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Behavioral Sciences

Samar A Abbas, Halim Abboud, Moussa A Chalah, Chadi Sabbagh, Samar S Ayache
We report atypical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions in a case of Wernicke encephalopathy. The patient presented with isolated anterograde amnesia following a partial colectomy complicated by peritonitis. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and T2 MRI sequences were normal. However, bilateral contrast enhancement of mammillary bodies was shown on T1 gadolinium-enhanced sequences. Blood tests revealed thiamine deficiency. The diagnosis of Wernicke encephalopathy was made and thiamine supplementation was given, resulting in complete recovery of the memory functions...
November 12, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Robert J Noonan, Stuart J Fairclough
This study used data from wave four of the United Kingdom (U.K.) Millennium Cohort Study to examine whether there is an individual (i.e., maternal education) and area-level social disadvantage (i.e., neighborhood deprivation) gradient to difficulties in social-emotional well-being (SEW) in 7-year-old English children. We then investigated to what extent maternal psychological distress (Kessler 6 score) explains the relationship between social disadvantage indicators and boys' and girls' SEW difficulties. Subjects consisted of 3661 child⁻mother dyads (1804 boys and 1857 girls)...
November 11, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Hirohito Tsuboi, Hiroyuki Sakakibara, Yuuki Minamida, Hiromasa Tsujiguchi, Masahiro Matsunaga, Akinori Hara, Hiroyuki Nakamura
Recent studies indicate that patients with depression have increased concentrations of serum pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, studies of IL-17 and studies on community-dwellers are few. The purpose of this study was to investigate serum cytokine levels, especially IL-17A, among subjects with high and low depressive symptoms of a general population. The participants comprised 20 female community-dwellers aged 40 years or older who contributed to a Shika study in Ishikawa, Japan. Ten participants who showed higher and ten who showed lower depressive symptoms among 208 females assessed by the Japanese version of the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) were selected for this study...
November 4, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Teruko Yuhi, Kosuke Ise, Kei Iwashina, Naoya Terao, Satoshi Yoshioka, Keijiro Shomura, Toshikatsu Maehara, Akari Yazaki, Kana Koichi, Kazumi Furuhara, Stanislav M Cherepanov, Maria Gerasimenko, Anna A Shabalova, Kouhei Hosoki, Hikari Kodama, Hong Zhu, Chiharu Tsuji, Shigeru Yokoyama, Haruhiro Higashida
Background: Oxytocin (OT), a neuropeptide, has positive effects on social and emotional processes during group activities. Because cooking is an integrated process in the cognitive, physical, and socio-emotional areas, cooking in a group is reported to improve emotion and cognition. However, evidence for efficacy in group cooking has not been well established at the biological level. Methods: To address this shortcoming, we first measured salivary levels of OT and cortisol (CORT), a biomarker of psychological stress, before and after group cooking for approximately 1 h by people who know each other in healthy married or unmarried men and women...
November 3, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Linda Nubani, Alyssa Puryear, Kristy Kellom
This paper examines visitors' movement patterns at the Broad Museum designed by Zaha Hadid. Characterized with free, open, and generally unbound spaces, visitors explore a curated exhibition at their own pace, route, and agenda. Unlike most other public environments, a museum lends visitors greater choice and control, and does not hold the social or spatial expectations of other facility types that might subject the visitor's path of travel. In this study, 72 visitors were observed. A space syntax-based visibility graph analysis (VGA) was then performed to compute the visibility exposure and the spatial position of each exhibit within the museum...
October 28, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Makenzie L Barr, Sarah E Colby, Kristin Riggsbee, Krista Leischner, Anne E Mathews, Melissa J Vilaro, Kendra K Kattelmann, Melissa D Olfert
Few studies work with college students as equal partners in all aspects of Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) and even less evaluate behaviors of those college partners. The current study aimed to examine health behaviors of students by designing and implementing a peer-led, social marketing campaign (Get Fruved) to promote healthier lifestyles on their campuses. Enrolled students (n = 376) were trained to either design and implement a health promotion intervention (Social Marketing and Environmental Interventionists; SMEI, n = 78), be peer mentors (PM; n = 205), or serve as control participants (n = 93)...
