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Membranes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813026/breath-figure-self-assembly-a-versatile-method-of-manufacturing-membranes-and-porous-structures-physical-chemical-and-technological-aspects
#1
REVIEW
Edward Bormashenko
The review is devoted to the physical, chemical, and technological aspects of the breath-figure self-assembly process. The main stages of the process and impact of the polymer architecture and physical parameters of breath-figure self-assembly on the eventual pattern are covered. The review is focused on the hierarchy of spatial and temporal scales inherent to breath-figure self-assembly. Multi-scale patterns arising from the process are addressed. The characteristic spatial lateral scales of patterns vary from nanometers to dozens of micrometers...
August 16, 2017: Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809796/polymeric-and-lipid-membranes-from-spheres-to-flat-membranes-and-vice-versa
#2
REVIEW
Mariia S Saveleva, Ekaterina V Lengert, Dmitry A Gorin, Bogdan V Parakhonskiy, Andre G Skirtach
Membranes are important components in a number of systems, where separation and control of the flow of molecules is desirable. Controllable membranes represent an even more coveted and desirable entity and their development is considered to be the next step of development. Typically, membranes are considered on flat surfaces, but spherical capsules possess a perfect "infinite" or fully suspended membranes. Similarities and transitions between spherical and flat membranes are discussed, while applications of membranes are also emphasized...
August 15, 2017: Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800109/effects-of-zno-nanoparticle-on-the-gas-separation-performance-of-polyurethane-mixed-matrix-membrane
#3
Banafsheh Soltani, Morteza Asghari
Polyurethane (PU)-ZnO mixed matrix membranes (MMM) were fabricated and characterized for gas separation. A thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), a scanning electron microscope (SEM) test and an atomic-force microscopy (AFM) revealed that the physical properties and thermal stability of the membranes were improved through filler loading. Hydrogen Bonding Index, obtained from the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), demonstrate that the degree of phase separation in PU-ZnO 0.5 wt % MMM was more than the neat PU, while in PU-ZnO 1...
August 11, 2017: Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796197/the-effect-of-the-pore-entrance-on-particle-motion-in-slit-pores-implications-for-ultrathin-membranes
#4
Armin Delavari, Ruth Baltus
Membrane rejection models generally neglect the effect of the pore entrance on intrapore particle transport. However, entrance effects are expected to be particularly important with ultrathin membranes, where membrane thickness is typically comparable to pore size. In this work, a 2D model was developed to simulate particle motion for spherical particles moving at small Re and infinite Pe from the reservoir outside the pore into a slit pore. Using a finite element method, particles were tracked as they accelerated across the pore entrance until they reached a steady velocity in the pore...
August 10, 2017: Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777352/preparation-of-porous-stainless-steel-hollow-fibers-through-multi-modal-particle-size-sintering-towards-pore-engineering
#5
Francois-Marie Allioux, Oana David, Miren Etxeberria Benavides, Lingxue Kong, David Alfredo Pacheco Tanaka, Ludovic F Dumée
The sintering of metal powders is an efficient and versatile technique to fabricate porous metal elements such as filters, diffusers, and membranes. Neck formation between particles is, however, critical to tune the porosity and optimize mass transfer in order to minimize the densification process. In this work, macro-porous stainless steel (SS) hollow-fibers (HFs) were fabricated by the extrusion and sintering of a dope comprised, for the first time, of a bimodal mixture of SS powders. The SS particles of different sizes and shapes were mixed to increase the neck formation between the particles and control the densification process of the structure during sintering...
August 4, 2017: Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777336/development-of-ph-sensitive-dextran-derivatives-with-strong-adjuvant-function-and-their-application-to-antigen-delivery
#6
Eiji Yuba, Shinya Uesugi, Maiko Miyazaki, Yuna Kado, Atsushi Harada, Kenji Kono
To achieve efficient cancer immunotherapy, the induction of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-based cellular immunity is necessary. In order to induce cellular immunity, antigen carriers that can deliver antigen into cytosol of antigen presenting cells and can activate these cells are required. We previously developed 3-methyl glutarylated dextran (MGlu-Dex) for cytoplasmic delivery of antigen via membrane disruption ability at weakly acidic pH in endosome/lysosomes. MGlu-Dex-modified liposomes delivered model antigens into cytosol of dendritic cells and induced antigen-specific cellular immunity...
August 4, 2017: Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28788091/electro-conductive-membranes-for-permeation-enhancement-and-fouling-mitigation-a-short-review
#7
REVIEW
Patrizia Formoso, Elvira Pantuso, Giovanni De Filpo, Fiore Pasquale Nicoletta
The research on electro-conductive membranes has expanded in recent years. These membranes have strong prospective as key components in next generation water treatment plants because they are engineered in order to enhance their performance in terms of separation, flux, fouling potential, and permselectivity. The present review summarizes recent developments in the preparation of electro-conductive membranes and the mechanisms of their response to external electric voltages in order to obtain an improvement in permeation and mitigation in the fouling growth...
