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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808139/differential-expression-of-sirtuin-2-and-adipocyte-maturation-restriction-an-adaptation-process-during-hypoxia-in-fish
#1
Ekambaram Padmini, Parasuraman Parimala
Sirtuins have received wide spread attention due to their diverse physiological role in metabolism. Among sirtuins, SIRT2 is more abundant in adipocytes; exerts effect on adipocyte differentiation, a process involves conversion of preadipocytes to mature adipocytes orchestrated by adipokines and adipogenic transcription factors. Grey mullets (Scientific name: Mugil cephalus) were chosen as study organism due to its excellent serve as a biomonitor. Adipocytes isolated from natural field condition were termed as field hypoxic (Ennore) and normoxic (Kovalam) based on DO level in the estuary...
August 14, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808138/an-ampk-dependent-regulatory-pathway-in-tau-mediated-toxicity
#2
Alessia Galasso, Charles S Cameron, Bruno G Frenguelli, Kevin G Moffat
Neurodegenerative tauopathies are characterized by accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau aggregates primarily degraded by autophagy.The 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is expressed in most cells, including neurons. Alongside its metabolic functions, it is also known to be activated in Alzheimer's brains, phosphorylate tau and be a critical autophagy activator. Whether it plays a neurotoxic or neuroprotective role remains unclear. Complexly in tauopathies, while stress conditions can result in AMPK activation enhancing tau-mediated toxicity, AMPK activation is not always concomitant with autophagic induction...
August 14, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808137/regulatory-rnps-a-novel-class-of-ribonucleoproteins-that-potentially-contribute-to-ribosome-heterogeneity
#3
Aaron R Poole, Ian Vicino, Hironori Adachi, Yi-Tao Yu, Michael D Hebert
Many ribonucleoproteins (RNPs), which are comprised of non-coding RNA and associated proteins, are involved in essential cellular processes such as translation and pre-mRNA splicing. One class of RNP is the small Cajal body-specific RNP (scaRNP), which contributes to the biogenesis of small nuclear RNPs (snRNPs) that are central components of the spliceosome. Three scaRNAs are internally processed, generating stable nucleolus-enriched RNAs of unknown function. Here we provide data that these RNAs become part of RNPs we term regulatory RNPs (regRNPs)...
August 14, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798149/on-the-utility-of-accelerometers-to-predict-stroke-rate-using-captive-fur-seals-and-sea-lions
#4
Monique A Ladds, David A Rosen, David J Slip, Robert G Harcourt
Energy expenditure of free-living fur seals and sea lions is difficult to measure directly, but may be indirectly derived from flipper stroke rate. We filmed 10 captive otariids swimming with accelerometers either attached to a harness (Daily Diary: sampling frequency 32Hz, N=4) or taped to the fur (G6a+: 25Hz, N=6). We used down sampling to derive four recording rates from each accelerometer (Daily Diary: 32, 16, 8, 4Hz; G6a+: 25, 20, 10, 5Hz). For each of these sampling frequencies we derived 20 combinations of two parameters (RMW - the window size used to calculate the running mean, and m - the minimum number of points smaller than the local maxima used to detect a peak), from the dynamic acceleration of x, z and x+z, to estimate stroke rate from the accelerometers...
August 10, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798148/ubiquitination-of-basal-vegfr2-regulates-signal-transduction-and-endothelial-function
#5
Gina A Smith, Gareth W Fearnley, Izma Abdul-Zani, Stephen B Wheatcroft, Darren C Tomlinson, Michael A Harrison, Sreenivasan Ponnambalam
Cell surface receptors can undergo recycling or proteolysis but the cellular decision-making events that sort between these pathways remain poorly defined. Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) regulates signal transduction and angiogenesis but how signaling and proteolysis is regulated is not well understood. Here, we provide evidence that a pathway requiring the E1 ubiquitin-activating enzyme UBA1 controls basal VEGFR2 levels, hence metering plasma membrane receptor availability for the VEGF-A-regulated response by endothelial cells...
