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Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139210/timing-of-neuronal-plasticity-in-development-and-aging
#1
REVIEW
Evguenia Ivakhnitskaia, Ryan Weihsiang Lin, Kana Hamada, Chieh Chang
Molecular oscillators are well known for their roles in temporal control of some biological processes like cell proliferation, but molecular mechanisms that provide temporal control of differentiation and postdifferentiation events in cells are less understood. In the nervous system, establishment of neuronal connectivity during development and decline in neuronal plasticity during aging are regulated with temporal precision, but the timing mechanisms are largely unknown. Caenorhabditis elegans has been a preferred model for aging research and recently emerges as a new model for the study of developmental and postdevelopmental plasticity in neurons...
November 15, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115042/generation-of-diverse-cortical-inhibitory-interneurons
#2
REVIEW
Khadeejah T Sultan, Song-Hai Shi
First described by Ramon y Cajal as 'short-axon' cells over a century ago, inhibitory interneurons in the cerebral cortex make up ~20-30% of the neuronal milieu. A key feature of these interneurons is the striking structural and functional diversity, which allows them to modulate neural activity in diverse ways and ultimately endow neural circuits with remarkable computational power. Here, we review our current understanding of the generation of cortical interneurons, with a focus on recent efforts to bridge the gap between progenitor behavior and interneuron production, and how these aspects influence interneuron diversity and organization...
November 8, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105366/limbal-stem-cells-identity-developmental-origin-and-therapeutic-potential
#3
REVIEW
Gabriel Gonzalez, Yuzuru Sasamoto, Bruce R Ksander, Markus H Frank, Natasha Y Frank
The cornea is our window to the world and our vision is critically dependent on corneal clarity and integrity. Its epithelium represents one of the most rapidly regenerating mammalian tissues, undergoing full-turnover over the course of approximately 1-2 weeks. This robust and efficient regenerative capacity is dependent on the function of stem cells residing in the limbus, a structure marking the border between the cornea and the conjunctiva. Limbal stem cells (LSC) represent a quiescent cell population with proliferative capacity residing in the basal epithelial layer of the limbus within a cellular niche...
November 3, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105358/formation-of-adult-organs-through-metamorphosis-in-ascidians
#4
REVIEW
Yasunori Sasakura, Akiko Hozumi
The representative characteristic of ascidians is their vertebrate-like, tadpole shape at the larval stage. Ascidians lose the tadpole shape through metamorphosis to become adults with a nonmotile, sessile body and a shape generally considered distinct from that of vertebrates. Solitary ascidians including Ciona species are extensively studied to understand the developmental mechanisms of ascidians, and to compare these mechanisms with their counterparts in vertebrates. In these ascidian species, the digestive and circulatory systems are not well developed in the larval trunk and the larvae do not take food...
November 3, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072810/serotonin-neuron-development-shaping-molecular-and-structural-identities
#5
REVIEW
Evan Deneris, Patricia Gaspar
The continuing fascination with serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) as a nervous system chemical messenger began with its discovery in the brains of mammals in 1953. Among the many reasons for this decades-long interest is that the small numbers of neurons that make 5-HT influence the excitability of neural circuits in nearly every region of the brain and spinal cord. A further reason is that 5-HT dysfunction has been linked to a range of psychiatric and neurological disorders many of which have a neurodevelopmental component...
October 26, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024472/hearing-crosstalk-the-molecular-conversation-orchestrating-inner-ear-dorsoventral-patterning
#6
REVIEW
Sho Ohta, Gary C Schoenwolf
The inner ear is a structurally and functionally complex organ that functions in balance and hearing. It originates during neurulation as a localized thickened region of rostral ectoderm termed the otic placode, which lies adjacent to the developing caudal hindbrain. Shortly after the otic placode forms, it invaginates to delineate the otic cup, which quickly pinches off of the surface ectoderm to form a hollow spherical vesicle called the otocyst; the latter gives rise dorsally to inner ear vestibular components and ventrally to its auditory component...
October 11, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913870/mimicry-in-butterflies-co-option-and-a-bag-of-magnificent-developmental-genetic-tricks
#7
REVIEW
Riddhi Deshmukh, Saurav Baral, A Gandhimathi, Muktai Kuwalekar, Krushnamegh Kunte
Butterfly wing patterns are key adaptations that are controlled by remarkable developmental and genetic mechanisms that facilitate rapid evolutionary change. With swift advancements in the fields of genomics and genetic manipulations, identifying the regulators of wing development and mimetic wing patterns has become feasible even in nonmodel organisms such as butterflies. Recent mapping and gene expression studies have identified single switch loci of major effects such as transcription factors and supergenes as the main drivers of adaptive evolution of mimetic and polymorphic butterfly wing patterns...
