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Schizophrenia Research and Treatment

Anuradha Sharma, Heinrich Sauer, Holger Hill, Claudia Kaufmann, Stephan Bender, Matthias Weisbrod
OBJECTIVE: Activation of semantic networks is indexed by the N400 effect. We used a twin study design to investigate whether N400 effect abnormalities reflect genetic/trait liability or are related to psychopathological processes in schizophrenia. METHODS: We employed robust linear regression to compare N400 and behavioral priming effects across 36 monozygotic twin pairs (6 pairs concordant for schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder, 11 discordant pairs, and 19 healthy control pairs) performing a lexical decision task...
2017: Schizophrenia Research and Treatment
R Walter Heinrichs, Farena Pinnock, Melissa Parlar, Colin Hawco, Lindsay Hanford, Geoffrey B Hall
This study assessed whether cortical thickness across the brain and regionally in terms of the default mode, salience, and central executive networks differentiates schizophrenia patients and healthy controls with normal range or below-normal range cognitive performance. Cognitive normality was defined using the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) composite score (T = 50 ± 10) and structural magnetic resonance imaging was used to generate cortical thickness data. Whole brain analysis revealed that cognitively normal range controls (n = 39) had greater cortical thickness than both cognitively normal (n = 17) and below-normal range (n = 49) patients...
2017: Schizophrenia Research and Treatment
Élisabeth Thibaudeau, Caroline Cellard, Clare Reeder, Til Wykes, Hans Ivers, Michel Maziade, Marie-Audrey Lavoie, William Pothier, Amélie M Achim
Schizophrenia is associated with deficits in theory of mind (ToM) (i.e., the ability to infer the mental states of others) and cognition. Associations have often been reported between cognition and ToM, and ToM mediates the relationship between impaired cognition and impaired functioning in schizophrenia. Given that cognitive deficits could act as a limiting factor for ToM, this study investigated whether a cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) that targets nonsocial cognition and metacognition could improve ToM in schizophrenia...
2017: Schizophrenia Research and Treatment
Martino Belvederi Murri, Flaminia Fanelli, Uberto Pagotto, Elena Bonora, Federico Triolo, Luigi Chiri, Fabio Allegri, Marco Mezzullo, Marco Menchetti, Valeria Mondelli, Carmine Pariante, Domenico Berardi, Ilaria Tarricone
Neuroactive steroids may play a role in the pathophysiology of psychotic disorders, but few studies examined this issue. We compared serum levels of cortisol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and progesterone between a representative sample of first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients and age- and gender-matched healthy subjects. Furthermore, we analyzed the associations between neuroactive steroids levels and the severity of psychotic symptom dimensions. Male patients had lower levels of progesterone than controls (p = 0...
2016: Schizophrenia Research and Treatment
Rodolfo Pérez-Garza, Gamaliel Victoria-Figueroa, Rosa Elena Ulloa-Flores
Background. Previous studies have reported sex differences in the clinical presentation and outcome of adult patients with schizophrenia; the aim of present study was to compare the clinical characteristics, social functioning, adherence to treatment, and cognition of adolescents with this diagnosis in a six-month followup. Methods. A total of 87 adolescents with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS), the Matrics Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB), Personal and Social Performance Scale (PSP), and the Rating of Medication Influences (ROMI)...
2016: Schizophrenia Research and Treatment
Lara N Pantlin, Deana Davalos
Schizophrenia is a complex and often disabling disorder that is characterized by a wide range of social, emotional, and cognitive deficits. Increasing research suggests that the greatest social and cognitive therapeutic impact comes from early identification. The present study applied a well-established neurophysiological paradigm in the schizophrenia literature, mismatch negativity (MMN), to college students identified as high risk (HR) for psychosis to investigate MMN as a potential biomarker for the onset of psychosis...
2016: Schizophrenia Research and Treatment
Audrey Benoit, Philippe-Olivier Harvey, Louis Bherer, Martin Lepage
Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) has emerged as a viable treatment option for people diagnosed with schizophrenia presenting disabling cognitive deficits. However, it is important to determine which variables can influence response to CRT in order to provide cost-effective treatment. This study's aim was to explore cognitive insight as a potential predictor of cognitive improvement after CRT. Twenty patients with schizophrenia completed a 24-session CRT program involving 18 hours of computer exercises and 6 hours of group discussion to encourage generalization of cognitive training to everyday activities...
