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Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561893/extrinsic-regulation-of-hematopoietic-stem-cells-in-development-homeostasis-and-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Yeojin Lee, Matthew Decker, Heather Lee, Lei Ding
Lifelong generation of blood and immune cells depends on hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Their function is precisely regulated by complex molecular networks that integrate and respond to ever changing physiological demands of the body. Over the past several years, significant advances have been made in understanding the extrinsic regulation of HSCs during development and in homeostasis. Propelled by technical advances in the field, the cellular and molecular components of the microenvironment that support HSCs in vivo are emerging...
May 31, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556549/methods-for-studying-the-metabolic-basis-of-drosophila-development
#2
REVIEW
Hongde Li, Jason M Tennessen
The field of metabolic research has experienced an unexpected renaissance. While this renewed interest in metabolism largely originated in response to the global increase in diabetes and obesity, studies of metabolic regulation now represent the frontier of many biomedical fields. This trend is especially apparent in developmental biology, where metabolism influences processes ranging from stem cell differentiation and tissue growth to sexual maturation and reproduction. In this regard, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as a powerful tool for dissecting conserved mechanisms that underlie developmental metabolism, often with a level of detail that is simply not possible in other animals...
May 26, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544556/electrophysiological-analysis-of-synaptic-transmission-in-drosophila
#3
REVIEW
Maria Bykhovskaia, Alexander Vasin
Synaptic transmission is dynamic, plastic, and highly regulated. Drosophila is an advantageous model system for genetic and molecular studies of presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms and plasticity. Electrical recordings of synaptic responses represent a wide-spread approach to study neuronal signaling and synaptic transmission. We discuss experimental techniques that allow monitoring synaptic transmission in Drosophila neuromuscular and central systems. Recordings of synaptic potentials or currents at the larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ) are most common and provide numerous technical advantages due to robustness of the preparation, large and identifiable muscles, and synaptic boutons which can be readily visualized...
May 24, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544390/phenotypic-plasticity-and-remodeling-in-the-stress-induced-caenorhabditis-elegans-dauer
#4
REVIEW
Rebecca J Androwski, Kristen M Flatt, Nathan E Schroeder
Organisms are often capable of modifying their development to better suit their environment. Under adverse conditions, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans develops into a stress-resistant alternative larval stage called dauer. The dauer stage is the primary survival stage for C. elegans in nature. Large-scale tissue remodeling during dauer conveys resistance to harsh environments. The environmental and genetic regulation of the decision to enter dauer has been extensively studied. However, less is known about the mechanisms regulating tissue remodeling...
May 24, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514120/mouth-development
#5
REVIEW
Justin Chen, Laura A Jacox, Francesca Saldanha, Hazel Sive
A mouth is present in all animals, and comprises an opening from the outside into the oral cavity and the beginnings of the digestive tract to allow eating. This review focuses on the earliest steps in mouth formation. In the first half, we conclude that the mouth arose once during evolution. In all animals, the mouth forms from ectoderm and endoderm. A direct association of oral ectoderm and digestive endoderm is present even in triploblastic animals, and in chordates, this region is known as the extreme anterior domain (EAD)...
May 17, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474479/quantification-of-epithelial-cell-proliferation-cell-dynamics-and-cell-kinetics-in-vivo
#6
REVIEW
Robert A Goodlad
The measurement of cell proliferation in vivo is usually carried out by the examination of static measures. These comprise the mitotic index or labeling indices using incorporation of DNA synthesis markers such as bromodeoxyuridine or tritiated thymidine, or intrinsic markers, such as Ki67 and proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). But static measures only provide a 'snapshot' of cell proliferation. Rate measures, including double labeling methods and the metaphase arrest method, can actually measure cell production rates but they are far less utilized at present...
May 5, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387482/proximity-dependent-labeling-methods-for-proteomic-profiling-in-living-cells
#7
REVIEW
Chiao-Lin Chen, Norbert Perrimon
Characterizing the proteome composition of organelles and subcellular regions of living cells can facilitate the understanding of cellular organization as well as protein interactome networks. Proximity labeling-based methods coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) offer a high-throughput approach for systematic analysis of spatially restricted proteomes. Proximity labeling utilizes enzymes that generate reactive radicals to covalently tag neighboring proteins with biotin. The biotinylated endogenous proteins can then be isolated for further analysis by MS...
