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Behavioral Sciences

Teresa Serrano Sánchez, María Elena González Fraguela, Lisette Blanco Lezcano, Esteban Alberti Amador, Beatriz Caballero Fernández, María de Los Ángeles Robinson Agramonte, Lourdes Lorigados Pedre, Jorge A Bergado Rosado
Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited, neurodegenerative disorder that results from the degeneration of striatal neurons, mainly GABAergic neurons. The study of neurochemical activity has provided reliable markers to explain motor disorders. To treat neurodegenerative diseases, stem cell transplants with bone marrow (BM) have been performed for several decades. In this work we determine the effect of mononuclear bone marrow cell (mBMC) transplantation on the rotational behavior and neurochemical activity in a model of Huntington's disease in rats...
September 20, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Shervin Assari
Background. Socioeconomic status (SES) has smaller protective effects on the health of African Americans, and the differential association between social mobility and stress may explain the diminished returns of SES for African Americans. Aim. This study tested the race/ethnic differences in the association between upward and downward social mobility and stress in a nationally representative sample of African American and White American adults. Methods. This study included 3570 African Americans and 891 non-Hispanic White Americans from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL), 2003...
September 20, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Arshya Vahabzadeh, Neha U Keshav, Rafiq Abdus-Sabur, Krystal Huey, Runpeng Liu, Ned T Sahin
Background: Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) commonly demonstrate prominent social communication deficits, symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and chronic irritability. These challenges hinder academic progress and frequently persist despite educational, behavioral, and medical interventions. An assistive smartglasses technology may aid these individuals, especially if the technology is efficacious in ecologically-valid school settings. This study explored the feasibility and efficacy of Empowered Brain, a computerized smartglasses intervention designed as a socio-emotional behavioral aid for students with ASD...
September 20, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Yana Korneeva, Natalia Simonova
The professional activity in shifts in the Arctic contributes to the development of unfavorable functional status and destructive personal qualities of workers, which leads to a decrease in the level of mental health and efficiency of labor activity. The reference to the risk-oriented approach is conditioned by the need to predict the professional efficiency of shift personnel. The purpose of this study is to determine the psychological risks of oil and gas workers with a shift work organization in the Arctic...
September 19, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Manuel Castro-Sánchez, Félix Zurita-Ortega, José Luis Ubago-Jiménez, Irwin A Ramírez-Granizo, Ramón Chacón-Cuberos
(1) Background: In recent decades, the psychology of sport has gained special relevance in this field, due to the influence of psychological variables on sports performance and the regularity of sports practice. The aim of this research is to analyse the motivational climate of footballers. (2) Methods: This study uses a descriptive cross-sectional design on a sample of 156 adolescent football players, using an ad-hoc questionnaire for the recording of socio-demographic variables and the PMCSQ-2 questionnaire on motivational climate in sport...
September 15, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Pınar Yaprak, Mehmet Güçlü, Tebessüm Ayyildiz Durhan
Happiness, psychological hardiness, and humor ("the 3Hs") are useful ways of assessing resilience to stress in positive psychology. The literature analyzing their confluence regarding sports is scarce. This study aims to analyze the participants' 3H levels and the relationships between those levels and specific variables. The Psychological Hardiness Scale (Psikolojik Dayaniklilik Olcegi, PDO), the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire Short Form (OHQ-SF), and the Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ) were used...
September 12, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Abdullah Almousa, Reema Alajaji, Malak Alaboudi, Fahad Al-Sultan, Shahid Bashir
(1) Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation modality that has been investigated in a large number of studies in terms of it is effects on brain function, safety of use, and future implications. The principal aim of this study was to investigate the safety of 1.5-mA tDCS of three brain areas, that is, frontal, partial, and cerebellar cortices, in fasting healthy individuals during the month of Ramadan. (2) Methods: In a single-blinded, sham-controlled study, we assessed the safety of a 20-min tDCS current (1...
September 10, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Rikinkumar S Patel, Neelima Amaravadi, Harkeerat Bhullar, Jay Lekireddy, Honey Win
Objective: To determine the demographic predictors and comorbidities in hospitalized children with conduct disorder. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2012⁻2014). All patients were ≤18 years old and cases with a primary diagnosis of conduct disorder ( n = 32,345), and a comparison group with another psychiatric diagnosis ( n = 410,479) were identified using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM)diagnosis codes...
September 4, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Motohiro Ito, Naoyuki Matsuzaki, Jun Kawahara
As the problems of mood measurements during alcohol consumption of alcoholic beverages do not necessarily evoke interpretable physiological responses, explicit reports may be contaminated by various cognitive biases or expectations. The present study examined whether emotional responses induced by the consumption of beverages containing low concentrations of alcohol can be measured using the Implicit Association Test (IAT). The IAT can detect the estimates of internal proximity between bipolar target concepts (e...
September 3, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Nancy Vargas-Mendoza, Tomás Fregoso-Aguilar, Eduardo Madrigal-Santillán, Ángel Morales-González, José A Morales-González
Background : The need to advance and achieve success is deeply ingrained in human evolution. As a species, humans developed instincts that allowed them to survive and transmit their genes along generations. The will to win is an instinct that has been maintained in the species for millions of years. Sport is an activity as old as humans themselves and is subject to rules; Objective : The proposal of this work is to explore some of the most recurrent practices to achieve the athletes' goals, and the origins and historical use of methods or substances to improve performance and its regulation, as well as to review the impact of new technologies on achieving better results and to make a proposal of what actions should be takenin order to prevent bad practices; Methods : A narrative literature review of ethical sports issues and decision-making was performed in the English language; Results : Practically all behavior with regards to the theme of sports is regulated by ethical codes that must be followed by sportspersons, as well as by everyone involved in the athlete's healthcare and in the athlete's administrative, marketing, and business aspects...