September 14, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906063/models-of-convergent-extension-during-morphogenesis
#8
REVIEW
Asako Shindo
Convergent extension (CE) is a fundamental and conserved collective cell movement that forms elongated tissues during embryonic development. Thus far, studies have demonstrated two different mechanistic models of collective cell movements during CE. The first, termed the crawling mode, was discovered in the process of notochord formation in Xenopus laevis embryos, and has been the established model of CE for decades. The second model, known as the contraction mode, was originally reported in studies of germband extension in Drosophila melanogaster embryos and was recently demonstrated to be a conserved mechanism of CE among tissues and stages of development across species...
September 14, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892263/regulation-of-germ-cell-development-by-intercellular-signaling-in-the-mammalian-ovarian-follicle
#9
REVIEW
Hugh J Clarke
Prior to ovulation, the mammalian oocyte undergoes a process of differentiation within the ovarian follicle that confers on it the ability to give rise to an embryo. Differentiation comprises two phases-growth, during which the oocyte increases more than 100-fold in volume as it accumulates macromolecules and organelles that will sustain early embryogenesis; and meiotic maturation, during which the oocyte executes the first meiotic division and prepares for the second division. Entry of an oocyte into the growth phase appears to be triggered when the adjacent granulosa cells produce specific growth factors...
September 11, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837264/rna-on-the-brain-emerging-layers-of-post-transcriptional-regulation-in-cerebral-cortex-development
#10
REVIEW
Ashley L Lennox, Hanqian Mao, Debra L Silver
Embryonic development is a critical period during which neurons of the brain are generated and organized. In the developing cerebral cortex, this requires complex processes of neural progenitor proliferation, neuronal differentiation, and migration. Each step relies upon highly regulated control of gene expression. In particular, RNA splicing, stability, localization, and translation have emerged as key post-transcriptional regulatory nodes of mouse corticogenesis. Trans-regulators of RNA metabolism, including microRNAs (miRs) and RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), orchestrate diverse steps of cortical development...
August 24, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834395/charting-the-genotype-phenotype-map-lessons-from-the-drosophila-melanogaster-genetic-reference-panel
#11
REVIEW
Trudy F C Mackay, Wen Huang
Understanding the genetic architecture (causal molecular variants, their effects, and frequencies) of quantitative traits is important for precision agriculture and medicine and predicting adaptive evolution, but is challenging in most species. The Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) is a collection of 205 inbred strains with whole genome sequences derived from a single wild population in Raleigh, NC, USA. The large amount of quantitative genetic variation, lack of population structure, and rapid local decay of linkage disequilibrium in the DGRP and outbred populations derived from DGRP lines present a favorable scenario for performing genome-wide association (GWA) mapping analyses to identify candidate causal genes, polymorphisms, and pathways affecting quantitative traits...
August 22, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810059/targeted-genome-editing-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-using-crispr-cas9
#12
REVIEW
Behnom Farboud
Utilization of programmable nucleases to generate DNA lesions at precise endogenous sequences has transformed the ability to edit genomes from microbes to plants and animals. This is especially true in organisms that previously lacked the means to engineer precise genomic changes, like Caenorhabditis elegans. C. elegans is a 1 mm long free-living, nonparasitic, nematode worm, which is easily cultivated in a laboratory. Its detailed genetic map and relatively compact genome (~100 megabases) helped make it the first metazoan to have its entire genome sequenced...
November 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800674/the-genetic-encoded-toolbox-for-electron-microscopy-and-connectomics
#13
REVIEW
Ryuichi Shigemoto, Maximilian Joesch
Developments in bioengineering and molecular biology have introduced a palette of genetically encoded probes for identification of specific cell populations in electron microscopy. These probes can be targeted to distinct cellular compartments, rendering them electron dense through a subsequent chemical reaction. These electron densities strongly increase the local contrast in samples prepared for electron microscopy, allowing three major advances in ultrastructural mapping of circuits: genetic identification of circuit components, targeted imaging of regions of interest and automated analysis of the tagged circuits...
