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Behavioral Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926975/non-invasive-brain-stimulation-for-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-a-short-term-outcome-study
#1
Lázaro Gómez, Belkis Vidal, Carlos Maragoto, Lilia Maria Morales, Sheyla Berrillo, Héctor Vera Cuesta, Margarita Baez, Marlén Denis, Tairí Marín, Yaumara Cabrera, Abel Sánchez, Celia Alarcón, Maribel Selguera, Yaima Llanez, Lucila Dieguez, María Robinson
Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation (NIBS) is a relatively new therapeutic approach that has shown beneficial effects in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). One question to be answered is how enduring its neuromodulatory effect could be. Twenty-four patients with ASD (mean age: 12.2 years) received 20 sessions of NIBS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (L-DLPFC). They were randomized into two groups with two (G1) or three (G2) clinical evaluations before NIBS. Both groups had a complete follow-up at six months after the intervention, with the aim of determining the short-term outcome using the total score on the Autism Behavior Checklist, Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist, and the Autism Diagnostic Interview...
September 17, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914815/a-systematic-review-family-support-integrated-with-diabetes-self-management-among-uncontrolled-type-ii-diabetes-mellitus-patients
#2
REVIEW
Rian Adi Pamungkas, Kanittha Chamroonsawasdi, Paranee Vatanasomboon
The rate of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is dramatically increasing worldwide. Continuing diabetes mellitus (DM) care needs effective self-management education and support for both patients and family members. This study aimed to review and describe the impacts of diabetes mellitus self-management education (DSME) that involve family members on patient outcomes related to patient health behaviors and perceived self-efficacy on self-management such as medication adherence, blood glucose monitoring, diet and exercise changes, health outcomes including psychological well-being and self-efficacy, and physiological markers including body mass index, level of blood pressure, cholesterol level and glycemic control...
September 15, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869495/what-can-synergetics-contribute-to-embodied-aesthetics
#3
Hermann Haken
I deal with perception and action (e.g., movements) using results from synergetics, a comprehensive mathematical theory of the self-organized formation (emergence) of spatial, temporal, or functional structures in complex systems. I illustrate basic concepts such as order parameters (OPs), enslavement, complexity reduction, circular causality first by examples of well-known collective, spontaneous modes of human behavior such as rhythmic clapping of hands, and so forth, and then by face recognition. The role played by OPs depends on context...
September 2, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28850058/does-growing-up-in-urban-compared-to-rural-areas-shape-primary-emotional-traits
#4
Cornelia Sindermann, Keith M Kendrick, Benjamin Becker, Mei Li, Shijia Li, Christian Montag
Growing up in urban areas represents a possible risk factor in the genesis of psychopathologies. The aim of the present study was to investigate the link between urbanicity variables and indicators for psychiatric disorders. We investigated a potential association between primary emotional traits and urbanicity variables in 324 individuals from Germany and 713 individuals from China. Higher scores in the urbanicity index in childhood were inversely associated with FEAR and SADNESS only in adult Chinese females...
August 29, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829395/practice-of-environmentally-significant-behaviours-in-rural-china-from-being-motivated-by-economic-gains-to-being-motivated-by-environmental-considerations
#5
Yanyan Chen
A continuous and increasing crisis that present-day China is facing is environmental degradation. The cultivation of citizens who have environmentally friendly behaviours has been deemed as a fundamental way to solve environmental crises. However, the main focus of environmentalism studies has been urban residents, whereas rare research attention was put on rural Chinese. This paper focuses on environmentally significant behaviours in rural China and aims to clarify the practice of five environmentally significant behaviours and two motivations underlying these behaviours...
August 22, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829371/taking-behavioral-sciences-forward
#6
EDITORIAL
Scott J Hunter
It has been almost one year now since I agreed to become the Editor-in-Chief for this important open access journal, for which I have served as a member of the editorial board since its early inception.[...].
August 22, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825686/in-their-own-words-how-family-carers-of-people-with-dementia-understand-resilience
#7
Siobhan T O'Dwyer, Wendy Moyle, Tara Taylor, Jennifer Creese, Melanie Zimmer-Gembeck
There is a growing body of research on resilience in family carers of people with dementia, but carers' voices are noticeably absent from it. The aim of this study was to explore carers' definitions of resilience and their opinions on the factors associated with resilience. Twenty-one in-depth interviews were conducted in Australia with people who were currently, or had previously been, caring for a family member with dementia. Transcripts were analysed thematically and three themes emerged: the presence of resilience, the path to resilience, and characteristics of the resilient carer...
