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Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913870/mimicry-in-butterflies-co-option-and-a-bag-of-magnificent-developmental-genetic-tricks
#1
REVIEW
Riddhi Deshmukh, Saurav Baral, A Gandhimathi, Muktai Kuwalekar, Krushnamegh Kunte
Butterfly wing patterns are key adaptations that are controlled by remarkable developmental and genetic mechanisms that facilitate rapid evolutionary change. With swift advancements in the fields of genomics and genetic manipulations, identifying the regulators of wing development and mimetic wing patterns has become feasible even in nonmodel organisms such as butterflies. Recent mapping and gene expression studies have identified single switch loci of major effects such as transcription factors and supergenes as the main drivers of adaptive evolution of mimetic and polymorphic butterfly wing patterns...
September 14, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906063/models-of-convergent-extension-during-morphogenesis
#2
REVIEW
Asako Shindo
Convergent extension (CE) is a fundamental and conserved collective cell movement that forms elongated tissues during embryonic development. Thus far, studies have demonstrated two different mechanistic models of collective cell movements during CE. The first, termed the crawling mode, was discovered in the process of notochord formation in Xenopus laevis embryos, and has been the established model of CE for decades. The second model, known as the contraction mode, was originally reported in studies of germband extension in Drosophila melanogaster embryos and was recently demonstrated to be a conserved mechanism of CE among tissues and stages of development across species...
September 14, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892263/regulation-of-germ-cell-development-by-intercellular-signaling-in-the-mammalian-ovarian-follicle
#3
REVIEW
Hugh J Clarke
Prior to ovulation, the mammalian oocyte undergoes a process of differentiation within the ovarian follicle that confers on it the ability to give rise to an embryo. Differentiation comprises two phases-growth, during which the oocyte increases more than 100-fold in volume as it accumulates macromolecules and organelles that will sustain early embryogenesis; and meiotic maturation, during which the oocyte executes the first meiotic division and prepares for the second division. Entry of an oocyte into the growth phase appears to be triggered when the adjacent granulosa cells produce specific growth factors...
September 11, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837264/rna-on-the-brain-emerging-layers-of-post-transcriptional-regulation-in-cerebral-cortex-development
#4
REVIEW
Ashley L Lennox, Hanqian Mao, Debra L Silver
Embryonic development is a critical period during which neurons of the brain are generated and organized. In the developing cerebral cortex, this requires complex processes of neural progenitor proliferation, neuronal differentiation, and migration. Each step relies upon highly regulated control of gene expression. In particular, RNA splicing, stability, localization, and translation have emerged as key post-transcriptional regulatory nodes of mouse corticogenesis. Trans-regulators of RNA metabolism, including microRNAs (miRs) and RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), orchestrate diverse steps of cortical development...
August 24, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834395/charting-the-genotype-phenotype-map-lessons-from-the-drosophila-melanogaster-genetic-reference-panel
#5
REVIEW
Trudy F C Mackay, Wen Huang
Understanding the genetic architecture (causal molecular variants, their effects, and frequencies) of quantitative traits is important for precision agriculture and medicine and predicting adaptive evolution, but is challenging in most species. The Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) is a collection of 205 inbred strains with whole genome sequences derived from a single wild population in Raleigh, NC, USA. The large amount of quantitative genetic variation, lack of population structure, and rapid local decay of linkage disequilibrium in the DGRP and outbred populations derived from DGRP lines present a favorable scenario for performing genome-wide association (GWA) mapping analyses to identify candidate causal genes, polymorphisms, and pathways affecting quantitative traits...
August 22, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810059/targeted-genome-editing-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-using-crispr-cas9
#6
REVIEW
Behnom Farboud
Utilization of programmable nucleases to generate DNA lesions at precise endogenous sequences has transformed the ability to edit genomes from microbes to plants and animals. This is especially true in organisms that previously lacked the means to engineer precise genomic changes, like Caenorhabditis elegans. C. elegans is a 1 mm long free-living, nonparasitic, nematode worm, which is easily cultivated in a laboratory. Its detailed genetic map and relatively compact genome (~100 megabases) helped make it the first metazoan to have its entire genome sequenced...
