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Biology Open

Bin Chen, Zaiyu Zheng, Jinxian Yang, Hongshu Chi, He Huang, Hui Gong
A new cell line derived from the kidney of European eel, Anguilla anguilla , has been established and characterized. This cell line, designated as EK, has been maintained in Leibovitz's L-15 supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum for over 24 months, and subcultured more than 60 times. This cell line consists predominantly of fibroblast-like cells, and could grow at 15-37°C under an optimum temperature of 26°C. The origin of this cell line was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and 18s recombinant (r)RNA sequencing...
November 14, 2018: Biology Open
Yuechen Zhu, Leo de Castro, Robin Lewis Cooper
Ectothermic animals in areas characterised by seasonal changes are susceptible to extreme fluctuations in temperature. To survive through varied temperatures, ectotherms have developed unique strategies. This study focuses on synaptic transmission function at cold temperatures, as it is a vital component of ectothermic animals' survival. For determining how synaptic transmission is influenced by an acute change in temperature (20°C to 10°C within a minute) and chronic cold (10°C), the crayfish ( Procambarus clarkii ) neuromuscular junction (NMJ) was used as a model...
November 7, 2018: Biology Open
Wen Zhang, Xian Zhang, Yufei Wang, Nishang Zhang, Yanping Guo, Xiaolin Ren, Zhengyang Zhao
Effects of different potassium (K) levels, which were K0 (no fertilizer), K1 (71.5g KCl Plant-1 yr-1 ), K2 (286.7g KCl Plant-1 yr-1 ), and K3 (434g KCl Plant-1 yr-1 ), were evaluated based on sugar and organic acid metabolism levels from 70 to 126 days after bloom (DAB) in the developing fruit of potted five-year old apple ( Malus domestica, Borkh.) trees. The results indicate that K fertilization promoted greater fruit mass, higher Ca2+ and soluble solid content, and lower titratable acid content, as well as increased pH values at harvest...
November 7, 2018: Biology Open
Lei Guo, Yuan He, Heng Li, Yong Chen, Fanli Zhu, Mengli Yang, Chengyun Yang, Qing Dai, Haijing Shi, Longding Liu
High-level biosafety laboratories (BSL), such as BSL-3 and BSL-4, which deal with high infectivity and virulence pathogens, have become indispensable. Mice are frequently used in animal BSL (ABSL) to establish animal models for infection and to evaluate in vivo immune responses. A project of monitoring and evaluation on physiology and immune status of mice housed in different ABSL labs was performed in the ABSL-2/3/4 labs of Kunming National High-level Biosafety Research Center, China. Female Kunming mice were housed in the ABSL-2/3/4 labs for one month, and mouse behaviors, body physiology/immune status, pulmonary immune status and respiratory bacteria composition were evaluated and compared among mice from the different labs...
November 7, 2018: Biology Open
Rebecca S McGreal-Estrada, Louise V Wolf, Ales Cvekl
Gene regulation by enhancers is important for precise temporal and spatial gene expression. Enhancers can drive gene expression regardless of their location, orientation, or distance from the promoter. Changes in chromatin conformation and chromatin looping occur to bring the promoter and enhancers into close proximity. αA-crystallin ranks among one of the most abundantly expressed genes and proteins in the mammalian lens. The αA-crystallin locus is characterized by a 16 kb chromatin domain marked by two distal enhancers, 5' DCR1 and 3' DCR3...
November 7, 2018: Biology Open
Cornelia Voigt, Katharina Hirschenhauser, Stefan Leitner
Aggression is a fundamental part of animal social behaviour. In avian species, little is known about its neural representation. In particular, neural activity following offensive aggression has not been studied in detail. Here, we investigated the patterns of brain activation using immediate-early gene (IEG) expression in male Japanese quail that showed pronounced aggressive behaviours during a 30 min male-male interaction and compared them to those of males that did not interact with a conspecific. In aggressive males, we found a massive induction of the IEG zenk in pallial brain structures such as the intermediate medial mesopallium, the caudomedial mesopallium and the intermediate medial nidopallium...
November 7, 2018: Biology Open
De-Li Xu, Xiao-Kai Hu, Yufen Tian
Animals in the non-tropical zone usually demonstrate seasonal variations in immune function, which is important for their survival. In the present study, seasonal changes in immunity in striped hamsters ( Cricetulus barabensis ) were investigated to test the winter immunoenhancement hypothesis. Male hamsters were wild captured in the fall and winter in 2014 and in the spring and summer in 2015. Body mass, body fat mass and blood glucose levels were all the highest in the summer in hamsters, whereas body fatness and thymus mass had no seasonal changes...
