients still have limited survival times. Both therapeutic approaches eventually fail to prevent further invasion and metastasis, which is driven by a morphological process termed epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We previously demonstrated that inhibition of EMT in melanoma cells via antagonizing the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-pathway abrogated EMT and neural crest migration of melanoma cells in the chick embryo...
May 1, 2018: Biology Open
Sabrina Zechel, Diana Fernandez-Suarez, Carlos F Ibáñez
GFRα1, a receptor for glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), is critical for the development of the main olfactory system. The olfactory bulb (OB) of Gfra1 knock-out mice shows significant reductions in the number of olfactory sensory neurons, mitral and tufted cells, as well as all major classes of OB GABAergic interneurons. However, the latter do not express significant levels of GFRα1, leaving the mechanism of action of GFRα1 in OB interneuron development unexplained. Here we report that GFRα1 is highly expressed in the precursor cells that give rise to all major classes of OB interneurons, but is downregulated as these neurons mature...
May 1, 2018: Biology Open
Kyriacos Kareklas, Robert W Elwood, Richard A Holland
We tested zebrafish shoals to examine whether groups exhibit collective spatial learning and whether this relates to the personality of group members. To do this we trained shoals to associate a collective spatial decision to a reward and tested whether shoals could reorient to the learned location from a new starting point. There were strong indications of collective learning and collective reorienting, most likely by memorising distal cues, but these processes were unrelated to personality differences within shoals...
May 1, 2018: Biology Open
Misaki Yoshida, Toshiki Nagayama, Philip Newland
Crayfish swimmerets are paired appendages located on the ventral side of each abdominal segment that show rhythmic beating during forward swimming produced by central pattern generators in most abdominal segments. For animals with multiple body segments and limbs, intersegmental coordination of central pattern generators in each segment is crucial for the production of effective movements. Here we develop a novel pharmacological approach to analyse intersegmental modulation of swimmeret rhythm by selectively elevating nitric oxide levels and reducing them with pharmacological agents, in specific ganglia...
May 1, 2018: Biology Open
X Song, L Marandel, M Dupont-Nivet, E Quillet, I Geurden, S Panserat
Rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) was recognized as typical "glucose-intolerant" fish and poor dietary carbohydrate user. Our first objective was to test the effect of dietary carbohydrates itself (without modification of dietary protein intake) on hepatic glucose gene expression (taking into account of the paralogs. The second aim was to research if two isogenic trout lines had different responds to carbohydrate intake, showing one with a better use dietary carbohydrates. Thus, we used two isogenic lines of rainbow trout (named A32h and AB1h) fed with either high carbohydrate diet or low carbohydrate diet for 12 weeks...
May 1, 2018: Biology Open
Cameron A Matthews, Pierre-Philippe J Beaujean
Arguments have been made for and against the traditional swim bladder model as a primary component of fish vocalization. This paper presents arguments for decoupled forced and resonant responses being extractable features within a variable air volume. As such, a mechanical analog is used to show how envelope modulation may be used by some species to identify air volume and consequently size in conspecifics. These arguments consider how an arbitrary fish may apply a genetic strategy of forcing vocalization through slow, fast, or both slow and fast sonic musculature while amplitude modulating via swim bladder...
April 30, 2018: Biology Open
Seth Donoughe, Chiyoung Kim, Cassandra G Extavour
High-throughput live-imaging of embryos is an essential technique in developmental biology, but it is difficult and costly to mount and image embryos in consistent conditions. Here, we present OMMAwell, a simple, reusable device to easily mount dozens of embryos in arrays of agarose microwells with customizable dimensions and spacing. OMMAwell can be configured to mount specimens for upright or inverted microscopes, and includes a reservoir to hold live-imaging medium to maintain constant moisture and osmolarity of specimens during time-lapse imaging...
