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Behavioral Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772799/income-and-self-rated-mental-health-diminished-returns-for-high-income-black-americans
#1
Shervin Assari, Lisa M Lapeyrouse, Harold W Neighbors
Background: The minorities' diminished return theory suggests that socioeconomic position (SEP) generates smaller health gains for racial/ethnic minorities compared to Whites. The current study was a Black⁻White comparison of the association between household income and self-rated mental health (SRMH). Methods: This cross-sectional study used data from the 2017 State of the State Survey (SOSS). With representative sampling, the SOSS generates results that are generalizable to the state of Michigan. This study included 881 adults, ( n = 92) Black and ( n = 782) White...
May 17, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772763/levels-of-nature-and-stress-response
#2
Alan Ewert, Yun Chang
A growing number of studies have shown that visiting green spaces and being exposed to natural environments can reduce psychological stress. A number of questions concerning the effects of natural environments on levels of stress remain including, "Are activities engaged in natural environments more or less beneficial at reducing stress when compared to those done in more urban settings?" This study examined this question from the perspective of "levels of nature". That is, data on levels of stress were collected from three sites, one site having wilderness-like characteristics, a second site representing a municipal-type park, and a third site representing a built environment (indoor exercise facility) within a city...
May 17, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757927/association-between-actual-and-perceived-obesity-weaker-among-black-than-white-children
#3
Maryam Moghani Lankarani, Shervin Assari
Although actual obesity is expected to be associated with perceived overweight, some recent studies in adults have suggested that this link may be smaller for Blacks than Whites. It is unknown, however, whether the same trend holds for children or not. This study explored the heterogeneity of the association between actual and perceived obesity in a national sample of American children by race, gender, and their intersection. Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC), 2009⁻2010, is a national study of children 17 years or less in the United States...
May 14, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738432/neuroimmunology-research-a-report-from-the-cuban-network-of-neuroimmunology
#4
María de Los Angeles Robinson-Agramonte, Lourdes Lorigados Pedre, Orlando Ramón Serrano-Barrera
Neuroimmunology can be traced back to the XIX century through the descriptions of some of the disease’s models (e.g., multiple sclerosis and Guillain Barret syndrome, amongst others). The diagnostic tools are based in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis developed by Quincke or in the development of neuroimmunotherapy with the earlier expression in Pasteur’s vaccine for rabies. Nevertheless, this field, which began to become delineated as an independent research area in the 1940s, has evolved as an innovative and integrative field at the shared edges of neurosciences, immunology, and related clinical and research areas, which are currently becoming a major concern for neuroscience and indeed for all of the scientific community linked to it...
May 8, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734662/secular-and-religious-social-support-better-protect-blacks-than-whites-against-depressive-symptoms
#5
Shervin Assari, Maryam Moghani Lankarani
Purpose: Although the protective effect of social support against depression is well known, limited information exists on racial differences in this association. The current study examined Black-White differences in the effects of religious and secular emotional social support on depressive symptoms in a national sample of older adults in the United States. Methods: With a longitudinal prospective design, the Religion, Aging and Health Survey, 2001⁻2004, followed 1493 Black ( n = 734) and White ( n = 759) elderly individuals (age 66 and older) for three years...
May 4, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724021/a-new-layered-model-on-emotional-intelligence
#6
Athanasios S Drigas, Chara Papoutsi
Emotional Intelligence (EI) has been an important and controversial topic during the last few decades. Its significance and its correlation with many domains of life has made it the subject of expert study. EI is the rudder for feeling, thinking, learning, problem-solving, and decision-making. In this article, we present an emotional⁻cognitive based approach to the process of gaining emotional intelligence and thus, we suggest a nine-layer pyramid of emotional intelligence and the gradual development to reach the top of EI...
May 2, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702587/perceived-discrimination-among-black-youth-an-18-year-longitudinal-study
#7
Shervin Assari, Frederick X Gibbons, Ronald L Simons
Background : Recent research has suggested vulnerability to perceived racial discrimination (PRD) as a mechanism behind high levels of depression seen in high socioeconomic status (SES) Black males. To better understand the effects of gender and SES on shaping experiences of PRD among Black youth in the United States, we used data from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS) to explore the trajectory of PRD in Black youth by gender, SES, and place. Methods : Data came from FACHS, 1997⁻2017, which followed 889 children aged 10⁻12 years old at Wave 1 ( n = 478; 53...
