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Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762894/what-is-a-stem-cell
#1
REVIEW
Jonathan M W Slack
The historical roots of the stem cell concept are traced with respect to its usage in embryology and in hematology. The modern consensus definition of stem cells, comprising both pluripotent stem cells in culture and tissue-specific stem cells in vivo, is explained and explored. Methods for identifying stem cells are discussed with respect to cell surface markers, telomerase, label retention and transplantability, and properties of the stem cell niche are explored. The CreER method for identifying stem cells in vivo is explained, as is evidence in favor of a stochastic rather than an obligate asymmetric form of cell division...
May 15, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722151/specifying-neural-crest-cells-from-chromatin-to-morphogens-and-factors-in-between
#2
REVIEW
Crystal D Rogers, Shuyi Nie
Neural crest (NC) cells are a stem-like multipotent population of progenitor cells that are present in vertebrate embryos, traveling to various regions in the developing organism. Known as the "fourth germ layer", these cells originate in the ectoderm between the neural plate (NP), which will become the brain and spinal cord, and nonneural tissues that will become the skin and the sensory organs. NC cells can differentiate into more than 30 different derivatives in response to the appropriate signals including, but not limited to, craniofacial bone and cartilage, sensory nerves and ganglia, pigment cells, and connective tissue...
May 3, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719123/wound-induced-cell-proliferation-during-animal-regeneration
#3
REVIEW
Lorenzo Ricci, Mansi Srivastava
Many animal species are capable of replacing missing tissues that are lost upon injury or amputation through the process of regeneration. Although the extent of regeneration is variable across animals, that is, some animals can regenerate any missing cell type whereas some can only regenerate certain organs or tissues, regulated cell proliferation underlies the formation of new tissues in most systems. Notably, many species display an increase in proliferation within hours or days upon wounding. While different cell types proliferate in response to wounding in various animal taxa, comparative molecular data are beginning to point to shared wound-induced mechanisms that regulate cell division during regeneration...
May 2, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709110/making-lineage-decisions-with-biological-noise-lessons-from-the-early-mouse-embryo
#4
REVIEW
Claire S Simon, Anna-Katerina Hadjantonakis, Christian Schröter
Understanding how individual cells make fate decisions that lead to the faithful formation and homeostatic maintenance of tissues is a fundamental goal of contemporary developmental and stem cell biology. Seemingly uniform populations of stem cells and multipotent progenitors display a surprising degree of heterogeneity, primarily originating from the inherent stochastic nature of molecular processes underlying gene expression. Despite this heterogeneity, lineage decisions result in tissues of a defined size and with consistent proportions of differentiated cell types...
April 30, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513926/blueprint-for-an-intestinal-villus-species-specific-assembly-required
#5
REVIEW
Katherine D Walton, Darcy Mishkind, Misty R Riddle, Clifford J Tabin, Deborah L Gumucio
Efficient absorption of nutrients by the intestine is essential for life. In mammals and birds, convolution of the intestinal surface into finger-like projections called villi is an important adaptation that ensures the massive surface area for nutrient contact that is required to meet metabolic demands. Each villus projection serves as a functional absorptive unit: it is covered by a simple columnar epithelium that is derived from endoderm and contains a mesodermally derived core with supporting vasculature, lacteals, enteric nerves, smooth muscle, fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, and immune cells...
March 7, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470839/embryonic-neurogenesis-in-echinoderms
#6
REVIEW
Veronica F Hinman, Robert D Burke
The phylogenetic position of echinoderms is well suited to revealing shared features of deuterostomes that distinguish them from other bilaterians. Although echinoderm neurobiology remains understudied, genomic resources, molecular methods, and systems approaches have enabled progress in understanding mechanisms of embryonic neurogenesis. Even though the morphology of echinoderm larvae is diverse, larval nervous systems, which arise during gastrulation, have numerous similarities in their organization. Diverse neural subtypes and specialized sensory neurons have been identified and details of neuroanatomy using neuron-specific labels provide hypotheses for neural function...
February 22, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470863/the-evolution-of-mollusc-shells
#7
REVIEW
Carmel McDougall, Bernard M Degnan
Molluscan shells are externally fabricated by specialized epithelial cells on the dorsal mantle. Although a conserved set of regulatory genes appears to underlie specification of mantle progenitor cells, the genes that contribute to the formation of the mature shell are incredibly diverse. Recent comparative analyses of mantle transcriptomes and shell proteomes of gastropods and bivalves are consistent with shell diversity being underpinned by a rapidly evolving mantle secretome (suite of genes expressed in the mantle that encode secreted proteins) that is the product of (a) high rates of gene co-option into and loss from the mantle gene regulatory network, and (b) the rapid evolution of coding sequences, particular those encoding repetitive low complexity domains...
