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Biology Open

Ritika Kar Bahal, Shubhita Mathur, Priyanka Chauhan, Anil K Tyagi
Previously we had developed a triple gene mutant of M. tuberculosis (MtbΔmms) harbouring disruption in three genes namely mptpA, mptpB and sapM Though vaccination with MtbΔmms strain induced protection in the lungs of guinea pigs, the mutant strain failed to control the hematogenous spread of the challenge strain to the spleen. Additionally, inoculation with MtbΔmms resulted in some pathological damage to the spleens in the early phase of infection. In order to generate a strain that overcomes the pathology caused by MtbΔmms in spleen of guinea pigs and controls dissemination of the challenge strain, MtbΔmms was genetically modified by disrupting bioA gene to generate MtbΔmmsb strain...
December 14, 2017: Biology Open
Kun Huang, Ye Wang, Tuo Zhang, Meina He, Guanghong Sun, Jia Wen, Hao Yan, Han Cai, Changfu Yong, Guoliang Xia, Chao Wang
In female mammals, primordial follicles consist of two types of cells, namely, oocytes and pregranulosa cells that surround the oocytes. The size of the primordial follicle pool determines the reproductive ability of female mammals. However, the underlying mechanisms controlling primordial follicle assembly remain unclear. In this study, we show that oocyte-derived Janus kinase (JAK) signaling is vital for germline cyst breakdown and primordial follicle formation in vitro JAK2 and JAK3 activity is increased while germline cysts are breaking down...
December 14, 2017: Biology Open
Kang Xiao, Wen-Bin Cao, Cu-Huang Rong, Lian-Guo Chen, Xiao-Xue Yang, Wei-Jia Wen, Pei-Yuan Qian, Zhang-Li Hu, Ying Xu, Yu Zhang
Marine biofouling poses a severe threat to maritime and aquaculture industries. To prevent the attachment of marine biofouling organisms on man-made structures, countless cost and effort were spent annually. In particular, most attention has been paid on the development of efficient and environmentally friendly fouling-resistant coatings, as well as larval settlement mechanism of several major biofouling invertebrates. In this study, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micropost arrays were utilized as the settlement substrata and opposite tractions were identified during early settlement of the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite and the bryozoan Bugula neritina The settling A...
December 14, 2017: Biology Open
Assunta Liberti, Ivana Zucchetti, Daniela Melillo, Diana Skapura, Yoshimi Shibata, Rosaria De Santis, Maria Rosaria Pinto, Gary W Litman, Larry J Dishaw
The gastrointestinal tract of Ciona intestinalis, a solitary tunicate that siphon filters water, shares similarities with its mammalian counterpart. The Ciona gut exhibits other features that are unique to protochordates, including certain immune molecules, and other characteristics, e.g. chitin-rich mucus, which appears to be more widespread than considered previously. Exposure of Ciona to dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) induces a colitis-like phenotype similar to that seen in other systems and is characterized by alteration of epithelial morphology and infiltration of blood cells into lamina propria like regions...
December 8, 2017: Biology Open
Stephen J Enos, Martin Dressler, Beatriz Ferreira Gomes, Anthony A Hyman, Jeffrey B Woodruff
Centrosomes are microtubule-nucleating organelles that facilitate chromosome segregation and cell division in metazoans. Centrosomes comprise centrioles that organize a micron-scale mass of protein called pericentriolar material (PCM) from which microtubules nucleate. During each cell cycle, PCM accumulates around centrioles through phosphorylation-mediated assembly of PCM scaffold proteins. During mitotic exit, PCM swiftly disassembles by an unknown mechanism. Here, we used Caenorhabditis elegans embryos to determine the mechanism and importance of PCM disassembly in dividing cells...
December 8, 2017: Biology Open
Delun Huang, Ling Wang, Jingyue Duan, Chang Huang, Xiuchun Cindy Tian, Ming Zhang, Young Tang
The regulatory process of naïve-state induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) generation is not well understood. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) activated Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Jak/Stat3) is the master regulator for naïve-state pluripotency achievement and maintenance. The estrogen-related receptor beta (Esrrb) serves as a naïve-state marker gene regulating self-renewal of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). However, the inter-connection between Esrrb and LIF signaling for pluripotency establishment in reprogramming is unclear...