August 21, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825632/braque-and-kokoschka-brain-tissue-injury-and-preservation-of-artistic-skill
#8
D W Zaidel
The neural underpinning of art creation can be gleaned following brain injury in professional artists. Any alteration to their artistic productivity, creativity, skills, talent, and genre can help understand the neural underpinning of art expression. Here, two world-renown and influential artists who sustained brain injury in World War I are the focus, namely the French artist Georges Braque and the Austrian artist Oskar Kokoschka. Braque is particularly associated with Cubism, and Kokoschka with Expressionism...
August 19, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820440/medical-students-attitudes-and-beliefs-towards-psychotherapy-a-mixed-research-methods-study
#9
Costas S Constantinou, Maria Georgiou, Maria Perdikogianni
Background: Research findings suggest that attitudes towards psychotherapy predict willingness to seek therapy. However, understanding how medical students think about using and referring their patients for psychotherapy is limited. Aims: The aims of this study are to measure medical students' attitudes towards professional help seeking, and to investigate the reasons for whether or not they would refer their patients to psychotherapy in their future role as doctors. Method: The participants were 127 medical students in their first and second year of the MBBS4 programme at the Cyprus campus of St George's University of London, who completed a self-report measure of attitudes towards psychotherapy and a semi-structured interview...
August 18, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805749/food-addiction-binge-eating-disorder-and-obesity-is-there-a-relationship
#10
Tracy Burrows, Janelle Skinner, Rebecca McKenna, Megan Rollo
Existing research suggests that there is an overlap between binge eating disorder (BED) and the construct of 'food addiction' (FA). The objective of this study was to determine the overlapping features of BED and FA through a comparison of the individual scales of commonly used tools including the Binge Eating Scale (BES) and the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) in a sample of Australian adults. Adults (>18 years of age) were invited to complete an anonymous online survey on FA. Binge eating was assessed through the BES and addictive eating behaviours were assessed through the YFAS (n = 1344)...
August 14, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805739/four-bad-habits-of-modern-psychologists
#11
James Grice, Paul Barrett, Lisa Cota, Crystal Felix, Zachery Taylor, Samantha Garner, Eliwid Medellin, Adam Vest
Four data sets from studies included in the Reproducibility Project were re-analyzed to demonstrate a number of flawed research practices (i.e., "bad habits") of modern psychology. Three of the four studies were successfully replicated, but re-analysis showed that in one study most of the participants responded in a manner inconsistent with the researchers' theoretical model. In the second study, the replicated effect was shown to be an experimental confound, and in the third study the replicated statistical effect was shown to be entirely trivial...
August 14, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800089/fitnet-s-internet-based-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-is-ineffective-and-may-impede-natural-recovery-in-adolescents-with-myalgic-encephalomyelitis-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-a-review
#12
REVIEW
Simin Ghatineh, Mark Vink
The Dutch Fatigue In Teenagers on the interNET (FITNET) study claimed that after 6 months, internet based cognitive behaviour therapy in adolescents with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS), led to a 63% recovery rate compared to 8% after usual care, and that this was maintained at long term follow up (LTFU). Our reanalysis shows that their post-hoc definition of recovery included the severely ill, the unblinded trial had no adequate control group and it used lax selection criteria as well as outcomes assessed via questionnaires rather than objective outcomes, further contributing to exaggerated recovery figures...
August 11, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792447/ambiguous-results-when-using-the-ambiguous-cue-paradigm-to-assess-learning-and-cognitive-bias-in-gorillas-and-a-black-bear
#13
Molly C McGuire, Jennifer Vonk, Zoe Johnson-Ulrich
Cognitive bias tests are frequently used to assess affective state in nonhumans. We adapted the ambiguous-cue paradigm to assess affective states and to compare learning of reward associations in two distantly related species, an American black bear and three Western lowland gorillas. Subjects were presented with three training stimuli: one that was always rewarded (P), one that was never rewarded (N) and one that was ambiguous (A) because its reward association depended on whether it had been paired with P (PA pairing) or N (NA pairing)...