May 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436122/the-zebrafish-a-fintastic-model-for-hematopoietic-development-and-disease
#8
REVIEW
Aniket V Gore, Laura M Pillay, Marina Venero Galanternik, Brant M Weinstein
Hematopoiesis is a complex process with a variety of different signaling pathways influencing every step of blood cell formation from the earliest precursors to final differentiated blood cell types. Formation of blood cells is crucial for survival. Blood cells carry oxygen, promote organ development and protect organs in different pathological conditions. Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) are responsible for generating all adult differentiated blood cells. Defects in HSPCs or their downstream lineages can lead to anemia and other hematological disorders including leukemia...
May 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350886/the-cell-biology-and-molecular-genetics-of-m%C3%A3-llerian-duct-development
#9
REVIEW
Zahida Yesmin Roly, Brendan Backhouse, Andrew Cutting, Tiong Yang Tan, Andrew H Sinclair, Katie L Ayers, Andrew T Major, Craig A Smith
The Müllerian ducts are part of the embryonic urogenital system. They give rise to mature structures that serve a critical function in the transport and development of the oocyte and/or embryo. In most vertebrates, both sexes initially develop Müllerian ducts during embryogenesis, but they regress in males under the influence of testis-derived Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH). A number of regulatory factors have been shown to be essential for proper duct development, including Bmp and Wnt signaling molecules, together with homeodomain transcription factors such as PAX2 and LIM1...
May 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350802/cellular-reprogramming-a-new-way-to-understand-aging-mechanisms
#10
REVIEW
Burcu Yener Ilce, Umut Cagin, Acelya Yilmazer
Increased life expectancy, due to the rise in life quality and the decline in mortality rates, is leading to a society in which the population aged 60 and over is growing more rapidly than the entire population. Although various models and model organisms have been employed to investigate the mechanism of aging, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are useful candidates to study human aging and age-related human diseases. This work discusses how iPSCs can be used as an alternative to the model organisms such as yeast, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, or the mouse...
March 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316315/scarless-wound-healing-transitioning-from-fetal-research-to-regenerative-healing
#11
REVIEW
Alessandra L Moore, Clement D Marshall, Leandra A Barnes, Matthew P Murphy, Ryan C Ransom, Michael T Longaker
Since the discovery of scarless fetal skin wound healing, research in the field has expanded significantly with the hopes of advancing the finding to adult human patients. There are several differences between fetal and adult skin that have been exploited to facilitate scarless healing in adults including growth factors, cytokines, and extracellular matrix substitutes. However, no one therapy, pathway, or cell subtype is sufficient to support scarless wound healing in adult skin. More recently, products that contain or mimic fetal and adult uninjured dermis were introduced to the wound healing market with promising clinical outcomes...
March 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244903/dermal-fibroblast-in-cutaneous-development-and-healing
#12
REVIEW
Venkata Thulabandu, Demeng Chen, Radhika P Atit
The skin is the largest organ of the body and is composed of two layers: the overlying epidermis and the underlying dermis. The dermal fibroblasts originate from distinct locations of the embryo and contain the positional identity and patterning information in the skin. The dermal fibroblast progenitors differentiate into various cell types that are fated to perform specific functions such as hair follicle initiation and scar formation during wound healing. Recent studies have revealed the heterogeneity and plasticity of dermal fibroblasts within skin, which has implications for skin disease and tissue engineering...
March 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139210/timing-of-neuronal-plasticity-in-development-and-aging
#13
REVIEW
Evguenia Ivakhnitskaia, Ryan Weihsiang Lin, Kana Hamada, Chieh Chang
Molecular oscillators are well known for their roles in temporal control of some biological processes like cell proliferation, but molecular mechanisms that provide temporal control of differentiation and postdifferentiation events in cells are less understood. In the nervous system, establishment of neuronal connectivity during development and decline in neuronal plasticity during aging are regulated with temporal precision, but the timing mechanisms are largely unknown. Caenorhabditis elegans has been a preferred model for aging research and recently emerges as a new model for the study of developmental and postdevelopmental plasticity in neurons...
