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Behavioral Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346320/c-phycocyanin-and-phycocyanobilin-as-remyelination-therapies-for-enhancing-recovery-in-multiple-sclerosis-and-ischemic-stroke-a-preclinical-perspective
#1
REVIEW
Giselle Pentón-Rol, Javier Marín-Prida, Viviana Falcón-Cama
Myelin loss has a crucial impact on behavior disabilities associated to Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Ischemic Stroke (IS). Although several MS therapies are approved, none of them promote remyelination in patients, limiting their ability for chronic recovery. With no available therapeutic options, enhanced demyelination in stroke survivors is correlated with a poorer behavioral recovery. Here, we show the experimental findings of our group and others supporting the remyelinating effects of C-Phycocyanin (C-PC), the main biliprotein of Spirulina platensis and its linked tetrapyrrole Phycocyanobilin (PCB), in models of these illnesses...
January 18, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346276/comparison-of-the-response-of-male-balb-c-and-c57bl-6-mice-in-behavioral-tasks-to-evaluate-cognitive-function
#2
Yenela Garcia, Nashelly Esquivel
To evaluate several cognitive parameters during the execution of behavioral tasks assessing cognitive function in laboratory animals, the parameters are reported within a range. This situation entails that each laboratory must establish the conditions under which the behavioral task to evaluate the cognitive function can be carried out. C57BL/6 and BALB/c inbred strains are used more often in behavioral studies relating to anxiety, stress, fear and cognitive function. The aim of this work was to compare the behavioral response of mice of the strains BALB/c and C57BL/6 to evaluate memory and learning as cognitive functions...
January 18, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346273/report-on-the-symposium-molecular-mechanisms-involved-in-neurodegeneration
#3
Giselle Pentón-Rol, Majel Cervantes-Llanos
The prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases is currently a major concern in public health because of the lack of neuroprotective and neuroregenerative drugs. The symposium on Molecular Mechanisms Involved in Neurodegeneration held in Varadero, Cuba, updated the participants on the basic mechanisms of neurodegeneration, on the different approaches for drug discovery, and on early research results on therapeutic approaches for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Alzheimer's disease and in silico research were covered by many of the presentations in the symposium, under the umbrella of the "State of the Art of Non-clinical Models for Neurodegenerative Diseases" International Congress, held from 20 to 24 June 2017...
January 18, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342087/sophisticated-fowl-the-complex-behaviour-and-cognitive-skills-of-chickens-and-red-junglefowl
#4
REVIEW
Laura Garnham, Hanne Løvlie
The world's most numerous bird, the domestic chicken, and their wild ancestor, the red junglefowl, have long been used as model species for animal behaviour research. Recently, this research has advanced our understanding of the social behaviour, personality, and cognition of fowl, and demonstrated their sophisticated behaviour and cognitive skills. Here, we overview some of this research, starting with describing research investigating the well-developed senses of fowl, before presenting how socially and cognitively complex they can be...
January 17, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342927/the-application-of-adaptive-behaviour-models-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Jessica A Price, Zoe A Morris, Shane Costello
Adaptive behaviour has been viewed broadly as an individual's ability to meet the standards of social responsibilities and independence; however, this definition has been a source of debate amongst researchers and clinicians. Based on the rich history and the importance of the construct of adaptive behaviour, the current study aimed to provide a comprehensive overview of the application of adaptive behaviour models to assessment tools, through a systematic review. A plethora of assessment measures for adaptive behaviour have been developed in order to adequately assess the construct; however, it appears that the only definition on which authors seem to agree is that adaptive behaviour is what adaptive behaviour scales measure...
January 15, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342910/academic-stress-and-self-regulation-among-university-students-in-malaysia-mediator-role-of-mindfulness
#6
Nur Hamizah Hj Ramli, Masoumeh Alavi, Seyed Abolghasem Mehrinezhad, Atefeh Ahmadi
Academic stress is the most common emotional or mental state that students experience during their studies. Stress is a result of a wide range of issues, including test and exam burden, a demanding course, a different educational system, and thinking about future plans upon graduation. A sizeable body of literature in stress management research has found that self-regulation and being mindful will help students to cope up with the stress and dodge long-term negative consequences, such as substance abuse. The present study aims to investigate the influence of academic stress, self-regulation, and mindfulness among undergraduate students in Klang Valley, Malaysia, and to identify mindfulness as the mediator between academic stress and self-regulation...
