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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935816/forces-to-pierce-cuticle-of-tarsi-and-material-properties-determined-by-nanoindentation-the-achilles-heel-of-bed-bugs
#1
Jorge Bustamante, Jason F Panzarino, Timothy J Rupert, Catherine Loudon
The mechanical properties of bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) tarsi and pretarsi were investigated in order to evaluate their vulnerability to piercing by plant trichomes (sharp microscopic hairs). Nanoindentation was used to measure the force required to insert a sharp probe into the cuticle of these different regions, as well as to determine creep and reduced elastic moduli for the cuticle. Scanning electron microscopy was used to visualize the indents that had been generated by nanoindentation. The force required to insert a cube corner nanoindenter probe into the cuticle was determined for a range of displacements (1 to 9 µm) and strain rates (0...
September 21, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923978/mcam-contributes-to-the-establishment-of-cell-autonomous-polarity-in-myogenic-and-chondrogenic-differentiation
#2
Artal Moreno-Fortuny, Laricia Bragg, Giulio Cossu, Urmas Roostalu
Cell polarity has a fundamental role in shaping the morphology of cells and growing tissues. Polarity is commonly thought to be established in response to extracellular signals. Here we used a minimal in vitro assay that enabled us to monitor the determination of cell polarity in myogenic and chondrogenic differentiation in the absence of external signalling gradients. We demonstrate that the initiation of cell polarity is regulated by melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM). We found highly polarized localization of MCAM, Moesin (MSN), Scribble (SCRIB) and Van-Gogh-like 2 (VANGL2) at the distal end of elongating myotubes...
September 18, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912357/grazing-limits-natural-biological-controls-of-woody-encroachment-in-inner-mongolia-steppe
#3
Hongyu Guo, Linjing Guan, Yinhua Wang, Lina Xie, Chelse M Prather, Chunguang Liu, Chengcang Ma
Woody encroachment in grasslands has become increasingly problematic globally. Grazing by domestic animals can facilitate woody encroachment by reducing competition from herbaceous plants and fire frequency. Herbivorous insects and parasitic plants can each exert forces that result in the natural biological control of encroaching woody plants through reducing seeding of their host woody plants. Whereas, the interplay of grazing and dynamics of herbivorous insects or parasitic plants, and its effects on the potential biological control of woody encroachment in grasslands remain unclear...
September 13, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882841/quantitative-analysis-of-mechanical-force-required-for-cell-extrusion-in-zebrafish-embryonic-epithelia
#4
Sohei Yamada, Takanori Iino, Yasumasa Bessho, Yoichiro Hosokawa, Takaaki Matsui
When cells in epithelial sheets are damaged by intrinsic or extrinsic causes, they are eliminated by extrusion from the sheet. Cell extrusion, which is required for maintenance of tissue integrity, is the consequence of contraction of actomyosin rings, as demonstrated by both molecular/cell biological experimentation and numerical simulation. However, quantitative evaluation of actomyosin contraction has not been performed because of the lack of a suitable direct measurement system. In this study, we developed a new method using a femtosecond laser to quantify the contraction force of the actomyosin ring during cell extrusion in zebrafish embryonic epithelia...
September 7, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882840/influence-of-a-gsk3%C3%AE-phosphorylation-site-within-the-proximal-c-terminus-of-neurofilament-h-on-neurofilament-dynamics
#5
Rishel Brenna Vohnoutka, Edward F Boumil, Yuguan Liu, Atsuko Uchida, Harish C Pant, Thomas B Shea
Phosphorylation of the C-terminal tail of the heavy neurofilament subunit (NF-H) impacts NF axonal transport and residence within axons by fostering NF-NF associations that compete with transport. We tested the role of phosphorylation of a GSK-3β consensus site (S493) located in the proximal portion of the NF-H tail, in NF dynamics by transfection of NB2a/d1 cells with NF-H where S493 was mutated to aspartic acid (S493D) or to alanine (S493A) to mimic constitutive phosphorylation and non-phosphorylation. S493D underwent increased transport into axonal neurites, while S493A displayed increased perikaryal NF aggregates that were decorated by anti-kinesin...
