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Behavioral Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505118/communicatively-constructing-the-bright-and-dark-sides-of-hope-family-caregivers-experiences-during-end-of-life-cancer-care
#1
Jody Koenig Kellas, Katherine M Castle, Alexis Johnson, Marlene Z Cohen
(1) Background: The communication of hope is complicated, particularly for family caregivers in the context of cancer who struggle to maintain hope for themselves and their loved ones in the face of terminality. In order to understand these complexities, the current study examines the bright and dark sides of how hope is communicated across the cancer journey from the vantage point of bereaved family caregivers; (2) Methods: We analyzed interviews with bereaved family caregivers using qualitative thematic and case oriented strategies to identify patterns in the positive and negative lived experiences when communicating about hope at the end of life; (3) Results: Two overarching patterns of hope emerged...
May 15, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498355/the-link-between-mastery-and-depression-among-black-adolescents-ethnic-and-gender-differences
#2
Shervin Assari, Cleopatra Howard Caldwell
PURPOSE: Although the link between depression and lower levels of mastery is well established, limited information exists on ethnic and gender differences in the association between the two. The current study investigated ethnic, gender, and ethnic by gender differences in the link between major depressive disorder (MDD) and low mastery in the United States. METHODS: We used data from the National Survey of American Life-Adolescent supplement (NSAL-A), 2003-2004...
May 12, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492478/the-role-of-the-orbitofrontal-and-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortices-in-aesthetic-preference-for-art
#3
Luca F Ticini
The search for the underlying neural activation that occurs during subjective aesthetic experiences of artwork has been enhanced through neuroimaging techniques. Recently, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, alongside the orbitofrontal cortex, have been implicated in aesthetic appreciation, and this is the focus of the present paper. Here, the validity of this conclusion is examined through the discussion of its neuroanatomical connections and functional properties. It is proposed that the experimental evidence challenges the view that this area could hold a privileged position in a brain network involved in aesthetic preference...
May 11, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481290/physicians-religious-topic-avoidance-during-clinical-interactions
#4
Melinda M Villagran, Brenda L MacArthur, Lauren E Lee, Christy J W Ledford, Mollie R Canzona
Religious and spiritual (R/S) conversations at the end-of-life function to help patients and their families find comfort in difficult circumstances. Physicians who feel uncertain about how to discuss topics related to religious beliefs may seek to avoid R/S conversations with their patients. This study utilized a two-group objective structured clinical examination with a standardized patient to explore differences in physicians' use of R/S topic avoidance tactics during a clinical interaction. Results indicated that physicians used more topic avoidance tactics in response to patients' R/S inquiries than patients' R/S disclosures; however, the use of topic avoidance tactics did not eliminate the need to engage in patient-initiated R/S interactions...
May 8, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475130/universal-connection-through-art-role-of-mirror-neurons-in-art-production-and-reception
#5
REVIEW
Bartlomiej Piechowski-Jozwiak, François Boller, Julien Bogousslavsky
Art is defined as expression or application of human creative skill and imagination producing works to be appreciated primarily for their aesthetic value or emotional power. This definition encompasses two very important elements-the creation and reception of art-and by doing so it establishes a link, a dialogue between the artist and spectator. From the evolutionary biological perspective, activities need to have an immediate or remote effect on the population through improving survival, gene selection, and environmental adjustment, and this includes art...
May 5, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452941/failure-to-captcha-attention-null-results-from-an-honesty-priming-experiment-in-guatemala
#6
Stewart Kettle, Marco Hernandez, Michael Sanders, Oliver Hauser, Simon Ruda
We report results from a large online randomised tax experiment in Guatemala. The trial involves short messages and choices presented to taxpayers as part of a CAPTCHA pop-up window immediately before they file a tax return, with the aim of priming honest declarations. In total our sample includes 627,242 taxpayers and 3,232,430 tax declarations made over four months. Treatments include: honesty declaration; information about public goods; information about penalties for dishonesty, questions allowing a taxpayer to choose which public good they think tax money should be spent on; or questions allowing a taxpayer to state a view on the penalty for not declaring honestly...