August 15, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800674/the-genetic-encoded-toolbox-for-electron-microscopy-and-connectomics
#7
REVIEW
Ryuichi Shigemoto, Maximilian Joesch
Developments in bioengineering and molecular biology have introduced a palette of genetically encoded probes for identification of specific cell populations in electron microscopy. These probes can be targeted to distinct cellular compartments, rendering them electron dense through a subsequent chemical reaction. These electron densities strongly increase the local contrast in samples prepared for electron microscopy, allowing three major advances in ultrastructural mapping of circuits: genetic identification of circuit components, targeted imaging of regions of interest and automated analysis of the tagged circuits...
August 11, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771970/segmental-arithmetic-summing-up-the-hox-gene-regulatory-network-for-hindbrain-development-in-chordates
#8
REVIEW
Hugo J Parker, Robb Krumlauf
Organization and development of the early vertebrate hindbrain are controlled by a cascade of regulatory interactions that govern the process of segmentation and patterning along the anterior-posterior axis via Hox genes. These interactions can be assembled into a gene regulatory network that provides a framework to interpret experimental data, generate hypotheses, and identify gaps in our understanding of the progressive process of hindbrain segmentation. The network can be broadly separated into a series of interconnected programs that govern early signaling, segmental subdivision, secondary signaling, segmentation, and ultimately specification of segmental identity...
August 3, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719048/developmental-mechanisms-of-intervertebral-disc-and-vertebral-column-formation
#9
REVIEW
Lisa Y Lawson, Brian D Harfe
The vertebral column consists of repeating units of ossified vertebrae that are adjoined by fibrocartilagenous intervertebral discs. These structures form from the embryonic notochord and somitic mesoderm. In humans, congenital malformations of the vertebral column include scoliosis, kyphosis, spina bifida, and Klippel Feil syndrome. In adulthood, a common malady affecting the vertebral column includes disc degeneration and associated back pain. Indeed, recent reports estimate that low back pain is the number one cause of disability worldwide...
July 18, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719044/symmetry-breaking-in-development-and-stochastic-gene-expression
#10
REVIEW
Jonathan R Chubb
The prevailing emphasis in developmental biology since the expansion of the molecular biology age has been that developmental decisions are instructive. A cell differentiates to become a specific cell type because it receives a signal, whereas its neighbor that does not receive the signal adopts a different fate. This emphasis has been generally accepted, largely because of the success of this view in tractable invertebrate model organisms, and the widespread similarities in molecular regulation to the development of more complex species...
July 18, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644919/signaling-and-epigenetic-mechanisms-of-intestinal-stem-cells-and-progenitors-insight-into-crypt-homeostasis-plasticity-and-niches
#11
REVIEW
Ryan J Smith, Abilasha Rao-Bhatia, Tae-Hee Kim
The rapid turnover of intestinal epithelial cells is maintained by a small number of stem cells located in pocket-like gland structures called crypts. While our understanding of the identity and function of intestinal stem cells (ISCs) has rapidly progressed, epigenetic and transcriptional regulation in crypt stem cell and progenitor pools remains an active field of investigation. Surrounded by various types of cells in the stroma, crypt progenitors display high levels of plasticity, harboring the ability to interconvert in the face of epithelial damage...
June 23, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670819/emerging-roles-of-transit-amplifying-cells-in-tissue-regeneration-and-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Bing Zhang, Ya-Chieh Hsu
Most regenerative tissues employ transit-amplifying cells (TACs) that are positioned in between stem cells and differentiated progeny. In a classical hierarchical model, stem cells undergo limited divisions to produce TACs, which then proliferate rapidly to expand the system and produce diverse differentiated cell types. Although TACs are indispensable for generating tissues, they have been largely viewed as a transit point between stem cells and downstream lineages. Studies in the past few years, however, have revealed some fascinating biology and unanticipated functions of TACs...
September 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561893/extrinsic-regulation-of-hematopoietic-stem-cells-in-development-homeostasis-and-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Yeojin Lee, Matthew Decker, Heather Lee, Lei Ding
Lifelong generation of blood and immune cells depends on hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Their function is precisely regulated by complex molecular networks that integrate and respond to ever changing physiological demands of the body. Over the past several years, significant advances have been made in understanding the extrinsic regulation of HSCs during development and in homeostasis. Propelled by technical advances in the field, the cellular and molecular components of the microenvironment that support HSCs in vivo are emerging...
