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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158323/fgf8-morphogen-gradients-are-differentially-regulated-by-heparan-sulphotransferases-hs2st-and-hs6st1-in-the-developing-brain
#1
Wai-Kit Chan, David J Price, Thomas Pratt
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) morphogen signalling through the evolutionarily ancient Extracellular signaling Regulated Kinase/Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (ERK/MAPK) pathway recurs in many neural and non-neural developmental contexts and understanding the mechanisms that regulate FGF/ERK function are correspondingly important. The glycosaminoglycan heparan sulphate (HS) binds to FGFs and exists in an enormous number of differentially sulphated forms produced by the action of HS modifying enzymes so has the potential to present an extremely large amount of information in FGF/ERK signalling...
November 20, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158322/optogenetic-activation-of-ephb2-receptor-in-dendrites-induced-actin-polymerization-by-activating-arg-kinase
#2
Clifford Locke, Kazuya Machida, Yi Wu, Ji Yu
Erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular (Eph) receptors regulate a wide array of developmental processes by responding to cell-cell contacts. EphB2 is well-expressed in brain and known to be important for dendritic spine development, as well as for the maintenance of the synapses, although the mechanisms of these functions have not been fully understood. Here we studied EphB2's functions in hippocampal neurons with an optogenetic approach, which allows us to specify spatial regions of signal activation and monitor in real-time the consequences of signal activation...
November 20, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158321/assembly-and-turnover-of-neurofilaments-in-growing-axonal-neurites
#3
Edward F Boumil, Rishel Vohnoutka, Sangmook Lee, Harish Pant, Thomas B Shea
Neurofilaments (NFs) are thought to provide stability to the axon. We examined NF dynamics within axonal neurites of NB2a/d1 neuroblastoma by transient transfection with green fluorescent protein-tagged NF-H (GFP-H) under the control of a tetracycline-inducible promoter. Immunofluorescent and biochemical analyses demonstrated that GFP-H expressed early during neurite outgrowth associated with a population of centrally-situated, highly-phosphorylated crosslinked NFs along the length of axonal neurites ("bundled NFs")...
November 20, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138212/bax-inhibiting-peptide-attenuates-bleomycin-induced-lung-injury-in-mice
#4
Kunihiro Suzuki, Toyoshi Yanagihara, Tetsuya Yokoyama, Takashige Maeyama, Saiko Ogata-Suetsugu, Masako Arimura-Omori, Hironori Mikumo, Naoki Hamada, Eiji Harada, Kazuyoshi Kuwano, Taishi Harada, Yoichi Nakanishi
Rationale: Bax is a pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family of proteins, and plays a central role in mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. Several lines of evidence have implied that Bax is involved in both epithelial apoptosis and fibroblast proliferation in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; however, the mechanisms remain unknown. Bax-inhibiting peptide V5 (BIP-V5) exhibits membrane permeability and inhibits the activation of Bax.Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the control of Bax activity by BIP-V5 reduces the degree of bleomycin-induced lung injury...
November 14, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138211/transcriptome-sequencing-of-the-naked-mole-rat-heterocephalus-glaber-and-identification-of-hypoxia-tolerance-genes
#5
Bang Xiao, Li Li, Chang Xu, Shanmin Zhao, Lifang Lin, Jishuai Cheng, Wenjing Yang, Wei Cong, Guanghan Kan, Shufang Cui
The naked mole rat (NMR; Heterocephalus glaber) is a small rodent species found in regions of Kenya, Ethiopia and Somalia. It has a high tolerance for hypoxia and is thus, considered one of the most important natural models for studying hypoxia tolerance mechanisms. The various mechanisms underlying the NMR's hypoxia tolerance are beginning to be understood at different levels of organization, and next-generation sequencing methods promise to expand this understanding to the level of gene expression. In this study, we examined the sequence and transcript abundance data of the muscle transcriptome of NMRs exposed to hypoxia using the Illumina HiSeq 2500 system to clarify the possible genomic adaptive responses to the hypoxic underground surroundings...
November 14, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122742/myotube-migration-to-cover-and-shape-the-testis-of-drosophila-depends-on-heartless-cadherin-catenin-and-myosin-ii
#6
Silke Rothenbusch-Fender, Katharina Fritzen, Maik C Bischoff, Detlev Buttgereit, Susanne F Oenel, Renate Renkawitz-Pohl
During Drosophila metamorphosis, nascent testis myotubes migrate from the prospective seminal vesicle of the genital disc onto pupal testes and then further to cover the testes with multinucleated smooth-like muscles. Here we show that DWnt2 is likely required for determination of testis-relevant myoblasts on the genital disc. Knock down of FGFR Heartless by RNAi and a dominant-negative version revealed multiple functions of Heartless, namely regulation of the amount of myoblasts on the genital disc, connection of seminal vesicles and testes, and migration of muscles along the testes...
