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Case Reports in Neurological Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210514/hemorrhagic-colloid-cyst-presenting-with-acute-hydrocephaly
#1
Reza Akhavan, Behrouz Zandi, Masoud Pezeshki-Rad, Donya Farrokh, Bita Abbasi
Colloid cysts are benign slow-growing cystic lesions located on the roof of the third ventricle that usually present with symptoms related to gradual rise of intracranial pressure. They mostly remain asymptomatic and sometimes grow progressively and cause diverse symptoms associated with increased intracranial pressure such as headache, diplopia, and sixth cranial nerve palsy. Here we report a 47-year-old female who presented to the emergency department with acute severe headache and nausea/vomiting. On MRI examination acute hydrocephaly due to hemorrhagic colloid cyst was detected...
2017: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210513/seizure-following-the-use-of-the-cox-2-inhibitor-etoricoxib
#2
Valentina Arnao, Marianna Riolo, Brigida Fierro, Paolo Aridon
We describe a case of epileptic seizures occurring after the use of a COX-2 inhibitor. A 61-year-old man was admitted to our department because of a generalized tonic-clonic seizure. EEG showed generalized slowdown of the activity. Neuroimaging and blood samples studies did not evidence alterations, but a careful pharmacological history revealed that the patient had taken the COX-2 inhibitor etoricoxib to treat lumbago few days before the onset of clinical symptoms. No seizures were reported after etoricoxib discontinuation and an EEG resulted to be normal two months after this...
2017: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203468/nonconvulsive-status-epilepticus-resembling-clinical-absence-with-atypical-eeg-pattern
#3
Channaiah Srikanth Mysore, Najib Murr, Rana Zabad, John Bertoni
Objective. We are reporting two cases: a patient with steroid responsive encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroiditis (SREAT) and another patient with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS), both presenting with altered mental status (AMS) and later diagnosed with nonconvulsive atypical absence status epilepticus (AS), with atypical EEG changes. Methods. A report of two cases. Results. A patient with history of SREAT and the other with SPMS had multiple admissions due to AMS. For both, EEG revealed the presence of a high voltage generalized sharply contoured theta activity...
2017: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194288/variability-in-clinical-presentation-of-neonatal-stroke-report-of-four-cases
#4
Sonia Joseph, Dimitrios Angelis, Robert Bennett, Bhargavi Kola, Amanda Hughes
Neonatal stroke can be a cause of long term neurodevelopmental disability, seizures, and impaired cognitive function. We present four cases of neonatal stroke, associated with different risk factors and clinical presentations. Two of these newborns were born to mothers with no prenatal care.
2017: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182114/evolution-of-cerebral-atrophy-in-a-patient-with-super-refractory-status-epilepticus-treated-with-barbiturate-coma
#5
Christopher R Newey, Pravin George, Premkumar Nattanmai, Christine Ahrens, Stephen Hantus, Aarti Sarwal
Introduction. Status epilepticus is associated with neuronal breakdown. Radiological sequelae of status epilepticus include diffusion weighted abnormalities and T2/FLAIR cortical hyperintensities corresponding to the epileptogenic cortex. However, progressive generalized cerebral atrophy from status epilepticus is underrecognized and may be related to neuronal death. We present here a case of diffuse cerebral atrophy that developed during the course of super refractory status epilepticus management despite prolonged barbiturate coma...
2017: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182102/a-case-report-of-nonvasculitic-autoimmune-inflammatory-meningoencephalitis-with-sensory-ganglionopathy-a-rare-presentation-of-sj%C3%A3-gren-syndrome
#6
João Peres, Simão Cruz, Rita Oliveira, Luís Santos, Ana Valverde
A 68-year-old Caucasian female was admitted to the emergency department with a progressive history of behavioural symptoms and anxiety followed by visual and auditory hallucinations, forgetfulness, and impaired gait in the previous 3 months. On examination she was psychotic and had a postural and rest tremor of the upper limbs, cogwheel rigidity of the four limbs, retropulsion on standing position, and inability to walk. During the following 2 weeks she developed xerostomia and unilateral parotiditis that improved with steroids...
2017: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168070/chronic-subdural-hematoma-associated-with-thrombocytopenia-in-a-patient-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-in-cameroon
#7
Clovis Nkoke, Engelbert Bain Luchuo, Denis Teuwafeu, Ines Nepetsoun, Cyrille Nkouonlack
Hematological abnormalities including thrombocytopenia are common in patients living with HIV infection. Patients with HIV infection related thrombocytopenia present generally with only minor bleeding problems. But cases of subdural hematoma are very rare. A 61-year-old female with a history of HIV infection of 9 years' duration presented with a 3-month history of generalized headache associated with visual blurring and anterograde amnesia. There was no history of trauma or fever. She was treated empirically for cerebral toxoplasmosis for 6 weeks without any improvement of the symptoms...
