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Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326682/nervous-system-development-and-regeneration-in-freshwater-planarians
#1
REVIEW
Kelly G Ross, Ko W Currie, Bret J Pearson, Ricardo M Zayas
Planarians have a long history in the fields of developmental and regenerative biology. These animals have also sparked interest in neuroscience due to their neuroanatomy, spectrum of simple behaviors, and especially, their almost unparalleled ability to generate new neurons after any type of injury. Research in adult planarians has revealed that neuronal subtypes homologous to those found in vertebrates are generated from stem cells throughout their lives. This feat is recapitulated after head amputation, wherein animals are capable of regenerating whole brains and regaining complete neural function...
March 22, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319333/the-two-domain-hypothesis-of-limb-prepattern-and-its-relevance-to-congenital-limb-anomalies
#2
REVIEW
Hirotaka Tao, Yasuhiko Kawakami, Chi-Chung Hui, Sevan Hopyan
Functional annotation of mutations that cause human limb anomalies is enabled by basic developmental studies. In this study, we focus on the prepatterning stage of limb development and discuss a recent model that proposes anterior and posterior domains of the early limb bud generate two halves of the future skeleton. By comparing phenotypes in humans with those in model organisms, we evaluate whether this prepatterning concept helps to annotate human disease alleles. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website...
March 20, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319331/morphogen-interpretation-concentration-time-competence-and-signaling-dynamics
#3
REVIEW
Andreas Sagner, James Briscoe
Tissue patterning during animal development is orchestrated by a handful of inductive signals. Most of these developmental cues act as morphogens, meaning they are locally produced secreted molecules that act at a distance to govern tissue patterning. The iterative use of the same signaling molecules in different developmental contexts demands that signal interpretation occurs in a highly context-dependent manner. Hence the interpretation of signal depends on the specific competence of the receiving cells. Moreover, it has become clear that the differential interpretation of morphogens depends not only on the level of signaling but also the signaling dynamics, particularly the duration of signaling...
March 20, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304136/zebrafish-models-of-non-canonical-wnt-planar-cell-polarity-signalling-fishing-for-valuable-insight-into-vertebrate-polarized-cell-behavior
#4
REVIEW
Maria Jussila, Brian Ciruna
Planar cell polarity (PCP) coordinates the uniform orientation, structure and movement of cells within the plane of a tissue or organ system. It is beautifully illustrated in the polarized arrangement of bristles and hairs that project from specialized cell surfaces of the insect abdomen and wings, and pioneering genetic studies using the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, have defined a core signalling network underlying PCP. This core PCP/non-canonical Wnt signalling pathway is evolutionarily conserved, and studies in zebrafish have helped transform our understanding of PCP from a peculiarity of polarized epithelia to a more universal cellular property that orchestrates a diverse suite of polarized cell behaviors that are required for normal vertebrate development...
March 17, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251841/topologically-associated-domains-a-successful-scaffold-for-the-evolution-of-gene-regulation-in-animals
#5
REVIEW
Rafael D Acemel, Ignacio Maeso, José Luis Gómez-Skarmeta
The evolution of gene regulation is considered one of the main drivers causing the astonishing morphological diversity in the animal kingdom. Gene regulation in animals heavily depends upon cis-regulatory elements, discrete pieces of DNA that interact with target promoters to regulate gene expression. In the last years, Chromosome Conformation Capture experiments (4C-seq, 5C, and HiC) in several organisms have shown that the genomes of many bilaterian animals are organized in the 3D chromatin space in compartments called topologically associated domains (TADs)...
March 2, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207193/new-insights-and-changing-paradigms-in-the-regulation-of-vitamin-a-metabolism-in-development
#6
REVIEW
Stephen R Shannon, Alexander R Moise, Paul A Trainor
Vitamin A and its active metabolite retinoic acid are essential for embryonic development and adult homeostasis. Surprisingly, excess or deficiency of vitamin A and retinoic acid can cause similar developmental defects. Therefore, strict feedback and other mechanisms exist to regulate the levels of retinoic acid within a narrow physiological range. The oxidation of vitamin A to retinal has recently been established as a critical nodal point in the synthesis of retinoic acid, and over the past decade, RDH10 and DHRS3 have emerged as the predominant enzymes that regulate this reversible reaction...
