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Behavioral Sciences

Arash Javanbakht, Steve Tompson, Shinobu Kitayama, Anthony King, Carolyn Yoon, Israel Liberzon
While Western cultures are more focused on individualization and self-expression, East Asian cultures promote interrelatedness. Largely unknown is how gene by culture interactions influence the degree to which individuals acquire culture, and the neurocircuitry underlying how social cues are processed. We sought to examine the interaction between DRD4 polymorphism and culture in the neural processing of social emotional cues. 19 Asian-born East Asian (AA) and 20 European American (EA) participants performed a shifted attention emotion appraisal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) task, which probes implicit emotional processing and regulation in response to social emotional cues...
July 11, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Anna Mastrominico, Thomas Fuchs, Elizabeth Manders, Lena Steffinger, Dusan Hirjak, Maik Sieber, Elisabeth Thomas, Anja Holzinger, Ariane Konrad, Nina Bopp, Sabine C Koch
This study examines the effects of dance movement therapy (DMT) on empathy for adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). DMT based on the embodiment approach offers body-centered interventions, such as mirroring techniques, to address the needs of ASD patients. Accordingly, findings of a feasibility study suggest that DMT may be an effective approach for clients on the ASD spectrum. The present study is a randomized controlled trial that was conducted as a multicenter study within the framework of the EU-funded research project TESIS (Toward an Embodied Science of Intersubjectivity), and employed a two-factorial between-subject design...
June 29, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Taylor Martinez, Jacquelyn D Wiersma-Mosley, Kristen N Jozkowski, Jennifer Becnel
The current study examined sexual assault perpetrator rape myths among college students, and in particular Greek students. Fraternity men are overrepresented among sexual assault perpetrators, while sorority women are at increased risk for victimization of sexual assault. The current study examined Greek-affiliated and non-Greek-affiliated perceptions of perpetrator rape myths among 892 college students; 58% of the sample was Greek-affiliated. Men and Greek-affiliated students reported higher agreement on stereotypes than women and non-Greek-affiliated students regarding perpetrator rape myths...
June 27, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Lourdes Lorigados Pedre, Juan M Gallardo, Lilia M Morales Chacón, Angélica Vega García, Monserrat Flores-Mendoza, Teresa Neri-Gómez, Bárbara Estupiñán Díaz, Rachel M Cruz-Xenes, Nancy Pavón Fuentes, Sandra Orozco-Suárez
Oxidative stress (OS) has been implicated as a pathophysiological mechanism of drug-resistant epilepsy, but little is known about the relationship between OS markers and clinical parameters, such as the number of drugs, age onset of seizure and frequency of seizures per month. The current study’s aim was to evaluate several oxidative stress markers and antioxidants in 18 drug-resistant partial complex seizure (DRPCS) patients compared to a control group (age and sex matched), and the results were related to clinical variables...
June 9, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
George Oppong Appiagyei Ampong, Aseda Mensah, Adolph Sedem Yaw Adu, John Agyekum Addae, Osaretin Kayode Omoregie, Kwame Simpe Ofori
Social media and other web 2.0 tools have provided users with the platform to interact with and also disclose personal information to not only their friends and acquaintances but also relative strangers with unprecedented ease. This has enhanced the ability of people to share more about themselves, their families, and their friends through a variety of media including text, photo, and video, thus developing and sustaining social and business relationships. The purpose of the paper is to identify the factors that predict self-disclosure on social networking sites from the perspective of privacy and flow...
June 6, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
John A Johnson
Psychologists often argue that sex roles direct different types of socializing behaviors toward males and females and that this differential treatment, in turn, leads to sex differences in personality. Widely cited in support of this thesis has been the Fels longitudinal study finding that dependency and passivity are stable from childhood to adulthood for females only and aggressiveness and sexuality for males only. The present article explains why the type of sex differences in personality stability cited by Fels researchers actually contradicts the view that sex role expectations cause these differences...
June 4, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Brian Y Park, Gary Wilson, Jonathan Berger, Matthew Christman, Bryn Reina, Frank Bishop, Warren P Klam, Andrew P Doan
The conflict of interest section of the published paper[...].
June 1, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Arash Aryani, Arthur M Jacobs
A similarity between the form and meaning of a word (i.e., iconicity) may help language users to more readily access its meaning through direct form-meaning mapping. Previous work has supported this view by providing empirical evidence for this facilitatory effect in sign language, as well as for onomatopoetic words (e.g., cuckoo) and ideophones (e.g., zigzag). Thus, it remains largely unknown whether the beneficial role of iconicity in making semantic decisions can be considered a general feature in spoken language applying also to "ordinary" words in the lexicon...
May 31, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Mohamed Elgendi, Parmod Kumar, Skye Barbic, Newton Howard, Derek Abbott, Andrzej Cichocki
The influence of subliminal priming (behavior outside of awareness) in humans is an interesting phenomenon and its understanding is crucial as it can impact behavior, choices, and actions. Given this, research about the impact of priming continues to be an area of investigative interest, and this paper provides a technical overview of research design strengths and issues in subliminal priming research. Efficient experiments and protocols, as well as associated electroencephalographic and eye movement data analyses, are discussed in detail...
May 30, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Shervin Assari, Maryam Moghani Lankarani
Background : Despite the well-established link between exposure to violence and mental health problems, less is known about this association among college students. The current study aimed to investigate the association between history of exposure to violence and mental health of American college students. Methods : Healthy Mind Study (HMS, 2016⁻2017) is a national online survey of 41,898 adult college students. The independent variable was lifetime history of exposure to violence (psychological, physical, and sexual)...