November 7, 2018: Biology Open
Inês Garcez Palha, Isabelle Anselme, Sylvie Schneider-Maunoury, François Giudicelli
Control of gene expression at the translation level is increasingly regarded as a key feature in many biological processes. Simple, inexpensive, and reliable procedures to visualise sites of protein production are required to allow observation of the spatiotemporal patterns of mRNA translation at subcellular resolution. We present a method, named SPoT (for Subcellular Patterns of Translation), developed upon the original TimeStamp technique (Lin et al., 2008), consisting in the expression of a fluorescent protein fused to a tagged, self-cleavable protease domain...
November 7, 2018: Biology Open
Lata Adnani, Rajiv Dixit, Xingyu Chen, Anjali Balakrishnan, Harshil Modi, Yacine Touahri, Cairine Logan, Carol Schuurmans
The Plag gene family has three members; Plagl1/Zac1 , which is a tumour suppressor gene, and Plag1 and Plagl2 , which are proto-oncogenes. All three genes are known to be expressed in embryonic neural progenitors, and Zac1 regulates proliferation, neuronal differentiation and migration in the developing neocortex. Here we examined the functions of Plag1 and Plagl2 in neocortical development. We first attempted, and were unable to generate, E12.5 Plag1;Plagl2 double mutants, indicating that at least one Plag1 or Plagl2 gene copy is required for embryonic survival...
October 25, 2018: Biology Open
Ying Liu, Rita Cerejeira Matos, Tapio I Heino, Ville Hietakangas
PWP1 is a chromatin binding protein with an important role in animal growth control downstream of mTOR-mediated nutrient sensing. PWP1 has been shown to control tissue growth by promoting the transcription of 5.8S, 18S and 28S ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) by RNA polymerase I (Pol I). Concomitantly with Pol I, RNA Polymerase III (Pol III) contributes to ribosome biogenesis by transcribing 5S rRNA in the nucleoplasm. Pol III activity is also closely controlled by nutrient-dependent signaling, however, how the activities of Pol I and Pol III are coordinated in response to nutrient-derived signals remains insufficiently understood...
October 25, 2018: Biology Open
Jane I Khudyakov, Jared S Deyarmin, Ryan M Hekman, Laura Pujade Busqueta, Rasool Maan, Melony J Mody, Reeti Banerjee, Daniel E Crocker, Cory D Champagne
Animals with large adipose stores, such as marine mammals, may provide insights into evolution and function of this multifunctional tissue in health and disease. In the absence of sequenced genomes, molecular information can be rapidly obtained by proteomics and transcriptomics, but their application to adipose tissue is hindered by low nucleic acid and protein yields. We sequenced and compared proteomes isolated from blubber of four elephant seals using phenol and guanidine thiocyanate (Qiazol) or detergent (sodium deoxycholate) buffer...
October 25, 2018: Biology Open
Daiana A De Souza, Osman Kaftanoglu, David De Jong, Robert E Page, Gro V Amdam, Ying Wang
The effect of larval nutrition on female fertility in honey bees is a focus of both for scientific studies and for practical applications in beekeeping. In general, morphological traits are standards for classifying queens and workers and for evaluating their quality. In recent years, in vitro rearing techniques have been improved and used in many studies; they can produce queen-like and worker-like bees. Here, we questioned whether queens and workers reared in vitro are the same as queens and workers reared in a natural hive environment...
October 25, 2018: Biology Open
Chris Sihoka, Ina Wagenaar
Serial blood sampling involving sampling blood from the same individual at different time points is essential in time-based studies including xenobiotic toxicokinetics and biochemical studies. However, high fish mortality due to phlebotomy-induced anaemia (PIA) constrains serial blood sampling in small to medium sized fish. The aim of the study was to develop and implement a model-based serial blood sampling protocol that minimizes fish mortality by regulating anaemia within levels that sustain fish survival and recovery...
October 25, 2018: Biology Open
Jennifer H Gutzman, Ellie Graeden, Isabel Brachmann, Sayumi Yamazoe, James K Chen, Hazel Sive
Basal constriction occurs at the zebrafish midbrain-hindbrain boundary constriction (MHBC) and is likely a widespread morphogenetic mechanism. 3D reconstruction demonstrates that MHBC cells are wedge-shaped, and initially constrict basally, with subsequent apical expansion. wnt5b is expressed in the MHB and is required for basal constriction. Consistent with a requirement for this pathway, expression of dominant negative Gsk3β overcomes wnt5b knockdown. Immunostaining identifies focal adhesion kinase (Fak) as active in the MHB region, and knockdown demonstrates Fak is a regulator of basal constriction...