August 10, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28784843/phosphorylation-of-snap-23-regulates-its-dynamic-membrane-association-during-mast-cell-exocytosis
#6
Pieu Naskar, Niti Puri
Mast cells (MCs) on allergen challenge, respond by release of pre-stored mediators from their secretory granules by transient mechanism of porosome-mediated cell secretion. The target-SNARE SNAP-23 has been shown to be important for MC exocytosis and our previous studies revealed presence of one basal (Thr(102)) and two induced (Ser(95) and Ser(120)) phosphorylation sites in its linker region. To study the role of SNAP-23 phosphorylation in the regulation of exocytosis, Green fluorescence protein-tagged wildtype SNAP-23 (GFP-SNAP-23) and its phosphorylation mutants were transfected into RBL-2H3 MCs...
August 7, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760736/targeting-long-non-coding-rna-dancr-inhibits-triple-negative-breast-cancer-progression
#7
Sha Sha, Dongya Yuan, Yuejun Liu, Baosan Han, Nanbert Zhong, Zhiqiang Liu
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is non-responsive to conventional anti-hormonal and Her2 targeted therapies, making it necessary to identify new molecular targets for therapy. Long non-coding RNA anti-differentiation ncRNA (lncRNA DANCR) was identified in participating carcinogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma, but its expression and potential role in TNBC progression is still unclear. In the present study, our results showed that DANCR expression was increased in TNBC tissues compared with the adjacent normal tissues using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) in 63 TNBC specimens...
July 31, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760735/metabolomics-reveals-variation-and-correlation-among-different-tissues-of-olive-olea-europaea-l
#8
Rao Guodong, Liu Xiaoxia, Zha Weiwei, Wu Wenjun, Zhang Jianguo
Metabolites in olives are associated with nutritional value and physiological properties. However, comprehensive information regarding the olive metabolome is limited. In this study, we identified 226 metabolites from three different tissues of olive using a non-targeted metabolomic profiling approach, of which 76 named metabolites were confirmed. Further statistical analysis revealed that these 76 metabolites covered different types of primary metabolism and some of the secondary metabolism pathways. One -way analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistical assay was performed to calculate the variations within the detected metabolites, and levels of 65 metabolites were differentially expressed in different samples...
July 31, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760734/an-ex-vivo-model-using-human-peritoneum-to-explore-mesh-tissue-integration
#9
Peter Falk, Fernando Ruiz-Jasbon, Karin Strigård, Ulf Gunnarsson, Marie-Lois Ivarsson
Biological compatibility, in terms of implantation of foreign mesh material in hernia surgery, still needs experimental investigation. Present study develops an experimental model using human peritoneum to study the integration between tissue and different mesh material. The ex vivo model using peritoneal tissue was studied with different mesh material, and integration was monitored over time using microscopy.It could be demonstrated that the peritoneal model may be kept viable in culture for several weeks...
July 31, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760733/wasp-arp2-3-dependent-actin-polymerization-influences-fusogen-localization-during-cell-cell-fusion-in-c-elegans-embryos
#10
Yan Zhang, Yihong Yang, Zhiwen Zhu, Guangshuo Ou
Cell-cell fusion is essential for development and physiology. Actin polymerization was implicated in the C. elegans fusogen EFF-1 engagement in a reconstituted Drosophila cell culture system, and the actin-binding protein spectraplakin links EFF-1 to the actin cytoskeleton and promotes cell-cell fusions in C. elegans larvae. However, it remains unclear whether and how fusogens and the actin cytoskeleton are coordinated in C. elegans embryos. Here, we used live imaging analysis of GFP knock-in and RNAi embryos to study the embryonic cell-cell fusions in C...
