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Behavioral Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208816/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-in-the-dsm-5-controversy-change-and-conceptual-considerations
#1
REVIEW
Anushka Pai, Alina M Suris, Carol S North
The criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder PTSD have changed considerably with the newest edition of the American Psychiatric Association's (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Changes to the diagnostic criteria from the DSM-IV to DSM-5 include: the relocation of PTSD from the anxiety disorders category to a new diagnostic category named "Trauma and Stressor-related Disorders", the elimination of the subjective component to the definition of trauma, the explication and tightening of the definitions of trauma and exposure to it, the increase and rearrangement of the symptoms criteria, and changes in additional criteria and specifiers...
February 13, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208690/examining-the-relationship-between-economic-hardship-and-child-maltreatment-using-data-from-the-ontario-incidence-study-of-reported-child-abuse-and-neglect-2013-ois-2013
#2
Rachael Lefebvre, Barbara Fallon, Melissa Van Wert, Joanne Filippelli
There is strong evidence that poverty and economic disadvantage are associated with child maltreatment; however, research in this area is underdeveloped in Canada. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between economic hardship and maltreatment for families and children identified to the Ontario child protection system for a maltreatment concern. Secondary analyses of the Ontario Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2013 (OIS-2013) were conducted. The OIS-2013 examines the incidence of reported maltreatment and the characteristics of children and families investigated by child welfare authorities in Ontario in 2013...
February 8, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146045/social-support-behaviors-and-work-stressors-among-nurses-a-comparative-study-between-teaching-and-non-teaching-hospitals
#3
Basil Hameed Amarneh
PURPOSE: The concept of "work stressors" has been well studied. However, in the field of nursing, studies concerning social support behaviors are limited. The aim of this study was to compare nurse work stressors, social support behaviors, and predictors of these variables among nurses in Jordanian teaching and non-teaching hospitals. DESIGN: A convenience sampling technique and a comparative quantitative research design were used in the current study. Two hundred and ninety-one nurses were recruited from five teaching hospitals, and 172 were recruited from eight non-teaching hospitals in Jordan...
January 29, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106818/potential-benefits-and-harms-of-intermittent-energy-restriction-and-intermittent-fasting-amongst-obese-overweight-and-normal-weight-subjects-a-narrative-review-of-human-and-animal-evidence
#4
REVIEW
Michelle Harvie, Anthony Howell
Intermittent energy restriction (IER) has become popular as a means of weight control amongst people who are overweight and obese, and is also undertaken by normal weight people hoping spells of marked energy restriction will optimise their health. This review summarises randomised comparisons of intermittent and isoenergetic continuous energy restriction for weight loss to manage overweight and obesity. It also summarises the potential beneficial or adverse effects of IER on body composition, adipose stores and metabolic effects from human studies, including studies amongst normal weight subjects and relevant animal experimentation...
January 19, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075386/acknowledgement-to-reviewers-of-behavioral-sciences-in-2016
#5
EDITORIAL
Behavioral Sciences Editorial Office
n/a.
January 10, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036091/poverty-related-adversity-and-emotion-regulation-predict-internalizing-behavior-problems-among-low-income-children-ages-8-11
#6
C Cybele Raver, Amanda L Roy, Emily Pressler, Alexandra M Ursache, Dana Charles McCoy
The current study examines the additive and joint roles of chronic poverty-related adversity and three candidate neurocognitive processes of emotion regulation (ER)-including: (i) attention bias to threat (ABT); (ii) accuracy of facial emotion appraisal (FEA); and (iii) negative affect (NA)-for low-income, ethnic minority children's internalizing problems (N = 338). Children were enrolled in the current study from publicly funded preschools, with poverty-related adversity assessed at multiple time points from early to middle childhood...
December 29, 2016: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036066/dsm-nosology-changes-in-neuropsychological-diagnoses-through-the-years-a-look-at-adhd-and-mild-neurocognitive-disorder
#7
REVIEW
Anne R Carlew, Andrea L Zartman
This article discusses the evolution of modern neuropsychology as a field and the concomitant changes in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). Themes in neuropsychology through the years will be highlighted alongside discussion of how neuropsychologists and neuropsychological research have influenced and have been influenced by the DSM. The DSM 5 attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and mild neurocognitive disorder will be used as examples to reflect the evolution of the disorders in relation to neuropsychology and the DSM...