January 15, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329259/extreme-overvalued-beliefs-how-violent-extremist-beliefs-become-normalized
#7
Tahir Rahman
Extreme overvalued beliefs (EOB) are rigidly held, non-deusional beliefs that are the motive behind most acts of terrorism and mass shootings. EOBs are differentiated from delusions and obsessions. The concept of an overvalued idea was first described by Wernicke and later applied to terrorism by McHugh. Our group of forensic psychiatrists (Rahman, Resnick, Harry) refined the definition as an aid in the differential diagnosis seen in acts of violence. The form and content of EOBs is discussed as well as group effects, conformity, and obedience to authority...
January 12, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324710/the-intention-to-be-physically-active-in-sedentary-obese-children-a-longitudinal-study
#8
Antonio García-Hermoso, Jose M Saavedra, Yolanda Escalante, Ana M Domínguez
Obese children are usually less active than their normal-weight counterparts, although the reasons for this remain unclear. The objective of the present study was to determine how a long-term program (3 years of intervention and 6 months of follow-up detraining) of physical exercise with or without a low calorie diet influenced sedentary obese children's intention to be physically active. The participants were 27 children, ages from 8 to 11 years, who formed two groups according to the program that they followed...
January 11, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320417/social-support-religious-endorsement-and-career-commitment-a-study-on-saudi-nurses
#9
Mohammad T Azim, Mazharul M Islam
The present study investigates the effect of perceived social support (PSS) and perceived religious endorsement (PRE) on career commitment (CC) of Saudi nurses. The investigation also extends to the moderating role of different demographic and organizational factors in the extent of PSS, and career commitment these nurses report. Data required for meeting these study objectives were collected from male and female Saudi nurses through a structured questionnaire. Multiple regressions using Partial Least Squares based Structural Equation Model, Smart-PLS version 3...
January 10, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303967/dancing-with-gravity-why-the-sense-of-balance-is-the-fundamental
#10
Dominik Fuchs
The sense of balance, which is usually barely noticeable in the background of each of our movements, only becomes manifest in its function during intense stimulation or in the event of illness, which may quite literally turn your world upside down. While it is true that balance is becoming a bigger issue, that is mainly because people are losing it more frequently. So why is balance not as commonly talked about in psychology, medicine or the arts as the other five traditional senses? This is partly due to its unusual multi-modal nature, whereby three sensory inputs are coordinated and integrated by the central nervous system...
January 5, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301347/the-relationship-between-self-reported-executive-functioning-and-risk-taking-behavior-in-urban-homeless-youth
#11
Joshua Piche, Jaeson Kaylegian, Dale Smith, Scott J Hunter
Introduction: Almost 2 million U.S. youth are estimated to live on the streets, in shelters, or in other types of temporary housing at some point each year. Both their age and living situations make them more likely to engage in high-risk behaviors, particularly during adolescence, a time of increased risk taking. Much of self-control appears related to the development of the prefrontal cortex, which is at a particularly crucial period of elaboration and refinement during adolescence and emerging adulthood...
January 3, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301194/effectiveness-of-a-computer-based-training-program-of-attention-and-memory-in-patients-with-acquired-brain-damage
#12
Elizabeth Fernandez, Jorge A Bergado Rosado, Daymi Rodriguez Perez, Sonia Salazar Santana, Maydane Torres Aguilar, Maria Luisa Bringas
Many training programs have been designed using modern software to restore the impaired cognitive functions in patients with acquired brain damage (ABD). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a computer-based training program of attention and memory in patients with ABD, using a two-armed parallel group design, where the experimental group (n = 50) received cognitive stimulation using RehaCom software, and the control group (n = 30) received the standard cognitive stimulation (non-computerized) for eight weeks...
December 30, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280969/psychological-predictors-of-sexual-intimate-partner-violence-against-black-and-hispanic-women
#13
Brianna Preiser, Shervin Assari
Background: Although various types of intimate partner violence (IPV) tend to co-occur, risk factors of each type of IPV may differ. At the same time, most of the existing literature on risk factors of IPV among minorities has used a cross-sectional design and has focused on physical rather than sexual IPV. We conducted the current study to compare Black and Hispanic women for psychological predators of change in sexual IPV over time. Methods: Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS), this study followed 561 Black and 475 Hispanic women with their male partners for four years...
