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Biology Open

Rustem Uzbekov, Anastasiia Garanina, Christophe Bressac
The centrosome is the organizing center of microtubules in the cell, the basis for the origin of cilia and flagella and a site for the concentration of a regulatory proteins multitude. The centrosome comprises two centrioles surrounded by pericentriolar material. Centrioles in the cells of different organisms can contain nine triplets, doublets or singlets of microtubules. Here, we show that in somatic cells of male wasp larvae Anisopteromalus calandrae , centrioles do not contain microtubules and are composed of nine electron-dense prongs, which together form a cogwheel structure...
July 11, 2018: Biology Open
E Pascal Malkemper, Matthew J Mason, Daniel Kagerbauer, Simon Nimpf, David A Keays
The vertebrate inner ear contains vestibular receptors that contain dense crystals of calcium carbonate, the otoconia. The production and maintenance of otoconia is a delicate process, the perturbation of which can lead to severe vestibular dysfunction in humans. The details of these processes are not well understood. Here, we report the discovery of a new otoconial mass in the lagena of adult pigeons that was present in more than 70% of birds. Based on histological, tomographic and elemental analyses, we conclude that the structure likely represents an ectopically-formed otoconial assembly...
July 11, 2018: Biology Open
Masahiro Horiuchi, Yoko Handa, Yoshiyuki Fukuoka
We measured oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide output during walking per unit distance ( Cw ) values for 14 healthy young males at seven speeds from 0.67 to 1.67 m s-1 (four min per stage) under thermoneutral (23°C), cool (13°C), and hot (33°C) environments. The Cw at faster gait speeds in the 33°C trial was slightly higher compared to those in the 23°C and 13°C trials. We found a significant main effect of speed and an interaction in the Cw though no significance in main effect of condition ( P <0...
July 3, 2018: Biology Open
Yoichi Miyamoto, Penny A F Whiley, Hoey Y Goh, Chin Wong, Gavin Higgins, Taro Tachibana, Paul McMenamin, Lynne Mayne, Kate L Loveland
Serine/threonine kinase 35 (STK35) is a recently identified human kinase with an autophosphorylation function, linked functionally to actin stress fibers, cell cycle progression and survival. STK35 has previously been shown as highly expressed in human testis, and we demonstrated its regulation by nuclear-localized importin α2 in HeLa cells. The present study identifies progressive expression from the Stk35 locus of 2 coding mRNA isoforms and 1 long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) in mouse testis during spermatogenesis, indicating their tightly controlled synthesis...
July 3, 2018: Biology Open
Tal Frolinger, Francis Herman, Ali Sharma, Steven Sims, Jun Wang, Giulio Maria Pasinetti
In this study, we developed an experimental protocol leveraging enhanced reduced representation bisulphite sequencing to investigate methylation and gene expression patterns in the hippocampus in response to polyphenolic compounds. We report that the administration of a standardized bioavailable polyphenolic preparation (BDPP) differentially influences methylated cytosine patterns in introns, UTR and exons in hippocampal genes. We subsequently established that dietary BDPP-mediated changes in methylation influenced the transcriptional pattern of select genes that are involved in synaptic plasticity...
July 3, 2018: Biology Open
Chandra Prajapati, Risto-Pekka Pölönen, Katriina Aalto-Setälä
Human induced pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) offer a unique in vitro platform to study these diseases as they recapitulate many disease phenotypes. The membrane potential (Vm ) and intracellular calcium (Ca2+ ) transient (CaT) are usually investigated separately because incorporating different techniques to acquire both aspects concurrently is challenging. In this study, we recorded Vm and CaT simultaneously to understand the interrelation between these parameters in hiPSC-CMs. For this, we used conventional patch clamp technique to record Vm , and synchronized this with Ca2+ imaging system to acquire CaT from same hiPSC-CMs...
July 3, 2018: Biology Open
Kazumi Osada, Toru Ohta, Rie Takai, Sadaharu Miyazono, Makoto Kashiwayanagi, Shizu Hidema, Katsuhiko Nishimori
Oxytocin (OXT) and its receptor (OXTR) regulate reproductive physiology (i.e., parturition and lactation), sociosexual behavior, learned patterns of behavior, and olfactory behavior in social contexts. To characterize the function of OXTR in basic olfactory behavior, the present study compared the behavioral responses of homozygous, heterozygous, and wild-type mice when these mice were confronted with an unpleasant odorant (butyric acid) in a custom-made Y-maze in the absence of a social context. Wild-type mice avoided the first encounter with the butyric acid odorant, whereas homozygous and heterozygous mice did not...