September 7, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870996/vestigial-like-3-is-a-novel-ets1-interacting-partner-and-regulates-trigeminal-nerve-formation-and-cranial-neural-crest-migration
#6
Emilie Simon, Nadine Thézé, Sandrine Fédou, Pierre Thiébaud, Corinne Faucheux
Drosophila Vestigial is the founding member of a protein family containing a highly conserved domain, called Tondu that mediates their interaction with members of the TEAD family of transcription factors (Scalloped in Drosophila). In Drosophila, the Vestigial/Scalloped complex controls wing development by regulating the expression of target genes through binding to MCAT sequences. In vertebrates, there are four Vestigial-like genes whose functions are still not well understood. Here we describe the regulation and function of vestigial-like 3 (vgll3) during Xenopus early development...
September 4, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860131/clasp1-regulates-endothelial-cell-branching-morphology-and-directed-migration
#7
Nicole M Myer, Kenneth A Myers
Endothelial cell (EC) branching is critically dependent upon the dynamic nature of the microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton. Extracellular matrix (ECM) mechanosensing is a prominent mechanism by which cytoskeletal reorganization is achieved; yet how ECM-induced signaling is able to target cytoskeletal reorganization intracellularly to facilitate productive EC branching morphogenesis is not known. Here, we set out to test the hypothesis that the composition and density of the ECM drive the regulation of MT growth dynamics in ECs by targeting the MT stabilizing protein, CLASP1...
August 31, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860130/how-does-oestradiol-influence-the-avt-it-system-in-female-round-gobies-during-different-reproductive-phases
#8
Hanna Kalamarz-Kubiak, Magdalena Gozdowska, Tatiana Guellard, Ewa Kulczykowska
In this in vitro gradient perfusion study, we determined whether there is a functional relationship between oestradiol and the arginine vasotocin/isotocin (AVT/IT) system in the female round goby (Neogobius melanostomus). Brain explants were perfused in medium supplemented with 17β-oestradiol (E2) at doses mimicking the plasma levels of this hormone in nature during the spawning-capable phase and regressing phase. We aimed to establish which pathway, genomic or non-genomic, is involved in this mechanism in different reproductive phases...
August 31, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838968/tbx1-and-jag1-act-in-concert-to-modulate-the-fate-of-neurosensory-cells-of-the-mouse-otic-vesicle
#9
Stephania Macchiarulo, Bernice E Morrow
The domain within the otic vesicle (OV) known as the neurosensory domain (NSD), contains cells that will give rise to the hair and support cells of the otic sensory organs, as well as the neurons that form the cochleovestibular ganglion (CVG). The molecular dynamics that occur at the NSD boundary relative to adjacent OV cells is not well defined. The Tbx1 transcription factor gene expression pattern is complementary to the NSD, and inactivation results in an expansion of the NSD and expression of the Notch ligand, Jag1 mapping, in part to the NSD...
August 24, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838967/molecular-regulation-of-high-muscle-mass-in-developing-blonde-d-aquitaine-cattle-fetuses
#10
Isabelle Cassar-Malek, Céline Boby, Brigitte Picard, Antonio Reverter, Nicholas J Hudson
The Blonde d'Aquitaine (BA) is a French cattle breed with enhanced muscularity, partly attributable to a MSTN mutation. The BA m. Semitendinosus has a faster muscle fibre isoform phenotype comprising a higher proportion of fast type IIX fibres compared to age matched Charolais (CH). To better understand the molecular network of modifications in BA compared to CH muscle, we assayed the transcriptomes of the m. Semitendinosus at 110, 180, 210 and 260 days post conception (dpc). We used a combination of differential expression (DE) and Regulatory Impact Factors (RIF) to compare and contrast muscle gene expression between the breeds...