April 7, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383800/potential-mechanisms-of-zika-linked-microcephaly
#8
REVIEW
Emily Merfeld, Lily Ben-Avi, Mason Kennon, Kara L Cerveny
A recent outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Brazil is associated with microcephaly in infants born of infected mothers. As this pandemic spreads, rapid scientific investigation is shedding new light on how prenatal infection with ZIKV causes microcephaly. In this analysis we provide an overview of both microcephaly and ZIKV, explore the connection between prenatal ZIKV infection and microcephaly, and highlight recent insights into how prenatal ZIKV infection depletes the pool of neural progenitors in the developing brain...
April 6, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186364/rare-syndromes-of-the-head-and-face-mandibulofacial-and-acrofacial-dysostoses
#9
REVIEW
Karla Terrazas, Jill Dixon, Paul A Trainor, Michael J Dixon
Craniofacial anomalies account for approximately one-third of all congenital birth defects reflecting the complexity of head and facial development. Craniofacial development is dependent upon a multipotent, migratory population of neural crest cells, which generate most of the bone and cartilage of the head and face. In this review, we discuss advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of a specific array of craniofacial anomalies, termed facial dysostoses, which can be subdivided into mandibulofacial dysostosis, which present with craniofacial defects only, and acrofacial dysostosis, which encompasses both craniofacial and limb anomalies...
May 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326682/nervous-system-development-and-regeneration-in-freshwater-planarians
#10
REVIEW
Kelly G Ross, Ko W Currie, Bret J Pearson, Ricardo M Zayas
Planarians have a long history in the fields of developmental and regenerative biology. These animals have also sparked interest in neuroscience due to their neuroanatomy, spectrum of simple behaviors, and especially, their almost unparalleled ability to generate new neurons after any type of injury. Research in adult planarians has revealed that neuronal subtypes homologous to those found in vertebrates are generated from stem cells throughout their lives. This feat is recapitulated after head amputation, wherein animals are capable of regenerating whole brains and regaining complete neural function...
March 22, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319333/the-two-domain-hypothesis-of-limb-prepattern-and-its-relevance-to-congenital-limb-anomalies
#11
REVIEW
Hirotaka Tao, Yasuhiko Kawakami, Chi-Chung Hui, Sevan Hopyan
Functional annotation of mutations that cause human limb anomalies is enabled by basic developmental studies. In this study, we focus on the prepatterning stage of limb development and discuss a recent model that proposes anterior and posterior domains of the early limb bud generate two halves of the future skeleton. By comparing phenotypes in humans with those in model organisms, we evaluate whether this prepatterning concept helps to annotate human disease alleles. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website...
March 20, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319331/morphogen-interpretation-concentration-time-competence-and-signaling-dynamics
#12
REVIEW
Andreas Sagner, James Briscoe
Tissue patterning during animal development is orchestrated by a handful of inductive signals. Most of these developmental cues act as morphogens, meaning they are locally produced secreted molecules that act at a distance to govern tissue patterning. The iterative use of the same signaling molecules in different developmental contexts demands that signal interpretation occurs in a highly context-dependent manner. Hence the interpretation of signal depends on the specific competence of the receiving cells. Moreover, it has become clear that the differential interpretation of morphogens depends not only on the level of signaling but also the signaling dynamics, particularly the duration of signaling...
March 20, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304136/zebrafish-models-of-non-canonical-wnt-planar-cell-polarity-signalling-fishing-for-valuable-insight-into-vertebrate-polarized-cell-behavior
#13
REVIEW
Maria Jussila, Brian Ciruna
Planar cell polarity (PCP) coordinates the uniform orientation, structure and movement of cells within the plane of a tissue or organ system. It is beautifully illustrated in the polarized arrangement of bristles and hairs that project from specialized cell surfaces of the insect abdomen and wings, and pioneering genetic studies using the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, have defined a core signalling network underlying PCP. This core PCP/non-canonical Wnt signalling pathway is evolutionarily conserved, and studies in zebrafish have helped transform our understanding of PCP from a peculiarity of polarized epithelia to a more universal cellular property that orchestrates a diverse suite of polarized cell behaviors that are required for normal vertebrate development...
