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Autism Research and Treatment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811938/neuropsychological-characteristics-of-children-with-mixed-autism-and-adhd
#1
Costanza Colombi, Mohammad Ghaziuddin
Clinical heterogeneity is a well-established characteristic of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). While the comorbidity of ASD and ADHD is well known in clinical practice, relatively little research has examined the neuropsychological profile of children with ASD + ADHD. Our study showed significant differences in the neuropsychological characteristics of children with ASD + ADHD compared to those with ASD only. Children with ASD + ADHD showed higher symptoms of anxiety, worse working memory, and less empathy, as measured by the "Reading the Mind in the Eyes...
2017: Autism Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804650/the-2d%C3%A2-%C3%A2-4d-digit-ratio-as-a-biomarker-for-autism-spectrum-disorder
#2
M Mackus, D de Kruijff, L S Otten, A D Kraneveld, J Garssen, J C Verster
It has been suggested that the second (2D, index finger) to fourth (4D, ring finger) digit ratio, 2D : 4D, may be a biomarker for the risk of developing autism. The aim of the current study was to determine the usefulness of the 2D : 4D digit ratio as biomarker for autistic traits. N = 401 healthy young volunteers participated in the study. For both hands, digit lengths were measured using digital Vernier calipers. In addition to demographics, the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) questionnaire was completed, comprised of five subscales, assessing "social insights and behavior," "attention switching," "communication," "imagination," and "attention to detail...
2017: Autism Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761767/investigating-the-evidence-of-behavioral-cognitive-and-psychiatric-endophenotypes-in-autism-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Kavita Ruparelia, Karim Manji, Amina Abubakar, Charles R Newton
Substantial evidence indicates that parents of autistic individuals often display milder forms of autistic traits referred to as the broader autism phenotype (BAP). To determine if discrete endophenotypes of autism can be identified, we reviewed the literature to assess the evidence of behavioral, cognitive, and psychiatric profiles of the BAP. A systematic review was conducted using EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PsycEXTRA, and Global Health. Sixty papers met our inclusion criteria and results are discussed according to the proportion of studies that yield significant deficits per domain...
2017: Autism Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660082/autistic-traits-affect-p300-response-to-unexpected-events-regardless-of-mental-state-inferences
#4
Mitsuhiko Ishikawa, Shoji Itakura, Hiroki C Tanabe
Limited use of contextual information has been suggested as a way of understanding cognition in people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, it has also been argued that individuals with ASD may have difficulties inferring others' mental states. Here, we examined how individuals with different levels of autistic traits respond to contextual deviations by measuring event-related potentials that reflect context usage. The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) was used to quantify autistic-like traits in 28 university students, and 19 participants were defined as Low or High AQ groups...
2017: Autism Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642825/initial-development-of-the-early-intensive-behavioral-intervention-parental-self-efficacy-scale-a-pilot-study
#5
Aaron Blocher-Rubin, Paige Krabill
Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention (EIBI) is an effective treatment for children with autism. However, it is known that some parents struggle to fully implement the program, and providers are not always able to identify the specifics of each family's individualized challenges. The purpose of this pilot study was to begin the process of developing a new instrument, the EIBI Parental Self-Efficacy (EPSE) Scale, to help providers better assess and assist parents in regard to EIBI implementation. The methodology included four phases: scale construction, expert review, pretest administration, and a large sample pilot study (N = 192)...
2017: Autism Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116159/autism-spectrum-disorder-screening-instruments-for-very-young-children-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Patricia O Towle, Patricia A Patrick
Research on ASD in infancy has provided a rationale for developing screening instruments for children from the first year of life to age of 18 months. A comprehensive literature search identified candidate screening tools. Using methodological probe questions adapted from the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS), two Level 1 and three Level 2 screening instruments were reviewed in detail. Research evidence conclusions were that instrument development was in beginning phases, is not yet strong, and requires further development...
2016: Autism Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999683/a-preliminary-investigation-of-a-specialized-music-therapy-model-for-children-with-disabilities-delivered-in-a-classroom-setting
#7
Jenna Mendelson, Yasmine White, Laura Hans, Richard Adebari, Lorrie Schmid, Jan Riggsbee, Ali Goldsmith, Burcu Ozler, Kristen Buehne, Sarah Jones, Jennifer Shapleton, Geraldine Dawson
Music therapy is gaining popularity as an intervention strategy for children with developmental disabilities, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study was a pilot investigation of a classroom-based music-based intervention, Voices Together®, for improving communication skills in children with ASD and children with intellectual disabilities. Four local public elementary school special education classrooms, serving 5 children with a classification of autistic disorder and 32 children with intellectual disability without autism, were randomly selected to receive one of two levels of exposure to Voices Together music therapy: "long-term" (15 weeks beginning in January 2015 (Time 1), n = 14) or "short-term" (7 weeks beginning 7 weeks later in February (Time 2), n = 17)...
