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Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346936/differential-establishment-of-bifidobacteria-in-the-breastfed-infant-gut
#1
REVIEW
Zachery T Lewis, David A Mills
The composition of an infant's gut microbiome can impact their immediate and long-term health. Bifdobacteria play a major role in structuring the gut microbiome of breastfed infants due to their ability to consume oligosaccharides found in human milk. However, recent studies have revealed that bifidobacteria are often absent in the gut microbiome of breastfed infants in some locations. This lack of colonization may be due either to differences in the environmental conditions in the gastrointestinal tract of uncolonized infants which prohibit the growth of bifidobacteria or a dearth of sources from which infants may acquire these specialized bacterial species...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346935/dysbiosis-in-the-neonatal-period-role-of-cesarean-section
#2
REVIEW
Josef Neu
From epidemiological studies and studies done evaluating microbiomes in infants, there is a strong signal that the infants born by elective cesarean section (C-section) develop microbiota that differs from those babies born by vaginal delivery. Epidemiological studies show increased odds ratios for the development of immunological disorders such as type 1 diabetes, celiac disease, asthma, allergic diseases as well as metabolic diseases such as obesity in babies born by C-section. These are interesting associations, and if supported by additional studies that rigorously control for confounding factors, they will have major public health implications...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346934/summary-of-evolution-of-human-microbiota
#3
W Allan Walker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346933/summary-on-human-milk-oligosaccharides
#4
Philip M Sherman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346932/regulatory-aspects-of-human-milk-oligosaccharides
#5
REVIEW
Seppo Salminen
Human milk oligosaccharides are key components of human milk and appear in various compositions and concentrations in all human milks. In regulatory sense human milk oligosaccharides are classified as novel foods or novel food ingredients requiring safety assessment. In addition, if any health messages are intended to be used also health claim regulations apply. This chapter reviews the regulatory settings and studies human milk oligosaccharides are required to fulfill to be able to enter markets in European Union or United States or elsewhere...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346931/compositional-analysis-and-metabolism-of-human-milk-oligosaccharides-in-infants
#6
REVIEW
Clemens Kunz, Silvia Rudloff
It is a great success that biotechnological means are available today to produce amounts of single human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) in a purity which allows performing metabolic and functional studies even in humans. As recent data indicate that there is a link between the Lewis blood group and the secretor status of an individual and certain inflammatory diseases, this review will also focus on the metabolic fate of secretor- and Lewis blood group-specific components. We conclude that there is no simple urinary or fecal excretion pattern of HMOs, although the pattern in urine often reflects the mother's secretor/nonsecretor status...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346930/enzymes-in-human-milk
#7
REVIEW
David C Dallas, J Bruce German
Milk proteins are a complex and diverse source of biological activities. Beyond their function, intact milk proteins also act as carriers of encrypted functional sequences that, when released as peptides, exert biological functions, including antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activity, which could contribute to the infant's competitive success. Research has now revealed that the release of these functional peptides begins within the mammary gland itself. A complex array of proteases produced in mother's milk has been shown to be active in the milk, releasing these peptides...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346929/summary-of-normal-development-of-gut-microbiota-and-dysbiosis
#8
Erika Isolauri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346928/diet-and-gut-microbiota-in-health-and-disease
#9
REVIEW
Ting-Chin David Shen
Gut microbiota plays an important role in host health maintenance and disease pathogenesis. The development of a stable and diverse gut microbiota is essential to various host physiologic functions such as immunoregulation, pathogen prevention, energy harvest, and metabolism. At the same time, a dysbiotic gut microbiota associated with disease is altered in structure and function, and often characterized by a decrease in species richness and proliferation of pathogenic bacterial taxa. As a shared substrate between the host and the gut microbiota, diet significantly impacts the health and disease states of the host both directly and through gut microbial metabolite production...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346927/microbiota-in-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-in-infancy-implications-for-management
#10
REVIEW
Thomas R Abrahamsson, Richard Y Wu, Philip M Sherman
The complex and diverse intestinal microbiome is recognized as important in promoting human health. An altered gut microflora, referred to as dysbiosis, is increasingly recognized as having an etiologic role in a variety of conditions, including functional gastrointestinal disorders: colic in infants and irritable bowel syndrome in older children. Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms that, if ingested in sufficient amounts, restore microbial homeostasis and have a benefit on health. Randomized controlled trials indicate that probiotics can be effective in a variety of intestinal conditions, including colic and irritable bowel syndrome...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346926/microbiota-and-obesity
#11
REVIEW
Erika Isolauri
Obesity is globally the most prevalent nutritional disorder. Multifaceted therapeutic approaches are called for to halt the cascade from neonatal adiposity/high birth weight to childhood excessive weight gain/adult obesity with comorbidities. Recent experimental and clinical data provide one new target for interventions aiming to close this vicious circle: the microbiota. An aberrant gut microbiota, dysbiosis, induces immune and metabolic disturbances both locally and, consequent upon impaired gut barrier function, also systemic low-grade inflammation, which is causally linked to insulin resistance...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346925/microbiota-and-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#12
