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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913454/the-anti-bat-strategy-of-ultrasound-absorption-the-wings-of-nocturnal-moths-bombycoidea-saturniidae-absorb-more-ultrasound-than-the-wings-of-diurnal-moths-chalcosiinae-zygaenoidea-zygaenidae
#1
Athanasios Ntelezos, Francesco Guarato, James F C Windmill
The selection pressure from echolocating bats has driven the development of a diverse range of anti-bat strategies in insects. For instance, several studies have proposed that the wings of some moths absorb a large portion of the sound energy contained in a bat's ultrasonic cry; as a result, the bat receives a dampened echo, and the moth becomes invisible to the bat. To test the hypothesis that greater exposure to bat predation drives the development of higher ultrasound absorbance, we used a small reverberation chamber to measure the ultrasound absorbance of the wings of nocturnal (Bombycoidea: Saturniidae) and diurnal moths (Chalcosiinae: Zygaenoidea: Zygaenidae)...
December 2, 2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913453/movement-patterns-of-cheetahs-acinonyx-jubatus-in-farmlands-in-botswana
#2
L K Van der Weyde, T Y Hubel, J Horgan, J Shotton, R McKenna, A M Wilson
Botswana has the second highest population of cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) with most living outside protected areas. As a result, many cheetahs are found in farming areas, bringing them into conflict with people. This study aimed to look at movement patterns of cheetahs in farming environments to determine whether cheetahs have adapted their movements in these human-dominated landscapes. We fitted high-time resolution GPS collars to cheetahs in the Ghanzi farmlands of Botswana. GPS locations were used to calculate home range sizes as well as number and duration of visits to landscape features using a time-based local convex hull method...
December 2, 2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895053/utilising-polymorphisms-to-achieve-allele-specific-genome-editing-in-zebrafish
#3
Samuel J Capon, Gregory J Baillie, Neil I Bower, Jason A da Silva, Scott Paterson, Benjamin M Hogan, Cas Simons, Kelly A Smith
The advent of genome editing has significantly altered genetic research, including research using the zebrafish model. To better understand the selectivity of the commonly used CRISPR/Cas9 system, we investigated single base pair mismatches in target sites and examined how they affect genome editing in the zebrafish model. Using two different zebrafish strains that have been deep sequenced, CRISPR/Cas9 target sites containing polymorphisms between the two strains were identified. These strains were crossed (creating heterozygotes at polymorphic sites) and CRISPR/Cas9 complexes that perfectly complement one strain injected...
November 28, 2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895052/evidence-toads-may-modulate-landing-preparation-without-predicting-impact-time
#4
S M Cox, Gary Gillis
Within anurans (frogs and toads), cane toads (Bufo marinus) perform particularly controlled landings in which the forelimbs are exclusively used to decelerate and stabilize the body after impact. Here we explore how toads achieve dynamic stability across a wide range of landing conditions. Specifically, we suggest that torques during landing could be reduced by aligning forelimbs with the body's instantaneous velocity vector at impact (impact angle). To test whether toad forelimb orientation varies with landing conditions, we used high-speed video to collect forelimb and body kinematic data from six animals hopping off platforms of different heights (0, 5 and 9 cm)...
November 28, 2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895051/metabolism-and-antioxidant-defense-in-the-larval-chironomid-tanytarsus-minutipalpus-adjustments-to-diel-variations-in-the-extreme-conditions-of-lake-magadi
#5
Lucas F Bianchini, Chris M Wood, Harold L Bergman, Ora E Johannsson, Pierre Laurent, Claudine Chevalier, Mosiany L Kisipan, Geraldine D Kavembe, Michael B Papah, Kevin V Brix, Gudrun De Boeck, John N Maina, Rodi O Ojoo, Adalto Bianchini
Insect larvae are reported to be a major component of the simple but highly productive trophic web found in Lake Magadi (Kenya, Africa), which is considered to be one of the most extreme aquatic environments on Earth. Previous studies show that fish must display biochemical and physiological adjustments to thrive under the extreme conditions of the lake. However, information for invertebrates is lacking. In the present study, the occurrence of the larval chironomid Tanytarsus minutipalpus is reported in Lake Magadi for the first time...
