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Saravanan Janakiram, Mahdi Ahmadi, Zhongde Dai, Luca Ansaloni, Liyuan Deng
Membrane technology has the potential to be an eco-friendly and energy-saving solution for the separation of CO₂ from different gaseous streams due to the lower cost and the superior manufacturing features. However, the performances of membranes made of conventional polymers are limited by the trade-off between the permeability and selectivity. Improving the membrane performance through the addition of nanofillers within the polymer matrix offers a promising strategy to achieve superior separation performance...
May 14, 2018: Membranes
Xiaobo Dong, Amna Al-Jumaily, Isabel C Escobar
Organic solvents, such as N -methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and dimethylacetamide (DMAc), have been traditionally used to fabricate polymeric membranes. These solvents may have a negative impact on the environment and human health; therefore, using renewable solvents derived from biomass is of great interest to make membrane fabrication sustainable. Methyl-5-(dimethylamino)-2-methyl-5-oxopentanoate (Rhodiasolv PolarClean) is a bio-derived, biodegradable, nonflammable and nonvolatile solvent. Polysulfone is a commonly used polymer to fabricate membranes due to its thermal stability, strong mechanical strength and good chemical resistance...
May 7, 2018: Membranes
Masahiro Yasukawa, Daisuke Shigefuji, Masafumi Shibuya, Yuki Ikebe, Ryuto Horie, Mitsuru Higa
In this study, pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) performance of a 5-inch scale cellulose triacetate (CTA)-based hollow fiber (HF) membrane module was evaluated under a wide range of operating conditions (0.0⁻6.0 MPa of applied pressure, 0.5⁻2.0 L/min feed solution (FS) inlet flow rate, 1.0⁻6.0 L/min DS inlet flow rate and 0.1⁻0.9 M draw solution (DS) concentration) by using a PRO/reverse osmosis (RO) hybrid system. The subsequent RO system for DS regeneration enabled the evaluation of the steady-stated module performance...
May 1, 2018: Membranes
Núria Pont, Victòria Salvadó, Clàudia Fontàs
A supported liquid membrane is developed for the separation of Cd from either high in salinity or acidity aqueous media. The membrane consisted of a durapore (polyvinylidene difluoride) polymeric support impregnated with a 0.5 M Aliquat 336 solution in decaline. The effect of carrier concentration, organic solvent and feed and receiving solutions on the metal permeability is studied. This system allows the effective transport of trace levels of Cd through the formation of CdCl₄2− , which is the predominant species responsible for the extraction process, in both NaCl and HCl solutions...
April 23, 2018: Membranes
Wei-Hsuan Wu, Paul Thomas, Paul Hume, Jianyong Jin
Carboxylate-functionalised polymers of intrinsic microporosity (C-PIMs) are highly desirable materials for membrane separation applications. The recently reported method to afford C-PIMs was via an extensive base hydrolysis process requiring 360 h. Herein, a novel and effective method to convert PIM-CONH₂ to C-PIM using nitrous acid was studied. The chemical structure of C-PIM was characterised by ¹H NMR, 13 C NMR, FTIR, elemental analysis, UV-Vis, TGA and TGA-MS. Complete conversion from amide to carboxylic acid groups was confirmed...
April 18, 2018: Membranes
Cristina Vergel, Carolina Mendiguchía, Carlos Moreno
The different species of nickel present in natural waters exhibit different transport behaviour through bulk liquid membranes (BLMs). This fact has been used to design and optimise a separation/pre-concentration system applicable to separate labile and non-labile nickel fractions. A hydrazone derivative-1,2-cyclohexanedione bis-benzoyl-hydrazone (1,2-CHBBH) dissolved in toluene/dimethyl formamide (2% DMF)-was used as a chemical carrier of nickel species, from an aqueous source solution (sample) to a receiving acidic solution...
April 15, 2018: Membranes
Claudia Ursino, Roberto Castro-Muñoz, Enrico Drioli, Lassaad Gzara, Mohammad H Albeirutty, Alberto Figoli
The use of membrane-based technologies has been applied for water treatment applications; however, the limitations of conventional polymeric membranes have led to the addition of inorganic fillers to enhance their performance. In recent years, nanocomposite membranes have greatly attracted the attention of scientists for water treatment applications such as wastewater treatment, water purification, removal of microorganisms, chemical compounds, heavy metals, etc. The incorporation of different nanofillers, such as carbon nanotubes, zinc oxide, graphene oxide, silver and copper nanoparticles, titanium dioxide, 2D materials, and some other novel nano-scale materials into polymeric membranes have provided great advances, e...
