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Yunlei Yin, Dandan Pu, Jie Xiong
The mechanical properties of electrospun nanofiber membranes are critical for their applications. A clear understanding of the mechanical properties that result from the characteristics of the individual fiber and membrane microstructure is vital in the design of fiber composites. In this reported study, silk fibroin (SF)/polycaprolactone (PCL) composite nanofiber membranes were preparedusing an electrostatic spinning technology. The nanofiber orientation distribution (FOD) of the membrane was analyzed using multi-layer image fusion technology, and the results indicated the presence of an approximately uniform distribution of fibers in the electrospun membranes...
December 7, 2017: Membranes
(no author information available yet)
A photoactive gel has been fabricated on the surface of polyethylene membranes for enhancing the fouling resistance during olive mill wastewater treatment. Light and pH responsive materials have been introduced in the membrane surface through the build up of a layer-by-layer pattern, which is formed by photocatalytic nanoparticles and ionic polyelectrolytes. The best working conditions to contrast foulants adsorption have been explored and identified. Repulsive interfacial forces and assisted transfer of foulants to catalytic sites have been envisaged as crucial factors for contrasting the decline of the flux during microfiltration...
November 25, 2017: Membranes
Patrick Dutournié, Lionel Limousy, Jérôme Anquetil, Sébastien Déon
This work focuses on the selectivity modification of ceramic membranes after a mild alkaline treatment. Filtration of pure salt-water solutions was carried out with commercial titania membranes before and after the treatment. After treatment, the rejection of NaF significantly decreased, while the rejection of NaCl and NaBr increased. Additionally, NaI and Na₂SO₄ remained close to zero. Pore size and electrical charge being almost unchanged, only significant modifications in the dielectric effects can explain this modification of selectivity...
November 21, 2017: Membranes
Maryam Amouamouha, Gagik Badalians Gholikandi
Biofouling is one of the drawbacks restricting the industrial applications of membranes. In this study, different thicknesses of silver nanoparticles with proper adhesion were deposited on poly(vinylidenefluoride) (PVDF) and polyethersulfone (PES) surfaces by physical vapor deposition (PVD). The crystalline and structural properties of modified and pure membranes were investigated by carrying out X-ray diffraction (XRD) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analyses were employed to examine the surface morphology and the bacteria anti-adhesion property of the membranes...
November 12, 2017: Membranes
Ricardo Abejón, Heriberto Pérez-Acebo, Aurora Garea
A bibliometric analysis based on Scopus database was performed to identify the global research trends related to Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes (SILMs) during the time period from 1995 to 2015. This work tries to improve the understanding of the most relevant research topics and applications. The results from the analysis reveal that only after 2005 the research efforts focused on SILMs became significant, since the references found before that year are scarce. The most important research works on the four main application groups for SILMs defined in this work (carbon dioxide separation, other gas phase separations, pervaporation and liquid phase separations) were summarized in this paper...
November 7, 2017: Membranes
Volker Endeward, Mariela Arias-Hidalgo, Samer Al-Samir, Gerolf Gros
We summarize here, mainly for mammalian systems, the present knowledge of (a) the membrane CO₂ permeabilities in various tissues; (b) the physiological significance of the value of the CO₂ permeability;
October 24, 2017: Membranes
Alejandro Ruiz-García, Noemi Melián-Martel, Ignacio Nuez
Reverse Osmosis (RO) membrane fouling is one of the main challenges that membrane manufactures, the scientific community and industry professionals have to deal with. The consequences of this inevitable phenomenon have a negative effect on the performance of the desalination system. Predicting fouling in RO systems is key to evaluating the long-term operating conditions and costs. Much research has been done on fouling indices, methods, techniques and prediction models to estimate the influence of fouling on the performance of RO systems...