November 28, 2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895050/social-signals-and-aversive-learning-in-honey-bee-drones-and-workers
#6
Arian Avalos, Eddie Pérez, Lianna Vallejo, María E Pérez, Charles I Abramson, Tugrul Giray
The dissemination of information is a basic element of group cohesion. In honey bees (Apis mellifera Linnaeus 1758), like in other social insects, the principal method for colony-wide information exchange is communication via pheromones. This medium of communication allows multiple individuals to conduct tasks critical to colony survival. Social signaling also establishes conflict at the level of the individual who must tradeoff between attending to the immediate environment or the social demand. In this study we examined this conflict by challenging highly social worker honey bees, and less social male drone honey bees undergoing aversive training by presenting them with a social stress signal (isopentyl acetate, IPA)...
November 28, 2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895049/daily-feeding-and-protein-metabolism-rhythms-in-senegalese-sole-post-larvae
#7
Carmen Navarro-Guillén, Manuel Yúfera, Sofia Engrola
Fish hatcheries must adapt larval feeding protocols to the feeding behavior and metabolism pattern to obtain a more efficient feeds utilization. Fish larvae exhibit daily ingesting rhythms rather than ingesting food continuously throughout the day. The aim of this study was to determine the daily patterns of feed intake, protein digestibility, protein retention and catabolism in Senegalese sole post-larvae (Solea senegalensis; 33 days post-hatching) using (14)C-labelled Artemia protein and incubation in metabolic chambers...
November 28, 2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895048/parecoxib-inhibits-glioblastoma-cell-proliferation-migration-and-invasion-by-up-regulating-mirna-29c
#8
Lin-Yong Li, Jie Xiao, Qiang Liu, Kun Xia
Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most lethal brain cancers worldwide, and there is an urgent need for development of novel therapeutic approaches. Parecoxib is a well-known cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, had already been developed for postoperative analgesia with high efficience and low adverse reaction. Recent study suggested that parecoxib potently enhances immunotherapeutic efficacy of GBM, but its effects on GBM growth, migration and invasion had never been studied before. In the present study, MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and, BrdU (5-Bromo-2-deoxyUridine) incorporation assays were used to evaluate the cell proliferation of GBM cells...
November 28, 2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895047/innovative-approaches-to-establish-and-characterize-primary-cultures-an-ex-vivo-3d-system-and-the-zebrafish-model
#9
Chiara Liverani, Federico La Manna, Arwin Groenewoud, Laura Mercatali, Gabri Van Der Pluijm, Federica Pieri, Davide Cavaliere, Alessandro De Vita, Chiara Spadazzi, Giacomo Miserocchi, Alberto Bongiovanni, Federica Recine, Nada Riva, Dino Amadori, Ennio Tasciotti, Ewa Snaar-Jagalska, Toni Ibrahim
Patient-derived specimens are an invaluable resource to investigate tumor biology. However, in vivo studies on primary cultures are often limited by the small amount of material available, while conventional in vitro systems might alter the features and behavior that characterize cancer cells. We present our data obtained on primary dedifferentiated liposarcoma cells cultured in a 3D scaffold-based system and injected into a zebrafish model. Primary cells were characterized in vitro for their morphological features, sensitivity to drugs and biomarker expression, and in vivo for their engraftment and invasiveness abilities...
November 28, 2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895046/gene-silencing-of-nox4-by-cpg-island-methylation-during-hepatocarcinogenesis-in-rats
#10
Guadalupe S López-Álvarez, Tomasz K Wojdacz, Claudia M García-Cuellar, Hugo C Monroy-Ramírez, Miguel A Rodríguez Segura, Ruth A Pacheco Rivera, Carlos A Valencia-Antúnez, Nancy C Cervantes-Anaya, Ernesto Soto-Reyes, Verónica R Vázquez-Garzón, Yesennia Sánchez-Pérez, Saúl Villa Treviño
The association between the downregulation of genes and DNA methylation in their CpG islands has been extensively studied as a mechanism that favors carcinogenesis. The objective of this study was to analyze the methylation of a set of genes selected based on their microarray expression profiles during the process of hepatocarcinogenesis. Rats were sacrificed at: 24 Hours, 7, 11, 16 and 30 days and 5, 9, 12 and 18 months post-treatment. We evaluated the methylation status in the CpG islands of four deregulated genes (Casp3, Cldn1, Pex11a and Nox4) using methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting technology for the samples obtained from different stages of hepatocarcinogenesis...