April 28, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445399/advances-in-psychiatric-diagnosis-past-present-and-future
#7
EDITORIAL
Carol S North, Alina M Surís
This editorial examines controversies identified by the articles in this special issue, which explore psychopathology in the broad history of the classification of selected psychiatric disorders and syndromes over time through current American criteria. Psychiatric diagnosis has a long history of scientific investigation and application, with periods of rapid change, instability, and heated controversy associated with it. The articles in this issue examine the history of psychiatric nomenclature and explore current and future directions in psychiatric diagnosis through the various versions of accepted diagnostic criteria and accompanying research literature addressing the criteria...
April 26, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445392/death-caf%C3%A3-s-death-doulas-and-family-communication
#8
Paula K Baldwin
The Death Café is part of the Death Positive movement, and as such, is uniquely positioned to bring the dialogue about death and dying to the public. Participants in a Death Café typically have two different perspectives. Some participants have not experienced death in their family and friends' circle and wish to converse with others about their beliefs on death and dying. Others are those who have experienced death somewhere in their circle of friends and families. One of goals of the Death Café facilitators is to help attendees reconcile their family narratives regarding death using the broader lens of the Death Café...
April 26, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441339/still-searching-a-meta-synthesis-of-a-good-death-from-the-bereaved-family-member-perspective
#9
REVIEW
Kelly E Tenzek, Rachel Depner
The concept of a good death continues to receive attention in end-of-life (EOL) scholarship. We sought to continue this line of inquiry related to a good death by conducting a meta-synthesis of published qualitative research studies that examined a good death from the bereaved family member's perspective. Results of the meta-synthesis included 14 articles with 368 participants. Based on analysis, we present a conceptual model called The Opportunity Model for Presence during the EOL Process. The model is framed in socio-cultural factors, and major themes include EOL process engagement with categories of healthcare participants, communication and practical issues...
April 25, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425929/contradictions-and-promise-for-end-of-life-communication-among-family-and-friends-death-over-dinner-conversations
#10
Andrea Lambert South, Jessica Elton
The free, open-access website called "Let's Get Together and Talk about Death", or Death over Dinner (DoD), provides resources for initiating end-of-life conversations with family and friends by taking the frightening-talking about death-and transforming it into the familiar-a conversation over dinner. This qualitative, descriptive study uses grounded theory and thematic analysis to answer the following research question: How do friend and family groups communicate about death and dying in DoD conversations? To answer this question, 52 dinner groups were recruited and conversations were conducted, which consisted of a facilitator and volunteers...
April 20, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420211/cognitive-remediation-therapy-for-adolescents-with-anorexia-nervosa-treatment-satisfaction-and-the-perception-of-change
#11
Camilla Lindvall Dahlgren, Kristin Stedal
Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) has recently been developed for children and adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN). It focuses on decreasing rigid cognitions and behaviors, as well as increasing central coherence. Overall, CRT has been proven feasible for young individuals with AN, but little is known regarding the specifics of its feasibility, and the perception of change associated with the intervention. Consequently, the aim of the current study was to explore service users' perspective on CRT with a specific focus on treatment delivery, treatment content, and perceived change...
April 18, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420191/designing-effective-interactions-for-concordance-around-end-of-life-care-decisions-lessons-from-hospice-admission-nurses
#12
Carey Candrian, Channing Tate, Kirsten Broadfoot, Alexandra Tsantes, Daniel Matlock, Jean Kutner
Near the end of life, hospice care reduces symptom-related distress and hospitalizations while improving caregiving outcomes. However, it takes time for a person to gain a sufficient understanding of hospice and decide to enroll. This decision is influenced by knowledge of hospice and its services, emotion and fear, cultural and religious beliefs, and an individual's acceptance of diagnosis. Hospice admission interactions, a key influence in shaping decisions regarding hospice care, happen particularly late in the illness trajectory and are often complex, unpredictable, and highly variable...
April 18, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420178/how-older-adults-and-their-families-perceive-family-talk-about-aging-related-eol-issues-a-dialectical-analysis
#13
Nichole Egbert, Jeffrey T Child, Mei-Chen Lin, Carol Savery, Tammy Bosley
For older adults, approaching end-of-life (EOL) brings unique transitions related to family relationships. Unfortunately, most families greatly underestimate the need to discuss these difficult issues. For example, parents approaching EOL issues often struggle with receiving assistance from others, avoiding family conflict, and maintaining their sense of personhood. In addition, discussions of EOL issues force family members to face their parents' mortality, which can be particularly difficult for adult children to process emotionally...