2017: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168069/hyperechogenicity-of-the-substantia-nigra-in-parkinson-s-disease-insights-from-two-brothers-with-markedly-different-disease-durations
#8
Julie M Hall, Matthew J Georgiades, Deborah A Hammond, Xiaoting Feng, Ahmed A Moustafa, Simon J G Lewis, Gabrielle Todd
We present clinical features and substantia nigra morphology for two brothers with Parkinson's disease (PD) aged 60 and 59 years. The brothers were diagnosed at 41 and 50 years of age, respectively. Both patients exhibited an abnormally large area of substantia nigra echogenicity bilaterally when viewed with transcranial ultrasound. The abnormality was similar in both brothers despite one having a much longer disease duration than the other. These findings further highlight that transcranial ultrasound is not associated with severity of clinical symptoms, but it might assist in the diagnosis of PD provided that it is combined with other variables known to precede PD...
2017: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168068/treatment-challenges-of-a-primary-vertebral-artery-aneurysm-causing-recurrent-ischemic-strokes
#9
Davide Strambo, Luca Peruzzotti-Jametti, Aurora Semerano, Giovanna Fanelli, Franco Simionato, Roberto Chiesa, Enrico Rinaldi, Vittorio Martinelli, Giancarlo Comi, Marco Bacigaluppi, Maria Sessa
Background. Extracranial vertebral artery aneurysms are a rare cause of embolic stroke; surgical and endovascular therapy options are debated and long-term complication may occur. Case Report. A 53-year-old man affected by neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) came to our attention for recurrent vertebrobasilar embolic strokes, caused by a primary giant, partially thrombosed, fusiform aneurysm of the left extracranial vertebral artery. The aneurysm was treated by endovascular approach through deposition of Guglielmi Detachable Coils in the proximal segment of the left vertebral artery...
2017: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127484/chronic-cluster-headache-with-an-atypical-presentation-and-treatment-response
#10
Telma Santos, Hugo Morais
The management of cluster headache (CH) may be challenging. We report a 50-year-old male with recurrent attacks of dull and severe unilateral periorbital pain, lasting 30-45 minutes, twice a day, exclusively during sleep, and accompanied by ipsilateral rhinorrhea and lacrimation. The pain switched sides within every attack. CH treatment was initiated but the patient maintained recurrence rates compatible with chronic CH, even after increasing verapamil to 460 mg/day. Afterwards we decided to add lithium (800 mg/day)...
2016: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127483/relative-hypodense-vertebral-artery-sign-on-computerized-tomography-in-atherosclerotic-near-occlusion
#11
Muhammad Faraz Raghib, Slaven Pikija
A 52-year-old white male presented with an acute onset of slurred speech along with hypoesthesia in the entire left arm. The acute computed tomography (CT) showed relative hypodensity in the intracranial segment of left vertebral artery (VA) that was not present in historical images, pointing to the possible lack of flow. The site of occlusion was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that showed susceptibility effect in the affected artery. By means of historical native CT comparison the site of VA thrombosis was correctly predicted...
2016: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116189/a-successful-treatment-of-endoscopic-third-ventriculostomy-with-choroid-plexus-cauterization-for-hydrocephalus-in-walker-warburg-syndrome
#12
Tomoko Tanaka, Catharine J Harris, Sarah S Barnett, N Scott Litofsky
Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS) is a rare autosomal recessive congenital muscular dystrophy with brain malformations and ocular abnormalities that falls under the wider phenotypic spectrum of the dystroglycanopathies. Mutations in a number of genes including POMT1, POMT2, POMGNT1, POMGNT2, FKTN, FKRP, LARGE, and ISPD are known to cause alpha dystroglycan-related muscular dystrophy. Mutations in these genes result in a broad phenotypic spectrum ranging from the severe WWS to a mild congenital muscular dystrophy with no brain involvement...
2016: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116188/fast-growing-meningioma-in-a-woman-undergoing-fertility-treatments
#13
Adam Patterson, Abdurrahim Elashaal
Meningiomas have long been known to be associated with sexual hormones. We discuss here the case of a woman with a huge meningioma that rapidly grew over the course of a couple years while the patient was simultaneously taking fertility treatments. There is substantial evidence suggesting that fertility treatments can fuel the growth of meningiomas. The potential risks should be considered in women with a previous or family history of meningiomas who plan to undergo fertility treatment. These patients need to be evaluated and a screening imaging of brain MRI (Magnetic Resonant Imaging) should be offered in the middle or toward the end of such a treatment to control and prevent complications of these meningiomas...
2016: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101388/bilateral-moyamoya-disease-in-a-2-year-old-pakistani-male-treated-with-bilateral-encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis-a-positive-outcome
#14
Shahvaiz Magsi, Adeel Khoja, Mansoor Ali Merchant Rameez, Ariba Khan, Noman Ishaque
Background. We present a rare case of bilateral moyamoya disease presenting as multiple strokes and neurological deficits, treated with the neurosurgical procedure, encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis (EDAS), in a 2-year-old male Pakistani minor. A positive outcome was achieved and the patient recovered fully. Case Summary. Our patient presented with a history of seizures and multiple episodes of hemiparesis (on and off weakness) at the age of 2 years. He had a delayed speech development and could not speak more than a few words...