2016: Autism Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27413549/what-do-parents-think-about-chromosomal-microarray-testing-a-qualitative-report-from-parents-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#8
Lei Xu, Linda Crane Mitchell, Alice R Richman, Kaitlyn Clawson
Background. Chromosomal Microarray Analysis (CMA) is increasingly utilized to detect copy number variants among children and families affected with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, CMA is controversial due to possible ambiguous test findings, uncertain clinical implications, and other social and legal issues related to the test. Methods. Participants were parents of children with ASD residing in the North Eastern region of North Carolina, USA. We conducted individual, face-to-face interviews with 45 parents and inquired about their perceptions of CMA...
2016: Autism Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27042348/calcium-and-vitamin-d-supplement-prescribing-practices-among-providers-caring-for-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-are-we-addressing-bone-health
#9
Shylaja Srinivasan, Julia O'Rourke, Sara Bersche Golas, Ann Neumeyer, Madhusmita Misra
Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have several risk factors for low bone mineral density. The gluten-free, casein-free (GFCF) diet is a complementary therapy sometimes used in ASD that raises concerns for the adequacy of calcium and vitamin D intake. This study evaluated the prescribing practices of calcium and vitamin D supplements and the practice of checking 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels by providers in 100 children with ASD, 50 of whom were on the GFCF diet. Fifty-two percent and 46% of children on the GFCF diet were on some form of vitamin D and calcium supplements, respectively, compared to 18% and 14% of those not on this diet...
2016: Autism Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27006829/the-association-between-adult-participation-and-the-engagement-of-preschoolers-with-asd
#10
Ann M Sam, Stephanie S Reszka, Brian A Boyd, Yi Pan, Kara Hume, Samuel L Odom
The ability for a child to engage in the classroom is associated with better academic outcomes. Yet, there is limited information on how child characteristics of autism and adult behavior impact engagement. This study examined (1) the pattern of adult participation and child engagement in preschool classrooms that serve children with ASD, (2) the associations between child engagement and adult participation, and (3) how characteristics of ASD (autism severity, language ability, and challenging behavior) moderate the relationship between adult participation and child engagement...
2016: Autism Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26981279/factor-structure-internal-consistency-and-screening-sensitivity-of-the-gars-2-in-a-developmental-disabilities-sample
#11
Martin A Volker, Elissa H Dua, Christopher Lopata, Marcus L Thomeer, Jennifer A Toomey, Audrey M Smerbeck, Jonathan D Rodgers, Joshua R Popkin, Andrew T Nelson, Gloria K Lee
The Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-Second Edition (GARS-2) is a widely used screening instrument that assists in the identification and diagnosis of autism. The purpose of this study was to examine the factor structure, internal consistency, and screening sensitivity of the GARS-2 using ratings from special education teaching staff for a sample of 240 individuals with autism or other significant developmental disabilities. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a correlated three-factor solution similar to that found in 2005 by Lecavalier for the original GARS...
2016: Autism Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26977317/an-analysis-of-canadian-institute-for-health-research-funding-for-research-on-autism-spectrum-disorder
#12
R Deonandan, E Y Liu, B Kolisnyk, A T M Konkle
We examined patterns of Canadian Institute for Health Research (CIHR) funding on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) research. From 1999 to 2013, CIHR funded 190 ASD grants worth $48 million. Biomedical research received 43% of grants (46% of dollars), clinical research 27% (41%), health services 10% (7%), and population health research 8% (3%). The greatest number of grants was given in 2009, but 2003 saw the greatest amount. Funding is clustered in a handful of provinces and institutions, favouring biomedical research and disfavouring behavioural interventions, adaptation, and institutional response...
2016: Autism Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26925263/illness-severity-social-and-cognitive-ability-and-eeg-analysis-of-ten-patients-with-rett-syndrome-treated-with-mecasermin-recombinant-human-igf-1
#13
Giorgio Pini, Laura Congiu, Alberto Benincasa, Pietro DiMarco, Stefania Bigoni, Adam H Dyer, Niall Mortimer, Andrea Della-Chiesa, Sean O'Leary, Rachel McNamara, Kevin J Mitchell, Michael Gill, Daniela Tropea
Rett Syndrome (RTT) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by an apparently normal development followed by an arrest and subsequent regression of cognitive and psychomotor abilities. At present, RTT has no definitive cure and the treatment of RTT represents a largely unmet clinical need. Following partial elucidation of the underlying neurobiology of RTT, a new treatment has been proposed, Mecasermin (recombinant human Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1), which, in addition to impressive evidence from preclinical murine models of RTT, has demonstrated safety in human studies of patients with RTT...