April 3, 2018: Membranes
Sreenivasan Ramaswami, Joachim Behrendt, Ralf Otterpohl
Reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) are among the state-of-the-art technologies for treating landfill leachates. Due to the complexity and variance in the composition of leachates, numerous combinations of multiple technologies are used for their treatment. One process chain for the treatment of raw leachate is RO followed by further concentration of RO-retentate using NF (RO-NF scheme). The aptness of this process train used by some landfill sites around the world (usually with the aim of volume reduction so as to re-inject the concentrate into the landfill) is questionable...
March 21, 2018: Membranes
Sara Escorihuela, Alberto Tena, Sergey Shishatskiy, Sonia Escolástico, Torsten Brinkmann, Jose Manuel Serra, Volker Abetz
Novel selective ceramic-supported thin polyimide films produced in a single dip coating step are proposed for membrane applications at elevated temperatures. Layers of the polyimides P84® , Matrimid 5218® , and 6FDA-6FpDA were successfully deposited onto porous alumina supports. In order to tackle the poor compatibility between ceramic support and polymer, and to get defect-free thin films, the effect of the viscosity of the polymer solution was studied, giving the entanglement concentration (C*) for each polymer...
March 7, 2018: Membranes
Nasser K Awad, Haitao Niu, Usman Ali, Yosry S Morsi, Tong Lin
Small-diameter blood vessels (SDBVs) are still a challenging task to prepare due to the occurrence of thrombosis formation, intimal hyperplasia, and aneurysmal dilation. Electrospinning technique, as a promising tissue engineering approach, can fabricate polymer fibrous scaffolds that satisfy requirements on the construction of extracellular matrix (ECM) of native blood vessel and promote the adhesion, proliferation, and growth of cells. In this review, we summarize the polymers that are deployed for the fabrication of SDBVs and classify them into three categories, synthetic polymers, natural polymers, and hybrid polymers...
March 6, 2018: Membranes
Huiya Wang, Ran Gong, Xinliang Qian
TiO₂/g-C₃N₄/PVDF composite membranes were prepared by a phase inversion method. A comparison of the performance and morphology was carried out among pure PVDF, g-C₃N₄/PVDF, TiO₂/PVDF and TiO₂/g-C₃N₄/PVDF composite membranes. The results of permeability and instrumental analysis indicated that TiO₂ and g-C₃N₄ organic-inorganic composites obviously changed the performance and structure of the PVDF membranes. The porosity and water content of 0.75TiO₂/0.25g-C₃N₄/PVDF composite membranes were 97...
March 5, 2018: Membranes
Imtiaz Ali, Omar A Bamaga, Lassaad Gzara, M Bassyouni, M H Abdel-Aziz, M F Soliman, Enrico Drioli, Mohammed Albeirutty
In this work, PVDF homopolymer was blended with PVDF-co-HFP copolymer and studied in terms of morphology, porosity, pore size, hydrophobicity, permeability, and mechanical properties. Different solvents, namely N-Methyl-2 pyrrolidone (NMP), Tetrahydrofuran (THF), and Dimethylformamide (DMF) solvents, were used to fabricate blended PVDF flat sheet membranes without the introduction of any pore forming agent, through a non-solvent induced phase separation (NIPS) technique. Furthermore, the performance of the fabricated membranes was investigated for pressure and thermal driven applications...
March 5, 2018: Membranes
Sandra Sánchez-González, Nazely Diban, Ane Urtiaga
The present work studies the functional behavior of novel poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) membranes functionalized with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanoplatelets under simulated in vitro culture conditions (phosphate buffer solution (PBS) at 37 °C) during 1 year, in order to elucidate their applicability as scaffolds for in vitro neural regeneration. The morphological, chemical, and DSC results demonstrated that high internal porosity of the membranes facilitated water permeation and procured an accelerated hydrolytic degradation throughout the bulk pathway...
