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Influenza Research and Treatment

Stephanie M Benjamin, Kaitlin O Bahr
Influenza can spread rapidly on college campuses because of high-density living conditions and frequent social interactions. However, seasonal influenza vaccination rates on college campuses are low. The purpose of this study is to identify barriers associated with receipt of the seasonal influenza vaccination. Questionnaires were completed by a convenience sample of 383 undergraduate students in January 2014. Data were analyzed to identify barriers associated with receiving the seasonal influenza vaccine. Only 20...
2016: Influenza Research and Treatment
Daniel Oladimeji Oluwayelu, Comfort Oluladun Aiki-Raji, Oladunni Taiwo Adigun, Opeyemi Kazeem Olofintuyi, Adebowale Idris Adebiyi
Since the first outbreak of avian influenza (AI) in Nigeria in 2006, there has been continuous monitoring of the disease in chickens with little attention given to turkeys. As part of on-going surveillance for AI in southwest Nigeria, we used a competitive ELISA to detect anti-AI virus antibodies in 520 turkey sera obtained from poultry farms in Oyo, Osun, and Ondo states while haemagglutination inhibiting antibodies against low pathogenic AI viruses (LPAIVs) were detected using H3N8 and H5N2 subtype-specific antigens...
2015: Influenza Research and Treatment
Cassandra M Berry, William J Penhale, Mark Y Sangster
Influenza is a perennial problem affecting millions of people annually with the everpresent threat of devastating pandemics. Active prophylaxis by vaccination against influenza virus is currently the main countermeasure supplemented with antivirals. However, disadvantages of this strategy include the impact of antigenic drift, necessitating constant updating of vaccine strain composition, and emerging antiviral drug resistance. The development of other options for influenza prophylaxis, particularly with broad acting agents able to provide protection in the period between the onset of a pandemic and the development of a strain specific vaccine, is of great interest...
2014: Influenza Research and Treatment
Alexandru Coman, Daniel Narcis Maftei, Razvan M Chereches, Elena Zavrotchi, Paul Bria, Claudiu Dragnea, Pamela P McKenzie, Marissa A Valentine, Gregory C Gray
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus incursions from migrating birds have occurred multiple times in Romania since 2005. Beginning in September 2008 through April 2013, seasonal sentinel surveillance for avian influenza A viruses (AIVs) using domestic geese (Anser cygnoides) and ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) in the Danube Delta was established by placing 15 geese and 5 ducks at seven sites. Tracheal and cloacal swabs, and sera collections (starting in 2009) were taken monthly. We studied a total of 580 domestic birds and collected 5,520 cloacal and tracheal swabs from each and 2,760 sera samples...
2014: Influenza Research and Treatment
Hiroichi Ozaki, Yi Guan, Malik Peiris, Robert Webster, Ayato Takada, Richard Webby
H6 subtype influenza viruses are commonly isolated from wild aquatic birds. However, limited information is available regarding H6 influenza virus isolated from chickens. We compared the viral genome segment between A/chicken/Hong Kong/W312/97 (H6N1), which was able to grow in chicken trachea, and A/duck/Shantou/5540/01 (H6N2), which was isolated from wild aquatic duck, to explore the factors for effective replication in chicken. When chickens were inoculated with 7 + 1 reassortants (W312 background), the replication of viruses with PB2 and M genes derived from the duck strain was significantly reduced...
2014: Influenza Research and Treatment
John A Lednicky, Julia C Loeb
The air we breathe contains microorganisms that can cause infectious respiratory diseases. After two occupants of an apartment were diagnosed with influenza in February of 2013, efforts were made to detect and isolate airborne influenza virus using two different types of active air samplers: a Sioutas Personal Cascade Impactor Sampler (PCIS) and an SKC BioSampler. The PCIS collects size-fractionated particles by impaction on polytetrafluoroethylene filters, whereas the SKC BioSampler collects airborne particles in liquid media...
2013: Influenza Research and Treatment
Dimitrios Vlachakis, Argiro Karozou, Sophia Kossida
Currently not much is known about the H7N9 strain, and this is the major drawback for a scientific strategy to tackle this virus. Herein, the 3D complex structure of the H7N9 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase has been established using a repertoire of molecular modelling techniques including homology modelling, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics simulations. Strikingly, it was found that the oligonucleotide cleft and tunnel in the H7N9 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase are structurally very similar to the corresponding region on the hepatitis C virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase crystal structure...