September 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556549/methods-for-studying-the-metabolic-basis-of-drosophila-development
#14
REVIEW
Hongde Li, Jason M Tennessen
The field of metabolic research has experienced an unexpected renaissance. While this renewed interest in metabolism largely originated in response to the global increase in diabetes and obesity, studies of metabolic regulation now represent the frontier of many biomedical fields. This trend is especially apparent in developmental biology, where metabolism influences processes ranging from stem cell differentiation and tissue growth to sexual maturation and reproduction. In this regard, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as a powerful tool for dissecting conserved mechanisms that underlie developmental metabolism, often with a level of detail that is simply not possible in other animals...
September 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544556/electrophysiological-analysis-of-synaptic-transmission-in-drosophila
#15
REVIEW
Maria Bykhovskaia, Alexander Vasin
Synaptic transmission is dynamic, plastic, and highly regulated. Drosophila is an advantageous model system for genetic and molecular studies of presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms and plasticity. Electrical recordings of synaptic responses represent a wide-spread approach to study neuronal signaling and synaptic transmission. We discuss experimental techniques that allow monitoring synaptic transmission in Drosophila neuromuscular and central systems. Recordings of synaptic potentials or currents at the larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ) are most common and provide numerous technical advantages due to robustness of the preparation, large and identifiable muscles, and synaptic boutons which can be readily visualized...
September 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544390/phenotypic-plasticity-and-remodeling-in-the-stress-induced-caenorhabditis-elegans-dauer
#16
REVIEW
Rebecca J Androwski, Kristen M Flatt, Nathan E Schroeder
Organisms are often capable of modifying their development to better suit their environment. Under adverse conditions, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans develops into a stress-resistant alternative larval stage called dauer. The dauer stage is the primary survival stage for C. elegans in nature. Large-scale tissue remodeling during dauer conveys resistance to harsh environments. The environmental and genetic regulation of the decision to enter dauer has been extensively studied. However, less is known about the mechanisms regulating tissue remodeling...
September 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514120/mouth-development
#17
REVIEW
Justin Chen, Laura A Jacox, Francesca Saldanha, Hazel Sive
A mouth is present in all animals, and comprises an opening from the outside into the oral cavity and the beginnings of the digestive tract to allow eating. This review focuses on the earliest steps in mouth formation. In the first half, we conclude that the mouth arose once during evolution. In all animals, the mouth forms from ectoderm and endoderm. A direct association of oral ectoderm and digestive endoderm is present even in triploblastic animals, and in chordates, this region is known as the extreme anterior domain (EAD)...
September 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387482/proximity-dependent-labeling-methods-for-proteomic-profiling-in-living-cells
#18
REVIEW
Chiao-Lin Chen, Norbert Perrimon
Characterizing the proteome composition of organelles and subcellular regions of living cells can facilitate the understanding of cellular organization as well as protein interactome networks. Proximity labeling-based methods coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) offer a high-throughput approach for systematic analysis of spatially restricted proteomes. Proximity labeling utilizes enzymes that generate reactive radicals to covalently tag neighboring proteins with biotin. The biotinylated endogenous proteins can then be isolated for further analysis by MS...
July 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383800/potential-mechanisms-of-zika-linked-microcephaly
#19
REVIEW
Emily Merfeld, Lily Ben-Avi, Mason Kennon, Kara L Cerveny
A recent outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Brazil is associated with microcephaly in infants born of infected mothers. As this pandemic spreads, rapid scientific investigation is shedding new light on how prenatal infection with ZIKV causes microcephaly. In this analysis we provide an overview of both microcephaly and ZIKV, explore the connection between prenatal ZIKV infection and microcephaly, and highlight recent insights into how prenatal ZIKV infection depletes the pool of neural progenitors in the developing brain...
July 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319331/morphogen-interpretation-concentration-time-competence-and-signaling-dynamics
#20
REVIEW
Andreas Sagner, James Briscoe
Tissue patterning during animal development is orchestrated by a handful of inductive signals. Most of these developmental cues act as morphogens, meaning they are locally produced secreted molecules that act at a distance to govern tissue patterning. The iterative use of the same signaling molecules in different developmental contexts demands that signal interpretation occurs in a highly context-dependent manner. Hence the interpretation of signal depends on the specific competence of the receiving cells. Moreover, it has become clear that the differential interpretation of morphogens depends not only on the level of signaling but also the signaling dynamics, particularly the duration of signaling...
July 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
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