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Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology

Ming S Tham, Ian M Smyth
Kidneys are bilateral organs required to maintain homeostasis in the body through the regulation of fluid composition and the excretion of metabolic waste products. The initial steps in organ development are characterized by cellular interactions which regulate both the position and number of kidneys formed. Once established, further development is driven by orchestrated interactions between progenitor cell populations which serve to establish both nephrons-the functional unit of the organ which filters the blood-and the complex ramified collecting duct system which transports urine to the bladder...
December 20, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
Arthur Luhur, Kristin M Klueg, Andrew C Zelhof
The use of Drosophila cell cultures has positively impacted both fundamental and biomedical research. The most widely used cell lines: Schneider, Kc, the CNS and imaginal disc lines continue to be the choice for many applications. Drosophila cell lines provide a homogenous source of cells suitable for biochemical experimentations, transcriptomics, functional genomics, and biomedical applications. They are amenable to RNA interference and serve as a platform for high-throughput screens to identify relevant candidate genes or drugs for any biological process...
December 18, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
April DeLaurier
The evolution of the jaw represents a key innovation in driving the diversification of vertebrate body plans and behavior. The pharyngeal apparatus originated as gill bars separated by slits in chordate ancestors to vertebrates. Later, with the acquisition of neural crest, pharyngeal arches gave rise to branchial basket cartilages in jawless vertebrates (agnathans), and later bone and cartilage of the jaw, jaw support, and gills of jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes). Major events in the evolution of jaw structure from agnathans to gnathostomes include axial regionalization of pharyngeal elements and formation of a jaw joint...
October 31, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
Hannah G Yevick, Adam C Martin
Computational approaches that enable quantification of microscopy data have revolutionized the field of developmental biology. Due to its inherent complexity, elucidating mechanisms of development requires sophisticated analysis of the structure, shape, and kinetics of cellular processes. This need has prompted the creation of numerous techniques to visualize, quantify, and merge microscopy data. These approaches have defined the order and structure of developmental events, thus, providing insight into the mechanisms that drive them...
November 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
Michelle M Frank, Lisa V Goodrich
Developing sensory systems must coordinate the growth of neural circuitry spanning from receptors in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) to multilayered networks within the central nervous system (CNS). This breadth presents particular challenges, as nascent processes must navigate across the CNS-PNS boundary and coalesce into a tightly intermingled wiring pattern, thereby enabling reliable integration from the PNS to the CNS and back. In the auditory system, feedforward spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) from the periphery collect sound information via tonotopically organized connections in the cochlea and transmit this information to the brainstem for processing via the VIII cranial nerve...
November 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
Yunyun Huang, Rudolf Winklbauer
Xenopus gastrulation movements are in large part based on the rearrangement of cells by differential cell-on-cell migration within multilayered tissues. Different patterns of migration-based cell intercalation drive endoderm and mesoderm internalization and their positioning along their prospective body axes. C-cadherin, fibronectin, integrins, and focal contact components are expressed in all gastrula cells and play putative roles in cell-on-cell migration, but their actual functions in this respect are not yet understood...
November 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
Hiroshi Kurosaka
Proper craniofacial development in vertebrates depends on growth and fusion of the facial processes during embryogenesis. Failure of any step in this process could lead to craniofacial anomalies such as facial clefting, which has been well studied with regard to its molecular etiology and cellular pathogenesis. Nasal cavity invagination is also a critical event in proper craniofacial development, and is required for the formation of a functional nasal cavity and airway. The nasal cavity must connect the nasopharynx with the primitive choanae to complete an airway from the nostril to the nasopharynx...
October 15, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
Shijie Liu, James F Martin
Heart failure caused by cardiomyocyte loss and fibrosis is a leading cause of death worldwide. Although current treatments for heart failure such as heart transplantation and left ventricular assist device implantation have obvious value, new approaches are needed. Endogenous adult cardiomyocyte renewal is measurable but inefficient and inadequate in response to extensive acute heart damage. Stimulating self-renewal of endogenous cardiomyocytes holds great promise for heart repair. Uncovering the genetic mechanisms underlying cardiomyocyte renewal is a critical step in developing new approaches to repairing the heart...
August 31, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
Claire S Simon, Anna-Katerina Hadjantonakis, Christian Schröter
Understanding how individual cells make fate decisions that lead to the faithful formation and homeostatic maintenance of tissues is a fundamental goal of contemporary developmental and stem cell biology. Seemingly uniform populations of stem cells and multipotent progenitors display a surprising degree of heterogeneity, primarily originating from the inherent stochastic nature of molecular processes underlying gene expression. Despite this heterogeneity, lineage decisions result in tissues of a defined size and with consistent proportions of differentiated cell types...
July 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
Katherine D Walton, Darcy Mishkind, Misty R Riddle, Clifford J Tabin, Deborah L Gumucio
Efficient absorption of nutrients by the intestine is essential for life. In mammals and birds, convolution of the intestinal surface into finger-like projections called villi is an important adaptation that ensures the massive surface area for nutrient contact that is required to meet metabolic demands. Each villus projection serves as a functional absorptive unit: it is covered by a simple columnar epithelium that is derived from endoderm and contains a mesodermally derived core with supporting vasculature, lacteals, enteric nerves, smooth muscle, fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, and immune cells...