October 25, 2018: Biology Open
Linwei Li, Aihua Mao, Peng Wang, Guozhu Ning, Yu Cao, Qiang Wang
Pharyngeal pouches, a series of outpocketings derived from the foregut endoderm, are essential for craniofacial skeleton formation. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying endodermal pouch-regulated head cartilage development are not fully understood. In this study, we find that zebrafish dmrt2b , a gene encoding Doublesex and Mab-3-related transcription factor, is specifically expressed in endodermal pouches and required for normal pharyngeal cartilage development. Loss of dmrt2b doesn't affect cranial neural crest (CNC) specification and migration, but leads to prechondrogenic condensation defects by reducing cxcl12b expression after CNC cell movement into the pharyngeal arches...
October 19, 2018: Biology Open
Hwon Heo, Juyeong Jo, Jae In Jung, Young-Min Han, Seongsoo Lee, Song Rae Kim, Seung-Hae Kwon, Kil-Nam Kim, Byung Joon Hwang, Yun Kee, Byoung Dae Lee, Dongmin Kang, Song Her
Bioluminescence imaging has proven to be a highly sensitive technique for assessing in vitro transcriptional activity toward understanding gene regulation patterns; however, application of this technique is limited for brain research. In particular, the poor spatiotemporal resolution is a main hurdle for monitoring the dynamic changes of transcriptional activity in specific regions of the brain during longitudinal analysis of living animals. To overcome this limitation, in this study, we modified a lentivirus-based luciferase glucocorticoid receptor (GR) reporter by inserting destabilizing sequence genes, and then the reporter was stereotaxically injected in the mouse infralimbic prefrontal cortex (IL-PFC)...
October 19, 2018: Biology Open
Andrea I Cappa, Matilde de Paola, Paula Wetten, Gerardo A De Blas, Marcela A Michaut
Oocyte in vitro maturation does not entirely support all the nuclear and cytoplasmic changes that occur physiologically and it is poorly understood whether in vitro maturation affects the competence of cortical granules to secret their content during cortical reaction. Here, we characterize cortical granule exocytosis (CGE) in live mouse oocytes activated by strontium chloride using the fluorescent lectin FITC-LCA. We compared the kinetic of CGE between ovulated ( in vivo matured, IVO) and in vitro matured (IVM) mouse oocytes...
October 19, 2018: Biology Open
Floriana Burgio, Natalie Rimmer, Uwe Pieles, Johanna Buschmann, Marina Beaufils-Hugot
For the fabrication of appropriate bone tissue engineered constructs, several prerequisites should be fulfilled. It should offer long-term stability, allow proper cell attachment and proliferation, furthermore be osteoinductive and easy to be vascularized. Having these requirements as background, we fabricated a novel porous 3D-printed hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffold and treated it with oxygen plasma (OPT). MG-63 pre-osteoblast-seeded bone constructs allowed good cell attachment and proliferation, even better when cultivated in a perfusion flow bioreactor...
October 19, 2018: Biology Open
Karoline S Nørstrud, Marco A Vindas, Göran E Nilsson, Ida B Johansen
Cardiac disease is a growing concern in farmed animals, and stress has been implicated as a factor for myocardial dysfunction and mortality in commercial fish rearing. We recently showed that the stress hormone cortisol induces pathological cardiac remodelling in rainbow trout. Wild and farmed salmonids are exposed to fluctuations and sometimes prolonged episodes of increased cortisol levels. Thus, studying the timeframe of cortisol-induced cardiac remodelling is necessary to understand its role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in salmonids...
October 19, 2018: Biology Open
Adriana Migliaro, Victoria Moreno, Paul Marchal, Ana Silva
Daily rhythms allow anticipation of changes and allocation of energy to better cope with predictable events. Rhythms in behavior result from a complex combination of physiological processes timed by the nervous system and synchronized with external information. We aim at understanding how rhythmic behaviors arise in nature, exposed to cyclic environmental influences and social context. Gymnotus omarorum is a South American nocturnal pulse-type gymnotiform. Its electric behavior encodes information about species, sex, and physiological state...
October 19, 2018: Biology Open
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