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Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29991043/summary-on-nutrition-brain-function-and-cognitive-development
#1
John Colombo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29991042/impact-of-nutrition-on-growth-brain-and-cognition
#2
Maureen M Black
Brain development begins shortly after conception and continues throughout early childhood and into adolescence and early adulthood. During the first 1,000 days (conception to age 2), brain development is rapid, with nutrition playing an important role in the expression of the genetic code. Recent animal and human findings have illustrated that the timing, chronicity, and severity of nutritional deficiencies has differential effects on brain development and on subsequent cognitive and emotional processes. Evidence from intervention trials and longitudinal studies has shown the interactive nature of environmental influences on brain functioning and cognition over time, opening new opportunities for interventions to prevent or overcome potential adversities, including nutritional deficiencies...
2018: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29991041/effects-of-nutrition-on-the-development-of-higher-order-cognition
#3
Peter Willatts
The long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) occur in high levels in the brain and play a key role in brain growth and the operation of neurotransmitters. Infants supplemented with DHA show improved language and communication skills, and there is accumulating evidence that the early development of executive functions such as planning, working memory, and attention control are influenced by LC-PUFAs, especially DHA. Several studies have found significantly improved means-end problem solving at 9 and 10 months in infants given DHA-/ARA-supplemented formula, and similar results were shown for infants whose mothers were supplemented with DHA during pregnancy and breastfeeding...
2018: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29991040/neuroimaging-of-the-developing-brain-and-impact-of-nutrition
#4
Sean C L Deoni
The first 1,000 days of life are increasingly viewed as laying the essential foundations for lifelong physical and mental health. Extending this age range to include childhood, that is up to 10 years of age, these early-life periods encompass the peak period of brain growth, coincide with the emergence of nearly all fundamental cognitive and behavioral skills and abilities, and overlap with the earliest onset and symptoms of a wide breadth of developmental, intellectual, and psychiatric disorders. It is increasingly recognized that altered brain development throughout this sensitive period can negatively affect cognitive and behavioral outcomes...
2018: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29991039/assessing-neurocognitive-development-in-studies-of-nutrition
#5
John Colombo
As research on clinical nutrition has become more concerned with the effects of macro- and micronutrients on cognitive and brain development, success in evaluating and interpreting those effects is critically dependent on how human cognitive development is conceptualized and measured. The body of research on neurocognitive development from the past 50 years indicates that various cognitive components are relatively independent of one another and develop at different times during infancy and early childhood...
2018: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29991038/a-nutritionist-s-perspective-on-behavioral-assessment
#6
Susan E Carlson
The perspective shared here is that of a nutritionist who has been collaborating with a behavioral scientist for 20 years. Examples will be related to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, the subject of our collaboration. While it is well accepted that nutrition is key to optimal human health and development, nutrition intervention trials in populations and randomized controlled trials of specific nutrients that have measured these outcomes have occurred relatively recently. Studies of nutrition and behavior are even less common - the first appears to have been a protein intervention that began in 1969 in Guatemala that involved developmental follow-up to adulthood...
2018: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29991037/summary-on-dietary-modulation-of-growth-and-body-composition
#7
Berthold Koletzko
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29991036/causes-of-stunting-and-preventive-dietary-interventions-in-pregnancy-and-early-childhood
#8
Robert E Black, Rebecca Heidkamp
Stunting of linear growth, a highly prevalent problem in children of low- and middle-income countries, is the result of the exposure of the fetus and/or young child to nutritional deficiencies and infectious diseases. Maternal undernutrition results in fetal growth restriction, and infectious diseases in pregnancy can result in preterm delivery. Both of these conditions are important contributors to stunting in early childhood, albeit their relative contribution varies by world region. After birth, growth faltering may begin at 3-5 months of life and becomes more prominent from 6 to 18 months...
2018: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29991035/complementary-feeding-infant-growth-and-obesity-risk-timing-composition-and-mode-of-feeding
#9
Veit Grote, Melissa Theurich, Veronica Luque, Darek Gruszfeld, Elvira Verduci, Annick Xhonneux, Berthold Koletzko
The complementary feeding period is a short transitional period from breastfeeding and formula feeding to family foods. Timing, quantity, and quality are implied to impact growth and obesity risk. We summarized the literature and analyzed data of monthly 3-day food diaries of >1,000 children from 5 European countries in the first 2 years of life, which were collected as part of the prospective European Childhood Obesity Project (CHOP Study). Formula-fed children started complementary food approximately 2 weeks earlier than breastfed children, and almost 40% of them at or before 4 months of age...
2018: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29991034/metabolic-regulation-of-pre-and-postnatal-growth
#10
Berthold Koletzko, Franca F Kirchberg, Christian Hellmuth, Martina Weber, Veit Grote, Hans Demmelmair, Marie Standl, Joachim Heinrich, Elisabeth Thiering, Olaf Uhl
Growth characteristics during periods of early developmental plasticity are linked with later health outcomes and with disease risks. Infant growth is modulated by genetic and exogenous factors including nutrition. We try to explore their underlying mechanisms using targeted metabolomic profiling of small molecules in biological samples using high-performance liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to quantify hundreds of molecules in small biosamples, e.g., 50 µL plasma. In the large German LISA birth cohort study, cord blood lysophosphatidylcholines and fatty acids were closely associated with infant birth weight, with a nonsignificant trend towards an association with infant weight gain and later BMI...