July 31, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751310/standard-metabolic-rate-predicts-growth-trajectory-of-juvenile-crucian-carp-carassius-auratus-under-changing-food-availability
#11
Ling-Qing Zeng, An-Jie Zhang, Shaun S Killen, Zhen-Dong Cao, Yu-Xiang Wang, Shi-Jian Fu
Phenotypic traits vary greatly within populations and can have a significant influence on aspects of performance. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of individual variation in standard metabolic rate (SMR) on growth rate and tolerance to food-deprivation in juvenile crucian carp (Carassius auratus) under varying levels of food availability. To address this issue, 19 high and 16 low SMR (individuals were randomly assigned to a satiation diet for 3 weeks, whereas another 20 high and 16 low SMR individuals were assigned to a restricted diet (approximately 50% of satiation) for the same period...
July 27, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751309/fat-containing-cells-are-eliminated-during-dictyostelium-development
#12
Jessica M Kornke, Markus Maniak
Triacylglycerol is a universal storage molecule for metabolic energy in living organisms. However, Dictyostelium amoebae, that have accumulated storage fat from added fatty acids do not progress though the starvation period preceding the development of the durable spore. Mutants deficient in genes of fat metabolism, such as fcsA, encoding a fatty acid activating enzyme, or dgat1 and dgat2, specifying proteins that synthesize triacylglycerol, strongly increase their chances to contribute to the spore fraction of the developing fruiting body, but lose the ability to produce storage fat efficiently...
July 27, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751308/the-probability-of-the-wing-damage-in-the-dragonfly-sympetrum-vulgatum-anisoptera-libellulidae-a-field-study
#13
Hamed Rajabi, Veronica Schroeter, Shahab Eshghi, Stanislav N Gorb
Dragonfly wings resist millions of cycles of dynamic loading in their lifespan. During their operation, the wings are subjected to relatively high mechanical stresses. They further experience accidental collisions which result from the insects' daily activities, such as foraging, mating and fighting with other individuals. All these factors may lead to irreversible wing damage. Here, for the first time, we collected qualitative and quantitative data to systematically investigate the occurrence of damage in dragonfly wings in nature...
July 27, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751307/esglut4-and-chhbp-are-involved-in-the-regulation-of-glucose-homeostasis-in-the-crustacean-eriocheir-sinensis
#14
Ran Li, Jin-Ze Tian, Mo-Ran Wang, Li-Na Zhu, Jin-Sheng Sun
Glucose is an essential energy source for both vertebrates and invertebrates. In mammals, glucose uptake is mediated primarily by glucose transporters (GLUTs), members of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) of passive transporters. Among the GLUTs, GLUT4 is the main glucose transporter in muscles and adipocytes. In skeletal muscle cells, GLUT4 interacts with the lipid raft protein flotillin to transport glucose upon stimulation by insulin. Although several studies have examined GLUT4 function in mammals, few have been performed in crustaceans, which also use glucose as their main energy source...
July 27, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751306/adaptive-camouflage-what-can-be-learned-from-the-wetting-behaviour-of-the-tropical-flatbugs-dysodius-lunatus-and-d-magnus
#15
Florian Hischen, Vladislav Reiswich, Desirée Kupsch, Ninon De Mecquenem, Michael Riedel, Markus Himmelsbach, Agnes Weth, Ernst Heiss, Oskar Armbruster, Johannes Heitz, Werner Baumgartner
The neotropical flatbug species Dysodius lunatus and Dysodius magnus show a fascinating camouflage principle. Its appearance renders the animal hardly visible on the bark of trees. However, when getting wet due to rain, bark changes its colour and gets darker. In order to keep the camouflage effect, it seems as if some Dysodius species benefit from their ability to hold a water film on their cuticle and therefore change their optical properties when wetted by water too. This camouflage behaviour requires the insect to have a hydrophilic surface and passive surface structures, which facilitate the liquid spreading...