November 9, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109116/mitochondrial-dynamics-and-respiration-within-cells-with-increased-open-pore-cytoskeletal-meshes
#7
David H Jang, Sarah C Seeger, Martha E Grady, Frances C Shofer, David M Eckmann
The cytoskeletal architecture directly affects the morphology, motility, and tensional homeostasis of the cell. In addition, the cytoskeleton is important for mitosis, intracellular traffic, organelle motility, and even cellular respiration. The organelle responsible for a majority of the energy conversion for the cell, the mitochondrion, has a dependence on the cytoskeleton for mobility and function. In previous studies, we established that cytoskeletal inhibitors altered the movement of the mitochondria, their morphology, and their respiration in human dermal fibroblasts...
November 6, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101100/frizzled-7-is-required-for-xenopus-heart-development
#8
Muhammad Abu-Elmagd, Joanna Mulvaney, Grant N Wheeler
Wnt signalling regulates cardiogenesis during specification of heart tissue and the morphogenetic movements necessary to form the linear heart. Wnt11 mediated non-canonical signalling promotes early cardiac development whilst Wnt11-R, which is expressed later, also signals through the non-canonical pathway to promote heart development. It is unclear which Frizzleds mediate these interactions. Frizzled-7 (fzd7) is expressed during gastrulation in the mesodermal cells fated to become heart and then in the primary heart field...
November 3, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101099/insulin-regulates-multiple-signaling-pathways-leading-to-monocyte-macrophage-chemotaxis-into-the-wound-tissue
#9
Yan Liu, Sandeep Dhall, Anthony Castro, Alex Chan, Raquelle Alamat, Manuela Martins-Green
Wound healing is a complex process that involves sequential phases that overlap in time and space and affect each other dynamically at the gene and protein levels. We previously showed that insulin accelerates wound healing by stimulating faster and regenerative healing. One of the processes that insulin stimulates is an increase in monocyte/macrophage chemotaxis. In this study, we performed experiments in vivo and in vitro to elucidate the signaling transduction pathways that are involved in insulin-induced monocyte/macrophage chemotaxis...
November 3, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101098/regulation-of-cortical-stability-by-rhogef3-in-mitotic-sensory-organ-precursor-cells-in-drosophila
#10
Lydie Couturier, Khalil Mazouni, Fred Bernard, Charlotte Besson, Elodie Reynaud, François Schweisguth
In epithelia, mitotic cells round up and push against their neighbors to divide. Mitotic rounding results from increased assembly of F-actin and cortical recruitment of Myosin II, leading to increased cortical stability. Whether this process is developmentally regulated is not well known. Here, we examined the regulation of cortical stability in Sensory Organ precursor cells (SOPs) in the Drosophila pupal notum. SOPs differed in apical shape and actomyosin dynamics from their epidermal neighbors prior to division and appeared to have a more rigid cortex at mitosis...
November 3, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092815/the-kinase-domain-residue-serine-173-of-s-pombe-chk1-kinase-is-critical-for-the-response-to-dna-replication-stress
#11
Naomi Coulton, Thomas Caspari
While mammalian Chk1 kinase regulates replication origins, safeguards fork integrity and promotes fork progression, yeast Chk1 acts only in G1 and G2. We report here that the mutation of serine 173 (S173A) in the kinase domain of fission yeast Chk1 abolishes the G1-M and S-M checkpoints with little impact on the G2-M arrest. This separation-of-function mutation strongly reduces the Rad3-dependent phosphorylation of Chk1 at serine 345 during logarithmic growth, but not when cells experience exogenous DNA damage...
November 1, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092814/quantitative-control-of-mitochondria-transfer-between-live-single-cells-using-a-microfluidic-device
#12
Ken-Ichi Wada, Kazuo Hosokawa, Yoshihiro Ito, Mizuo Maeda
Quantitative control of mitochondria transfer between live cells is a promising approach for genetic manipulation of mtDNA because single mitochondrion transfer to a mtDNA-less (ρ(0)) cell potentially leads to homoplasmy of mtDNA. In this paper, we describe a method for quantitative control of mitochondria transfer between live single cells. For this purpose, we fabricated novel microfluidic devices having cell paring structures with a 4.1, 5.6 or 10.0 μm-length microtunnel. When cells were fused through a microtunnel using Sendai virus envelope-based method, a strictured cytoplasmic connection was achieved with a length corresponding to that of the microtunnel...
November 1, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092813/cell-membrane-disruption-stimulates-camp-and-ca-2-signaling-to-potentiate-cell-membrane-resealing-in-neighboring-cells
#13
Tatsuru Togo
Disruption of cellular plasma membranes, a common event in many animal tissues, is usually rapidly resealed. Moreover, repeated membrane disruptions within a single cell reseal faster than the initial wound in a protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent manner. In addition to wounded cells, recent studies have demonstrated that wounding of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells potentiates membrane resealing in neighboring cells in the short-term by purinergic signaling and in the long-term by nitric oxide/protein kinase G signaling...