March 5, 2018: Membranes
Jyh-Herng Chen, Thi Tuyet Mai Le, Kai-Chung Hsu
The structural characteristics of membrane support directly affect the performance of carrier facilitated transport membrane. A highly porous PolyHIPE impregnated with Aliquat 336 is proposed for Cr(VI) separation. PolyHIPE consisting of poly(styrene- co -2-ethylhexyl acrylate) copolymer crosslinked with divinylbenzene has the pore structure characteristic of large pore spaces interconnected with small window throats. The unique pore structure provides the membrane with high flux and stability. The experimental results indicate that the effective diffusion coefficient D* of Cr(VI) through Aliquat 336/PolyHIPE membrane is as high as 1...
March 2, 2018: Membranes
Patrice Bacchin
A membrane can be represented by an energy landscape that solutes or colloids must cross. A model accounting for the momentum and the mass balances in the membrane energy landscape establishes a new way of writing for the Darcy law. The counter-pressure in the Darcy law is no longer written as the result of an osmotic pressure difference but rather as a function of colloid-membrane interactions. The ability of the model to describe the physics of the filtration is discussed in detail. This model is solved in a simplified energy landscape to derive analytical relationships that describe the selectivity and the counter-pressure from ab initio operating conditions...
February 22, 2018: Membranes
Yanfei Liu, Tonghu Xiao, Chenghuan Bao, Jifei Zhang, Xing Yang
This study proposes using membrane distillation (MD) as an alternative to the conventional multi-stage flushing (MSF) process to concentrate a semi-product of organic fertilizer. By applying a unique asymmetric polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane, which was specifically designed for MD applications using a nonsolvent thermally induced phase separation (NTIPS) method, the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) performance was investigated in terms of its sustainability in permeation flux, fouling resistance, and anti-wetting properties...
February 16, 2018: Membranes
Matteo Minelli, Giulio C Sarti
The transport of gases in glassy polymeric membranes has been analyzed by means of a fundamental approach based on the nonequilibrium thermodynamic model for glassy polymers (NET-GP) that considers the penetrant chemical potential gradient as the actual driving force of the diffusional process. The diffusivity of a penetrant is thus described as the product of a purely kinetic quantity, the penetrant mobility, and a thermodynamic factor, accounting for the chemical potential dependence on its concentration in the polymer...
February 3, 2018: Membranes
Xiaolei Zhang, Linhua Fan, Felicity A Roddick
The influence of the interaction between aquatic humic substances and the algal organic matter (AOM) derived from Microcystis aeruginosa on the fouling of a ceramic microfiltration (MF) membrane was studied. AOM alone resulted in a significantly greater flux decline compared with Suwannee River humic acid (HA), and fulvic acid (FA). The mixture of AOM with HA and FA exhibited a similar flux pattern as the AOM alone in the single-cycle filtration tests, indicating the flux decline may be predominantly controlled by the AOM in the early filtration cycles...
February 1, 2018: Membranes
Ya Ya N Bonggotgetsakul, Robert W Cattrall, Spas D Kolev
Clusters of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) formed on the surface of PVC-based polymer inclusion membranes (PIMs) with a liquid phase containing Aliquat 336 as the carrier and in some cases 1-dodecanol or 2-nitrophenol octyl ether as plasticizers were found to inhibit the extraction of nitrate by the PIMs. This observation was based on gradually increasing the mass of AuNPs on the membrane surface and testing the ability of the membrane to extract nitrate after each increase. In this way, it was possible to determine the so-called "critical AuNP masses" at which the studied membranes ceased to extract nitrate...
January 25, 2018: Membranes
David Alique, David Martinez-Diaz, Raul Sanz, Jose A Calles
In the last years, hydrogen has been considered as a promising energy vector for the oncoming modification of the current energy sector, mainly based on fossil fuels. Hydrogen can be produced from water with no significant pollutant emissions but in the nearest future its production from different hydrocarbon raw materials by thermochemical processes seems to be more feasible. In any case, a mixture of gaseous compounds containing hydrogen is produced, so a further purification step is needed to purify the hydrogen up to required levels accordingly to the final application, i...
January 23, 2018: Membranes
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