June 26, 2018: Biology Open
Avinash Khandagale, Jens M Kittner, Amrit Mann, Stefanie Ascher, Bettina Kollar, Christoph Reinhardt
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are susceptible to thromboembolism. Interestingly, IBD occurs less frequently in patients with inherited bleeding disorders. Therefore, we analysed whether F9 -deficiency is protective against the onset of acute colitis in a genetic hemophilia B mouse model. In the 3.5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model, F9 -deficient mice were protected from body weight loss and had a reduced disease activity score. We detected decreased colonic myeloperoxidase activity and decreased CXCL-1 levels in DSS-treated F9 -deficient mice compared with WT littermate controls, indicating decreased neutrophil infiltration...
June 26, 2018: Biology Open
Hibiki Kimura, Yuuki Kawabata
The kinematic and behavioral components of the escape response can affect the outcomes of predator-prey interactions. For example, because sensory perception range can have spatial bias, and because the turn duration before the initiation of escape locomotion can be smaller when prey is oriented away from predators, the prey's body orientation relative to a predator at the onset of the escape response (initial orientation) could affect whether prey successfully evade predators. We tested this hypothesis by recording the escape responses of juvenile red sea bream ( Pagrus major ) to the predatory scorpion fish ( Sebastiscus marmoratus )...
June 26, 2018: Biology Open
Arthur T Molines, Jessica Marion, Salem Chabout, Laetitia Besse, Jim P Dompierre, Grégory Mouille, Frédéric M Coquelle
Microtubules are involved in plant development and adaptation to their environment, but the sustaining molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Microtubule-End-Binding 1 (EB1) proteins participate in directional root growth in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, a connection to the underlying microtubule array has not been established yet. We show here that EB1 proteins contribute to the organization of cortical microtubules in growing epidermal plant cells, without significant modulation of microtubule dynamics. Using super-resolution STED microscopy and an original quantification approach, we also demonstrate a significant reduction of apparent microtubule bundling in cytoplasmic-EB1-deficient plants, suggesting a function for EB1 in the interaction between adjacent microtubules...
June 26, 2018: Biology Open
Leif R Neitzel, Matthew R Broadus, Nailing Zhang, Leah Sawyer, Heather A Wallace, Julie A Merkle, Jeanne N Jodoin, Poojitha Sitaram, Emily E Crispi, William Rork, Laura A Lee, Duojia Pan, Kathleen L Gould, Andrea Page-McCaw, Ethan Lee
Cdc14 is an evolutionarily conserved serine/threoninephosphatase. Originally identified in S. cerevisiae as a cell cycle regulator, its role in other eukaryotic organisms remains unclear. In Drosophila melanogaster , Cdc14 is encoded by a single gene, thus facilitating its study. We found that Cdc14 expression is highest in the testis of adult flies and that cdc14 null flies are viable. cdc14 null female and male flies do not display altered fertility. cdc14 null males, however, exhibit decreased sperm competitiveness...
June 26, 2018: Biology Open
Anna M Hoy, Natasha McDonald, Ross J Lennen, Matteo Milanesi, Amy H Herlihy, Timothy J Kendall, William Mungall, Michael Gyngell, Rajarshi Banerjee, Robert L Janiczek, Philip S Murphy, Maurits A Jansen, Jonathan A Fallowfield
Non-invasive quantitation of liver disease using multiparametric MRI could refine clinical care pathways, trial design and preclinical drug development. The aim of the study was to evaluate the use of multiparametric MRI in experimental models of liver disease. Liver injury was induced in rats using 4 or 12 weeks carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ) intoxication and 4 or 8 weeks methionine and choline deficient (MCD) diet. Liver MRI was performed using a 7.0 Tesla small animal scanner at baseline and specified timepoints after liver injury...
June 18, 2018: Biology Open
Ahmed El-Badawy, Nehal I Ghoneim, Mohamed A Nasr, Hoda Elkhenany, Toka A Ahmed, Sara M Ahmed, Nagwa El-Badri
Telomerase and its core component, telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), are critical for stem cell compartment integrity. Normal adult stem cells have the longest telomeres in a given tissue, a property mediated by high hTERT expression and high telomerase enzymatic activity. In contrast, cancer stem cells (CSCs) have short telomeres despite high expression of hTERT, indicating that the role of hTERT in CSCs is not limited to telomere elongation and/or maintenance. The function of hTERT in CSCs remains poorly understood...