April 27, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702548/the-effect-of-pet-therapy-and-artist-interactions-on-quality-of-life-in-brain-tumor-patients-a-cross-section-of-art-and-medicine-in-dialog
#8
Stefan Petranek, Jennifer Pencek, Mahua Dey
With the evolution of modern medical treatment strategies, there also comes the realization that many times we reach a point where traditional goals of medical care, such as overall survival or disease-free survival, are not realistic goals for many patients facing devastating illnesses. One such disease is malignant primary brain tumors, known as malignant glioma (MG). With median survival of only 20.9 months following best available standard of care treatment strategies, including surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, and tumor treating fields, MG is one of the deadliest malignancies of the modern era...
April 27, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701637/ethics-of-end-of-life-decisions-in-pediatrics-a-narrative-review-of-the-roles-of-caregivers-shared-decision-making-and-patient-centered-values
#9
REVIEW
Jonathan D Santoro, Mariko Bennett
Background: This manuscript reviews unique aspects of end of life decision-making in pediatrics. Methods: A narrative literature review of pediatric end of life issues was performed in the English language. Results: While a paternalistic approach is typically applied to children with life-limiting medical prognoses, the cognitive, language, and physical variability in this patient population is wide and worthy of review. In end of life discussions in pediatrics, the consideration of a child’s input is often not reviewed in depth, although a shared decision-making model is ideal for use, even for children with presumed limitations due to age...
April 26, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690592/the-aesthetic-turn-in-mental-health-reflections-on-an-explorative-study-into-practices-in-the-arts-therapies
#10
Rosemarie Samaritter
The paper will draw on materials from arts therapies literature and comments from experts’ panels to discuss some specific characteristics of the arts therapies and to investigate the role of aesthetic engagement for resilience and mental well-being. The arts increasingly find their way as interventions in mental health domains. However, explorations into the specific mechanisms that underpin the therapeutic effect of arts-based activities are still scarce. Qualitative data were collected from a thematic literature review and expert comments on meaningful working procedures in arts therapies...
April 23, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671796/does-discrimination-explain-high-risk-of-depression-among-high-income-african-american-men
#11
Shervin Assari, Maryam Moghani Lankarani, Cleopatra Howard Caldwell
Background: Higher socioeconomic status is known to decrease the risk for poor mental health overall. However, African American males of higher socioeconomic status (SES) are at an increased risk for having a major depressive episode (MDE). It is not known whether perceived discrimination (PD) explains this risk. The current study used nationally representative data to explore the role of PD in explaining the association between high-SES and having MDE among African American men. Methods: The National Survey of American Life (NSAL), 2003, included 4461 American adults including 1271 African American men...
April 19, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670045/what-we-know-about-the-brain-structure-function-relationship
#12
REVIEW
Karla Batista-García-Ramó, Caridad Ivette Fernández-Verdecia
How the human brain works is still a question, as is its implication with brain architecture: the non-trivial structure–function relationship. The main hypothesis is that the anatomic architecture conditions, but does not determine, the neural network dynamic. The functional connectivity cannot be explained only considering the anatomical substrate. This involves complex and controversial aspects of the neuroscience field and that the methods and methodologies to obtain structural and functional connectivity are not always rigorously applied...
April 18, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621177/the-role-of-title-ix-coordinators-on-college-and-university-campuses
#13
Jacquelyn D Wiersma-Mosley, James DiLoreto
The purpose of this study was to better understand the role of Title IX coordinators and their policies across four-year universities and two-year community colleges in the United States (U.S.). There is little information regarding Title IX coordinators' training, background, and policies on how they handle Title IX investigations regarding sexual violence. The data come from an online survey that included 692 Title IX coordinators across four-year (private and public) and two-year campuses and represented 42 different states in the US...
April 5, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596328/performance-of-the-adult-adhd-self-report-scale-v1-1-in-adults-with-major-depressive-disorder
#14
Boadie W Dunlop, Ruizhe Wu, Kathleen Helms
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an under-recognized comorbid disorder among patients with mood disorders. ADHD is an independent risk factor for suicidal ideation and behavior and contributes to many aspects of impaired function in adults. Diagnosis of ADHD in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) patients is challenging due to the overlap in cognitive symptoms between the two disorders. The ADHD Self-Report Scale, version 1.1 (ASRS-v1.1) is a widely used screening instrument for ADHD in adults but its accuracy has not been evaluated previously in treatment-seeking MDD patients...
