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Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911038/quantitating-the-cell-turning-images-into-numbers-with-imagej
#1
REVIEW
Ellen T Arena, Curtis T Rueden, Mark C Hiner, Shulei Wang, Ming Yuan, Kevin W Eliceiri
Modern biological research particularly in the fields of developmental and cell biology has been transformed by the rapid evolution of the light microscope. The light microscope, long a mainstay of the experimental biologist, is now used for a wide array of biological experimental scenarios and sample types. Much of the great developments in advanced biological imaging have been driven by the digital imaging revolution with powerful processors and algorithms. In particular, this combination of advanced imaging and computational analysis has resulted in the drive of the modern biologist to not only visually inspect dynamic phenomena, but to quantify the involved processes...
December 2, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911036/properties-of-embryoid-bodies
#2
REVIEW
Joshua M Brickman, Palle Serup
Embryoid bodies (EBs) have been popular in vitro differentiation models for pluripotent stem cells for more than five decades. Initially, defined as aggregates formed by embryonal carcinoma cells, EBs gained more prominence after the derivation of karyotypically normal embryonic stem cells from early mouse blastocysts. In many cases, formation of EBs constitutes an important initial step in directed differentiation protocols aimed at generated specific cell types from undifferentiated stem cells. Indeed state-of-the-art protocols for directed differentiation of cardiomyocytes still rely on this initial EB step...
December 2, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911497/neural-plasticity-across-the-lifespan
#3
REVIEW
Jonathan D Power, Bradley L Schlaggar
An essential feature of the brain is its capacity to change. Neuroscientists use the term 'plasticity' to describe the malleability of neuronal connectivity and circuitry. How does plasticity work? A review of current data suggests that plasticity encompasses many distinct phenomena, some of which operate across most or all of the lifespan, and others that operate exclusively in early development. This essay surveys some of the key concepts related to neural plasticity, beginning with how current patterns of neural activity (e...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906497/neuroembryology
#4
REVIEW
Diana Darnell, Scott F Gilbert
How is it that some cells become neurons? And how is it that neurons become organized in the spinal cord and brain to allow us to walk and talk, to see, recall events in our lives, feel pain, keep our balance, and think? The cells that are specified to form the brain and spinal cord are originally located on the outside surface of the embryo. They loop inward to form the neural tube in a process called neurulation. Structures that are nearby send signals to the posterior neural tube to form and pattern the spinal cord so that the dorsal side receives sensory input and the ventral side sends motor signals from neurons to muscles...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882698/the-cellular-and-molecular-basis-of-cnidarian-neurogenesis
#5
REVIEW
Fabian Rentzsch, Michael Layden, Michaël Manuel
Neurogenesis initiates during early development and it continues through later developmental stages and in adult animals to enable expansion, remodeling, and homeostasis of the nervous system. The generation of nerve cells has been analyzed in detail in few bilaterian model organisms, leaving open many questions about the evolution of this process. As the sister group to bilaterians, cnidarians occupy an informative phylogenetic position to address the early evolution of cellular and molecular aspects of neurogenesis and to understand common principles of neural development...
November 23, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865053/neural-progenitor-cells-and-their-role-in-the-development-and-evolutionary-expansion-of-the-neocortex
#6
REVIEW
Takashi Namba, Wieland B Huttner
The evolutionary expansion of the mammalian brain, notably the neocortex, provides a platform for the higher cognitive abilities that characterize humans. Cortical expansion is accompanied by increased folding of the pial surface, which gives rise to a gyrencephalic (folded) rather than lissencephalic (unfolded) neocortex. This expansion reflects the prolonged and increased proliferation of neural stem and progenitor cells (NPCs). Distinct classes of NPCs can be distinguished based on either cell biological criteria (apical progenitors [APs], basal progenitors [BPs]) or lineage (primary progenitors and secondary progenitors)...
November 16, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27626243/gene-environment-interactions-in-development-and-disease
#7
C Lovely, Mindy Rampersad, Yohaan Fernandes, Johann Eberhart
Developmental geneticists continue to make substantial jumps in our understanding of the genetic pathways that regulate development. This understanding stems predominantly from analyses of genetically tractable model organisms developing in laboratory environments. This environment is vastly different from that in which human development occurs. As such, most causes of developmental defects in humans are thought to involve multifactorial gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. In this review, we discuss how gene-environment interactions with environmental teratogens may predispose embryos to structural malformations...