REVIEW
Sanjay Patole
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is an acquired gastrointestinal inflammatory condition with significant mortality and morbidity in preterm very low birth weight infants. The interplay between toll-like receptors, bacterial endotoxins, developmentally regulated excessive proinflammatory responses of the immature innate immune system, hypoxia, ischemia, reperfusion, free radicals, and the presence of substrates and bacterial endotoxins is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of NEC. The association (cause?) of various microbes (bacteria, viruses, and fungi) with NEC has intrigued researchers for many years...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346924/early-life-antibiotic-exposure-gut-microbiota-development-and-predisposition-to-obesity
#13
REVIEW
Meghan B Azad, Shirin Moossavi, Arthur Owora, Shadi Sepehri
Antibiotics are often prescribed inappropriately to infants and young children, with potentially adverse effects on the developing gut microbiota and related metabolic processes. We review evidence from 17 epidemiologic studies suggesting that antibiotic exposure during critical periods of early development may influence weight gain and the development of obesity. Complementary research in both humans and rodents indicates that gut microbiota play a key role in this process, although further research is needed to confirm and characterize the causal mechanisms involved...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346923/gut-brain-axis-and-behavior
#14
REVIEW
Clair R Martin, Emeran A Mayer
In the last 5 years, interest in the interactions among the gut microbiome, brain, and behavior has exploded. Preclinical evidence supports a role of the gut microbiome in behavioral responses associated with pain, emotion, social interactions, and food intake. Limited, but growing, clinical evidence comes primarily from associations of gut microbial composition and function to behavioral and clinical features and brain structure and function. Converging evidence suggests that the brain and the gut microbiota are in bidirectional communication...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346922/epigenetics-in-gastrointestinal-health-and-disease-spotlight-on-dna-methylation-in-the-intestinal-epithelium
#15
REVIEW
Matthias Zilbauer, Judith Kraiczy
Epigenetics can be defined as stable, potentially heritable changes in cellular phenotype caused by mechanisms other than alterations in the underlying DNA sequence. DNA methylation is amongst the most intensely studied epigenetic mechanisms and has been shown to play a major role in regulating fundamental aspects of cell biology including cellular differentiation, organ development, and cell type-specific gene expression. Importantly, it is becoming increasingly clear that epigenetic mechanisms operate at the interface between the genetic code and our environment and are able to mediate environmental changes into stable phenotypic alterations...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346921/bacterial-colonization-of-the-newborn-gut-immune-development-and-prevention-of-disease
#16
REVIEW
W Allan Walker
We now know that the fetus does not reside in a sterile intrauterine environment but is exposed to commensal bacteria from the maternal gut which cross the placenta and infiltrate the amniotic fluid. This exposure to colonizing bacteria continues at birth and during the first year of life, and it has a profound influence on lifelong health. Why is this important? Cross talk with colonizing bacteria in the developing neonatal intestine helps in the initial adaptation of the infant to extrauterine life, particularly in acquiring immune homeostasis, and provides protection against disease expression (e...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346920/microbial-composition-of-the-initial-colonization-of-newborns
#17
REVIEW
Samuli Rautava
Early-life interaction with indigenous intestinal microbes is a prerequisite for healthy immune and metabolic maturation. Human infants acquire their gut microbiota predominantly from the mother. A considerable inoculum of microbes is received by the neonate during vaginal delivery. Recent observations suggest that human gut colonization may be initiated prenatally by microbes in amniotic fluid, but the significance of this phenomenon remains unknown. After birth, neonatal gut colonization is guided by human milk factors, which selectively promote the growth of specific microbes, as well as by live microbes present in human milk...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346919/the-pregnancy-microbiome
#18
REVIEW
Hadar Neuman, Omry Koren
In recent years, microbiome research has revealed multiple essential roles of the microorganisms residing within the human body in host metabolism, immunity, and overall health. Numerous physiological and pathological states, including obesity and the metabolic syndrome, have been correlated with microbial changes, termed dysbiosis. Our microbiomes change in response to our environment, diet, weight, hormones, and other factors. It is, therefore, not surprising that there are also significant changes in the microbiome during pregnancy when dramatic weight gain and metabolic and immunological changes occur...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315900/measuring-infant-and-young-child-complementary-feeding-practices-indicators-current-practice-and-research-gaps
#19
Marie T Ruel
The publication of the WHO Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) indicators in 2008 equipped the nutrition and broader development community with an invaluable tool for measuring, documenting, and advocating for faster progress in improving these practices in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The indicators, with 5 of them focusing on complementary feeding (CF) practices, were originally designed for population level assessment, targeting, monitoring, and evaluation. This chapter takes stock of where we are with the existing CF indicators: it reviews how the indicators have been used, what we have learned, and what their strengths and limitations are, and it suggests a way forward...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315899/summary-of-factors-influencing-healthy-growth
#20
Ken K Ong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
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