March 17, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251841/topologically-associated-domains-a-successful-scaffold-for-the-evolution-of-gene-regulation-in-animals
#14
REVIEW
Rafael D Acemel, Ignacio Maeso, José Luis Gómez-Skarmeta
The evolution of gene regulation is considered one of the main drivers causing the astonishing morphological diversity in the animal kingdom. Gene regulation in animals heavily depends upon cis-regulatory elements, discrete pieces of DNA that interact with target promoters to regulate gene expression. In the last years, Chromosome Conformation Capture experiments (4C-seq, 5C, and HiC) in several organisms have shown that the genomes of many bilaterian animals are organized in the 3D chromatin space in compartments called topologically associated domains (TADs)...
March 2, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207193/new-insights-and-changing-paradigms-in-the-regulation-of-vitamin-a-metabolism-in-development
#15
REVIEW
Stephen R Shannon, Alexander R Moise, Paul A Trainor
Vitamin A and its active metabolite retinoic acid are essential for embryonic development and adult homeostasis. Surprisingly, excess or deficiency of vitamin A and retinoic acid can cause similar developmental defects. Therefore, strict feedback and other mechanisms exist to regulate the levels of retinoic acid within a narrow physiological range. The oxidation of vitamin A to retinal has recently been established as a critical nodal point in the synthesis of retinoic acid, and over the past decade, RDH10 and DHRS3 have emerged as the predominant enzymes that regulate this reversible reaction...
February 16, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177589/the-evolution-of-amniote-gastrulation-the-blastopore-primitive-streak-transition
#16
REVIEW
Matthew J Stower, Federica Bertocchini
In the animal kingdom, gastrulation, the process by which the primary germ layers are formed involves a dramatic transformation in the topology of the cells that give rise to all of the tissues of the adult. Initially formed as a mono-layer, this tissue, the epiblast, becomes subdivided through the internalization of cells, thereby forming a two (bi-laminar) or three (tri-laminar) layered embryo. This morphogenetic process coordinates the development of the fundamental body plan and the three-body axes (antero-posterior, dorso-ventral, and left-right) and begins a fundamental segregation of cells toward divergent developmental fates...
February 8, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044412/adult-gastric-stem-cells-and-their-niches
#17
REVIEW
Sina Bartfeld, Bon-Kyoung Koo
Adult gastric stem cells replenish the gastric epithelium throughout life. Recent studies have identified diverse populations of stem cells, progenitor cells, and even differentiated cells that can regain stem cell capacity, so highlighting an unexpected plasticity within the gastric epithelium, both in the corpus and antrum. Two niches seem to co-exist in the gastric unit: one in the isthmus region and the other at the base of the gland, although the precise features of the cell populations and the two niches are currently under debate...
January 3, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911497/neural-plasticity-across-the-lifespan
#18
REVIEW
Jonathan D Power, Bradley L Schlaggar
An essential feature of the brain is its capacity to change. Neuroscientists use the term 'plasticity' to describe the malleability of neuronal connectivity and circuitry. How does plasticity work? A review of current data suggests that plasticity encompasses many distinct phenomena, some of which operate across most or all of the lifespan, and others that operate exclusively in early development. This essay surveys some of the key concepts related to neural plasticity, beginning with how current patterns of neural activity (e...
January 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906497/neuroembryology
#19
REVIEW
Diana Darnell, Scott F Gilbert
How is it that some cells become neurons? And how is it that neurons become organized in the spinal cord and brain to allow us to walk and talk, to see, recall events in our lives, feel pain, keep our balance, and think? The cells that are specified to form the brain and spinal cord are originally located on the outside surface of the embryo. They loop inward to form the neural tube in a process called neurulation. Structures that are nearby send signals to the posterior neural tube to form and pattern the spinal cord so that the dorsal side receives sensory input and the ventral side sends motor signals from neurons to muscles...
January 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882698/the-cellular-and-molecular-basis-of-cnidarian-neurogenesis
#20
REVIEW
Fabian Rentzsch, Michael Layden, Michaël Manuel
Neurogenesis initiates during early development and it continues through later developmental stages and in adult animals to enable expansion, remodeling, and homeostasis of the nervous system. The generation of nerve cells has been analyzed in detail in few bilaterian model organisms, leaving open many questions about the evolution of this process. As the sister group to bilaterians, cnidarians occupy an informative phylogenetic position to address the early evolution of cellular and molecular aspects of neurogenesis and to understand common principles of neural development...
January 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
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