November 28, 2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881438/ole1-fatty-acid-desaturase-is-required-for-atg9-delivery-and-isolation-membrane-expansion-during-autophagy-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#11
Yuta Ogasawara, Shintaro Kira, Yukio Mukai, Takeshi Noda, Akitsugu Yamamoto
Macroautophagy, a major degradation pathway of cytoplasmic components, is carried out through formation of a double-membrane structure, the autophagosome. Although the involvement of specific lipid species in the formation process remains largely obscure, we recently showed that mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) generated by stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) are required for autophagosome formation in mammalian cells. To obtain further insight into the role of MUFA in autophagy, in this study we analyzed the autophagic phenotypes of the yeast mutant of OLE1, an orthologue of SCD1...
November 23, 2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881437/casein-kinase-ii-is-required-for-proper-cell-division-and-acts-as-a-negative-regulator-of-centrosome-duplication-in-c-elegans-embryos
#12
Jeffrey C Medley, Megan M Kabara, Michael D Stubenvoll, Lauren E DeMeyer, Mi Hye Song
Centrosomes are the primary microtubule-organizing centers that orchestrate microtubule dynamics during the cell cycle. The correct number of centrosomes is pivotal for establishing bipolar mitotic spindles that ensure accurate segregation of chromosomes. Thus, centrioles must duplicate once per cell cycle, one daughter per mother centriole, the process of which requires highly coordinated actions among core factors and modulators. Protein phosphorylation is shown to regulate the stability, localization and activity of centrosome proteins...
November 23, 2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881436/knockdown-of-histidine-rich-calcium-binding-protein-hrc-suppresses-liver-fibrosis-by-inhibiting-the-activation-of-hepatic-stellate-cells
#13
Jingmei Liu, Mengke Li, Jin Gong, Ping Han, Yunwu Wang, Dean Tian, Jiazhi Liao
The histidine-rich calcium binding protein (HRC) is a regulator of Ca(2+)- homeostasis and it plays a significant role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression. However, the relationship between HRC and liver fibrogenesis is still unknown. Our data demonstrated that HRC was upregulated in fibrotic liver and activated HSCs. TGF-β treatment increased α-SMA and HRC expression dose-dependently in HSCs. Repression of HRC reduced α-SMA, CTGF and collagens expression, and inhibited HSCs proliferation and migration...
November 23, 2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875243/rev-erb%C3%AE-regulates-fgf21-expression-in-the-liver-via-hepatic-nuclear-factor-6
#14
Rohit Chavan, Nadia Preitner, Takashi Okabe, Laureen Mansencal Strittmatter, Cheng Xu, Jürgen A Ripperger, Nelly Pitteloud, Urs Albrecht
The circadian clock contributes to the timing of many body functions including metabolism and reproduction. The hepatokine fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a critical metabolic regulator involved in regulation of fertility. Here we show that lack of the clock component REV-ERBα elevates FGF21 levels in liver and plasma. At the molecular level REV-ERBα modulates the expression of FGF21 via the liver specific hepatic nuclear factor 6 (HNF6). We conclude, that REV-ERBα regulates metabolism and reproduction at least in part via regulation of Fgf21...
November 14, 2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875242/involvement-of-bdnf-trkb-and-erk-creb-axes-in-nitroglycerin-induced-rat-migraine-and-effects-of-estrogen-on-these-signals-in-the-migraine
#15
Jiu-Qing Guo, Hui-Hui Deng, Xiao Bo, Xiao-Su Yang
Migraine is a highly prevalent headache disorder especially in women. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor tropomyosin receptor kinases (TrkB), as well as extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and its downstream target c-AMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) are strongly associated with the transmission of nociceptive information. However, the involvement of these substances in migraine has rarely been examined. In the present study, intraperitoneal injection of nitroglycerin (NTC) successfully induced rat migraine attack, as evidenced by the behavioral testing...
