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Behavioral Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144422/atypical-processing-of-novel-distracters-in-a-visual-oddball-task-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#1
Estate M Sokhadze, Eva V Lamina, Emily L Casanova, Desmond P Kelly, Ioan Opris, Irma Khachidze, Manuel F Casanova
Several studies have shown that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show abnormalities in P3b to targets in standard oddball tasks. The present study employed a three-stimulus visual oddball task with novel distracters that analyzed event-related potentials (ERP) to both target and non-target items at frontal and parietal sites. The task tested the hypothesis that children with autism are abnormally orienting attention to distracters probably due to impaired habituation to novelty. We predicted a lower selectivity in early ERPs to target, frequent non-target, and rare distracters...
November 16, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144386/creating-a-world-class-program-through-training-and-certification
#2
Ann Turner
The animal research field has gotten more sophisticated with the use of genetically engineered animals, biohazardous agents, and advanced technologies. Trained and competent personnel are a cornerstone of any animal care and use program. Individual career success is a combination of education, experience, continuing competence, professional development, and personal commitment. Integration of training and certification into programs demonstrate institutional commitment to quality research and enhance the program by providing staff with knowledge and training to address problems and situation that arise and to perform their job in a professional and effective manner...
November 16, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120378/clinic-design-as-placebo-using-design-to-promote-healing-and-support-treatments
#3
Jonas Rehn, Kai Schuster
Analogously to the medical placebo effect, people seem to anticipate the quality of treatments based on external stimuli. In order to gain insights on the effect the built environment can have on a person's judgments and behavior with a particular focus on health related issues, a quantitative survey (N = 851) with four groups before and after the renovation of a rehabilitation clinic has been conducted. In line with an overall modernization of the clinic, the entrance, the lobby, and some patient rooms have been changed...
November 9, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117105/efficacy-of-web-based-weight-loss-maintenance-programs-a-randomized-controlled-trial-comparing-standard-features-versus-the-addition-of-enhanced-personalized-feedback-over-12-months
#4
Clare E Collins, Philip J Morgan, Melinda J Hutchesson, Christopher Oldmeadow, Daniel Barker, Robin Callister
Few randomized controlled trials (RCT) have evaluated the efficacy of web-based programs targeting maintenance of lost weight. The aims of this study were to evaluate two versions of a commercially available web-based weight loss maintenance (WLM) program and examine whether the provision of enhanced feedback was associated with better WLM. The study was an assessor-blinded RCT of change in body mass index (BMI) over 12 months WLM. Participants were 227 adults (44% male, 42.3 ± 10.1 years, BMI 30.4 ± 4.1 kg/m²) randomized to either a basic (Basic WLM) or enhanced program with additional support (Enhanced WLM)...
November 8, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113117/discrimination-increases-suicidal-ideation-in-black-adolescents-regardless-of-ethnicity-and-gender
#5
Shervin Assari, Maryam Moghani Lankarani, Cleopatra Howard Caldwell
BACKGROUND: Discrimination is a common experience for Blacks across various developmental periods. Although much is known about the effect of discrimination on suicidal ideation of adults, less is known about the same association in Black youth. AIM: We examined the association between discrimination and suicidal ideation in a national sample of Black youth. We also explored gender and ethnic differences in this association. METHODS: We used data from the National Survey of American Life-Adolescents (NSAL-A), 2003-2004...
November 6, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068379/financing-cocaine-use-in-a-homeless-population
#6
Carol S North, David E Pollio
Background: Cocaine use is highly prevalent among homeless populations, yet little is known about how it is financed. This study examined associations of income sources with cocaine use and financing of drugs in a longitudinal evaluation of a homeless sample. Methods: A homeless sample was recruited systematically in St. Louis in 1999-2001 and longitudinally assessed annually over two years using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule and the Homeless Supplement, with urine drug testing. Results: More than half (55%) of participants with complete follow-up data (N = 255/400) had current year cocaine use...
October 25, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068371/map-sensitivity-vs-map-dependency-a-case-study-of-subway-maps-impact-on-passenger-route-choices-in-washington-dc
#7
John Xu
This paper addresses the key assumption in behavioral and transportation planning literature that, when people use a transit system more frequently, they become less dependent on and less sensitive to transit maps in their decision-making. Therefore, according to this assumption, map changes are much less impactful to travel decisions of frequent riders than to that of first-time or new passengers. This assumption-though never empirically validated-has been the major hurdle for transit maps to becoming a planning tool to change passengers' behavior...