February 16, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186364/rare-syndromes-of-the-head-and-face-mandibulofacial-and-acrofacial-dysostoses
#7
REVIEW
Karla Terrazas, Jill Dixon, Paul A Trainor, Michael J Dixon
Craniofacial anomalies account for approximately one-third of all congenital birth defects reflecting the complexity of head and facial development. Craniofacial development is dependent upon a multipotent, migratory population of neural crest cells, which generate most of the bone and cartilage of the head and face. In this review, we discuss advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of a specific array of craniofacial anomalies, termed facial dysostoses, which can be subdivided into mandibulofacial dysostosis, which present with craniofacial defects only, and acrofacial dysostosis, which encompasses both craniofacial and limb anomalies...
February 10, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177589/the-evolution-of-amniote-gastrulation-the-blastopore-primitive-streak-transition
#8
REVIEW
Matthew J Stower, Federica Bertocchini
In the animal kingdom, gastrulation, the process by which the primary germ layers are formed involves a dramatic transformation in the topology of the cells that give rise to all of the tissues of the adult. Initially formed as a mono-layer, this tissue, the epiblast, becomes subdivided through the internalization of cells, thereby forming a two (bi-laminar) or three (tri-laminar) layered embryo. This morphogenetic process coordinates the development of the fundamental body plan and the three-body axes (antero-posterior, dorso-ventral, and left-right) and begins a fundamental segregation of cells toward divergent developmental fates...
February 8, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044412/adult-gastric-stem-cells-and-their-niches
#9
REVIEW
Sina Bartfeld, Bon-Kyoung Koo
Adult gastric stem cells replenish the gastric epithelium throughout life. Recent studies have identified diverse populations of stem cells, progenitor cells, and even differentiated cells that can regain stem cell capacity, so highlighting an unexpected plasticity within the gastric epithelium, both in the corpus and antrum. Two niches seem to co-exist in the gastric unit: one in the isthmus region and the other at the base of the gland, although the precise features of the cell populations and the two niches are currently under debate...
January 3, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911497/neural-plasticity-across-the-lifespan
#10
REVIEW
Jonathan D Power, Bradley L Schlaggar
An essential feature of the brain is its capacity to change. Neuroscientists use the term 'plasticity' to describe the malleability of neuronal connectivity and circuitry. How does plasticity work? A review of current data suggests that plasticity encompasses many distinct phenomena, some of which operate across most or all of the lifespan, and others that operate exclusively in early development. This essay surveys some of the key concepts related to neural plasticity, beginning with how current patterns of neural activity (e...
January 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906497/neuroembryology
#11
REVIEW
Diana Darnell, Scott F Gilbert
How is it that some cells become neurons? And how is it that neurons become organized in the spinal cord and brain to allow us to walk and talk, to see, recall events in our lives, feel pain, keep our balance, and think? The cells that are specified to form the brain and spinal cord are originally located on the outside surface of the embryo. They loop inward to form the neural tube in a process called neurulation. Structures that are nearby send signals to the posterior neural tube to form and pattern the spinal cord so that the dorsal side receives sensory input and the ventral side sends motor signals from neurons to muscles...
January 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882698/the-cellular-and-molecular-basis-of-cnidarian-neurogenesis
#12
REVIEW
Fabian Rentzsch, Michael Layden, Michaël Manuel
Neurogenesis initiates during early development and it continues through later developmental stages and in adult animals to enable expansion, remodeling, and homeostasis of the nervous system. The generation of nerve cells has been analyzed in detail in few bilaterian model organisms, leaving open many questions about the evolution of this process. As the sister group to bilaterians, cnidarians occupy an informative phylogenetic position to address the early evolution of cellular and molecular aspects of neurogenesis and to understand common principles of neural development...
January 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865053/neural-progenitor-cells-and-their-role-in-the-development-and-evolutionary-expansion-of-the-neocortex
#13
REVIEW
Takashi Namba, Wieland B Huttner
The evolutionary expansion of the mammalian brain, notably the neocortex, provides a platform for the higher cognitive abilities that characterize humans. Cortical expansion is accompanied by increased folding of the pial surface, which gives rise to a gyrencephalic (folded) rather than lissencephalic (unfolded) neocortex. This expansion reflects the prolonged and increased proliferation of neural stem and progenitor cells (NPCs). Distinct classes of NPCs can be distinguished based on either cell biological criteria (apical progenitors [APs], basal progenitors [BPs]) or lineage (primary progenitors and secondary progenitors)...