September 3, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Elisabeth Counselman-Carpenter, Alex Redcay
This theoretical paper explores the need to use posttraumatic growth (PTG) as a framework when studying sexual minority women (SMW) who are survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV) to examine the relationship between risk factors such as stress, anxiety and alcohol use and to understand the role of protective factors through mining for the presence of posttraumatic growth (PTG). Despite a call for continued research in this highly vulnerable population, representative studies of SMW and PTG remain extremely limited...
August 28, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Sorelle Audrey Kamkuimo Kengne, Mathilde Fossaert, Benoît Girard, Bob-Antoine J Menelas
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) can be seen as the result of dysfunctional beliefs that associate stimuli with a danger or a threat leading to anxious reactions. Exposure therapy is so far considered to be the most effective treatment, and research suggests that it is mainly based on a habituation process. Based on learning theories, it appears that a passive systemic exposure to traumatic stimuli should not be the best option for the treatment of PTSD. We hypothesis that an active learning of safer and healthier coping strategies combined with systematic exposure should be more effective in reducing the psychological distress associated with PTSD...
August 16, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Tamara da Silva Vaccaro, Julia Medeiros Sorrentino, Sócrates Salvador, Tiago Veit, Diogo Onofre Souza, Roberto Farina de Almeida
Aims: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) refers to a group of heterogeneous brain-based neurodevelopmental disorders with different levels of symptom severity. Given the challenges, the clinical diagnosis of ASD is based on information gained from interviews with patients' parents. The heterogeneous pathogenesis of this disorder appears to be driven by genetic and environmental interactions, which also plays a vital role in predisposing individuals to ASD with different commitment levels. In recent years, it has been proposed that epigenetic modifications directly contribute to the pathogenesis of several neurodevelopmental disorders, such as ASD...
August 15, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Lewis Mitchell, Zaheer Hussain
Background : The progression of mobile phone technology has led to the development of multi-functional smartphones providing access to features such as social media, e-mail, and videos alongside the basic functions of a mobile phone. Increasing amounts of research has explored the potential addictive nature of smartphones to develop a theoretical framework that describes personality factors related to problematic use. The present study examined the Integrative Pathways Model and the effect of age, gender, impulsiveness, excessive reassurance seeking, extraversion, and depression on problematic smartphone use...
August 14, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Rikinkumar S Patel, Geetha Manikkara, Priya Patel, Jupi Talukdar, Zeeshan Mansuri
Objective : To analyze differences in demographic pattern and hospitalization outcomes in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with opioid use disorder (OUD) patients managed with versus without behavioral therapy (BT). Methods : We conducted case-control study using Nationwide Inpatient Sample and identified PTSD and OUD using ICD⁻9⁻CM codes. Linear regression model was used to evaluate impact of BT on inpatient stay and cost. Results : We analyzed 1531 inpatient admissions and 786 patients received BT...
August 12, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Andrea Schiavio, Dylan van der Schyff
Recent approaches in the cognitive and psychological sciences conceive of mind as an Embodied, Embedded, Extended, and Enactive (or 4E) phenomenon. While this has stimulated important discussions and debates across a vast array of disciplines, its principles, applications, and explanatory power have not yet been properly addressed in the domain of musical development. Accordingly, it remains unclear how the cognitive processes involved in the acquisition of musical skills might be understood through the lenses of this approach, and what this might offer for practical areas like music education...
August 9, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Bill Cheuk Long Chan, Michelle Luciano, Billy Lee
Subjective wellbeing (SWB) has been widely accepted as one of the most important elements of successful ageing. The present study explores the impact of two well-established correlates of SWB: physical activity and personality. Physical activity and each of the Big Five personality traits are consistent predictors of SWB, but there has been little research on whether certain personality traits enhance or hinder the psychological benefits of physical activity in older adults. This study examines the interactions of leisure-time physical activity and personality traits on SWB, and whether such interactions vary between older adults in Hong Kong (HK) and older adults in the United Kingdom (UK)...
August 6, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Magdalena Iorga, Corina Dondas, Cristina Zugun-Eloae
Research in the field has identified the presence of stress and depression among medical students. However, no other study has pointed out the differences between years of study. The objectives of the study are to identify the levels of stress and depression among medical students and to point out the relationship between these two variables. Methods : The cross-sectional study gathered data regarding socio-demographic characteristics, depression, self-identified psychological and physical symptoms during stressful periods and perceived stress among medical students in a university in Romania...
August 3, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Brandie Pugh, Patricia Becker
Campus sexual assault is a pervasive issue impacting the well-being, quality of life, and education of all students. There have been many recent efforts to prevent and address campus sexual assault, most notably the adoption of affirmative consent standards. (1) Efforts to address sexual assault on college campuses through an affirmative consent standard could be undermined by traditional gender norms, sexual scripts, and the power dynamics inherent in heterosexual relations, which lead to situations in which many women provide consent to unwanted sex...
August 2, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Muhammed Ashraful Alam, Kanittha Chamroonsawasdi, Natkamol Chansatitporn, Chokchai Munsawaengsub, Md Shafiqul Islam
Women's fertility decision is quite difficult in male-dominant rural culture due to their poor reproductive autonomy. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in rural community of Bangladesh between November 2017 and February 2018 among 1285 respondents selected by multi-stage stratified sampling to explore regional variations of rural women's fertility control behavior and its determinants using hierarchical and other inferential statistics. Data collection was done by face-to-face interview using questionnaire...
July 31, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
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