August 9, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783090/validation-study-of-italian-version-of-inventory-for-d%C3%A3-j%C3%A3-vu-experiences-assessment-i-idea-a-screening-tool-to-detect-d%C3%A3-j%C3%A3-vu-phenomenon-in-italian-healthy-individuals
#14
Laura Mumoli, Giovanni Tripepi, Umberto Aguglia, Antonio Augimeri, Rossella Baggetta, Francesca Bisulli, Antonella Bruni, Salvatore M Cavalli, Alfredo D'Aniello, Ornella Daniele, Carlo Di Bonaventura, Giancarlo Di Gennaro, Jinane Fattouch, Edoardo Ferlazzo, Alessandra Ferrari, Annateresa Giallonardo, Sara Gasparini, Salvatore Nigro, Andrea Romigi, Vito Sofia, Paolo Tinuper, Maria Grazia Vaccaro, Leila Zummo, Aldo Quattrone, Antonio Gambardella, Angelo Labate
The Inventory Déjà Vu Experiences Assessment (IDEA) is the only screening instrument proposed to evaluate the Déjà vu (DV) experience. Here, we intended to validate the Italian version of IDEA (I-IDEA) and at the same time to investigate the incidence and subjective qualities of the DV phenomenon in healthy Italian adult individuals on basis of an Italian multicentre observational study. In this study, we report normative data on the I-IDEA, collected on a sample of 542 Italian healthy subjects aging between 18-70 years (average age: 40) with a formal educational from 1-19 years...
August 7, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777312/the-influence-of-ethnic-and-mainstream-cultures-on-african-americans-health-behaviors-a-qualitative-study
#15
Ewelina M Swierad, Lenny R Vartanian, Marlee King
BACKGROUND: Culture plays an important role in shaping individuals' health behaviors. This qualitative research examines the relationship between African Americans' ethnic and mainstream cultures and their health behaviors (i.e., food intake and physical activity). METHODS: This study used in-depth semi-structured interview format with a group of 25 African Americans to examine the influence of ethnic and mainstream culture on African Americans' food intake and physical activity...
August 4, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763017/positive-and-negative-affect-more-concurrent-among-blacks-than-whites
#16
Maryam Moghani Lankarani, Shervin Assari
BACKGROUND: While positive and negative affect are inversely linked, people may experience and report both positive and negative emotions simultaneously. However, it is unknown if race alters the magnitude of the association between positive and negative affect. The current study compared Black and White Americans for the association between positive and negative affect. METHODS: We used data from MIDUS (Midlife in the United States), a national study of Americans with an age range of 25 to 75...
August 1, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718837/interactivity-and-trust-as-antecedents-of-e-training-use-intention-in-nigeria-a-structural-equation-modelling-approach
#17
A U Alkali, Nur Naha Abu Mansor
BACKGROUND: The last few decades saw an intense development in information technology (IT) and it has affected the ways organisations achieve their goals. Training, in every organisation is an ongoing process that aims to update employees' knowledge and skills towards goals attainment. Through adequate deployment of IT, organisations can effectively meet their training needs. However, for successful IT integration in training, the employees who will use the system should be positively disposed towards it...
July 18, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718830/exploring-relationships-between-recurrent-binge-eating-and-illicit-substance-use-in-a-non-clinical-sample-of-women-over-two-years
#18
Henry Kewen Lu, Haider Mannan, Phillipa Hay
(1) Background: With the new edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5), numerous parallels have been drawn between recurrent binge eating (RBE) and substance use disorders, with many authors examining RBE or binge eating disorder (BED) as a "food addiction". The present study aims to clarify the relationship between recurrent binge eating (RBE) and illicit substance use (ISU) through investigating the temporal association between the two problems. (2) Methods: This study was embedded within a larger longitudinal study of non-clinical adult women recruited from Australian tertiary institutions...
July 18, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708107/family-communication-at-the-end-of-life
#19
EDITORIAL
Maureen P Keeley
People often feel awkward and ill at ease when faced with the opportunity for communication at the end of life, thus the overall theme for the articles in this special issue is the creation of more awareness and knowledge regarding the depth, breadth, and importance of current research exploring family communication at the end of life. This introductory essay attempts to accomplish the following: (1) discuss the importance of talk regarding death; (2) highlight the formative role of family interactions on the death and dying process; and (3) outline the articles in this special issue...
July 14, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696389/strategies-to-improve-adherence-to-dietary-weight-loss-interventions-in-research-and-real-world-settings
#20
REVIEW
Alice A Gibson, Amanda Sainsbury
Dietary interventions are the cornerstone of obesity treatment. The optimal dietary approach to weight loss is a hotly debated topic among health professionals and the lay public alike. An emerging body of evidence suggests that a higher level of adherence to a diet, regardless of the type of diet, is an important factor in weight loss success over the short and long term. Key strategies to improve adherence include designing dietary weight loss interventions (such as ketogenic diets) that help to control the increased drive to eat that accompanies weight loss, tailoring dietary interventions to a person's dietary preferences (and nutritional requirements), and promoting self-monitoring of food intake...
July 11, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
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