December 27, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278388/the-length-of-residence-is-associated-with-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors-among-foreign-english-teachers-in-korea
#14
Brice Wilfried Obiang-Obounou
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a group of disorders that involve the heart and blood vessels. Acculturation is associated with CVD risk factors among immigrants in Western countries. In this study, the association between acculturation and CVD risk factors was examined among English teachers from Europe and the USA living in Korea. English teachers were defined as those who reported their profession as "English Teacher". Only English teachers from Europe (UK, and Ireland, n = 81) and North America (Canada and USA, n = 304) were selected...
December 26, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295529/contributing-to-overall-life-satisfaction-personality-traits-versus-life-satisfaction-variables-revisited-is-replication-impossible
#15
Bernd Lachmann, Rayna Sariyska, Christopher Kannen, Konrad Błaszkiewicz, Boris Trendafilov, Ionut Andone, Mark Eibes, Alexander Markowetz, Mei Li, Keith M Kendrick, Christian Montag
Virtually everybody would agree that life satisfaction is of immense importance in everyday life. Thus, it is not surprising that a considerable amount of research using many different methodological approaches has investigated what the best predictors of life satisfaction are. In the present study, we have focused on several key potential influences on life satisfaction including bottom-up and top-down models, cross-cultural effects, and demographic variables. In four independent (large scale) surveys with sample sizes ranging from N = 488 to 40,297, we examined the associations between life satisfaction and various related variables...
December 23, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240715/the-role-of-motion-concepts-in-understanding-non-motion-concepts
#16
Omid Khatin-Zadeh, Hassan Banaruee, Hooshang Khoshsima, Fernando Marmolejo-Ramos
This article discusses a specific type of metaphor in which an abstract non-motion domain is described in terms of a motion event. Abstract non-motion domains are inherently different from concrete motion domains. However, motion domains are used to describe abstract non-motion domains in many metaphors. Three main reasons are suggested for the suitability of motion events in such metaphorical descriptions. Firstly, motion events usually have high degrees of concreteness. Secondly, motion events are highly imageable...
December 14, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232888/a-comparison-of-the-social-adaptive-perspective-and-functionalist-perspective-on-guilt-and-shame
#17
REVIEW
Heidi L Dempsey
Within the field of guilt and shame two competing perspectives have been advanced. The first, the social-adaptive perspective, proposes that guilt is an inherently adaptive emotion and shame is an inherently maladaptive emotion. Thus, those interested in moral character development and psychopathology should work to increase an individual's guilt-proneness and decrease an individual's shame-proneness. The functionalist perspective, in contrast, argues that both guilt and shame can serve a person adaptively or maladaptively-depending on the situational appropriateness, duration, intensity, and so forth...
December 11, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211021/challenging-notions-of-academic-entitlement-and-its-rise-among-liberal-arts-college-students
#18
Debra Lemke, Jeff Marx, Lauren Dundes
To assess academic entitlement, we employed a repeated cross-sectional design to compare survey data from two systematic random samples collected eight years apart, in 2009 (n = 225) and 2017 (n = 159), at a small, private, mid-Atlantic liberal arts college. According to an entitlement scale (based on Greenberger et al., 2008), students were less likely to be entitled in 2017 (27%) than in 2009 (41%) (p = 0.02). In 2009, a higher proportion of males than females felt entitled (50% versus 34%, p = 0.05), a sex difference that disappeared by 2017...
December 6, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299350/non-clinical-models-for-neurodegenerative-diseases-therapeutic-approach-and-drug-validation-in-animal-models
#19
Caridad Ivette Fernandez, Jessica López, Lázara Martinez
In 2016, 19.8% of the Cuban population was aged 60 or over. As a result, age-associated degenerative diseases and other diseases have become priority targets from a prophylactic, diagnostic and therapeutic perspective. As a result, the Cuban biomedical scientific community has addressed its basic, preclinical and epidemiological research in order to rise up to the challenge. A firm step in this direction has been the international congress "State of the art in non-clinical models for neurodegenerative diseases" which has brought together preclinical and clinical researchers, technicians and regulatory staff members from different countries to review the state of the art in neurodegenerations, find unifying ideas, objectives and collaborations or partnership...
December 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299349/perspectives-on-the-role-of-professional-laboratory-animal-science-associations
#20
Ann Tourigny Turner, Ekaterina Botovchenco Rivera, Cynthia Pekow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Behavioral Sciences
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