March 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115042/generation-of-diverse-cortical-inhibitory-interneurons
#14
REVIEW
Khadeejah T Sultan, Song-Hai Shi
First described by Ramon y Cajal as 'short-axon' cells over a century ago, inhibitory interneurons in the cerebral cortex make up ~20-30% of the neuronal milieu. A key feature of these interneurons is the striking structural and functional diversity, which allows them to modulate neural activity in diverse ways and ultimately endow neural circuits with remarkable computational power. Here, we review our current understanding of the generation of cortical interneurons, with a focus on recent efforts to bridge the gap between progenitor behavior and interneuron production, and how these aspects influence interneuron diversity and organization...
March 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105366/limbal-stem-cells-identity-developmental-origin-and-therapeutic-potential
#15
REVIEW
Gabriel Gonzalez, Yuzuru Sasamoto, Bruce R Ksander, Markus H Frank, Natasha Y Frank
The cornea is our window to the world and our vision is critically dependent on corneal clarity and integrity. Its epithelium represents one of the most rapidly regenerating mammalian tissues, undergoing full-turnover over the course of approximately 1-2 weeks. This robust and efficient regenerative capacity is dependent on the function of stem cells residing in the limbus, a structure marking the border between the cornea and the conjunctiva. Limbal stem cells (LSC) represent a quiescent cell population with proliferative capacity residing in the basal epithelial layer of the limbus within a cellular niche...
March 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105358/formation-of-adult-organs-through-metamorphosis-in-ascidians
#16
REVIEW
Yasunori Sasakura, Akiko Hozumi
The representative characteristic of ascidians is their vertebrate-like, tadpole shape at the larval stage. Ascidians lose the tadpole shape through metamorphosis to become adults with a nonmotile, sessile body and a shape generally considered distinct from that of vertebrates. Solitary ascidians including Ciona species are extensively studied to understand the developmental mechanisms of ascidians, and to compare these mechanisms with their counterparts in vertebrates. In these ascidian species, the digestive and circulatory systems are not well developed in the larval trunk and the larvae do not take food...
March 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369536/systems-biology-of-embryonic-development-prospects-for-a-complete-understanding-of-the-caenorhabditis-elegans-embryo
#17
REVIEW
John Isaac Murray
The convergence of developmental biology and modern genomics tools brings the potential for a comprehensive understanding of developmental systems. This is especially true for the Caenorhabditis elegans embryo because its small size, invariant developmental lineage, and powerful genetic and genomic tools provide the prospect of a cellular resolution understanding of messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and regulation across the organism. We describe here how a systems biology framework might allow large-scale determination of the embryonic regulatory relationships encoded in the C...
January 25, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369522/uncovering-cell-type-specific-complexities-of-gene-expression-and-rna-metabolism-by-tu-tagging-and-ec-tagging
#18
REVIEW
Michael D Cleary
Cell type-specific transcription is a key determinant of cell fate and function. An ongoing challenge in biology is to develop robust and stringent biochemical methods to explore gene expression with cell type specificity. This challenge has become even greater as researchers attempt to apply high-throughput RNA analysis methods under in vivo conditions. TU-tagging and EC-tagging are in vivo biosynthetic RNA tagging techniques that allow spatial and temporal specificity in RNA purification. Spatial specificity is achieved through targeted expression of pyrimidine salvage enzymes (uracil phosphoribosyltransferase and cytosine deaminase) and temporal specificity is achieved by controlling exposure to bioorthogonal substrates of these enzymes (4-thiouracil and 5-ethynylcytosine)...
January 25, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072810/serotonin-neuron-development-shaping-molecular-and-structural-identities
#19
REVIEW
Evan Deneris, Patricia Gaspar
The continuing fascination with serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) as a nervous system chemical messenger began with its discovery in the brains of mammals in 1953. Among the many reasons for this decades-long interest is that the small numbers of neurons that make 5-HT influence the excitability of neural circuits in nearly every region of the brain and spinal cord. A further reason is that 5-HT dysfunction has been linked to a range of psychiatric and neurological disorders many of which have a neurodevelopmental component...
January 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024472/hearing-crosstalk-the-molecular-conversation-orchestrating-inner-ear-dorsoventral-patterning
#20
REVIEW
Sho Ohta, Gary C Schoenwolf
The inner ear is a structurally and functionally complex organ that functions in balance and hearing. It originates during neurulation as a localized thickened region of rostral ectoderm termed the otic placode, which lies adjacent to the developing caudal hindbrain. Shortly after the otic placode forms, it invaginates to delineate the otic cup, which quickly pinches off of the surface ectoderm to form a hollow spherical vesicle called the otocyst; the latter gives rise dorsally to inner ear vestibular components and ventrally to its auditory component...
January 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
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