December 29, 2016: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983615/peripheral-inflammatory-markers-contributing-to-comorbidities-in-autism
#8
Martha Cecilia Inga Jácome, Lilia Maria Morales Chacòn, Hector Vera Cuesta, Carlos Maragoto Rizo, Mabel Whilby Santiesteban, Lesyanis Ramos Hernandez, Elena Noris García, Maria Elena González Fraguela, Caridad Ivette Fernandez Verdecia, Yamilé Vegas Hurtado, Dario Siniscalco, Carlos Alberto Gonçalves, Maria de Los Angeles Robinson-Agramonte
This study evaluates the contribution of peripheral biomarkers to comorbidities and clinical findings in autism. Seventeen autistic children and age-matched typically developing (AMTD), between three to nine years old were evaluated. The diagnostic followed the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th Edition (DMS-IV) and the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) was applied to classify the severity. Cytokine profile was evaluated in plasma using a sandwich type ELISA. Paraclinical events included electroencephalography (EEG) record...
December 14, 2016: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973443/sex-specific-effects-of-childhood-poverty-on-neurocircuitry-of-processing-of-emotional-cues-a-neuroimaging-study
#9
Arash Javanbakht, Pilyoung Kim, James E Swain, Gary W Evans, K Luan Phan, Israel Liberzon
BACKGROUND: There is accumulating evidence on the negative impacts of childhood poverty on physical and mental health. Previous work has suggested hyperactive neural response to social fear cues, as well as impairment in neural regulatory functions. However, despite differences found between males and females in stress-related and anxiety disorders, possible sex-specific effects of poverty on emotional processing have not been explored. METHODS: We analyzed data from three previously reported experiments of childhood poverty effects on emotional processing and regulation, for sex-specific effects...
December 12, 2016: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916874/advances-in-animal-cognition
#10
EDITORIAL
Jennifer Vonk
This editorial endorses a diverse approach to the study of animal cognition and emphasizes the theoretical and applied gains that can be made by embracing this approach. This diversity emerges from cross-talk among scientists trained in a variety of backgrounds and theoretical approaches, who study a variety of topics with a range of species. By shifting from an anthropocentric focus on humans and our closest living relatives, and the historic reliance on the lab rat or pigeon, modern students of animal cognition have uncovered many fascinating facets of cognition in species ranging from insects to carnivores...
November 30, 2016: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916826/bramlett-parker-j-washburn-d-a-can-rhesus-monkey-learn-executive-attention-behav-sci-2016-6-11
#11
Jessica Bramlett-Parker, David A Washburn
n/a.
November 29, 2016: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879623/dynamic-duos-jamaican-fruit-bats-artibeus-jamaicensis-do-not-show-prosocial-behavior-in-a-release-paradigm
#12
Eric Hoffmaster, Jennifer Vonk
Once thought to be uniquely human, prosocial behavior has been observed in a number of species, including vampire bats that engage in costly food-sharing. Another social chiropteran, Jamaican fruit bats (Artibeus jamaicensis), have been observed to engage in cooperative mate guarding, and thus might be expected to display prosocial behavior as well. However, frugivory and hematophagy diets may impose different selection pressures on prosocial preferences, given that prosocial preferences may depend upon cognitive abilities selected by different ecological constraints...
November 20, 2016: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834905/-we-dance-and-find-each-other-1-effects-of-dance-movement-therapy-on-negative-symptoms-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#13
Malin K Hildebrandt, Sabine C Koch, Thomas Fuchs
The treatment of deficits in social interaction, a shared symptom cluster in persons with schizophrenia (negative symptoms) and autism spectrum disorder (DSM-5 A-criterion), has so far remained widely unsuccessful in common approaches of psychotherapy. The alternative approach of embodiment brings to focus body-oriented intervention methods based on a theoretic framework that explains the disorders on a more basic level than common theory of mind approaches. The randomized controlled trial at hand investigated the effects of a 10-week manualized dance and movement therapy intervention on negative symptoms in participants with autism spectrum disorder...
November 10, 2016: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827873/supportive-relationships-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-perspectives-of-individuals-with-asd-and-supporters
#14
Jodi Robledo, Anne M Donnellan
This study explored 17 dyads of academically successful people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and individuals who they identified as supportive. Qualitative methods, including in-depth interviews, participant observations, and document analysis, were used to study these supportive relationships. The purpose of the study was to develop a substantive grounded theory regarding supportive relationships within the lives of individuals with ASD. A dynamic model of supportive relationships emerged, with trust, unity, and support as the three core categories of these relationships...