2016: Schizophrenia Research and Treatment
Lizzette Gómez-de-Regil, Agnès Ros-Morente, Gisela Rodríguez-Hansen
This cross-sectional study aimed at identifying the most common attributions of their mental disorder in a Mexican patients who have experienced psychosis and their relatives and exploring how having experienced or not characteristic psychotic symptoms and their present clinical status might affect their etiological attributions. Past and current symptom profiles of 66 patients were as assessed with the SCID-I (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders) and the PANSS (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale), respectively...
2016: Schizophrenia Research and Treatment
Michael Rehse, Marina Bartolovic, Katlehn Baum, Dagmar Richter, Matthias Weisbrod, Daniela Roesch-Ely
Many patients with schizophrenia show cognitive impairment. There is evidence that, beyond a certain dose of antipsychotic medication, the antipsychotic daily dose (ADD) may impair cognitive performance. Parallel to their D2 receptor antagonism, many antipsychotics show a significant binding affinity to cholinergic muscarinic receptors. Pharmacological treatment with a high anticholinergic daily dose (CDD) significantly impairs attention and memory performance. To examine the relationships between individual cognitive performance and ADD and/or CDD, we conducted a retrospective record-based analysis of a sample of n = 104 in patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, all of whom had completed a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery...
2016: Schizophrenia Research and Treatment
Hyeong-Min Lee, Yuna Kim
Better the drugs you know than the drugs you do not know. Drug repurposing is a promising, fast, and cost effective method that can overcome traditional de novo drug discovery and development challenges of targeting neuropsychiatric and other disorders. Drug discovery and development targeting neuropsychiatric disorders are complicated because of the limitations in understanding pathophysiological phenomena. In addition, traditional de novo drug discovery and development are risky, expensive, and time-consuming processes...
2016: Schizophrenia Research and Treatment
Esme Fuller-Thomson, Bailey Hollister
This study examined factors associated with suicide attempts among those with schizophrenia (n = 101) versus those without (n = 21,643) in a representative sample of noninstitutionalized Canadians. The lifetime prevalence of suicide attempts among persons with schizophrenia was 39.2% versus 2.8% of nonafflicted individuals. After adjusting for sociodemographics, childhood adversities, substance abuse/dependence, depression/anxiety, and chronic pain, those with schizophrenia had 6 times the odds (OR = 6.47) of attempting suicide...
2016: Schizophrenia Research and Treatment
Ann Blomgren Mannerheim, Ulla Hellström Muhli, Eleni Siouta
As a consequence of the latest psychiatry-related reform in Sweden and its implementation, relatives and family members have taken over from the formal healthcare system significant responsibility for the care of persons with a mental disability and illness. The aim of this study was to systematically describe and analyze the experiences of parents' informal care responsibility. The questions were, what are the experiences around parents' informal care activities and responsibilities and how do parents construct and manage their caring responsibility and with what consequences? Semistructured in-depth interviews were conducted (16 hours of recorded material) with eight parents who were all members of the Interest Association for Schizophrenia (Intresseföreningen för Schizofreni (IFS)) in Sweden...
2016: Schizophrenia Research and Treatment
Alexandre González-Rodríguez, Oriol Molina-Andreu, Rafael Penadés, Marina Garriga, Alexandre Pons, Rosa Catalán, Miguel Bernardo
Background and Objectives. Recent evidence supports an association between estrogen levels and severity of psychopathology in schizophrenia women. Our main goal was to investigate whether delusional disorder (DD) women with premenopausal onset and those with postmenopausal onset differ in demographic and clinical features. Methods. Psychopathological symptoms were assessed in 80 DD women (DSM-IV-TR), at baseline and after six and 24 months. Scores in the PANSS, PSP for functionality, HRSD 17 items, C-SSRS for suicide, and the SUMD were considered outcome variables...