May 24, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Michael Kimmel, Dayana Hristova, Kerstin Kussmaul
Drawing on a micro-phenomenological paradigm, we discuss Contact Improvisation (CI), where dancers explore potentials of intercorporeal weight sharing, kinesthesia, touch, and momentum. Our aim is to typologically discuss creativity related skills and the rich spectrum of creative resources CI dancers use. This spectrum begins with relatively idea-driven creation and ends with interactivity-centered, fully emergent creation: (1) Ideation internal to the mind, the focus of traditional creativity research, is either restricted to semi-independent dancing or remains schematic and thus open to dynamic specification under the partner’s influence...
May 23, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Shervin Assari, Lisa M Lapeyrouse, Harold W Neighbors
Background: The minorities' diminished return theory suggests that socioeconomic position (SEP) generates smaller health gains for racial/ethnic minorities compared to Whites. The current study was a Black⁻White comparison of the association between household income and self-rated mental health (SRMH). Methods: This cross-sectional study used data from the 2017 State of the State Survey (SOSS). With representative sampling, the SOSS generates results that are generalizable to the state of Michigan. This study included 881 adults, ( n = 92) Black and ( n = 782) White...
May 17, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Alan Ewert, Yun Chang
A growing number of studies have shown that visiting green spaces and being exposed to natural environments can reduce psychological stress. A number of questions concerning the effects of natural environments on levels of stress remain including, "Are activities engaged in natural environments more or less beneficial at reducing stress when compared to those done in more urban settings?" This study examined this question from the perspective of "levels of nature". That is, data on levels of stress were collected from three sites, one site having wilderness-like characteristics, a second site representing a municipal-type park, and a third site representing a built environment (indoor exercise facility) within a city...
May 17, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Maryam Moghani Lankarani, Shervin Assari
Although actual obesity is expected to be associated with perceived overweight, some recent studies in adults have suggested that this link may be smaller for Blacks than Whites. It is unknown, however, whether the same trend holds for children or not. This study explored the heterogeneity of the association between actual and perceived obesity in a national sample of American children by race, gender, and their intersection. Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC), 2009⁻2010, is a national study of children 17 years or less in the United States...
May 14, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
María de Los Angeles Robinson-Agramonte, Lourdes Lorigados Pedre, Orlando Ramón Serrano-Barrera
Neuroimmunology can be traced back to the XIX century through the descriptions of some of the disease’s models (e.g., multiple sclerosis and Guillain Barret syndrome, amongst others). The diagnostic tools are based in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis developed by Quincke or in the development of neuroimmunotherapy with the earlier expression in Pasteur’s vaccine for rabies. Nevertheless, this field, which began to become delineated as an independent research area in the 1940s, has evolved as an innovative and integrative field at the shared edges of neurosciences, immunology, and related clinical and research areas, which are currently becoming a major concern for neuroscience and indeed for all of the scientific community linked to it...
May 8, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Shervin Assari, Maryam Moghani Lankarani
Purpose: Although the protective effect of social support against depression is well known, limited information exists on racial differences in this association. The current study examined Black-White differences in the effects of religious and secular emotional social support on depressive symptoms in a national sample of older adults in the United States. Methods: With a longitudinal prospective design, the Religion, Aging and Health Survey, 2001⁻2004, followed 1493 Black ( n = 734) and White ( n = 759) elderly individuals (age 66 and older) for three years...
May 4, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Athanasios S Drigas, Chara Papoutsi
Emotional Intelligence (EI) has been an important and controversial topic during the last few decades. Its significance and its correlation with many domains of life has made it the subject of expert study. EI is the rudder for feeling, thinking, learning, problem-solving, and decision-making. In this article, we present an emotional⁻cognitive based approach to the process of gaining emotional intelligence and thus, we suggest a nine-layer pyramid of emotional intelligence and the gradual development to reach the top of EI...
May 2, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Ivonne Pedroso, Marité Garcia, Enrique Casabona, Lilia Morales, Maria Luisa Bringas, Leslie Pérez, Teresita Rodríguez, Ileana Sosa, Yordanka Ricardo, Arnoldo Padrón, Daniel Amaro
Introduction: Treatment strategies in Parkinson's disease (PD) can improve a patient's quality of life but cannot stop the progression of PD. We are looking for different alternatives that modify the natural course of the disease and recent research has demonstrated the neuroprotective properties of erythropoietin. In Cuba, the Center for Molecular Immunology (CIM) is a cutting edge scientific center where the recombinant form (EPOrh) and recombinant human erythropoietin with low sialic acid (NeuroEPO) are produced...
May 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Shervin Assari, Frederick X Gibbons, Ronald L Simons
Background : Recent research has suggested vulnerability to perceived racial discrimination (PRD) as a mechanism behind high levels of depression seen in high socioeconomic status (SES) Black males. To better understand the effects of gender and SES on shaping experiences of PRD among Black youth in the United States, we used data from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS) to explore the trajectory of PRD in Black youth by gender, SES, and place. Methods : Data came from FACHS, 1997⁻2017, which followed 889 children aged 10⁻12 years old at Wave 1 ( n = 478; 53...
April 27, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Stefan Petranek, Jennifer Pencek, Mahua Dey
With the evolution of modern medical treatment strategies, there also comes the realization that many times we reach a point where traditional goals of medical care, such as overall survival or disease-free survival, are not realistic goals for many patients facing devastating illnesses. One such disease is malignant primary brain tumors, known as malignant glioma (MG). With median survival of only 20.9 months following best available standard of care treatment strategies, including surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, and tumor treating fields, MG is one of the deadliest malignancies of the modern era...
April 27, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
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