November 14, 2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815242/unsteady-laminar-boundary-layers-of-rainbow-trout-swimming-in-turbulent-flows
#16
Kazutaka Yanase, Pentti Saarenrinne
The boundary layers of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss [mean±s.d., 0.231±0.016 m total-body-length (L); N=6], swimming at 1.6±0.09 L s(-1) (N=6) in an experimental flow channel (the Reynolds number, Re=4×10(5)) with medium turbulence (5.6%-intensity) were examined using the particle image velocimetry technique. The tangential-flow-velocity distributions in the pectoral (arc-length from the rostrum, lx=71±8 mm, N=3) and pelvic surface regions (lx=110±13 mm, N=4) were approximated by a laminar-boundary-layer model, the Falkner-and-Skan equation...
November 8, 2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793831/strigolactone-regulates-shoot-development-through-a-core-signalling-pathway
#17
Tom Bennett, Yueyang Liang, Madeleine Seale, Sally Ward, Dörte Müller, Ottoline Leyser
Strigolactones are a recently identified class of hormone that regulate multiple aspects of plant development. The DWARF14 (D14) α/β fold protein has been identified as a strigolactone receptor, which can act through the SCF(MAX2) ubiquitin ligase, but the universality of this mechanism is not clear. Multiple proteins have been suggested as targets for strigolactone signalling, including both direct proteolytic targets of SCF(MAX2), and downstream targets. However, the relevance and importance of these proteins to strigolactone signalling in many cases has not been fully established...
November 8, 2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815245/the-coprinopsis-cinerea-tup1-homologue-cag1-is-required-for-gill-formation-during-fruiting-body-morphogenesis
#18
Ryo Masuda, Naoki Iguchi, Kooki Tukuta, Takahiro Nagoshi, Kazuki Kemuriyama, Hajime Muraguchi
The pileus (cap) of the fruiting body in homobasidiomycete fungi bears the hymenium, a layer of cells that includes the basidia where nuclear fusion, meiosis and sporulation occur. Coprinopsis cinerea is a model system for studying fruiting body development. The hymenium of C. cinerea forms at the surface of the gills in the pileus. In the previous study, we identified a mutation that blocks gill formation, which yields primordia that never mature called cap-growthless1-1 (cag1-1). In this study, we found that the cag1 gene encodes a homologue of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Tup1...
November 4, 2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815244/relationship-between-the-grades-of-a-learned-aversive-feeding-response-and-the-dopamine-contents-in-lymnaea
#19
Hitoshi Aonuma, Mugiho Kaneda, Dai Hatakeyama, Takayuki Watanabe, Ken Lukowiak, Etsuro Ito
The pond snail Lymnaea learns and remembers not to respond to a food substance that is called conditioned taste aversion (CTA). The possible relationship between how well snails learn following taste-aversion training and brain dopamine contents is not known. We examined this relationship and found the followings. First, snails in the act of eating just before the commencement of training had the poor learning and had the highest dopamine contents in the brain. Second, snails, which had an ad libitum access to food but were not eating just before training, achieved the average grades and had the lower dopamine contents...
November 4, 2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815243/bmp4-acts-as-a-dorsal-telencephalic-morphogen-in-a-mouse-embryonic-stem-cell-culture-system
#20
Momoko Watanabe, Ernest S Fung, Felicia B Chan, Jessica S Wong, Margaret Coutts, Edwin S Monuki
The concept of a morphogen - a molecule that specifies two or more cell fates in a concentration-dependent manner - is paradigmatic in developmental biology. Much remains unknown, however, about the existence of morphogens in the developing vertebrate CNS, including the mouse dorsal telencephalic midline (DTM). Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) are candidate DTM morphogens, and our previous work demonstrated BMP4 sufficiency to induce one DTM cell fate - that of choroid plexus epithelial cells (CPECs) - in a mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) culture system...
November 4, 2016: Biology Open
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