August 24, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838966/chlamydomonas-ift25-is-dispensable-for-flagellar-assembly-but-required-to-export-the-bbsome-from-flagella
#11
Bin Dong, Song Wu, Jing Wang, Yan-Xia Liu, Zhao Peng, De-Mei Meng, Kaiyao Huang, Mingfu Wu, Zhen-Chuan Fan
Intraflagellar transport (IFT) particles are composed of polyprotein complexes IFT-A and IFT-B as well as cargo adaptors such as the BBSome. As two IFT-B subunits, IFT25 and IFT27 were found to form a heterodimer, which is essential in exporting the BBSome out of the cilium but not involved in flagellar assembly and cytokinesis in vertebrates. Controversial results were, however, recorded to show that defects in IFT, flagellar assembly and even cytokinesis were caused by IFT27 knockdown in C. reinhardtii By using C...
August 24, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838965/blocking-autophagy-enhances-the-pro-apoptotic-effect-of-bufalin-on-human-gastric-cancer-cells-through-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#12
Hongyan Zhao, Qinghua Li, Jie Pang, Huilin Jin, Hongwei Li, Xiaoying Yang
Bufalin has been used to treat cancer for several years. However, the molecular mechanisms for its anti-tumor function are not fully understood. This work aimed to investigate the effect of bufalin on the proliferation and apoptosis of human gastric cancer (HGC) cells and the roles of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy in bufalin induced apoptosis. HGC cell lines, SGC7901 and BGC823 were treated with different concentration of bufalin or 80 nmol/l bufalin for 1, 2, 3 and 4 days. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and direct cell counting method were used to detect proliferation...
August 24, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821490/serca-directs-cell-migration-and-branching-across-species-and-germ-layers
#13
Danielle V Bower, Nick Lansdale, Sonia Navarro, Thai V Truong, Dan J Bower, Neil C Featherstone, Marilyn G Connell, Denise Al-Alam, Mark R Frey, Le A Trinh, G Esteban Fernandez, David Warburton, Scott E Fraser, Daimark Bennett, Edwin C Jesudason
Branching morphogenesis underlies organogenesis in vertebrates and invertebrates, yet is incompletely understood. Here, we show that the sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) reuptake pump (SERCA) directs budding across germ layers and species. Clonal knockdown demonstrated a cell-autonomous role for SERCA in Drosophila air sac budding. Live imaging of Drosophila tracheogenesis revealed elevated Ca(2+) levels in migratory tip cells as they form branches. SERCA blockade abolished this Ca(2+) differential, aborting both cell migration and new branching...
August 17, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818840/hcn4-ion-channel-function-is-required-for-early-events-that-regulate-anatomical-left-right-patterning-in-a-nodal-and-lefty-asymmetric-gene-expression-independent-manner
#14
Vaibhav P Pai, Valerie Willocq, Emily J Pitcairn, Joan M Lemire, Jean-François Paré, Nian-Qing Shi, Kelly A McLaughlin, Michael Levin
Laterality is a basic characteristic of all life forms, from single cell organisms to complex plants and animals. For many metazoans, consistent left-right asymmetric patterning is essential for the correct anatomy of internal organs, such as the heart, gut, and brain; disruption of left-right asymmetry patterning leads to an important class of birth defects in human patients. Laterality functions across multiple scales, where early embryonic, subcellular and chiral cytoskeletal events are coupled with asymmetric amplification mechanisms and gene regulatory networks leading to asymmetric physical forces that ultimately result in distinct left and right anatomical organ patterning...
August 17, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808138/an-ampk-dependent-regulatory-pathway-in-tau-mediated-toxicity
#15
Alessia Galasso, Charles S Cameron, Bruno G Frenguelli, Kevin G Moffat
Neurodegenerative tauopathies are characterized by accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau aggregates primarily degraded by autophagy.The 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is expressed in most cells, including neurons. Alongside its metabolic functions, it is also known to be activated in Alzheimer's brains, phosphorylate tau and be a critical autophagy activator. Whether it plays a neurotoxic or neuroprotective role remains unclear. Complexly in tauopathies, while stress conditions can result in AMPK activation enhancing tau-mediated toxicity, AMPK activation is not always concomitant with autophagic induction...