September 14, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647730/a-mosaic-world-puzzles-revealed-by-adult-neural-stem-cell-heterogeneity
#8
REVIEW
Zayna Chaker, Paolo Codega, Fiona Doetsch
Neural stem cells (NSCs) reside in specialized niches in the adult mammalian brain. The ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ), adjacent to the lateral ventricles, gives rise to olfactory bulb (OB) neurons, and some astrocytes and oligodendrocytes throughout life. In vitro assays have been widely used to retrospectively identify NSCs. However, cells that behave as stem cells in vitro do not reflect the identity, diversity, and behavior of NSCs in vivo. Novel tools including fluorescence activated cell sorting, lineage-tracing, and clonal analysis have uncovered multiple layers of adult V-SVZ NSC heterogeneity, including proliferation state and regional identity...
November 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581385/polycomb-and-trithorax-opposition-in-development-and-disease
#9
Steven T Poynter, Cigall Kadoch
Early discoveries in chromatin biology and epigenetics heralded new insights into organismal development. From these studies, two mediators of cellular differentiation were discovered: the Polycomb group (PcG) of transcriptional repressors, and the trithorax group (trxG) of transcriptional activators. These protein families, while opposed in function, work together to coordinate the appropriate cellular developmental programs that allow for both embryonic stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. Recently, both the PcG and trxG chromatin modulators have been observed to be deregulated in a wide spectrum diseases including developmental disorders and cancer...
November 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27576003/building-the-drains-the-lymphatic-vasculature-in-health-and-disease
#10
Marina Venero Galanternik, Amber N Stratman, Hyun Min Jung, Matthew G Butler, Brant M Weinstein
The lymphatic vasculature is comprised of a network of endothelial vessels found in close proximity to but separated from the blood vasculature. An essential tissue component of all vertebrates, lymphatics are responsible for the maintenance of fluid homeostasis, dissemination of immune cells, and lipid reabsorption under healthy conditions. When lymphatic vessels are impaired due to invasive surgery, genetic disorders, or parasitic infections, severe fluid build-up accumulates in the affected tissues causing a condition known as lymphedema...
November 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581688/building-and-maintaining-joints-by-exquisite-local-control-of-cell-fate
#11
Joanna Smeeton, Amjad Askary, J Gage Crump
We owe the flexibility of our bodies to sophisticated articulations between bones. Establishment of these joints requires the integration of multiple tissue types: permanent cartilage that cushions the articulating bones, synovial membranes that enclose a lubricating fluid-filled cavity, and a fibrous capsule and ligaments that provide structural support. Positioning the prospective joint region involves establishment of an "interzone" region of joint progenitor cells within a nascent cartilage condensation, which is achieved through the interplay of activators and inhibitors of multiple developmental signaling pathways...
September 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27351747/a-fly-s-view-of-neuronal-remodeling
#12
REVIEW
Shiri P Yaniv, Oren Schuldiner
Developmental neuronal remodeling is a crucial step in sculpting the final and mature brain connectivity in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Remodeling includes degenerative events, such as neurite pruning, that may be followed by regeneration to form novel connections during normal development. Drosophila provides an excellent model to study both steps of remodeling since its nervous system undergoes massive and stereotypic remodeling during metamorphosis. Although pruning has been widely studied, our knowledge of the molecular and cellular mechanisms is far from complete...
September 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27328421/blood-vessel-crosstalk-during-organogenesis-focus-on-pancreas-and-endothelial-cells
#13
REVIEW
D Berfin Azizoglu, Ondine Cleaver
Blood vessels form a highly branched, interconnected, and largely stereotyped network of tubes that sustains every organ and tissue in vertebrates. How vessels come to take on their particular architecture, or how they are 'patterned,' and in turn, how they influence surrounding tissues are fundamental questions of organogenesis. Decades of work have begun to elucidate how endothelial progenitors arise and home to precise locations within tissues, integrating attractive and repulsive cues to build vessels where they are needed...
