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Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series

Bo Lönnerdal
Breastfeeding has been associated with many benefits, both in the short and in the long term. Infants being breastfed generally have less illness and have better cognitive development at 1 year of age than formula-fed infants. Later in life, they have a lower risk of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Several components in breast milk may be responsible for these different outcomes, but bioactive proteins/peptides likely play a major role. Some proteins in breast milk are comparatively resistant towards digestion and may therefore exert their functions in the gastrointestinal tract in intact form or as larger fragments...
June 23, 2016: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Mary S Fewtrell, Ferdinand Haschke, Susan L Prescott
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Jatinder Bhatia, Raanan Shamir, Yvan Vandenplas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Jatinder Bhatia
Breastfeeding is universally accepted as the preferred feeding for all newborn infants, including premature infants. The World Health Organization, American Academy of Pediatrics, Canadian Pediatric Society and the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, among others, recommend exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months in term infants, while complementary feeding is introduced over the next several months. However, for preterm infants, fortification is recommended to meet requirements...
2016: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Ferdinand Haschke, Dominik Grathwohl, Nadja Haiden
High protein requirements of premature infants during the first weeks of postnatal life are a well-established fact. Those infants gain fat-free mass and protein rapidly during the first weeks of postnatal growth and require a much higher protein/energy ratio than term infants. Recommended protein intakes are 3.5-4.0 g/kg per day. For term infants, on the other hand, FAO and WHO have recently lowered recommended protein intakes to better reflect our current knowledge about the protein concentration in breast milk during the first 12 months of lactation...
2016: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Sagar K Thakkar, Francesca Giuffrida, Emmanuelle Bertschy, Antonio De Castro, Frédéric Destaillats, Le Ye Lee
Given the documented short- and long-term advantages of breastfeeding, human milk (HM) as a sole source of nutrition for the first few months of newborn life is considered a normative standard. Each macroconstituent of HM plays a crucial role in the growth and development of the baby. Lipids are largely responsible for providing more than 50% of the energy as well as providing essential fatty acids and minor lipids that are integral to all cell membranes. Carbohydrates can be broadly divided into lactose and oligosaccharides, which are a readily digestible source of glucose and indigestible nonnutritive components, respectively...
2016: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Raanan Shamir
Human milk is considered as the gold standard for infant feeding. Breastfeeding advantages extend beyond the properties of human milk itself. A complex of nutritional, environmental, socioeconomic, psychological as well as genetic interactions establish a massive list of benefits of breastfeeding to the health outcomes of the breastfed infant and to the breastfeeding mother. For this reason, exclusive breastfeeding is recommended for about 6 months and should be continued as long as mutually desired by mother and child...
2016: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Yvan Vandenplas, Silvia Salvatore
UNLABELLED: Over 50% of all infants present with one or more functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) during the first months of life. The literature on the effect of partially hydrolyzed formula (pHF) in the management of FGIDs was reviewed. There is insufficient evidence to recommend pHFs in regurgitation, although one study suggests that a thickened pHF may be more effective than antiregurgitation formulas with intact protein. No randomized clinical trials on pHFs in infants with colicky symptoms have been published...
2016: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Thibault Senterre, Jacques Rigo
Milk proteins are an essential component of the diet of preterm infants who have high requirements. Hydrolyzed proteins (HPs) have been introduced in infants' formulas (HPFs) to treat gastrointestinal disorders and to prevent allergic diseases. Several studies have evaluated the adequacy of HPs in preterm infants. Protein source significantly influences plasma amino acid concentrations. Protein utilization and efficiency are usually lower with HPFs compared to formulas with intact proteins. When protein intake is similar, a lower weight gain is generally observed with HPFs and a 10% increase in protein content is usually necessary to compensate for this reduction in protein utilization...
2016: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Silvia Salvatore, Yvan Vandenplas
Hydrolyzed proteins are used worldwide in the therapeutic management of infants with allergic manifestations and have long been proposed as a dietetic measure to prevent allergy in at risk infants. The degree and method of hydrolysis, protein source and non-nitrogen components characterize different hydrolyzed formulas (HFs) and may determine clinical efficacy, tolerance and nutritional effects. Cow's milk (CM)-based HFs are classified as extensively (eHF) or partially HF (pHF) based on the percentage of small peptides...