October 26, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Rikinkumar S Patel, Ramya Bachu, Archana Adikey, Meryem Malik, Mansi Shah
Physician burnout is a universal dilemma that is seen in healthcare professionals, particularly physicians, and is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and a feeling of low personal accomplishment. In this review, we discuss the contributing factors leading to physician burnout and its consequences for the physician's health, patient outcomes, and the healthcare system. Physicians face daily challenges in providing care to their patients, and burnout may be from increased stress levels in overworked physicians...
October 25, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Ekaterina Merkulova, Alexander Savostyanov, Andrey Bocharov, Ekaterina Proshina, Gennady Knyazev
Accurate repeatability of experimental data is the basis of professional scientific research. In this study we analyzed three consecutive experiments: The subjects had to complete a questionnaire three times under similar conditions within a 2⁻3 week interval to ensure reproducibility of the original data from experiment to experiment, using the method of test⁻retest reliability. Absolute reliability was assessed by the standard error of measurement (SEM) and smallest real difference (SRD). The relative reliability was estimated by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC3,1) (average measures) and the results demonstrate almost perfect agreement...
October 22, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Christine Rittenour, Stephen Kromka, Sara Pitts, Margaret Thorwart, Janelle Vickers, Kaitlyn Whyte
To address Americans' general attitudes and behavioral intentions toward adult children who are estranged from their parents, the current study employed online survey data from 151 Americans recruited through Amazon MTurk. Their responses revealed negative stereotypes (e.g., childish, ungrateful) and positive stereotypes (e.g., independent, strong) of the adult child who is estranged, as well as negative assessments of the parent who is estranged. Generally, participants perceived the adult children as more competent than warm...
October 20, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Chigusa Theresa Yachi, Taichi Hitomi, Hajime Yamaguchi
Two experiments were conducted to measure both the psychological and physiological effects of touching on the HPA axis related parts of the body. HPA stands for the hypothalamus, pituitary, and adrenal. One experiment was conducted with a group of healthy experiment participants, and another was with a group of traumatized participants who had Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE). In the experiments, the back of an experiment participant was touched, where a kidney-adrenal was supposed to reside, and both the psychological and physiological effects were measured...
October 17, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Ernesto Tarragon, Jakob Stein, Jobst Meyer
Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) influences the perception of taste and texture, features both relevant in acquiring food liking and, with time, food preference. However, no studies have yet investigated the relationship between basal activity levels of sAA and food preference. We collected saliva from 57 volunteers (63% women) who we assessed in terms of their preference for different food items. These items were grouped into four categories according to their nutritional properties: high in starch, high in sugar, high glycaemic index, and high glycaemic load...
October 16, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Maria Elena González-Fraguela, Lisette Blanco-Lezcano, Caridad Ivette Fernandez-Verdecia, Teresa Serrano Sanchez, Maria de Los A Robinson Agramonte, Lidia Leonor Cardellá Rosales
The purpose of the present study is to access the linkage between dysregulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission, oxidative metabolism, and serine signaling in age-related cognitive decline. In this work, we evaluated the effect of natural aging in rats on the cognitive abilities for hippocampal-dependent tasks. Oxidative metabolism indicators are glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, and cytosolic phospholipase A₂ (PLA₂) activity. In addition, neurotransmitter amino acid ( L -Glutamic acid, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), DL -Serine and DL -Aspartic acid) concentrations were studied in brain areas such as the frontal cortex (FC) and hippocampus (HPC)...
October 13, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Margarita Minou Báez-Martín, Lilia Maria Morales-Chacón, Iván García-Maeso, Bárbara Estupiñán-Díaz, María Eugenia García-Navarro, Yamila Pérez Téllez, Lourdes Lorigados-Pedre, Nelson Quintanal-Cordero, Ricardo Valdés-Llerena, Judith González González, Randis Garbey-Fernández, Ivette Cabrera-Abreu, Celia Alarcón-Calaña, Juan E Bender Del Busto, Rafael Rodríguez Rojas, Karla Batista García-Ramó, Reinaldo Galvizu Sánchez
Auditory and visual pathways may be affected as a consequence of temporal lobe epilepsy surgery because of their anatomical relationships with this structure. The purpose of this paper is to correlate the results of the auditory and visual evoked responses with the parameters of tractography of the visual pathway, and with the state of connectivity between respective thalamic nuclei and primary cortices in both systems after the surgical resection of the epileptogenic zone in drug-resistant epileptic patients...