July 28, 2017: Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753973/toward-the-fabrication-of-advanced-nanofiltration-membranes-by-controlling-morphologies-and-mesochannel-orientations-of-hexagonal-lyotropic-liquid-crystals
#8
REVIEW
Guang Wang, Christopher J Garvey, Han Zhao, Kang Huang, Lingxue Kong
Water scarcity has been recognized as one of the major threats to human activity, and, therefore, water purification technologies are increasingly drawing attention worldwide. Nanofiltration (NF) membrane technology has been proven to be an efficient and cost-effective way in terms of the size and continuity of the nanostructure. Using a template based on hexagonal lyotropic liquid crystals (LLCs) and partitioning monomer units within this structure for subsequent photo-polymerisation presents a unique path for the fabrication of NF membranes, potentially producing pores of uniform size, ranging from 1 to 5 nm, and large surface areas...
July 21, 2017: Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708120/on-operating-a-nanofiltration-membrane-for-olive-mill-wastewater-purification-at-sub-and-super-boundary-conditions
#9
Marco Stoller, Javier Miguel Ochando-Pulido, Robert Field
In the last decades, membrane processes have gained a significant share of the market for wastewater purification. Although the product (i.e., purified water) is not of high added value, these processes are feasible both technically and from an economic point of view, provided the flux is relatively high and that membrane fouling is strongly inhibited. By controlling membrane fouling, the membrane may work for years without service, thus dramatically reducing operating costs and the need for membrane substitution...
July 14, 2017: Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671604/nanofiltration-and-tight-ultrafiltration-membranes-for-natural-organic-matter-removal-contribution-of-fouling-and-concentration-polarization-to-filtration-resistance
#10
Joerg Winter, Benoit Barbeau, Pierre Bérubé
Nanofiltration (NF) and tight ultrafiltration (tight UF) membranes are a viable treatment option for high quality drinking water production from sources with high concentrations of contaminants. To date, there is limited knowledge regarding the contribution of concentration polarization (CP) and fouling to the increase in resistance during filtration of natural organic matter (NOM) with NF and tight UF. Filtration tests were conducted with NF and tight UF membranes with molecular weight cut offs (MWCOs) of 300, 2000 and 8000 Da, and model raw waters containing different constituents of NOM...
July 2, 2017: Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661445/thermal-stability-of-phase-separated-domains-in-multicomponent-lipid-membranes-with-local-anesthetics
#11
Ko Sugahara, Naofumi Shimokawa, Masahiro Takagi
The functional mechanisms of local anesthetics (LAs) have not yet been fully explained, despite their importance in modern medicine. Recently, an indirect interaction between channel proteins and LAs was proposed as follows: LAs alter the physical properties of lipid membranes, thus affecting the channel proteins. To examine this hypothesis, we investigated changes in thermal stability in lipid membranes consisting of dioleoylphosphocholine, dipalmitoylphosphocholine, and cholesterol by adding the LAs, lidocaine and tetracaine...
June 29, 2017: Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621717/poly-vinylbenzylchloride-based-anion-exchange-blend-membranes-aebms-influence-of-peg-additive-on-conductivity-and-stability
#12
Jochen A Kerres, Henning M Krieg
In view of the many possible applications such as fuel cells and electrolysers, recent interest in novel anion exchange membranes (AEMs) has increased significantly. However, their low conductivity and chemical stability limits their current suitability. In this study, the synthesis and characterization of several three- and four-component anion exchange blend membranes (AEBMs) is described, where the compositions have been systematically varied to study the influence of the AEBM's composition on the anion conductivities as well as chemical and thermal stabilities under strongly alkaline conditions...
June 16, 2017: Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613247/thin-film-nanocomposite-membrane-filled-with-metal-organic-frameworks-uio-66-and-mil-125-nanoparticles-for-water-desalination
#13
Mohammed Kadhom, Weiming Hu, Baolin Deng
Knowing that the world is facing a shortage of fresh water, desalination, in its different forms including reverse osmosis, represents a practical approach to produce potable water from a saline source. In this report, two kinds of Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) nanoparticles (NPs), UiO-66 (~100 nm) and MIL-125 (~100 nm), were embedded separately into thin-film composite membranes in different weight ratios, 0%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.15%, 0.2%, and 0.3%. The membranes were synthesized by the interfacial polymerization (IP) of m-phenylenediamine (MPD) in aqueous solution and trimesoyl chloride (TMC) in an organic phase...
June 14, 2017: Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604649/a-short-review-of-membrane-fouling-in-forward-osmosis-processes
#14
REVIEW
Youngpil Chun, Dennis Mulcahy, Linda Zou, In S Kim
Interest in forward osmosis (FO) research has rapidly increased in the last decade due to problems of water and energy scarcity. FO processes have been used in many applications, including wastewater reclamation, desalination, energy production, fertigation, and food and pharmaceutical processing. However, the inherent disadvantages of FO, such as lower permeate water flux compared to pressure driven membrane processes, concentration polarisation (CP), reverse salt diffusion, the energy consumption of draw solution recovery and issues of membrane fouling have restricted its industrial applications...