2016: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097028/hirayama-disease-a-rare-disease-with-unusual-features
#15
S Anuradha, Vanlalmalsawmdawngliana Fanai
Hirayama disease, also known as monomelic amyotrophy (MMA), is a rare cervical myelopathy that manifests itself as a self-limited, asymmetrical, slowly progressive atrophic weakness of the forearms and hands predominantly in young males. The forward displacement of the posterior dura of the lower cervical dural canal during neck flexion has been postulated to lead to lower cervical cord atrophy with asymmetric flattening. We report a case of Hirayama disease in a 25-year-old Indian man presenting with gradually progressive asymmetrical weakness and wasting of both hands and forearms along with unusual features of autonomic dysfunction and upper motor neuron lesion...
2016: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074165/bamboo-leaf-sign-as-a-sensitive-magnetic-resonance-imaging-finding-in-spinal-subependymoma-case-report-and-literature-review
#16
Hiroyuki Toi, Yukari Ogawa, Keita Kinoshita, Satoshi Hirai, Hiroki Takai, Keijiro Hara, Nobuhisa Matsushita, Shunji Matsubara, Masaaki Uno
Background and Importance. Subependymoma occurs very rarely in the spinal cord. We report another case of spinal subependymoma along with a review of the literature and discussion of a radiological finding that is useful for preoperative diagnosis of this tumor. Clinical Presentation. A 51-year-old man presented with a 2-year history of progressive muscle weakness in the right lower extremity. Sagittal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed spinal cord expansion at the Th7-12 vertebral level. Surgical resection was performed and the tumor was found to involve predominantly subpial growth...
2016: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070432/reversible-vitamin-b12-deficiency-presenting-with-acute-dementia-paraparesis-and-normal-hemoglobin
#17
Hani Almoallim, Fahtima S Mehdawi, Mohammed M Cheikh, Fahmi Al-Dhaheri, Abdullah Mahir Aqeel
Vitamin B12 is essential for neurological function and its deficiency is associated with many neuropsychiatric disorders. We report the case of a previously healthy 53-year-old male patient presenting with delirium and multiple neurological findings. Complete blood analysis indicated megaloblastic anemia. All infectious causes were excluded owing to negative cultures (blood and urine). Tests for human immunodeficiency virus, syphilis, and toxoplasma were also negative. Metabolic workup showed severe vitamin B12 deficiency, decreased reticulocyte count, and increased direct bilirubin and lactate dehydrogenase...
2016: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070431/small-cell-lung-cancer-with-positive-anti-nmdar-and-anti-ampar-antibodies-paraneoplastic-limbic-encephalitis
#18
Sabina Boangher, Pascal Mespouille, Corina-Mihaela Filip, Sophie Goffette
We report the case of a 66-year-old woman, with paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis, treated 6 months earlier for bladder neoplasia. The patient presented to the emergency room with rapidly increasing symptoms, noninfectious cerebral spinal fluid associated with positive anti-NMDAR (as well as in serum) and positive AMPAR antibodies in the serum. Four months later, the patient was diagnosed with a small-cell lung cancer for which chemotherapy and radiotherapy was commenced. Simultaneously, endoscopic surgical treatment was undertaken for an in situ relapse of the bladder neoplasm...
2016: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058122/acute-stroke-due-to-electrocution-uncommon-or-unrecognized
#19
Laxmi Kokatnur, Mohan Rudrappa
The growing dependence on electricity in our daily lives has increased the incidence of electrocution injuries. Although several neurological injuries have been described previously, acute stroke due to electrocution is rare. Our patient, a previously healthy man, was electrocuted after he grabbed a "live" high-voltage wire. Although he was hemodynamically stable, he remained confused with language defects. MRI of the brain showed acute stroke in the bilateral anterior cerebral artery territory and watershed regions of the left middle cerebral artery territory...
2016: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050293/secondary-myelitis-in-dermal-sinus-causing-paraplegia-in-a-child-with-previously-normal-neurological-function
#20
Sakina Rashid, Grace Kinabo, Marissa Kellogg, William P Howlett, Marieke C J Dekker
Neural tube defects result from failure of neural tube fusion during early embryogenesis, the fourth week after conception. The spectrum of severity is not uniform across the various forms of this congenital anomaly as certain presentations are not compatible with extrauterine life (anencephaly) while, on the other hand, other defects may remain undiagnosed as they are entirely asymptomatic (occult spina bifida). We report a child with previously normal neurological development, a devastating clinical course following superinfection of a subtle spina bifida defect which resulted in a flaccid paralysis below the level of the lesion and permanent neurological deficits following resolution of the acute infection and a back closure surgery...
2016: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
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