March 29, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565278/development-and-pilot-testing-of-an-internet-based-self-help-intervention-for-depression-for-indian-users
#15
Seema Mehrotra, Paulomi Sudhir, Girish Rao, Jagadisha Thirthalli, T K Srikanth
There is a dearth of published research on uptake and utility of mental health apps in India, despite a rising global trend in the application of technology in the field of mental health. We describe the development and pilot testing of a self-help intervention for depression, PUSH-D (Practice and Use Self-Help for Depression) for urban Indians. This guided self-help app, with essential and optional zone sections, was developed to provide a comprehensive coverage of therapeutic strategies drawn from cognitive behavior therapy, interpersonal therapy, supportive psychotherapy, and positive psychology...
March 22, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562607/a-cohort-study-comparing-women-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-with-and-without-generalized-joint-hypermobility
#16
Emily L Casanova, Julia L Sharp, Stephen M Edelson, Desmond P Kelly, Manuel F Casanova
Reports suggest comorbidity between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and the connective tissue disorder, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS). People with EDS and the broader spectrum of Generalized Joint Hypermobility (GJH) often present with immune- and endocrine-mediated conditions. Meanwhile, immune/endocrine dysregulation is a popular theme in autism research. We surveyed a group of ASD women with/without GJH to determine differences in immune/endocrine exophenotypes. ASD women 25 years or older were invited to participate in an online survey...
March 17, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510581/an-individual-s-connection-to-nature-can-affect-perceived-restorativeness-of-natural-environments-some-observations-about-biophilia
#17
Rita Berto, Giuseppe Barbiero, Pietro Barbiero, Giulio Senes
This study investigates the relationship between the level to which a person feels connected to Nature and that person's ability to perceive the restorative value of a natural environment. We assume that perceived restorativeness may depend on an individual's connection to Nature and this relationship may also vary with the biophilic quality of the environment, i.e., the functional and aesthetic value of the natural environment which presumably gave an evolutionary advantage to our species. To this end, the level of connection to Nature and the perceived restorativeness of the environment were assessed in individuals visiting three parks characterized by their high level of "naturalness" and high or low biophilic quality...
March 5, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510495/age-related-changes-in-the-behavior-of-apolipoprotein-e-knockout-mice
#18
Dasha Fuentes, Nidia Fernández, Yenela García, Teidy García, Ana Ruth Morales, Roberto Menéndez
The knockout mouse model, B6.129P2-Apoetm1Unc is homozygotic for the Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) deletion; thus, it is capable of developing hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis but ApoE is also a lipid-transport protein abundantly expressed in most neurons in the central nervous system, so these animals could also be models of neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this study was to determine age-related changes in spontaneous behavior and in learning and memory of Apolipoprotein E knockout mice. Spontaneous behavioral measurements included sleeping pattern, motor coordination and balance by rotarod and open field activity, whereas learning and memory tests included forced alternation in Y-maze, novel object recognition and passive avoidance conditioning...
March 3, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494499/humans-relationship-to-flowers-as-an-example-of-the-multiple-components-of-embodied-aesthetics
#19
Ephrat Huss, Kfir Bar Yosef, Michele Zaccai
This paper phenomenologically and qualitatively explores the relationship between humans and flowers as a relationship that throws light on the synergetic dynamics of embodied aesthetics. Its methods include qualitative description and thematic analyses of preferred flower types, as well as concept maps of the general term 'flower' by 120 students in Israel. The results revealed the interactive perceptual-compositional elements, as well as embodied, relational, and socially embedded elements of the aesthetic pleasure associated with flowers...
March 1, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494479/concurrent-and-simultaneous-use-of-cannabis-and-tobacco-and-its-relationship-with-academic-achievement-amongst-university-students
#20
Olga Hernández-Serrano, Maria E Gras, Sílvia Font-Mayolas
The combined use of cannabis and tobacco is frequent in Europe. Few studies have nonetheless explored this pattern of consumption and its relationship with academic achievement in Spanish population. The aim of the present study was to analyze (1) the frequency of four patterns of polydrug use the last year (non-dual users of cannabis and tobacco; concurrent users: cannabis and tobacco separately; simultaneous users: tobacco in cannabis "joints"; simultaneous users: tobacco in cannabis joints alongside alcohol) by gender and age; (2) grade point average (GPA) by gender and age; (3) the association between the frequency of the four patterns of use and the GPA amongst a sample of 477 Spanish university students...
March 1, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
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