November 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771970/segmental-arithmetic-summing-up-the-hox-gene-regulatory-network-for-hindbrain-development-in-chordates
#14
REVIEW
Hugo J Parker, Robb Krumlauf
Organization and development of the early vertebrate hindbrain are controlled by a cascade of regulatory interactions that govern the process of segmentation and patterning along the anterior-posterior axis via Hox genes. These interactions can be assembled into a gene regulatory network that provides a framework to interpret experimental data, generate hypotheses, and identify gaps in our understanding of the progressive process of hindbrain segmentation. The network can be broadly separated into a series of interconnected programs that govern early signaling, segmental subdivision, secondary signaling, segmentation, and ultimately specification of segmental identity...
November 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719048/developmental-mechanisms-of-intervertebral-disc-and-vertebral-column-formation
#15
REVIEW
Lisa Y Lawson, Brian D Harfe
The vertebral column consists of repeating units of ossified vertebrae that are adjoined by fibrocartilagenous intervertebral discs. These structures form from the embryonic notochord and somitic mesoderm. In humans, congenital malformations of the vertebral column include scoliosis, kyphosis, spina bifida, and Klippel Feil syndrome. In adulthood, a common malady affecting the vertebral column includes disc degeneration and associated back pain. Indeed, recent reports estimate that low back pain is the number one cause of disability worldwide...
November 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719044/symmetry-breaking-in-development-and-stochastic-gene-expression
#16
REVIEW
Jonathan R Chubb
The prevailing emphasis in developmental biology since the expansion of the molecular biology age has been that developmental decisions are instructive. A cell differentiates to become a specific cell type because it receives a signal, whereas its neighbor that does not receive the signal adopts a different fate. This emphasis has been generally accepted, largely because of the success of this view in tractable invertebrate model organisms, and the widespread similarities in molecular regulation to the development of more complex species...
November 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670819/emerging-roles-of-transit-amplifying-cells-in-tissue-regeneration-and-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Bing Zhang, Ya-Chieh Hsu
Most regenerative tissues employ transit-amplifying cells (TACs) that are positioned in between stem cells and differentiated progeny. In a classical hierarchical model, stem cells undergo limited divisions to produce TACs, which then proliferate rapidly to expand the system and produce diverse differentiated cell types. Although TACs are indispensable for generating tissues, they have been largely viewed as a transit point between stem cells and downstream lineages. Studies in the past few years, however, have revealed some fascinating biology and unanticipated functions of TACs...
September 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561893/extrinsic-regulation-of-hematopoietic-stem-cells-in-development-homeostasis-and-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Yeojin Lee, Matthew Decker, Heather Lee, Lei Ding
Lifelong generation of blood and immune cells depends on hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Their function is precisely regulated by complex molecular networks that integrate and respond to ever changing physiological demands of the body. Over the past several years, significant advances have been made in understanding the extrinsic regulation of HSCs during development and in homeostasis. Propelled by technical advances in the field, the cellular and molecular components of the microenvironment that support HSCs in vivo are emerging...
September 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556549/methods-for-studying-the-metabolic-basis-of-drosophila-development
#19
REVIEW
Hongde Li, Jason M Tennessen
The field of metabolic research has experienced an unexpected renaissance. While this renewed interest in metabolism largely originated in response to the global increase in diabetes and obesity, studies of metabolic regulation now represent the frontier of many biomedical fields. This trend is especially apparent in developmental biology, where metabolism influences processes ranging from stem cell differentiation and tissue growth to sexual maturation and reproduction. In this regard, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as a powerful tool for dissecting conserved mechanisms that underlie developmental metabolism, often with a level of detail that is simply not possible in other animals...
September 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544556/electrophysiological-analysis-of-synaptic-transmission-in-drosophila
#20
REVIEW
Maria Bykhovskaia, Alexander Vasin
Synaptic transmission is dynamic, plastic, and highly regulated. Drosophila is an advantageous model system for genetic and molecular studies of presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms and plasticity. Electrical recordings of synaptic responses represent a wide-spread approach to study neuronal signaling and synaptic transmission. We discuss experimental techniques that allow monitoring synaptic transmission in Drosophila neuromuscular and central systems. Recordings of synaptic potentials or currents at the larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ) are most common and provide numerous technical advantages due to robustness of the preparation, large and identifiable muscles, and synaptic boutons which can be readily visualized...
September 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
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