2016: Autism Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26881074/theory-of-mind-indexes-the-broader-autism-phenotype-in-siblings-of-children-with-autism-at-school-age
#14
Tawny Tsang, Kristen Gillespie-Lynch, Ted Hutman
Subclinical variants of the social-communicative challenges and rigidity that define autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are known as the broader autism phenotype (BAP). The BAP has been conceptualized categorically (as specific to a subset of relatives of individuals with ASD) and dimensionally (as continuously distributed within the general population). The current study examined the compatibility of these two approaches by assessing associations among autism symptoms and social-communicative skills in young school-age children with ASD, children who have a sibling with ASD, and children without a sibling with ASD...
2016: Autism Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26823983/neural-mechanisms-involved-in-hypersensitive-hearing-helping-children-with-asd-who-are-overly-sensitive-to-sounds
#15
REVIEW
Jay R Lucker, Alex Doman
Professionals working with children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may find that these children are overly sensitive to sounds. These professionals are often concerned as to why children may have auditory hypersensitivities. This review article discusses the neural mechanisms identified underlying hypersensitive hearing in people. The authors focus on brain research to support the idea of the nonclassical auditory pathways being involved in connecting the auditory system with the emotional system of the brain...
2015: Autism Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26793394/the-effects-of-rhythm-and-robotic-interventions-on-the-imitation-praxis-interpersonal-synchrony-and-motor-performance-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-asd-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Sudha M Srinivasan, Maninderjit Kaur, Isabel K Park, Timothy D Gifford, Kerry L Marsh, Anjana N Bhat
We assessed the effects of three interventions, rhythm, robotic, and standard-of-care, on the imitation/praxis, interpersonal synchrony, and overall motor performance of 36 children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) between 5 and 12 years of age. Children were matched on age, level of functioning, and services received, prior to random assignment to one of the three groups. Training was provided for 8 weeks with 4 sessions provided each week. We assessed generalized changes in motor skills from the pretest to the posttest using a standardized test of motor performance, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, 2nd edition (BOT-2)...
2015: Autism Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26783457/video-game-playing-effects-on-obesity-in-an-adolescent-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-case-study
#17
Brandy E Strahan, Jennifer H Elder
Adolescent obesity has tripled in the past two decades, and adolescents with disabilities, specifically autism spectrum disorders (ASD), may be at greater risk for obesity due to the behavioral, physical, and psychosocial complications related to their disorder. This case study reports the effects of video game playing on an obese adolescent with ASD and illustrates the use of a multiple baseline single subject design. Over 12 weeks, the participant played inactive (6 weeks) and active video games (6 weeks) on the Wii console...
2015: Autism Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26649197/characteristics-of-two-year-college-students-on-the-autism-spectrum-and-their-support-services-experiences
#18
Anne M Roux, Paul T Shattuck, Jessica E Rast, Julianna A Rava, Amy D Edwards, Xin Wei, Mary McCracken, Jennifer W Yu
Approximately 80% of college-going youth with autism in the US attend a 2-year college at some point. These community-based, universally accessible institutions offer both academic and vocational courses and have experience in teaching diverse learners. This study used nationally representative survey data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 to describe the characteristics and services experiences of adults with autism who attended postsecondary education after high school, focusing on those who attended a 2-year college...
2015: Autism Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26605086/about-face-evaluating-and-managing-tactile-impairment-at-the-time-of-autism-diagnosis
#19
Louisa M T Silva, Mark Schalock, Kristen R Gabrielsen
Evaluation for sensory impairment is a routine part of autism diagnosis. Sensory impairment of hearing, vision, or touch results in developmental delay and must be addressed before delay can resolve. Recent studies confirm that tactile impairment is present in autism and can be effectively treated with a tactile stimulation protocol. The research suggests a change in management at the time of autism diagnosis to include evaluation and treatment of tactile impairment. Here we validate screening and management tool for tactile impairment, the Autism Touch and Self-Regulation Checklist, in 404 typical and autistic preschool children...
2015: Autism Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26605085/parenting-behavior-in-mothers-of-preschool-children-with-asd-development-of-a-self-report-questionnaire
#20
Greet Lambrechts, Jarymke Maljaars, Hannah Boonen, Lotte van Esch, Karla Van Leeuwen, Ilse Noens
Parents of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) encounter many daily challenges and often experience much stress. However, little research exists about parenting behavior among these parents. With this study, we aim to address this gap. We examined the structure and internal consistency of a questionnaire intended to measure parenting behavior among mothers of young children with ASD. Furthermore, we compared parenting behavior among mothers of young children with and without ASD between two and six years old...
2015: Autism Research and Treatment
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