2018: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29991033/breastfeeding-breast-milk-composition-and-growth-outcomes
#11
Mads Vendelbo Lind, Anni Larnkjær, Christian Mølgaard, Kim F Michaelsen
Breastfed infants have a growth pattern that is different from formula-fed infants, which is regarded as the optimal growth pattern. Breastfed infants increase more in weight, length, and BMI during the first 2-3 months of life and then have a slower growth velocity up to 12 months. They also have a higher accumulation of fat during early infancy. Breastfed infants have lower levels of circulating IGF-I and insulin, which could be part of the explanation of their growth pattern. Many studies and meta-analyses have examined the association between breastfeeding and later obesity...
2018: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29991032/summary-on-a-systems-perspective-on-growth
#12
Michelle Lampl
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29991031/osteoblast-bioenergetics-and-global-energy-homeostasis
#13
Angela R Verardo, Thomas L Clemens
The emergence of the endochondral skeleton in terrestrial animals enabled ambulation against increased gravitational forces and provided a storage site for scarce minerals essential for life. This skeletal upgrade increased overall fuel requirements and altered global energy balance, prompting the evolution of endocrine networks to coordinate energy expenditure. Bone-forming osteoblasts require a large and constant supply of energy substrates to fuel bone matrix production and mineralization. When fuel demands are unmet, bone quality and strength are compromised...
2018: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29991030/fat-tissue-growth-and-development-in-humans
#14
Peter Arner
Lipid storage and release from fat cells in adipose tissue are key factors in the regulation of the energy balance. During infancy and adolescence, adipose tissue is growing by a combination of increase in fat cell size (to a lesser extent) and (above all) the number of these cells. In adults, fat cell number is constant over time in spite of a large turnover (about 10% of the fat cells per year) when body weight is stable. A decrease in body weight only changes fat cell size (becoming smaller), whereas an increase in body weight causes elevation of both fat cell size and number in adults...
2018: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29991029/critical-windows-for-the-programming-effects-of-early-life-nutrition-on-skeletal-muscle-mass
#15
Marta L Fiorotto, Teresa A Davis
Skeletal myogenesis begins in the embryo with proliferation and differentiation of muscle progenitor cells that ultimately fuse to form multinucleated myofibers. After midgestation, muscle growth occurs through hypertrophy of these myofibers. The most rapid growth phase occurs in the perinatal period, resulting in the expansion of muscle mass from 25% of lean mass at birth to 40-45% at maturity. These 2 phases of muscle growth are regulated by distinct molecular mechanisms engaged by extracellular cues and intracellular signaling pathways and regulatory networks they activate...
2018: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29991028/elongation-of-the-long-bones-in-humans-by-the-growth-plates
#16
Ernst B Hunziker
The disk of hyaline cartilage that is interposed between the epiphysis and the metaphysis of each of the long bones is responsible for its elongation, and, thus, when the lower limbs are concerned, for increases in bodily height. This so-called growth plate is avascular, aneural, and alymphatic. It consists solely of chondrocytes and an extracellular matrix which the cells elaborate. The growth plate is architectonically striking in so far as the chondrocytes are aligned in strictly vertical columns, which represent the functional units of longitudinal bone growth...
2018: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29991027/implications-of-growth-as-a-time-specific-event
#17
Michelle Lampl
Nutritional influences on human growth are commonly assessed as weight or length/height outcomes, and adequacy is determined by reference to population-based growth charts. These approaches estimate gross effects only and are insensitive proxies for the dynamic processes by which nutritional components affect tissue accrual. Weight provides information about calorie balance and/or hydration status, while offering little insight into functional physiology. Height is often attributed meaning in accordance with growth charts, a static group level statistical summary unrelated to individual skeletal dynamics...
2018: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346936/differential-establishment-of-bifidobacteria-in-the-breastfed-infant-gut
#18
REVIEW
Zachery T Lewis, David A Mills
The composition of an infant's gut microbiome can impact their immediate and long-term health. Bifdobacteria play a major role in structuring the gut microbiome of breastfed infants due to their ability to consume oligosaccharides found in human milk. However, recent studies have revealed that bifidobacteria are often absent in the gut microbiome of breastfed infants in some locations. This lack of colonization may be due either to differences in the environmental conditions in the gastrointestinal tract of uncolonized infants which prohibit the growth of bifidobacteria or a dearth of sources from which infants may acquire these specialized bacterial species...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346935/dysbiosis-in-the-neonatal-period-role-of-cesarean-section
#19
REVIEW
Josef Neu
From epidemiological studies and studies done evaluating microbiomes in infants, there is a strong signal that the infants born by elective cesarean section (C-section) develop microbiota that differs from those babies born by vaginal delivery. Epidemiological studies show increased odds ratios for the development of immunological disorders such as type 1 diabetes, celiac disease, asthma, allergic diseases as well as metabolic diseases such as obesity in babies born by C-section. These are interesting associations, and if supported by additional studies that rigorously control for confounding factors, they will have major public health implications...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346934/summary-of-evolution-of-human-microbiota
#20
W Allan Walker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
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