October 24, 2017: Membranes
Abir Maarouf Kabbani, Xinxin Woodward, Christopher V Kelly
Recent advances in nanoengineering and super-resolution microscopy have enabled new capabilities for creating and observing membrane curvature. However, the effects of curvature on single-lipid diffusion have yet to be revealed. The simulations presented here describe the capabilities of varying experimental methods for revealing the effects of nanoscale curvature on single-molecule mobility. Traditionally, lipid mobility is revealed through fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), and single particle tracking (SPT)...
October 18, 2017: Membranes
Melanie Fillingham, Andrew VanderZaag, Jessica Singh, Stephen Burtt, Anna Crolla, Chris Kinsley, J Douglas MacDonald
Capturing ammonia from anaerobically digested manure could simultaneously decrease the adverse effects of ammonia inhibition on biogas production, reduce reactive nitrogen (N) loss to the environment, and produce mineral N fertilizer as a by-product. In this study, gas permeable membranes (GPM) were used to capture ammonia from dairy manure and digestate by the diffusion of gaseous ammonia across the membrane where ammonia is captured by diluted acid, forming an aqueous ammonium salt. A lab-scale prototype using tubular expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) GPM was used to (1) characterize the effect of total ammonium nitrogen (TAN) concentration, temperature, and pH on the ammonia capture rate using GPM, and (2) to evaluate the performance of a GPM system in conditions similar to a mesophilic anaerobic digester...
October 7, 2017: Membranes
Unoaku Victoria Unije, Robert Mücke, Stefan Baumann, Olivier Guillon
The gas flow through porous media including that of multiple species is frequently described by the binary friction model (BFM) considering the binary diffusion, Knudsen diffusion, and viscous flow. Therefore, a numerical simulation was performed on a microporous support of an asymmetric oxygen transport membrane. As its exact numerical solution is complicated and not always possible, the results of two different levels of simplification of the pressure profiles within the porous support are compared to the exact numerical solution...
October 3, 2017: Membranes
Tiziana Marino, Francesca Russo, Lina Rezzouk, Abderrazak Bouzid, Alberto Figoli
The aim of this work was the fabrication and the characterization of mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) for arsenic (As) removal from water. Membrane separation was combined with an adsorption process by incorporating the kaolin (KT2) Algerian natural clay in polymeric membranes. The effects of casting solution composition was explored using different amounts of polyethersufone (PES) as a polymer, polyvinyl-pyrrolidone (PVP K17) and polyethylene glycol (PEG 200) as pore former agents, N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP) as a solvent, and kaolin...
September 30, 2017: Membranes
Takahiko Aoki
Human red blood cells (RBC), which are the cells most commonly used in the study of biological membranes, have some glycoproteins in their cell membrane. These membrane proteins are band 3 and glycophorins A-D, and some substoichiometric glycoproteins (e.g., CD44, CD47, Lu, Kell, Duffy). The oligosaccharide that band 3 contains has one N-linked oligosaccharide, and glycophorins possess mostly O-linked oligosaccharides. The end of the O-linked oligosaccharide is linked to sialic acid. In humans, this sialic acid is N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc)...
September 29, 2017: Membranes
M G Mostafa, Bo Zhu, Marlene Cran, Noel Dow, Nicholas Milne, Dilip Desai, Mikel Duke
Meat rendering operations produce stick water waste which is rich in proteins, fats, and minerals. Membrane distillation (MD) may further recover water and valuable solids, but hydrophobic membranes are contaminated by the fats. Here, commercial hydrophobic polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) membranes with a hydrophilic polyurethane surface layer (PU-PTFE) are used for the first time for direct contact MD (DCMD) on real poultry, fish, and bovine stick waters. Metal membrane microfiltration (MMF) was also used to capture fats prior to MD...
September 29, 2017: Membranes
Armineh Hassanvand, Kajia Wei, Sahar Talebi, George Q Chen, Sandra E Kentish
Ion-exchange membranes (IEMs) are unique in combining the electrochemical properties of ion exchange resins and the permeability of a membrane. They are being used widely to treat industrial effluents, and in seawater and brackish water desalination. Membrane Capacitive Deionisation (MCDI) is an emerging, energy efficient technology for brackish water desalination in which these ion-exchange membranes act as selective gates allowing the transport of counter-ions toward carbon electrodes. This article provides a summary of recent developments in the preparation, characterization, and performance of ion exchange membranes in the MCDI field...