October 25, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048357/health-philosophy-of-dietitians-and-its-implications-for-life-satisfaction-an-exploratory-study
#8
Patricia Grace-Farfaglia, Denise Pickett-Bernard, Andrea White Gorman, Jaleh Dehpahlavan
Studies of health providers suggest that satisfaction with life is related to their values and sense of purpose which is best achieved when their professional role is in harmony with personal philosophy. Cross-sectional surveys suggest that personal health beliefs and practices of health professionals influence their clinical counseling practices. However, little is known about the influence of health philosophy on the personal satisfaction with life for dietitians. This study recruited a randomly selected, cross-sectional sample to complete a self-administered online survey...
October 19, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057788/relationship-between-self-rated-health-and-lifestyle-and-food-habits-in-japanese-high-school-students
#9
Tomoko Osera, Mitsuyo Awai, Misako Kobayashi, Setsuko Tsutie, Nobutaka Kurihara
Self-rated health (SRH), a subjective assessment of health status, is extensively used in the field of public health. It is an important and valid measure that is strongly related to morbidity, mortality, longevity and health status. Adolescence is a crucial period for the formation of health status, because health-risk behaviours (e.g., skipping breakfast) are often established during this period. In this study, we investigated the relationship of SRH with lifestyle and eating habits in Japanese high school students...
October 18, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039756/creative-arts-therapies-as-temporary-home-for-refugees-insights-from-literature-and-practice
#10
Rebekka Dieterich-Hartwell, Sabine C Koch
One of the frequently overlooked psychosocial problems of refugees is the phenomenon of homesickness. Being forced into exile and unable to return home may cause natural feelings of nostalgia but may also result in emotional, cognitive, behavioral and physical adversities. According to the literature, the creative arts therapies with their attention to preverbal language-music, imagery, dance, role play, and movement-are able to reach individuals through the senses and promote successive integration, which can lead to transformation and therapeutic change...
October 17, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039752/aesthetic-diagnosis-in-gestalt-therapy
#11
Jan Roubal, Gianni Francesetti, Michela Gecele
The diagnostic process in psychotherapy using the aesthetic evaluation is described in this article. Unlike the classical diagnostic process, which presents a result of comparing clinicians´ observations with a diagnostic system (DSM, ICD, etc.), the aesthetic evaluation is a pre-reflexive, embodied, and preverbal process. A Gestalt Therapy theoretical frame is used to introduce a concept of the aesthetic diagnostic process. During this process, the clinicians use their own here-and-now presence, which takes part in the co-creation of the shared relational field during the therapeutic session...
October 17, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035330/whites-but-not-blacks-gain-life-expectancy-from-social-contacts
#12
Shervin Assari
Background. Recent research suggests that the health gain from economic resources and psychological assets may be systematically larger for Whites than Blacks. Aim. This study aimed to assess whether the life expectancy gain associated with social contacts over a long follow up differs for Blacks and Whites. Methods. Data came from the Americans' Changing Lives (ACL) Study, 1986-2011. The sample was a nationally representative sample of American adults 25 and older, who were followed for up to 25 years (n = 3361)...
October 16, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961185/on-the-importance-of-both-dimensional-and-discrete-models-of-emotion
#13
REVIEW
Eddie Harmon-Jones, Cindy Harmon-Jones, Elizabeth Summerell
We review research on the structure and functions of emotions that has benefitted from a serious consideration of both discrete and dimensional perspectives on emotion. To illustrate this point, we review research that demonstrates: (1) how affective valence within discrete emotions differs as a function of individuals and situations, and how these differences relate to various functions; (2) that anger (and other emotional states) should be considered as a discrete emotion but there are dimensions around and within anger; (3) that similarities exist between approach-related positive and negative discrete emotions and they have unique motivational functions; (4) that discrete emotions and broad dimensions of emotions both have unique functions; and (5) evidence that a "new" discrete emotion with discrete functions exists within a broader emotion family...