November 3, 2016: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754410/learned-use-of-picture-cues-by-bumblebees-bombus-impatiens-in-a-delayed-matching-task
#15
Emma Thompson, Catherine Plowright
Picture-object correspondence provides an alternate method of investigating delayed matching by providing a cue (picture) which may be spontaneously perceived as similar but different from a corresponding target. Memory for, and corresponding choice of, a target corresponding to a cue could be facilitated by the use of a picture. Bumblebees have been found to both easily differentiate images from corresponding objects but also spontaneously perceive a similarity between the two. Herein, an approach was designed to test the possible use of picture cues to signal reward in a delayed matching task...
October 14, 2016: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706092/black-white-disparities-in-criminal-justice-referrals-to-drug-treatment-addressing-treatment-need-or-expanding-the-diagnostic-net
#16
Karen McElrath, Angela Taylor, Kimberly K Tran
Slightly more than half of admissions to U.S. publicly-funded treatment for marijuana use are referred by the criminal justice system; this pattern has remained for at least 20 years. Nationally, Blacks comprise nearly a third of treatment admissions for marijuana use. This article explores the interplay between race and criminal justice referrals to treatment for marijuana use. Using data from the (U.S.) 2011 Treatment Episode Data Set, we examine the relationship between race and diagnosis of cannabis use disorder (dependence versus abuse) among referrals to community-based treatment in North Carolina...
October 2, 2016: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27548233/the-classification-of-substance-use-disorders-historical-contextual-and-conceptual-considerations
#17
REVIEW
Sean M Robinson, Bryon Adinoff
This article provides an overview of the history of substance use and misuse and chronicles the long shared history humans have had with psychoactive substances, including alcohol. The practical and personal functions of substances and the prevailing views of society towards substance users are described for selected historical periods and within certain cultural contexts. This article portrays how the changing historical and cultural milieu influences the prevailing medical, moral, and legal conceptualizations of substance use as reflected both in popular opinion and the consensus of the scientific community and represented by the American Psychiatric Association's (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)...
August 18, 2016: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527226/is-internet-pornography-causing-sexual-dysfunctions-a-review-with-clinical-reports
#18
Brian Y Park, Gary Wilson, Jonathan Berger, Matthew Christman, Bryn Reina, Frank Bishop, Warren P Klam, Andrew P Doan
Traditional factors that once explained men's sexual difficulties appear insufficient to account for the sharp rise in erectile dysfunction, delayed ejaculation, decreased sexual satisfaction, and diminished libido during partnered sex in men under 40. This review (1) considers data from multiple domains, e.g., clinical, biological (addiction/urology), psychological (sexual conditioning), sociological; and (2) presents a series of clinical reports, all with the aim of proposing a possible direction for future research of this phenomenon...
August 5, 2016: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527225/testing-the-glucose-hypothesis-among-capuchin-monkeys-does-glucose-boost-self-control
#19
Audrey E Parrish, Ishara D Emerson, Mattea S Rossettie, Michael J Beran
The ego-depletion hypothesis states that self-control diminishes over time and with exertion. Accordingly, the glucose hypothesis attributes this depletion of self-control resources to decreases in blood glucose levels. Research has led to mixed findings among humans and nonhuman animals, with limited evidence for such a link between glucose and self-control among closely-related nonhuman primate species, but some evidence from more distantly related species (e.g., honeybees and dogs). We tested this hypothesis in capuchin monkeys by manipulating the sugar content of a calorie-matched breakfast meal following a nocturnal fast, and then presenting each monkey with the accumulation self-control task...
August 3, 2016: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27455334/reasoning-about-capability-wild-robins-respond-to-limb-visibility-in-humans
#20
Alexis Garland, Jason Low
Little comparative work has focused on what nonhumans understand about what physical acts others are capable of performing, and none has yet done so in the wild, or within a competitive framework. This study shows that North Island robins visually attend to human limbs in the context of determining who to steal food from. We presented 24 wild North Island Robins (Petroica longipes) with two experimenters. Robins could choose to steal a mealworm from one of two experimenters: one whose limbs were exposed and one who underwent a range of visual obstructions in two experiments...
July 21, 2016: Behavioral Sciences
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