September 14, 2017: Membranes
Jinxia Ma, Dan Ping, Xinfa Dong
Membrane-based separation technology has attracted great interest in many separation fields due to its advantages of easy-operation, energy-efficiency, easy scale-up, and environmental friendliness. The development of novel membrane materials and membrane structures is an urgent demand to promote membrane-based separation technology. Graphene oxide (GO), as an emerging star nano-building material, has showed great potential in the membrane-based separation field. In this review paper, the latest research progress in GO-based membranes focused on adjusting membrane structure and enhancing their mechanical strength as well as structural stability in aqueous environment is highlighted and discussed in detail...
September 12, 2017: Membranes
Sagar Roy, Nayan Ranjan Singha
Pervaporation (PV) has been considered as one of the most active and promising areas in membrane technologies in separating close boiling or azeotropic liquid mixtures, heat sensitive biomaterials, water or organics from its mixtures that are indispensable constituents for various important chemical and bio-separations. In the PV process, the membrane plays the most pivotal role and is of paramount importance in governing the overall efficiency. This article evaluates and collaborates the current research towards the development of next generation nanomaterials (NMs) and embedded polymeric membranes with regard to its synthesis, fabrication and application strategies, challenges and future prospects...
September 8, 2017: Membranes
Juliana I Clodt, Volkan Filiz, Sergey Shishatskiy
We suggest a failure-free method of porous membranes characterization that gives the researcher the opportunity to compare and characterize properties of any porous membrane. This proposal is supported by an investigation of eight membranes made of different organic and inorganic materials, with nine different perfluorinated compounds. It was found that aromatic compounds, perfluorobenzene, and perfluorotoluene, used in the current study show properties different from other perfluorinated aliphatics. They demonstrate extreme deviation from the general sequence indicating the existence of π-π-interaction on the pore wall...
September 5, 2017: Membranes
Appana Lok, Pierre R Bérubé, Robert C Andrews
Bench-scale systems are often used to evaluate pretreatment methods and operational conditions that can be applied in full-scale ultrafiltration (UF) systems. However, the membrane packing density is substantially different in bench and full-scale systems. Differences in concentration factor (CF) at the solution-membrane interface as a result of packing density may impact the mass transfer and fouling rate and the applicability of bench-scale systems. The present study compared membrane resistance when considering raw water (CF = 1) and reject water (also commonly referred to as concentrate water) (CF > 1) as feed in UF systems operated in deposition (dead-end) mode...
September 1, 2017: Membranes
Adree Khondker, Richard J Alsop, Maikel C Rheinstädter
Amyloid- β aggregates play a causative role in Alzheimer's disease. These aggregates are a product of the physical environment provided by the basic neuronal membrane, composed of a lipid bilayer. The intrinsic properties of the lipid bilayer allow amyloid- β peptides to nucleate and form well-ordered cross- β sheets within the membrane. Here, we correlate the aggregation of the hydrophobic fragment of the amyloid- β protein, A β 25 - 35 , with the hydrophobicity, fluidity, and charge density of a lipid bilayer...
August 31, 2017: Membranes
Nicholas J Fouty, Juan C Carrasco, Fernando V Lima
Due to the recent increase of natural gas production in the U.S., utilizing natural gas for higher-value chemicals has become imperative. Direct methane aromatization (DMA) is a promising process used to convert methane to benzene, but it is limited by low conversion of methane and rapid catalyst deactivation by coking. Past work has shown that membrane separation of the hydrogen produced in the DMA reactions can dramatically increase the methane conversion by shifting the equilibrium toward the products, but it also increases coke production...
August 29, 2017: Membranes
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