June 12, 2017: Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587268/influence-of-membrane-equivalent-weight-and-reinforcement-on-ionic-species-crossover-in-all-vanadium-redox-flow-batteries
#15
Yasser Ashraf Gandomi, Doug S Aaron, Matthew M Mench
One of the major sources of lost capacity in all-vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) is the undesired transport (usually called crossover) of water and vanadium ions through the ion-exchange membrane. In this work, an experimental assessment of the impact of ion-exchange membrane properties on vanadium ion crossover and capacity decay of VRFBs has been performed. Two types of cationic membranes (non-reinforced and reinforced) with three equivalent weights of 800, 950 and 1100 g·mol(-1) were investigated via a series of in situ performance and capacity decay tests along with ex situ vanadium crossover measurement and membrane characterization...
June 6, 2017: Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587247/membranes-of-polymers-of-intrinsic-microporosity-pim-1-modified-by-poly-ethylene-glycol
#16
Gisela Bengtson, Silvio Neumann, Volkan Filiz
Until now, the leading polymer of intrinsic microporosity PIM-1 has become quite famous for its high membrane permeability for many gases in gas separation, linked, however, to a rather moderate selectivity. The combination with the hydrophilic and low permeable poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(ethylene oxides) (PEO) should on the one hand reduce permeability, while on the other hand enhance selectivity, especially for the polar gas CO₂ by improving the hydrophilicity of the membranes. Four different paths to combine PIM-1 with PEG or poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) were studied: physically blending, quenching of polycondensation, synthesis of multiblock copolymers and synthesis of copolymers with PEO/PPO side chain...
June 5, 2017: Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587232/fabrication-of-defect-free-cellulose-acetate-hollow-fibers-by-optimization-of-spinning-parameters
#17
Xuezhong He
Spinning of cellulose acetate (CA) with the additive polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) solvent under different conditions was investigated. The spinning parameters of air gap, bore fluid composition, flow rate of bore fluid, and quench bath temperature were optimized based on the orthogonal experiment design (OED) method and multivariate analysis. FTIR and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the membrane structure and morphology. Based on the conjoint analysis in Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS) software, the importance of these parameters was identified as: air gap > bore fluid composition > flow rate of bore fluid > quench bath temperature...
June 5, 2017: Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467384/anaerobic-membrane-bioreactor-for-continuous-lactic-acid-fermentation
#18
Rong Fan, Mehrdad Ebrahimi, Peter Czermak
Membrane bioreactor systems can enhance anaerobic lactic acid fermentation by reducing product inhibition, thus increasing productivity. In batch fermentations, the bioconversion of glucose is strongly inhibited in the presence of more than 100 g·L(-1) lactic acid and is only possible when the product is simultaneously removed, which can be achieved by ceramic membrane filtration. The crossflow velocity is a more important determinant of flux than the transmembrane pressure. Therefore, to stabilize the performance of the membrane bioreactor system during continuous fermentation, the crossflow velocity was controlled by varying the biomass concentration, which was monitored in real-time using an optical sensor...
May 3, 2017: Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468242/polymer-electrolyte-membranes-for-water-photo-electrolysis
#19
Antonino S Aricò, Mariarita Girolamo, Stefania Siracusano, David Sebastian, Vincenzo Baglio, Michael Schuster
Water-fed photo-electrolysis cells equipped with perfluorosulfonic acid (Nafion(®) 115) and quaternary ammonium-based (Fumatech(®) FAA3) ion exchange membranes as separator for hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions were investigated. Protonic or anionic ionomer dispersions were deposited on the electrodes to extend the interface with the electrolyte. The photo-anode consisted of a large band-gap Ti-oxide semiconductor. The effect of membrane characteristics on the photo-electrochemical conversion of solar energy was investigated for photo-voltage-driven electrolysis cells...
April 29, 2017: Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448443/the-effect-of-thermal-fluctuation-on-the-receptor-mediated-adhesion-of-a-cell-membrane-to-an-elastic-substrate
#20
Bahador Marzban, Hongyan Yuan
Mechanics of the bilayer membrane play an important role in many biological and bioengineering problems such as cell-substrate and cell-nanomaterial interactions. In this work, we study the effect of thermal fluctuation and the substrate elasticity on the cell membrane-substrate adhesion. We model the adhesion of a fluctuating membrane on an elastic substrate as a two-step reaction comprised of the out-of-plane membrane fluctuation and the receptor-ligand binding. The equilibrium closed bond ratio as a function of substrate rigidity was computed by developing a coupled Fourier space Brownian dynamics and Monte Carlo method...
April 27, 2017: Membranes
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