July 27, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751305/dlx3b-4b-is-required-for-early-born-but-not-later-forming-sensory-hair-cells-during-zebrafish-inner-ear-development
#16
Simone Schwarzer, Sandra Spieß, Michael Brand, Stefan Hans
Morpholino-mediated knockdown has shown that the homeodomain transcription factors Dlx3b and Dlx4b are essential for proper induction of the otic-epibranchial progenitor domain (OEPD) as well as subsequent formation of sensory hair cells in the developing zebrafish inner ear. However, increasing use of reverse genetic approaches has revealed poor correlation between morpholino-induced and mutant phenotypes. Using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutagenesis, we generated a defined deletion eliminating the entire open reading frames of dlx3b and dlx4b (dlx3b/4b) and investigated a potential phenotypic difference between mutants and morpholino-mediated knockdown...
July 27, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811303/adaptive-camouflage-what-can-be-learned-from-the-wetting-behaviour-of-the-tropical-flat-bugs-dysodius-lunatus-and-dysodiusmagnus
#17
Florian Hischen, Vladislav Reiswich, Desirée Kupsch, Ninon De Mecquenem, Michael Riedel, Markus Himmelsbach, Agnes Weth, Ernst Heiss, Oskar Armbruster, Johannes Heitz, Werner Baumgartner
The neotropical flat bug species Dysodius lunatus and Dysodius magnus show a fascinating camouflage principle, as their appearance renders the animal hardly visible on the bark of trees. However, when getting wet due to rain, bark changes its colour and gets darker. In order to keep the camouflage effect, it seems that some Dysodius species benefit from their ability to hold a water film on their cuticle and therefore change their optical properties when also wetted by water. This camouflage behaviour requires the insect to have a hydrophilic surface and passive surface structures which facilitate the liquid spreading...
August 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811302/effects-of-temperature-and-uvr-on-organic-matter-fluxes-and-the-metabolic-activity-of-acropora-muricata
#18
Lucile Courtial, Christine Ferrier-Pagès, Stéphan Jacquet, Riccardo Rodolfo-Metalpa, Stéphanie Reynaud, Cécile Rottier, Fanny Houlbrèque
Coral bleaching events are predicted to occur more frequently in the coming decades with global warming. The susceptibility of corals to bleaching during thermal stress episodes depends on many factors, including the magnitude of thermal stress and irradiance. The interactions among these two factors, and in particular with ultra-violet radiation (UVR), the most harmful component of light, are more complex than assumed, and are not yet well understood. This paper explores the individual and combined effects of temperature and UVR on the metabolism of Acropora muricata, one of the most abundant coral species worldwide...
August 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684394/tg-th-cre-fi172gsat-th-cre-defines-neurons-that-are-required-for-full-hypercapnic-and-hypoxic-reflexes
#19
Jenny J Sun, Russell S Ray
The catecholaminergic (CA) system has been implicated in many facets of breathing control and offers an important target to better comprehend the underlying etiologies of both developmental and adult respiratory pathophysiologies. Here, we used a noninvasive DREADD-based pharmacogenetic approach to acutely perturb Tg(Th-Cre)FI172Gsat (Th-Cre)-defined neurons in awake and unrestrained mice in an attempt to characterize CA function in breathing. We report that clozapine-N-oxide (CNO)-DREADD-mediated inhibition of Th-Cre-defined neurons results in blunted ventilatory responses under respiratory challenge...
August 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663236/manipulation-and-quantification-of-microtubule-lattice-integrity
#20
Taylor A Reid, Courtney Coombes, Melissa K Gardner
Microtubules are structural polymers that participate in a wide range of cellular functions. The addition and loss of tubulin subunits allows the microtubule to grow and shorten, as well as to develop and repair defects and gaps in its cylindrical lattice. These lattice defects act to modulate the interactions of microtubules with molecular motors and other microtubule-associated proteins. Therefore, tools to control and measure microtubule lattice structure will be invaluable for developing a quantitative understanding of how the structural state of the microtubule lattice may regulate its interactions with other proteins...
August 15, 2017: Biology Open
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