December 6, 2017: Biology Open
Ata Ur Rahman Mohammed Abdul, Bhagya De Silva, Ronald K Gary
Lithium salt is a classic glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) inhibitor. Beryllium is a structurally-related inhibitor that is more potent but relatively uncharacterized. This study examined the effects of these inhibitors on the phosphorylation of endogenous GSK3 substrates. In NIH-3T3 cells, both salts caused a decrease in phosphorylated glycogen synthase, as expected. GSK3 inhibitors produce enhanced phosphorylation of Ser9 of GSK3β via a positive feedback mechanism, and both salts elicited this enhancement...
December 6, 2017: Biology Open
Yu-Feng Jiang, Min Chen, Nan-Nan Zhang, Hua-Jia Yang, Qing Rui, Ya-Feng Zhou
Breakthrough advances in stem cell research made it possible for generation of human cardiomyocytes from cells derived from various sources, including skin biopsy. However, it is attractive to build up a negligibly invasive way to create induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. In this study, we created iPS cells from human urine-derived epithelial cells by gene transduction using lentiviral vectors in a totally noninvasive manner. After that, we induced the differentiation of iPS cells into functional cardiomyocytes both in vitro and in vivo Action potentials were recorded in putative cardiomyocytes and spontaneous beating cells were observed...
December 6, 2017: Biology Open
Raja Mohib Muazzam Naz, Mengtai Li, Safia Ramzan, Gege Li, Jun Liu, Xingkui Cai, Conghua Xie
The genetic control of dormancy is poorly understood in most plant species but dormancy is a prominent feature for the potato industry. We used the microtuber system in which tubers were produced in vitro and stored at 20°C, to perform quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis for dormancy and gibberellic acid (GA3) content in an F1 population consisting of 178 genotypes derived from an interspecific cross between Solanum chacoense acc. PI 320285 (long dormancy) and S. phureja acc. DM1-3 516 R44 (short dormancy)...
December 6, 2017: Biology Open
Mickael Orgeur, Marvin Martens, Stefan T Börno, Bernd Timmermann, Delphine Duprez, Sigmar Stricker
The sequence of the chicken genome, like several other draft genome sequences, is presently not fully covered. Gaps, contigs assigned with low confidence and uncharacterized chromosomes result in gene fragmentation and imprecise gene annotation. Transcript abundance estimation from RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data relies on read quality, library complexity and expression normalization. In addition, the quality of the genome sequence used to map sequencing reads and the gene annotation that defines gene features must also be taken into account...
November 28, 2017: Biology Open
Xin Sun, Swetansu K Hota, Yu-Qing Zhou, Stefanie Novak, Dario Miguel-Perez, Danos Christodoulou, Christine E Seidman, J G Seidman, Carol C Gregorio, R Mark Henkelman, Janet Rossant, Benoit G Bruneau
How chromatin-remodeling complexes modulate gene networks to control organ-specific properties is not well understood. For example, Baf60c (Smarcd3) encodes a cardiac-enriched subunit of the SWI/SNF-like BAF chromatin complex, but its role in heart development is not fully understood. We found that constitutive loss of Baf60c leads to embryonic cardiac hypoplasia and pronounced cardiac dysfunction. Conditional deletion of Baf60c in cardiomyocytes resulted in postnatal dilated cardiomyopathy with impaired contractile function...
November 28, 2017: Biology Open
Bicheng Zhu, Jichao Wang, Zhixin Sun, Yue Yang, Tongliang Wang, Steven E Brauth, Yezhong Tang, Jianguo Cui
Male-male vocal competition in anuran species is critical for mating success; however, it is also energetically demanding and highly time-consuming. Thus, we hypothesized that males may change signal elaboration in response to competition in real time. Male serrate-legged small treefrogs (Kurixalus odontotarsus) produce compound calls that contain two kinds of notes, harmonic sounds called A notes and short broadband sounds called B notes. Using male evoked vocal response experiments, we found that competition influences the temporal structure and complexity of vocal signals produced by males...
November 24, 2017: Biology Open
Jennifer C Kasemeier-Kulesa, Morgan H Romine, Jason A Morrison, Caleb M Bailey, Danny R Welch, Paul M Kulesa
Melanoma pathogenesis from normal neural crest-derived melanocytes is often fatal due to aggressive cell invasion throughout the body. The identification of signals that reprogram de-differentiated, metastatic melanoma cells to a less aggressive and stable phenotype would provide a novel strategy to limit disease progression. In this study, we identify and test the function of developmental signals within the chick embryonic neural crest microenvironment to reprogram and sustain the transition of human metastatic melanoma to a neural crest cell-like phenotype...