November 1, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084713/cohesin-mediates-esco2-dependent-transcriptional-regulation-in-zebrafish-regenerating-fin-model-of-roberts-syndrome
#14
Rajeswari Banerji, Robert V Skibbens, M Kathryn Iovine
Robert syndrome (RBS) and Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) are human developmental disorders characterized by craniofacial deformities, limb malformation, and mental retardation. These birth defects are collectively termed cohesinopathies as both arise from mutations in cohesion genes. CdLS arises due to autosomal dominant mutations or haploinsufficiencies in cohesin subunits (SMC1A, SMC3 and RAD21) or cohesin auxiliary factors (NIPBL and HDAC8) that result in transcriptional dysregulation of developmental programs...
October 30, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061734/a-computational-study-on-the-influence-of-insect-wing-geometry-on-bee-flight-mechanics
#15
Jeffrey Feaster, Francine Battaglia, Javid Bayandor
Two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is applied to better understand the effects of wing cross-sectional morphology on flow field and force production. The influence of wing cross-section on insect scale flapping flight performance is investigated for the first time using a morphologically representative model of a bee (Bombus pensylvanicus) wing. The bee wing cross-section was determined using a microCT scanner. The results of the bee wing are compared with flat and elliptical cross-sections, representative of those used in modern literature, to determine the impact of profile variation on aerodynamic performance...
October 23, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055022/the-addition-of-a-developmental-factor-unc-62-to-already-long-lived-worms-increases-lifespan-and-healthspan
#16
Dror Sagi
Aging is a complex trait that is affected by multiple genetic pathways. A relatively unexplored approach is to manipulate multiple independent aging pathways simultaneously in order to observe their cumulative effect on lifespan. Here, we report the phenotypic characterization of a strain with changes in five aging pathways: 1) mitochondrial ROS production, 2) innate immunity, 3) stress response, 4) metabolic control and 5) developmental regulation in old age. The quintuply-modified strain has a lifespan that is 160% longer than the transgenic control strain...
October 20, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141956/rapid-isolation-and-expansion-of-skin-derived-precursor-cells-from-human-primary-fibroblast-cultures
#17
Leithe Budel, Karima Djabali
Skin-derived precursor (SKP) cells have self-renewal and multipotent abilities and are found in the dermis. SKP cells have been isolated previously from pre-established dermal fibroblast cultures. In these procedures, long-term culture and low yield remain the crucial aspects requiring improvement. In this study, we exposed pre-established dermal fibroblasts to 30-min acid stress prior to isolating SKP cells (termed pH-SKP) and compared the yield to the previously published trypsin- and no-stress methods. Spheroid formation was confirmed and analyzed at days 3, 5 and 7...
November 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141955/the-constant-threat-from-a-non-native-predator-increases-tail-muscle-and-fast-start-swimming-performance-in-xenopus-tadpoles
#18
Tsukasa Mori, Yukio Yanagisawa, Yoichiro Kitani, Goshi Yamamoto, Naoko Goto-Inoue, Tadashi Kimura, Keiko Kashiwagi, Akihiko Kashiwagi
Predator-induced phenotypic plasticity is the ability of prey to adapt to their native predator. However, owing to environmental changes, encounters with unknown predators are inevitable. Therefore, study of prey and non-native predator interaction will reveal the primary stages of adaptive strategies in prey-predator interactions in the context of evolutionary processes. Here, Xenopus tadpoles exposed to a non-native predator, a larval salamander, showed a significant increase in body weight and tail length to body length ratio...
November 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141954/tropical-drosophila-ananassae-of-wet-dry-seasons-show-cross-resistance-to-heat-drought-and-starvation
#19
Chanderkala Lambhod, Ankita Pathak, Ashok K Munjal, Ravi Parkash
Plastic responses to multiple environmental stressors in wet or dry seasonal populations of tropical Drosophila species have received less attention. We tested plastic effects of heat hardening, acclimation to drought or starvation, and changes in trehalose, proline and body lipids in Drosophila ananassae flies reared under wet or dry season-specific conditions. Wet season flies revealed significant increase in heat knockdown, starvation resistance and body lipids after heat hardening. However, accumulation of proline was observed only after desiccation acclimation of dry season flies while wet season flies elicited no proline but trehalose only...
November 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141953/amyloid-%C3%AE-42-peptide-is-toxic-to-non-neural-cells-in-drosophila-yielding-a-characteristic-metabolite-profile-and-the-effect-can-be-suppressed-by-pi3k
#20
Mercedes Arnés, Sergio Casas-Tintó, Anders Malmendal, Alberto Ferrús
The human Aβ42 peptide is associated with Alzheimer's disease through its deleterious effects in neurons. Expressing the human peptide in adult Drosophila in a tissue- and time-controlled manner, we show that Aβ42 is also toxic in non-neural cells, neurosecretory and epithelial cell types in particular. This form of toxicity includes the aberrant signaling by Wingless morphogen leading to the eventual activation of Caspase 3. Preventing Caspase 3 activation by means of p53 keeps epithelial cells from elimination but maintains the Aβ42 toxicity yielding more severe deleterious effects to the organism...
November 15, 2017: Biology Open
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