April 17, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420098/development-and-validation-of-a-questionnaire-to-assess-knowledge-threat-and-coping-appraisal-and-intention-to-practice-healthy-behaviors-related-to-non-communicable-diseases-in-the-thai-population
#14
Kanittha Chamroonsawasdi, Suthat Chottanapund, Pravich Tunyasitthisundhorn, Nawaphan Phokaewsuksa, Tassanee Ruksujarit, Pawarat Phasuksathaporn
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are important issues in Thailand and health sectors are now focusing on modifiable risks that include cognitive, affective and behavioral factors. This study aimed to develop and validate a questionnaire to assess knowledge about NCDs, threat appraisal, coping appraisal and intention to practice based on protection motivation theory. Content validity was determined by the mean of the item content validity index (I-CVI) from five experts. The questionnaire was pilot tested for difficulty of knowledge items and reliability test using the Kuder-Richardson (KR)-20 and Cronbach's alpha coefficient among 30 Thai adult subjects in the health office for two sub-districts...
April 14, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406430/palliative-care-and-the-family-caregiver-trading-mutual-pretense-empathy-for-a-sustained-gaze-compassion
#15
Joy Goldsmith, Sandra L Ragan
In this conceptual piece, we survey the progress of palliative care communication and reflect back on a chapter we wrote a decade ago, which featured the communication concept of mutual pretense, first described by Glaser and Strauss (1965). This work will include an update on family caregivers and their role in cancer caregiving as well as a review of current palliative care communication curriculum available for providers. And finally, we will spotlight the conversation and research going forward on the subject of health literacy for all stakeholders; patients, families, providers, and systems...
April 13, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417931/upstreaming-and-normalizing-advance-care-planning-conversations-a-public-health-approach
#16
Maryjo Prince-Paul, Evelina DiFranco
As a society, we simply don't talk about this universal experience called dying and death; in fact, we ignore it until we have to face it. Thus, it is often in a crisis experience when we have to make decisions while we are laden with uncertainty and intense emotions. Sixty percent of people say making sure their family is not burdened by tough decisions is extremely important, yet 56% of them have not held a conversation about its context. Instead of waiting to make end-of-life decisions, let us begin to think about what matters most while we are living, what we value most, and how we translate these values into conversations about what is important...
April 12, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379179/final-conversations-overview-and-practical-implications-for-patients-families-and-healthcare-workers
#17
Maureen P Keeley, Mark A Generous
The current paper presents a summary of a 12-year body of research on final conversations, which will be useful for healthcare providers who work with patients and family nearing the end-of-life, as well as for patients and their family members. Final conversations encompass any and all conversations that occur between individuals with a terminal diagnosis and their family members (all participants are aware that their loved one is in the midst of the death journey). Final conversations take the family member's perspective and highlights what are their memorable messages with the terminally ill loved one...
April 5, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338631/death-of-an-ex-spouse-lessons-in-family-communication-about-disenfranchised-grief
#18
Jillian A Tullis
The death of a loved one is an emotional-laden experience, and while grief and mourning rituals are less formal today in many communities, there remain some social norms for individuals to process loss. The death of an ex-family member, such as a former spouse, is more complicated and expectations for how to respond are fraught with uncertainty. While grief has been studied and is primarily understood as an individual cognitive process, scholars in sociology and communication are considering the ways in which grief and mourning are social and take place in dialogue with others...
March 24, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335501/communication-matters-exploring-the-intersection-of-family-and-practitioner-end-of-life-communication
#19
Leah M Omilion-Hodges, Nathan M Swords
After establishing a baseline understanding of some of the factors that influence and shape family end of life communication, empirical research centered on the communication tendencies of nationally-recognized palliative care clinicians is presented. Because death is no longer confined to the bedroom and individuals are increasingly turning to hospitals and health care institutes to assist with end of life, the role of palliative care practitioners is vital. To that end, common communication-rooted issues that may transpire among various medical personnel are explored...
March 19, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335467/through-the-kinesthetic-lens-observation-of-social-attunement-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#20
Rosemarie Samaritter, Helen Payne
This paper will present a movement-informed perspective to social attunement in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). BACKGROUND: Dance movement therapy (DMT) is a psychotherapeutic intervention that is used with participants with ASD in various settings. Regular clinical outcome monitoring in an outpatient setting in the Netherlands had shown positive effects on social attunement capacities in young people with ASD. However, a systematic study of the development of social attunement movement behaviors of participants with ASD throughout a DMT intervention was not yet available...
March 18, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
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