2013: Influenza Research and Treatment
Eleonora Molesti, Adelaide Milani, Calogero Terregino, Giovanni Cattoli, Nigel J Temperton
The nature of influenza virus to randomly mutate and evolve into new types is an important challenge in the control of influenza infection. It is necessary to monitor virus evolution for a better understanding of the pandemic risk posed by certain variants as evidenced by the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses. This has been clearly recognized in Egypt following the notification of the first HPAI H5N1 outbreak. The continuous circulation of the virus and the mass vaccination programme undertaken in poultry have resulted in a progressive genetic evolution and a significant antigenic drift near the major antigenic sites...
2013: Influenza Research and Treatment
Saima Cheema, Christopher Vinnard, Sarah Foster-Chang, Darren R Linkin
Objectives. The national influenza vaccination rate among healthcare workers (HCWs) remains low despite clear benefits to patients, coworkers, and families. We sought to evaluate formally the effect of a one-hour time off incentive on attitudes towards influenza vaccination during the 2011-2012 influenza season. Methods. All HCWs at the Philadelphia Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center were invited to complete an anonymous web-based survey. We described respondents' characteristics and attitudes toward influenza vaccination and determined the relationship of specific attitudes with respondents' acceptance of influenza vaccination, using a 5-point Likert scale...
2013: Influenza Research and Treatment
André Ricardo Ribas Freitas, Priscila M S Bergamo Francisco, Maria Rita Donalisio
The impact of the seasonal influenza and 2009 AH1N1 pandemic influenza on mortality is not yet completely understood, particularly in tropical and subtropical countries. The trends of influenza related mortality rate in different age groups and different outcomes on a area in tropical and subtropical climate with more than 41 million people (State of São Paulo, Brazil), were studied from 2002 to 2011 were studied. Serfling-type regression analysis was performed using weekly mortality registries and virological data obtained from sentinel surveillance...
2013: Influenza Research and Treatment
Lisa H Gren, Christina A Porucznik, Elizabeth A Joy, Joseph L Lyon, Catherine J Staes, Stephen C Alder
Objectives. Disease surveillance combines data collection and analysis with dissemination of findings to decision makers. The timeliness of these activities affects the ability to implement preventive measures. Influenza surveillance has traditionally been hampered by delays in both data collection and dissemination. Methods. We used statistical process control (SPC) to evaluate the daily percentage of outpatient visits with a positive point-of-care (POC) influenza test in the University of Utah Primary Care Research Network...
2013: Influenza Research and Treatment
Fang He, Jimmy Kwang
H5N1 influenza viruses cause high mortality in avian and mammalian species, including humans. Antigenic drift in H5 sequence poses challenges in the development of vaccine and therapeutic antibody. In this study, a monoclonal antibody 11G12 was produced from inactivated H5N1 immunized mice. Results from IFA, ELISA, HI, and virus neutralization indicated that Mab 11G12 can specifically recognize and neutralize H5 type hemagglutinin from clade 1 and 0 without any cross-reaction to any other clades of H5N1 viruses...
2013: Influenza Research and Treatment
German Fajardo-Dolci, Juan Pablo Gutierrez, Heberto Arboleya-Casanova, Sebastian Garcia-Saiso
Background. During the 2009 spring epidemic outbreak in Mexico, an important research and policy question faced was related to the differences in clinical profile and population characteristics of those affected by the new H1N1 virus compared with the seasonal virus. Methods and Findings. Data from clinical files from all influenza A deaths in Mexico between April 10 and July 13, 2009 were analyzed to describe differences in clinical and socioeconomic profile between H1N1 and non-H1N1 cases. A total of 324 influenza A mortality cases were studied of which 239 presented rt-PCR confirmation for H1N1 virus and 85 for seasonal influenza A...