September 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27328318/the-central-nervous-system-of-ascidian-larvae
#14
REVIEW
Clare Hudson
Ascidians are marine invertebrate chordates. Their tadpole larvae contain a dorsal tubular nervous system, resulting from the rolling up of a neural plate. Along the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis, the central nervous system (CNS) is organized into a sensory vesicle, neck, trunk ganglion, and tail nerve cord and consists of approximately only 330 cells, of which around 100 are thought to be neurons. The organization of distinct neuronal cell types and neurotransmitter gene expression within the CNS has been described...
September 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27253156/maternal-ap-determinants-in-the-drosophila-oocyte-and-embryo
#15
REVIEW
Jun Ma, Feng He, Gengqiang Xie, Wu-Min Deng
An animal embryo cannot initiate its journey of forming a new life on its own. It must rely on maternally provided resources and inputs to kick-start its developmental process. In Drosophila, the initial polarities of the embryo along both the anterior-posterior (AP) and dorsal-ventral (DV) axes are also specified by maternal determinants. Over the past several decades, genetic and molecular studies have identified and characterized such determinants, as well as the zygotic genetic regulatory networks that control patterning in the early embryo...
September 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27239793/altered-development-and-function-of-the-placental-regions-in-preeclampsia-and-its-association-with-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids
#16
REVIEW
Alka Rani, Nisha Wadhwani, Preeti Chavan-Gautam, Sadhana Joshi
The placenta is an essential organ formed during pregnancy that mainly transfers nutrients from the mother to the fetus. Nutrients taken up by the placenta are required for its own growth and development and to optimize fetal growth. Hence, placental function is an important determinant of pregnancy outcome. Among various nutrients, fatty acids, especially long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), including omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids, are essential for placental development from the time of implantation...
September 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27258392/physiological-pathological-and-engineered-cell-identity-reprogramming-in-the-central-nervous-system
#17
REVIEW
Derek K Smith, Lei-Lei Wang, Chun-Li Zhang
Multipotent neural stem cells persist in restricted regions of the adult mammalian central nervous system. These proliferative cells differentiate into diverse neuron subtypes to maintain neural homeostasis. This endogenous process can be reprogrammed as a compensatory response to physiological cues, traumatic injury, and neurodegeneration. In addition to innate neurogenesis, recent research has demonstrated that new neurons can be engineered via cell identity reprogramming in non-neurogenic regions of the adult central nervous system...
July 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27199252/phyllotaxis-from-patterns-of-organogenesis-at-the-meristem-to-shoot-architecture
#18
REVIEW
Carlos S Galvan-Ampudia, Anaïs M Chaumeret, Christophe Godin, Teva Vernoux
The primary architecture of the aerial part of plants is controlled by the shoot apical meristem, a specialized tissue containing a stem cell niche. The iterative generation of new aerial organs, (leaves, lateral inflorescences, and flowers) at the meristem follows regular patterns, called phyllotaxis. Phyllotaxis has long been proposed to self-organize from the combined action of growth and of inhibitory fields blocking organogenesis in the vicinity of existing organs in the meristem. In this review, we will highlight how a combination of mathematical/computational modeling and experimental biology has demonstrated that the spatiotemporal distribution of the plant hormone auxin controls both organogenesis and the establishment of inhibitory fields...
July 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27199166/skeletal-muscle-fiber-type-using-insights-from-muscle-developmental-biology-to-dissect-targets-for-susceptibility-and-resistance-to-muscle-disease
#19
REVIEW
Jared Talbot, Lisa Maves
Skeletal muscle fibers are classified into fiber types, in particular, slow twitch versus fast twitch. Muscle fiber types are generally defined by the particular myosin heavy chain isoforms that they express, but many other components contribute to a fiber's physiological characteristics. Skeletal muscle fiber type can have a profound impact on muscle diseases, including certain muscular dystrophies and sarcopenia, the aging-induced loss of muscle mass and strength. These findings suggest that some muscle diseases may be treated by shifting fiber type characteristics either from slow to fast, or fast to slow phenotypes, depending on the disease...
July 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27136279/a-map-of-terminal-regulators-of-neuronal-identity-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#20
REVIEW
Oliver Hobert
Our present day understanding of nervous system development is an amalgam of insights gained from studying different aspects and stages of nervous system development in a variety of invertebrate and vertebrate model systems, with each model system making its own distinctive set of contributions. One aspect of nervous system development that has been among the most extensively studied in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is the nature of the gene regulatory programs that specify hardwired, terminal cellular identities...
July 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
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