September 29, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934128/neuroticism-predicts-subsequent-risk-of-major-depression-for-whites-but-not-blacks
#14
Shervin Assari
Cultural and ethnic differences in psychosocial and medical correlates of negative affect are well documented. This study aimed to compare blacks and whites for the predictive role of baseline neuroticism (N) on subsequent risk of major depressive episodes (MDD) 25 years later. Data came from the Americans' Changing Lives (ACL) Study, 1986-2011. We used data on 1219 individuals (847 whites and 372 blacks) who had data on baseline N in 1986 and future MDD in 2011. The main predictor of interest was baseline N, measured using three items in 1986...
September 21, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926975/non-invasive-brain-stimulation-for-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-a-short-term-outcome-study
#15
Lázaro Gómez, Belkis Vidal, Carlos Maragoto, Lilia Maria Morales, Sheyla Berrillo, Héctor Vera Cuesta, Margarita Baez, Marlén Denis, Tairí Marín, Yaumara Cabrera, Abel Sánchez, Celia Alarcón, Maribel Selguera, Yaima Llanez, Lucila Dieguez, María Robinson
Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation (NIBS) is a relatively new therapeutic approach that has shown beneficial effects in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). One question to be answered is how enduring its neuromodulatory effect could be. Twenty-four patients with ASD (mean age: 12.2 years) received 20 sessions of NIBS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (L-DLPFC). They were randomized into two groups with two (G1) or three (G2) clinical evaluations before NIBS. Both groups had a complete follow-up at six months after the intervention, with the aim of determining the short-term outcome using the total score on the Autism Behavior Checklist, Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist, and the Autism Diagnostic Interview...
September 17, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914815/a-systematic-review-family-support-integrated-with-diabetes-self-management-among-uncontrolled-type-ii-diabetes-mellitus-patients
#16
REVIEW
Rian Adi Pamungkas, Kanittha Chamroonsawasdi, Paranee Vatanasomboon
The rate of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is dramatically increasing worldwide. Continuing diabetes mellitus (DM) care needs effective self-management education and support for both patients and family members. This study aimed to review and describe the impacts of diabetes mellitus self-management education (DSME) that involve family members on patient outcomes related to patient health behaviors and perceived self-efficacy on self-management such as medication adherence, blood glucose monitoring, diet and exercise changes, health outcomes including psychological well-being and self-efficacy, and physiological markers including body mass index, level of blood pressure, cholesterol level and glycemic control...
September 15, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869495/what-can-synergetics-contribute-to-embodied-aesthetics
#17
Hermann Haken
I deal with perception and action (e.g., movements) using results from synergetics, a comprehensive mathematical theory of the self-organized formation (emergence) of spatial, temporal, or functional structures in complex systems. I illustrate basic concepts such as order parameters (OPs), enslavement, complexity reduction, circular causality first by examples of well-known collective, spontaneous modes of human behavior such as rhythmic clapping of hands, and so forth, and then by face recognition. The role played by OPs depends on context...
September 2, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28850058/does-growing-up-in-urban-compared-to-rural-areas-shape-primary-emotional-traits
#18
Cornelia Sindermann, Keith M Kendrick, Benjamin Becker, Mei Li, Shijia Li, Christian Montag
Growing up in urban areas represents a possible risk factor in the genesis of psychopathologies. The aim of the present study was to investigate the link between urbanicity variables and indicators for psychiatric disorders. We investigated a potential association between primary emotional traits and urbanicity variables in 324 individuals from Germany and 713 individuals from China. Higher scores in the urbanicity index in childhood were inversely associated with FEAR and SADNESS only in adult Chinese females...
August 29, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829395/practice-of-environmentally-significant-behaviours-in-rural-china-from-being-motivated-by-economic-gains-to-being-motivated-by-environmental-considerations
#19
Yanyan Chen
A continuous and increasing crisis that present-day China is facing is environmental degradation. The cultivation of citizens who have environmentally friendly behaviours has been deemed as a fundamental way to solve environmental crises. However, the main focus of environmentalism studies has been urban residents, whereas rare research attention was put on rural Chinese. This paper focuses on environmentally significant behaviours in rural China and aims to clarify the practice of five environmentally significant behaviours and two motivations underlying these behaviours...
August 22, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829371/taking-behavioral-sciences-forward
#20
EDITORIAL
Scott J Hunter
It has been almost one year now since I agreed to become the Editor-in-Chief for this important open access journal, for which I have served as a member of the editorial board since its early inception.[...].
August 22, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
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