April 30, 2018: Biology Open
Michael D Wagoner, Laura R Bohrer, Benjamin T Aldrich, Mark A Greiner, Robert F Mullins, Kristan S Worthington, Budd A Tucker, Luke A Wiley
The purpose of this study was to devise a strategy for the derivation of corneal endothelial cells (CEnCs) from adult fibroblast-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). IPSCs were generated from an adult human with normal ocular history via expression of OCT4 , SOX2 , KLF4 and c-MYC Neural crest cells (NCCs) were differentiated from iPSCs via addition of CHIR99021 and SB4315542. NCCs were driven toward a CEnC fate via addition of B27, PDGF-BB and DKK-2 to CEnC media. Differentiation of NCCs and CEnCs was evaluated via rt-PCR, morphological and immunocytochemical analysis...
April 23, 2018: Biology Open
Arabella Baird, Timothy Lindsay, Alice Everett, Valentine Iyemere, Yasmin Z Paterson, Alyce McClellan, Frances M D Henson, Deborah J Guest
Bone fractures occur in horses following traumatic and non-traumatic (bone overloading) events. They can be difficult to treat due to the need for the horse to bear weight on all legs during the healing period. Regenerative medicine to improve fracture union and recovery could significantly improve horse welfare.Equine induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have previously been derived. Here we show that equine iPSCs cultured for 21 days in osteogenic induction media on an OsteoAssay surface upregulate the expression of osteoblast associated genes and proteins, including COL1A1 , SPARC , SPP1 , IBSP , RUNX2 and BGALP We also demonstrate that iPSC-osteoblasts are able to produce a mineralised matrix with both calcium and hydroxyapatite deposition...
April 23, 2018: Biology Open
Claudia Conte, Michelle A Baird, Michael W Davidson, Eric R Griffis
Dynein is the sole processive minus-end directed microtubule motor found in animals. It has roles in cell division, membrane trafficking, and cell migration. Together with dynactin, dynein regulates centrosomal orientation to establish and maintain cell polarity, controls focal adhesion turnover and anchors microtubules at the leading edge. In higher eukaryotes, dynein/dynactin requires additional components such as Bicaudal D to form an active motor complex and for regulating its cellular localization. Spindly is a protein that targets dynein/dynactin to kinetochores in mitosis and can activate its motility in vitro However, no role for Spindly in interphase dynein/dynactin function has been found...
April 23, 2018: Biology Open
Ana Paula Irazoqui, Pablo De Genaro, Claudia Buitrago, Heinrich Bachmann, Verónica González-Pardo, Ana Russo de Boland
We have previously shown that Solanum glaucophyllum leaves extract (SGE) increases VDR protein levels and promotes myoblast differentiation. Here, we investigated whether p38 MAPK and AKT are involved in SGE actions. Cell cycle studies showed that SGE prompted a peak of S-phase followed by an arrest in the G0/G1-phase through p38 MAPK. Time course studies showed that p38 MAPK and AKT phosphorylation statically increased by SGE (10 nM) or synthetic 1α,25(OH)2 D3 (1 nM) treatment. Furthermore, p38 MAPK and AKT inhibitors, SB203580 and LY294002, respectively, suppressed myoblasts fusion induced by SGE or synthetic 1α,25(OH)2 D3 We have also studied differentiation genes by qRT-PCR...
April 23, 2018: Biology Open
Jing Zhou, Antonius Plagge, Patricia Murray
Mesodermal populations can be generated in vitro from mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) using three-dimensional (3-D) aggregates called embryoid bodies or two-dimensional (2-D) monolayer culture systems. Here, we investigated whether Brachyury -expressing mesodermal cells generated using 3-D or 2-D culture systems are equivalent, or instead, have different properties. Using a Brachyury -GFP/E2-Crimson reporter mESC line, we isolated Brachyury- GFP+ mesoderm cells using flow-activated cell sorting and compared their gene expression profiles and ex vivo differentiation patterns...
April 17, 2018: Biology Open
Birgit Brüggemeier, Mason A Porter, Jim O Vigoreaux, Stephen F Goodwin
Males in numerous animal species use mating songs to attract females and intimidate competitors. We demonstrate that modulations in song amplitude are behaviourally relevant in the fruit fly Drosophila We show that D. melanogaster females prefer amplitude modulations typical of melanogaster song over other modulations, which suggests that amplitude modulations are processed auditorily by D. melanogaster Our work demonstrates that receivers can decode messages in amplitude modulations, complementing the recent finding that male flies actively control song amplitude...
April 17, 2018: Biology Open
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