October 12, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Taichi Hitomi, Chigusa Theresa Yachi, Hajime Yamaguchi
This study hypothesized that moisturizing treatment of the skin has a positive effect on psychological and physiological aspects. In this experiment, the effect of touch with moisturizer for two minutes on the lower legs was measured in terms of brain activity, heart rate, and center of gravity unrest (X axis) in 10 healthy male and female experiment participants. The Right Laterality Ratio Score decreased after treatment, suggesting a relaxation effect of the treatment. Although it was not statistically significant, a decrease was observed...
September 30, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Natalia Flotskaya, Svetlana Bulanova, Maria Ponomareva, Nikolay Flotskiy, Tatiana Konopleva
Gender identity is an important element of an individual's identity and is one of the regulators of human behavior while acquiring social roles. The aim of this empirical research is to study gender identity development among teenagers living in the subarctic territories of Russia. The results show the correlation between types of gender identity among male and female teenagers, the dynamic in the correlation between gender identity types during adolescence and the characteristics of each type of gender identity in adolescence from the point of view of psychological properties...
September 29, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Per G Farup, Jørgen Valeur
Morbidly obese subjects have a high prevalence of comorbidity and gut microbial dysbiosis, and are thus suitable for the study of gut-brain interactions. The aim was to study the associations between the faecal microbiota's composition and function and psychobiological comorbidity in subjects with BMI > 40 kg/m² or >35 kg/m² with obesity-related complications. The faecal microbiota was assessed with GA-Map dysbiosis test ™ (Genetic Analysis, Oslo Norway) and reported as dysbiosis (yes/no) and degree of dysbiosis, and the relative abundance of 39 bacteria...
September 27, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Ismail Altintop, Cigdem Karakukcu
The chameleon can disguise itself in nature by taking on different colors and forms. As synthetic cannabinoids (SC) have clinically similar effects to those of several psychoactive agents, they are one of the most difficult intoxications to diagnose. The reasons for this are due to clinical variations throughout the world and the differences in symptoms having not been determined due to their similarity to the intoxication of several other drugs. The aim of this study was to obtain prospective data of patients presenting at the Emergency Department (ED) with suspected SC intoxication, and as a result of prospective examination of samples, to determine a new generation of SC use, SC types, clinical findings, and treatments...
September 22, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Teresa Serrano Sánchez, María Elena González Fraguela, Lisette Blanco Lezcano, Esteban Alberti Amador, Beatriz Caballero Fernández, María de Los Ángeles Robinson Agramonte, Lourdes Lorigados Pedre, Jorge A Bergado Rosado
Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited, neurodegenerative disorder that results from the degeneration of striatal neurons, mainly GABAergic neurons. The study of neurochemical activity has provided reliable markers to explain motor disorders. To treat neurodegenerative diseases, stem cell transplants with bone marrow (BM) have been performed for several decades. In this work we determine the effect of mononuclear bone marrow cell (mBMC) transplantation on the rotational behavior and neurochemical activity in a model of Huntington's disease in rats...
September 20, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Shervin Assari
Background. Socioeconomic status (SES) has smaller protective effects on the health of African Americans, and the differential association between social mobility and stress may explain the diminished returns of SES for African Americans. Aim. This study tested the race/ethnic differences in the association between upward and downward social mobility and stress in a nationally representative sample of African American and White American adults. Methods. This study included 3570 African Americans and 891 non-Hispanic White Americans from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL), 2003...
September 20, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Arshya Vahabzadeh, Neha U Keshav, Rafiq Abdus-Sabur, Krystal Huey, Runpeng Liu, Ned T Sahin
Background: Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) commonly demonstrate prominent social communication deficits, symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and chronic irritability. These challenges hinder academic progress and frequently persist despite educational, behavioral, and medical interventions. An assistive smartglasses technology may aid these individuals, especially if the technology is efficacious in ecologically-valid school settings. This study explored the feasibility and efficacy of Empowered Brain, a computerized smartglasses intervention designed as a socio-emotional behavioral aid for students with ASD...
September 20, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
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