2016: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
David M Fleischer, Carina Venter, Yvan Vandenplas
Presently, hydrolyzed formulas (HF) are used primarily in infants that cannot be exclusively breastfed, those with cow's milk allergy and for primary prevention of allergic disease, but HFs are increasingly being used worldwide, begging the question if they may be recommended as the optimal choice for all standard-risk, full-term, non-exclusively breastfed infants. Data regarding the nutritional adequacy of modern-day HFs are scarce and lack long-term data suggesting that growth in infants fed HF versus an intact protein formula (IPF) is different...
2016: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Sophie Nutten
Proteins are polymers composed of 30 or more amino acids; some of them are essential dietary components, since they are not synthetized by human metabolic processes. They are crucial for healthy growth and development and influence major functions of the body. The infant's first year is a critical time of rapid growth and development, which must be supported by a high rate of protein synthesis. Breast milk, as a single specific food source in the first months of life, is providing the total protein and essential amino acids required...
2016: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Ilaria Burattini, Maria Paola Bellagamba, Rita D''Ascenzo, Chiara Biagetti, Virgilio Paolo Carnielli
A large proportion of extremely low-birth-weight infants requires parenteral nutrition for variable lengths of time. Amino acids are the key ingredients of parenteral nutrition. The goal of appropriate amino acid administration is to promote anabolism and normal cellular development in order to limit the incidence of postnatal growth restriction, which is associated with neurodevelopmental delays. The benefits of early amino acid commencement soon after birth are compelling, especially on nitrogen balance, while long-term outcome studies are lacking...
2016: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Chris H P van den Akker, Johannes B van Goudoever
Amino acids form one of the main building blocks for fetal and neonatal growth. Despite improvements in neonatal care, including postnatal nutrition, growth faltering and suboptimal outcome after premature birth are still frequently encountered. Nutrition can partly be held responsible. Over the years, there has been a trend in delivering amino acids earlier from birth on and in larger quantities. Unfortunately, little is known about the specific metabolism of proteins, especially during fetal life or during disease...
2016: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Atul Singhal
The idea that early protein intake may influence, or program, long-term health in preterm infants is strongly supported by decades of research starting from the early 1980s. At this time, it was recognized that preterm infants required a high protein intake to achieve postnatal growth closer to the intrauterine growth rate of a normal fetus of the same postconceptional age, a goal regarded optimal for short- and long-term health. Subsequently, follow-up of preterm infants randomized to different neonatal diets demonstrated that those receiving higher protein intakes that promoted growth had benefits for brain structure and function up to 16 years later, but also detrimental effects on cardiovascular risk factors such as insulin resistance and adiposity...
2016: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Ekhard E Ziegler
Because of their exceedingly high rate of growth, premature infants have very high needs for all nutrients. Requirements have been estimated by the factorial method based on the body composition of the fetus. Failure to meet the high requirements for protein impairs growth and places the infant at risk of neurodevelopmental impairments. Human milk, the preferred feeding for premature infants because of its protective effects, does not provide adequate amounts of nutrients and must be fortified. On the basis of studies performed several decades ago using very high protein intakes, in the past it has been believed that protein intakes that met the high needs of premature babies are dangerous for premature babies...
2016: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Mary S Fewtrell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Lucy Cooke, Clare Llewellyn
Obesity has reached epidemic proportions and research into its prevention is increasingly focusing on the earliest stages of life. Avidity of appetite has been linked to a higher risk of obesity, but studies in infancy were scarce. The Gemini twin cohort was established to investigate genetic and environmental determinants of weight trajectories in early childhood with a focus on appetite and the home environment. Gemini families have been supplying questionnaire data at regular intervals, starting when the twins were 8 months old...
2016: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Pauline M Emmett
Guidelines for healthy infant feeding provide advice on breastfeeding and complementary feeding. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) derived dietary patterns in comparison to infant feeding guidelines and by using principal components analysis (PCA). The ALSPAC cohort was recruited during pregnancy. Parent-completed questionnaires assessed diet at age 6 and 15 months. Children were weighed and measured at 7 years of age and IQ was assessed at 8 years. A complementary feeding utility index was calculated in relation to 14 feeding recommendations...
2016: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Catherine A Forestell
Our ability to perceive the broad range of flavors imparted by foods involves the assimilation of multiple chemosensory sensations: primarily those of taste and olfaction. Due to their adaptive value, these chemosensory systems are functional before birth and continue to mature throughout childhood. As a result, children live in their own flavor world, preferring foods that are high in sugar and salt over those that are sour and bitter tasting, such as fruits and vegetables. Although these flavor preferences are not consistent with a healthful diet, they can be 'fine tuned' by sensory experiences beginning prenatally...
2016: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
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