June 15, 2018: Biology Open
Kimberly K Fong, Alex Zelter, Beth Graczyk, Jill M Hoyt, Michael Riffle, Richard Johnson, Michael J MacCoss, Trisha N Davis
Phosphorylation regulates yeast spindle pole body (SPB) duplication and separation and likely regulates microtubule nucleation. We report a phosphoproteomic analysis using tandem mass spectrometry of enriched Saccharomyces cerevisiae SPBs for two cell cycle arrests, G1/S and the mitotic checkpoint, expanding on previously reported phosphoproteomic data sets. We present a novel phosphoproteomic state of SPBs arrested in G1/S by a cdc4-1 temperature sensitive mutation, with particular focus on phosphorylation events on the γ-tubulin small complex (γ-TuSC)...
June 14, 2018: Biology Open
Yuko Urata, Wataru Yamashita, Takeshi Inoue, Kiyokazu Agata
Adult newts can regenerate large parts of their brain from adult neural stem cells (NSCs), but how adult NSCs reorganize brain structures during regeneration remains unclear. In development, elaborate brain structures are produced under broadly coordinated regulations of embryonic NSCs in the neural tube, whereas brain regeneration entails exquisite control of the reestablishment of certain brain parts, suggesting a yet-unknown mechanism directs NSCs upon partial brain excision. Here we report that upon one-quarter excision of the adult newt ( Pleurodeles waltl ) mesencephalon, active participation of local NSCs around specific brain subregions' boundaries leads to some imperfect and some perfect brain regeneration along an individual's rostrocaudal axis...
June 14, 2018: Biology Open
Mei Ying Ng, Yunn-Hwen Gan, Thilo Hagen
Cycle inhibiting factors (Cifs) are type III secretion system effectors produced by some Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria including Burkholderia pseudomallei Through their deamidase activity, Cifs inhibit the activity of Cullin RING E3 ubiquitin ligases (CRL). CRL inhibition induces the accumulation of cell cycle inhibitors p21 and p27, thereby leading to host cell cycle arrest. However, whether Cif exerts additional effects on host cells that are important in bacterial pathogenesis is currently poorly understood...
May 30, 2018: Biology Open
Raffaella Bonavita, Kathleen Vincent, Robert Pinelli, Chitra Lekha Dahia
In humans, the sacrum forms an important component of the pelvic arch, and it transfers the weight of the body to the lower limbs. The sacrum is formed by collapse of the intervertebral discs (IVDs) between the five sacral vertebrae during childhood, and their fusion to form a single bone. We show that collapse of the sacral discs in the mouse is associated with the down-regulation of sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling in the nucleus pulposus (NP) of the disc, and many aspects of this phenotype can be reversed by experimental postnatal activation of HH signaling...
May 21, 2018: Biology Open
Libo Yu-Taeger, Viktoria Gaiser, Larissa Lotzer, Tina Roenisch, Benedikt Timo Fabry, Janice Stricker-Shaver, Nicolas Casadei, Michael Walter, Martin Schaller, Olaf Riess, Huu Phuc Nguyen, Thomas Ott, Kathrin Grundmann-Hauser
A three-base-pair deletion in the human TOR1A gene is causative for the most common form of primary dystonia, the early-onset dystonia type 1 (DYT1 dystonia). The pathophysiological consequences of this mutation are still unknown.To study the pathology of the mutant torsinA (TOR1A) protein, we have generated a transgenic rat line that overexpresses the human mutant protein under the control of the human TOR1A promoter. This new animal model was phenotyped with several approaches, including behavioral tests and neuropathological analyses...
May 8, 2018: Biology Open
Seth Donoughe, Chiyoung Kim, Cassandra G Extavour
High-throughput live-imaging of embryos is an essential technique in developmental biology, but it is difficult and costly to mount and image embryos in consistent conditions. Here, we present OMMAwell, a simple, reusable device to easily mount dozens of embryos in arrays of agarose microwells with customizable dimensions and spacing. OMMAwell can be configured to mount specimens for upright or inverted microscopes, and includes a reservoir to hold live-imaging medium to maintain constant moisture and osmolarity of specimens during time-lapse imaging...
April 30, 2018: Biology Open
Ankita Pathak, Ashok Munjal, Ravi Parkash
In montane Drosophila species, cold-induced plastic changes in energy metabolites are likely developed to cope with cold and starvation stress. Adult Drosophila immigrans reared at 15°C were acclimated at 0°C or 7°C for durations of up to 6 days (fed or unfed conditions). Such flies were tested for plastic changes in resistance to cold or starvation stress as well as for possible accumulation and utilization of four energy metabolites (body lipids, proline, trehalose and glycogen). Adults acclimated at 7°C revealed a greater increase in cold tolerance than flies acclimated at 0°C...
July 2, 2018: Biology Open
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