2015: Schizophrenia Research and Treatment
Ravi Philip Rajkumar
Introduction. Recent research has drawn attention to the link between childhood maltreatment and schizophrenia. Child abuse and neglect may have an impact on symptoms and physical health in these patients. This association has not been studied to date in India. Materials and Methods. Clinically stable patients with schizophrenia (n = 62) were assessed for childhood adversity using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. The association of specific forms of adversity with symptomatology and associated variables was examined...
2015: Schizophrenia Research and Treatment
Annika Clamor, A Malika Warmuth, Tania M Lincoln
Explanatory models ascribe to arousability a central role for the development of psychotic symptoms. Thus, a disposition to hyperarousal (i.e., increased arousal predisposition (AP)) may serve as an underlying vulnerability indicator for psychosis by interacting with stressors to cause symptoms. In this case, AP, stress-response, and psychotic symptoms should be linked before the development of a diagnosable psychotic disorder. We conducted a cross-sectional online study in a population sample (N = 104; M age = 27...
2015: Schizophrenia Research and Treatment
Erika Jääskeläinen, Marianne Haapea, Nina Rautio, Pauliina Juola, Matti Penttilä, Tanja Nordström, Ina Rissanen, Anja Husa, Emmi Keskinen, Riikka Marttila, Svetlana Filatova, Tiina-Mari Paaso, Jenni Koivukangas, Kristiina Moilanen, Matti Isohanni, Jouko Miettunen
Birth cohort designs are useful in studying adult disease trajectories and outcomes, such as schizophrenia. We review the schizophrenia research performed in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (NFBC 1966), which includes 10,934 individuals living in Finland at 16 years of age who have been monitored since each mother's mid-pregnancy. By the age of 44, 150 (1.4%) had developed schizophrenia. There are 77 original papers on schizophrenia published from the NFBC 1966. The early studies have found various risk factors for schizophrenia, especially related to pregnancy and perinatal phase...
2015: Schizophrenia Research and Treatment
Ravi Philip Rajkumar
Gender identity disorder (GID), recently renamed gender dysphoria (GD), is a rare condition characterized by an incongruity between gender identity and biological sex. Clinical evidence suggests that schizophrenia occurs in patients with GID at rates higher than in the general population and that patients with GID may have schizophrenia-like personality traits. Conversely, patients with schizophrenia may experience alterations in gender identity and gender role perception. Neurobiological research, including brain imaging and studies of finger length ratio and handedness, suggests that both these disorders are associated with altered cerebral sexual dimorphism and changes in cerebral lateralization...
2014: Schizophrenia Research and Treatment
Youssef Kouidrat, Ali Amad, Jean-Daniel Lalau, Gwenole Loas
Objective. Despite evidence from case series, the comorbidity of eating disorders (EDs) with schizophrenia is poorly understood. This review aimed to assess the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of EDs in schizophrenia patients and to examine whether the management of EDs can be improved. Methods. A qualitative review of the published literature was performed using the following terms: "schizophrenia" in association with "eating disorders," "anorexia nervosa," "bulimia nervosa," "binge eating disorder," or "night eating syndrome...
2014: Schizophrenia Research and Treatment
Saeed Shoja Shafti, Mahsa Gilanipoor
Introduction. Since a variety of comparisons between risperidone and olanzapine have resulted in diverse outcomes, so safety and efficacy of them were compared again in a new trial. Method. Sixty female schizophrenic patients entered into one of the assigned groups for random allocation to olanzapine or risperidone (n = 30 in each group) in a double-blind, 12-week clinical trial. Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS) and Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) were used as the primary outcome measures...
2014: Schizophrenia Research and Treatment
Md Nasir Ahmed, Md Nur Kabidul Azam
Schizophrenia is a subtle disorder of brain development and plasticity; it affects the most basic human processes of perception, emotion, and judgment. In Bangladesh the traditional medical practitioners of rural and remote areas characterized the schizophrenia as an insanity or a mental problem due to possession by ghosts or evil spirits and they have used various plant species' to treat such symptoms. The aim of the present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal plant survey and documentation of the formulations of different plant parts used by the traditional medical practitioners of Rangamati district of Bangladesh for the treatment of schizophrenia like psychosis...
2014: Schizophrenia Research and Treatment
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