August 14, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798148/ubiquitination-of-basal-vegfr2-regulates-signal-transduction-and-endothelial-function
#16
Gina A Smith, Gareth W Fearnley, Izma Abdul-Zani, Stephen B Wheatcroft, Darren C Tomlinson, Michael A Harrison, Sreenivasan Ponnambalam
Cell surface receptors can undergo recycling or proteolysis but the cellular decision-making events that sort between these pathways remain poorly defined. Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) regulates signal transduction and angiogenesis but how signaling and proteolysis is regulated is not well understood. Here, we provide evidence that a pathway requiring the E1 ubiquitin-activating enzyme UBA1 controls basal VEGFR2 levels, hence metering plasma membrane receptor availability for the VEGF-A-regulated response by endothelial cells...
August 10, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751306/adaptive-camouflage-what-can-be-learned-from-the-wetting-behaviour-of-the-tropical-flatbugs-dysodius-lunatus-and-d-magnus
#17
Florian Hischen, Vladislav Reiswich, Desirée Kupsch, Ninon De Mecquenem, Michael Riedel, Markus Himmelsbach, Agnes Weth, Ernst Heiss, Oskar Armbruster, Johannes Heitz, Werner Baumgartner
The neotropical flatbug species Dysodius lunatus and Dysodius magnus show a fascinating camouflage principle. Its appearance renders the animal hardly visible on the bark of trees. However, when getting wet due to rain, bark changes its colour and gets darker. In order to keep the camouflage effect, it seems as if some Dysodius species benefit from their ability to hold a water film on their cuticle and therefore change their optical properties when wetted by water too. This camouflage behaviour requires the insect to have a hydrophilic surface and passive surface structures, which facilitate the liquid spreading...
July 27, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916709/correction-surviving-murine-experimental-sepsis-affects-the-function-and-morphology-of-the-inner-ear
#18
Natalie Fischer, Nina Maria Mathonia, Georges Hollerich, Julian Veser, Leyla Pinggera, Daniel Dejaco, Rudolf Glueckert, Anneliese Schrott-Fischer, Peter Lackner, Herbert Riechelmann, Joachim Schmutzhard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916708/architectural-delineation-and-molecular-identification-of-extracellular-matrix-in-ascidian-embryos-and-larvae
#19
Jiankai Wei, Guilin Wang, Xiang Li, Ping Ren, Haiyan Yu, Bo Dong
The extracellular matrix (ECM) not only provides essential physical scaffolding for cellular constituents but also initiates crucial biochemical and biomechanical cues that are required for tissue morphogenesis. In this study, we utilized wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) staining to characterize the ECM architecture in ascidian embryos and larvae. The results showed three distinct populations of ECM presenting in Ciona embryogenesis: the outer layer localized at the surface of embryo, an inner layer of notochord sheath and the apical ECM secreted by the notochord...
September 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916707/pqn-75-is-expressed-in-the-pharyngeal-gland-cells-of-caenorhabditiselegans-and-is-dispensable-for-germline-development
#20
Jesse D Rochester, Paige C Tanner, Catherine S Sharp, Karolina M Andralojc, Dustin L Updike
In Caenorhabditis elegans, five pharyngeal gland cells reside in the terminal bulb of the pharynx and extend anterior processes to five contact points in the pharyngeal lumen. Pharyngeal gland cells secrete mucin-like proteins thought to facilitate digestion, hatching, molting and assembly of the surface coat of the cuticle, but supporting evidence has been sparse. Here we show pharyngeal gland cell expression of PQN-75, a unique protein containing an N-terminal signal peptide, nucleoporin (Nup)-like phenylalanine/glycine (FG) repeats, and an extensive polyproline repeat domain with similarities to human basic salivary proline-rich pre-protein PRB2...
September 15, 2017: Biology Open
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