July 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
Veronica F Hinman, Robert D Burke
The phylogenetic position of echinoderms is well suited to revealing shared features of deuterostomes that distinguish them from other bilaterians. Although echinoderm neurobiology remains understudied, genomic resources, molecular methods, and systems approaches have enabled progress in understanding mechanisms of embryonic neurogenesis. Even though the morphology of echinoderm larvae is diverse, larval nervous systems, which arise during gastrulation, have numerous similarities in their organization. Diverse neural subtypes and specialized sensory neurons have been identified and details of neuroanatomy using neuron-specific labels provide hypotheses for neural function...
July 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
Michael D Cleary
Cell type-specific transcription is a key determinant of cell fate and function. An ongoing challenge in biology is to develop robust and stringent biochemical methods to explore gene expression with cell type specificity. This challenge has become even greater as researchers attempt to apply high-throughput RNA analysis methods under in vivo conditions. TU-tagging and EC-tagging are in vivo biosynthetic RNA tagging techniques that allow spatial and temporal specificity in RNA purification. Spatial specificity is achieved through targeted expression of pyrimidine salvage enzymes (uracil phosphoribosyltransferase and cytosine deaminase) and temporal specificity is achieved by controlling exposure to bioorthogonal substrates of these enzymes (4-thiouracil and 5-ethynylcytosine)...
July 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
Jonathan M W Slack
The historical roots of the stem cell concept are traced with respect to its usage in embryology and in hematology. The modern consensus definition of stem cells, comprising both pluripotent stem cells in culture and tissue-specific stem cells in vivo, is explained and explored. Methods for identifying stem cells are discussed with respect to cell surface markers, telomerase, label retention and transplantability, and properties of the stem cell niche are explored. The CreER method for identifying stem cells in vivo is explained, as is evidence in favor of a stochastic rather than an obligate asymmetric form of cell division...
May 15, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
Crystal D Rogers, Shuyi Nie
Neural crest (NC) cells are a stem-like multipotent population of progenitor cells that are present in vertebrate embryos, traveling to various regions in the developing organism. Known as the "fourth germ layer", these cells originate in the ectoderm between the neural plate (NP), which will become the brain and spinal cord, and nonneural tissues that will become the skin and the sensory organs. NC cells can differentiate into more than 30 different derivatives in response to the appropriate signals including, but not limited to, craniofacial bone and cartilage, sensory nerves and ganglia, pigment cells, and connective tissue...
May 3, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
Lorenzo Ricci, Mansi Srivastava
Many animal species are capable of replacing missing tissues that are lost upon injury or amputation through the process of regeneration. Although the extent of regeneration is variable across animals, that is, some animals can regenerate any missing cell type whereas some can only regenerate certain organs or tissues, regulated cell proliferation underlies the formation of new tissues in most systems. Notably, many species display an increase in proliferation within hours or days upon wounding. While different cell types proliferate in response to wounding in various animal taxa, comparative molecular data are beginning to point to shared wound-induced mechanisms that regulate cell division during regeneration...
May 2, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
Carmel McDougall, Bernard M Degnan
Molluscan shells are externally fabricated by specialized epithelial cells on the dorsal mantle. Although a conserved set of regulatory genes appears to underlie specification of mantle progenitor cells, the genes that contribute to the formation of the mature shell are incredibly diverse. Recent comparative analyses of mantle transcriptomes and shell proteomes of gastropods and bivalves are consistent with shell diversity being underpinned by a rapidly evolving mantle secretome (suite of genes expressed in the mantle that encode secreted proteins) that is the product of (a) high rates of gene co-option into and loss from the mantle gene regulatory network, and (b) the rapid evolution of coding sequences, particular those encoding repetitive low complexity domains...
May 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
Aniket V Gore, Laura M Pillay, Marina Venero Galanternik, Brant M Weinstein
Hematopoiesis is a complex process with a variety of different signaling pathways influencing every step of blood cell formation from the earliest precursors to final differentiated blood cell types. Formation of blood cells is crucial for survival. Blood cells carry oxygen, promote organ development and protect organs in different pathological conditions. Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) are responsible for generating all adult differentiated blood cells. Defects in HSPCs or their downstream lineages can lead to anemia and other hematological disorders including leukemia...
May 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
John Isaac Murray
The convergence of developmental biology and modern genomics tools brings the potential for a comprehensive understanding of developmental systems. This is especially true for the Caenorhabditis elegans embryo because its small size, invariant developmental lineage, and powerful genetic and genomic tools provide the prospect of a cellular resolution understanding of messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and regulation across the organism. We describe here how a systems biology framework might allow large-scale determination of the embryonic regulatory relationships encoded in the C...
May 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
Zahida Yesmin Roly, Brendan Backhouse, Andrew Cutting, Tiong Yang Tan, Andrew H Sinclair, Katie L Ayers, Andrew T Major, Craig A Smith
The Müllerian ducts are part of the embryonic urogenital system. They give rise to mature structures that serve a critical function in the transport and development of the oocyte and/or embryo. In most vertebrates, both sexes initially develop Müllerian ducts during embryogenesis, but they regress in males under the influence of testis-derived Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH). A number of regulatory factors have been shown to be essential for proper duct development, including Bmp and Wnt signaling molecules, together with homeodomain transcription factors such as PAX2 and LIM1...
May 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
Burcu Yener Ilce, Umut Cagin, Acelya Yilmazer
Increased life expectancy, due to the rise in life quality and the decline in mortality rates, is leading to a society in which the population aged 60 and over is growing more rapidly than the entire population. Although various models and model organisms have been employed to investigate the mechanism of aging, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are useful candidates to study human aging and age-related human diseases. This work discusses how iPSCs can be used as an alternative to the model organisms such as yeast, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, or the mouse...
March 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
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