November 24, 2017: Biology Open
Hagen M Gegner, Maren Ziegler, Nils Rädecker, Carol Buitrago-López, Manuel Aranda, Christian R Voolstra
The endosymbiosis between dinoflagellate algae of the genus Symbiodinium and stony corals provides the foundation of coral reef ecosystems. Coral bleaching, the expulsion of endosymbionts from the coral host tissue as a consequence of heat or light stress, poses a threat to reef ecosystem functioning on a global scale. Hence, a better understanding of the factors contributing to heat stress susceptibility and tolerance is needed. In this regard, some of the most thermotolerant corals also live in particularly saline habitats, but possible effects of high salinity on thermotolerance in corals are anecdotal...
November 24, 2017: Biology Open
Anna C Seybold, David A Wharton, Michael A S Thorne, Craig J Marshall
Panagrolaimus sp. DAW1 is a freeze-tolerant Antarctic nematode which survives extensive intracellular ice formation. The molecular mechanisms of this extreme adaptation are still poorly understood. We recently showed that desiccation-enhanced RNAi-soaking can be used - in conjunction with qPCR - to screen for phenotypes associated with reduced expression of candidate genes in Panagrolaimus sp. DAW1. Here we present the use of this approach to investigate the role of trehalose synthesis genes in this remarkable organism...
November 24, 2017: Biology Open
Yanwei Guo, Hongqiao Zhang, Xin Xing, Lijuan Wang, Jian Zhang, Lin Yan, Xiaoke Zheng, Mingzhi Zhang
The expression of gelsolin (GSN) is abnormal in many cancers, including extranodal nasal-type natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL). However, the biological function of GSN and its mechanism in NKTCL remain unclear. We found GSN overexpression significantly suppressed cell proliferation, colony formationand invasion and promoted apoptosis of YTS cells. Moreover, the upregulation of GSN significantly decreased the protein levels of PI3K and p-AKT. Interestingly, blocking the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway significantly inhibited cell proliferation and invasion and promoted apoptosis of YTS cells...
November 24, 2017: Biology Open
Jacob W Hinkel-Lipsker, Michael E Hahn
When humans make errors in stepping during walking due to a perturbation, they may adapt their gait as a way to correct for discrepancies between predicted and actual sensory feedback. This study sought to determine if increased contextual interference during acquisition of a novel asymmetric gait pattern would change lower-limb mechanical strategies generalized to different walking contexts. Such knowledge could help to clarify the role of contextual interference in locomotor adaptation, and demonstrate potential use in future gait rehabilitation paradigms...
November 24, 2017: Biology Open
Huaibin Miao, Jun Fu, Zhihui Qian, Luquan Ren, Lei Ren
Macroscopic mechanical properties of digitigrade paw pads, such as non-linear elastic and variable stiffness, have been investigated in previous studies. However, little is known about the micro-scale structural characteristics of digitigrade paw pads or the relationship between these characteristics and the exceptional cushioning of the pads. The digitigrade paw pad consists of a multi-layered structure, which is mainly comprised of a stratified epithelium layer, a dermis layer and a subcutaneous layer. The stratified epithelium layer and dermal papillae constitute the epidermis layer...
November 23, 2017: Biology Open
Fidel-Nicolás Lolo, Cristina Rius Leiva, Sergio Casas-Tintó
Cellular interactions are critical during development, tissue fitness and epithelial tumor development. The expression levels of specific genes confer to tumoral cells a survival advantage versus the normal neighboring cells. As a consequence, cells surrounding tumors are eliminated and engulfed by macrophages. We propose a novel scenario in which circulating cells facing a tumor can reproduce these cellular interactions. In vitro cultured macrophages from murine bone marrow were used to investigate this hypothesis...
November 21, 2017: Biology Open
Wai-Kit Chan, David J Price, Thomas Pratt
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) morphogen signalling through the evolutionarily ancient Extracellular signaling Regulated Kinase/Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (ERK/MAPK) pathway recurs in many neural and non-neural developmental contexts and understanding the mechanisms that regulate FGF/ERK function are correspondingly important. The glycosaminoglycan heparan sulphate (HS) binds to FGFs and exists in an enormous number of differentially sulphated forms produced by the action of HS modifying enzymes so has the potential to present an extremely large amount of information in FGF/ERK signalling...
November 20, 2017: Biology Open
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