January 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27626243/gene-environment-interactions-in-development-and-disease
#14
REVIEW
C Lovely, Mindy Rampersad, Yohaan Fernandes, Johann Eberhart
Developmental geneticists continue to make substantial jumps in our understanding of the genetic pathways that regulate development. This understanding stems predominantly from analyses of genetically tractable model organisms developing in laboratory environments. This environment is vastly different from that in which human development occurs. As such, most causes of developmental defects in humans are thought to involve multifactorial gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. In this review, we discuss how gene-environment interactions with environmental teratogens may predispose embryos to structural malformations...
January 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581688/building-and-maintaining-joints-by-exquisite-local-control-of-cell-fate
#15
REVIEW
Joanna Smeeton, Amjad Askary, J Gage Crump
We owe the flexibility of our bodies to sophisticated articulations between bones. Establishment of these joints requires the integration of multiple tissue types: permanent cartilage that cushions the articulating bones, synovial membranes that enclose a lubricating fluid-filled cavity, and a fibrous capsule and ligaments that provide structural support. Positioning the prospective joint region involves establishment of an "interzone" region of joint progenitor cells within a nascent cartilage condensation, which is achieved through the interplay of activators and inhibitors of multiple developmental signaling pathways...
January 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911038/quantitating-the-cell-turning-images-into-numbers-with-imagej
#16
REVIEW
Ellen T Arena, Curtis T Rueden, Mark C Hiner, Shulei Wang, Ming Yuan, Kevin W Eliceiri
Modern biological research particularly in the fields of developmental and cell biology has been transformed by the rapid evolution of the light microscope. The light microscope, long a mainstay of the experimental biologist, is now used for a wide array of biological experimental scenarios and sample types. Much of the great developments in advanced biological imaging have been driven by the digital imaging revolution with powerful processors and algorithms. In particular, this combination of advanced imaging and computational analysis has resulted in the drive of the modern biologist to not only visually inspect dynamic phenomena, but to quantify the involved processes...
December 2, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911036/properties-of-embryoid-bodies
#17
REVIEW
Joshua M Brickman, Palle Serup
Embryoid bodies (EBs) have been popular in vitro differentiation models for pluripotent stem cells for more than five decades. Initially, defined as aggregates formed by embryonal carcinoma cells, EBs gained more prominence after the derivation of karyotypically normal embryonic stem cells from early mouse blastocysts. In many cases, formation of EBs constitutes an important initial step in directed differentiation protocols aimed at generated specific cell types from undifferentiated stem cells. Indeed state-of-the-art protocols for directed differentiation of cardiomyocytes still rely on this initial EB step...
December 2, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647730/a-mosaic-world-puzzles-revealed-by-adult-neural-stem-cell-heterogeneity
#18
REVIEW
Zayna Chaker, Paolo Codega, Fiona Doetsch
Neural stem cells (NSCs) reside in specialized niches in the adult mammalian brain. The ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ), adjacent to the lateral ventricles, gives rise to olfactory bulb (OB) neurons, and some astrocytes and oligodendrocytes throughout life. In vitro assays have been widely used to retrospectively identify NSCs. However, cells that behave as stem cells in vitro do not reflect the identity, diversity, and behavior of NSCs in vivo. Novel tools including fluorescence activated cell sorting, lineage-tracing, and clonal analysis have uncovered multiple layers of adult V-SVZ NSC heterogeneity, including proliferation state and regional identity...
November 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581385/polycomb-and-trithorax-opposition-in-development-and-disease
#19
Steven T Poynter, Cigall Kadoch
Early discoveries in chromatin biology and epigenetics heralded new insights into organismal development. From these studies, two mediators of cellular differentiation were discovered: the Polycomb group (PcG) of transcriptional repressors, and the trithorax group (trxG) of transcriptional activators. These protein families, while opposed in function, work together to coordinate the appropriate cellular developmental programs that allow for both embryonic stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. Recently, both the PcG and trxG chromatin modulators have been observed to be deregulated in a wide spectrum diseases including developmental disorders and cancer...
November 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27576003/building-the-drains-the-lymphatic-vasculature-in-health-and-disease
#20
Marina Venero Galanternik, Amber N Stratman, Hyun Min Jung, Matthew G Butler, Brant M Weinstein
The lymphatic vasculature is comprised of a network of endothelial vessels found in close proximity to but separated from the blood vasculature. An essential tissue component of all vertebrates, lymphatics are responsible for the maintenance of fluid homeostasis, dissemination of immune cells, and lipid reabsorption under healthy conditions. When lymphatic vessels are impaired due to invasive surgery, genetic disorders, or parasitic infections, severe fluid build-up accumulates in the affected tissues causing a condition known as lymphedema...
November 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
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