2012: Influenza Research and Treatment
Alam Jahangir, Sakchai Ruenphet, Nadia Sultana, Dany Shoham, Kazuaki Takehara
The pandemic influenza virus strains of 1918 (H1N1), 1957 (H2N2), 1968 (H3N2), and 2009 (H1N1) have genes related to avian influenza viruses (AIVs). The nonstructural (NS) gene of AIVs plays a significant role in host-viral interaction. However, little is known about the degree of diversity of this gene in Northern pintail (Anas acuta) ducks wintering in Japan. This study describes characteristics of pintail-originated H1N1, H1N2, H1N3, H5N2, H5N3, H5N9, and H7N7 viruses. Most of the viruses were revealed to be avian strains and not related to pandemic and seasonal flu strains...
2012: Influenza Research and Treatment
Akira Ukimura, Hidetoshi Satomi, Yukimasa Ooi, Yumiko Kanzaki
Acute myocarditis is a well-known complication of influenza infection. The frequency of myocardial involvement in influenza infection varies widely, with the clinical severity ranging from asymptomatic to fulminant varieties. The worst cases can result in death due to impaired cardiac function, although such fulminant myocarditis associated with influenza infection is rare, as shown by previous papers. Following the 2009 influenza pandemic, we reported on the clinical features of a cohort of 15 patients in Japan with H1N1pdm2009 myocarditis...
2012: Influenza Research and Treatment
Siang I Lee, Ei M Aung, Ik S Chin, Jeremy W Hing, Sanghamitra Mummadi, Ghunavadee D Palaniandy, Rachel Jordan
Background. Pandemic influenza vaccination rate amongst healthcare workers in England 2009/2010 was suboptimal (40.3%). Targeting medical students before they enter the healthcare workforce is an attractive future option. This study assessed the H1N1 vaccine uptake rate amongst medical students and factors that influenced this. Methods. Anonymised, self-administered questionnaire at a medical school. Results. The uptake rate amongst 126 medical students offered the vaccine was 49.2% and intended uptake amongst 77 students was 63...
2012: Influenza Research and Treatment
Michaela Janks, Sara Cooke, Aimee Odedra, Harkeet Kang, Michelle Bellman, Rachel E Jordan
UK pandemic influenza strategy focused on vaccination of high risk groups, although evidence shows that school-age children have the highest infection rates. Vaccination of children might be an additional strategy. We undertook a cross-sectional study amongst 149 parents of primary school children aged 4-7 years in Birmingham, UK to quantify intention to accept pandemic influenza vaccine and identify factors affecting uptake. Ninety-one (61.1%, 95% CI 52.8, 68.9) had or would accept vaccine for their child...
2012: Influenza Research and Treatment
Dany Shoham, Alam Jahangir, Sakchai Ruenphet, Kazuaki Takehara
Background. This study investigates the viable persistence of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in various types of artificially frozen environmental water and evaluates the feasibility of similar occurrence taking place in nature, and allowing for prolonged abiotic virus survival, with subsequent biotic viral recirculation. Methods. Fresh, brackish, and salty water, taken in Japan from aquatic biotopes regularly visited by migratory waterfowl, were seeded with AIVs. We monthly monitored the viability of the seeded viruses in the frozen state at -20°C and -30°C, for 12 months...
2012: Influenza Research and Treatment
Saygin Nayman Alpat, Gaye Usluer, Ilhan Ozgunes, Elif Doyuk Kartal, Nurettin Erben
Objective. 2009 H1N1 virus is a new virus that was firstly detected in April 2009. This virus spreads from human to human and causes a worldwide disease. This paper aimed to review the clinical and epidemiological properties of patients with 2009 H1N1 influenza who were hospitalized and monitored at Eskisehir Osmangazi University Faculty of Medicine Hospital. Setting. A 1000-bed teaching hospital in Eskisehir, Turkey. Patients-Methods. Between 05 November 2009-01 February 2010, 106 patients with 2009 H1N1 influenza, who were hospitalized, were prospectively evaluated...
2012: Influenza Research and Treatment
Vakuru Columba Teru, Shiiwua A Manu, Gashash I Ahmed, Kabir Junaidu, Scott Newman, Joseph Nyager, Vivian N Iwar, Gideon M Mshelbwala, T Joannis, Junaidu A Maina, Paul T Apeverga
The highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1 subtype) recurred in Nigeria after 9 months period of no reported case. A critical look at possible sources of the re-occurrence was desirable. The objective of this study was to determine whether avian influenza viruses were present at reasonably detectable levels (0.5%) in possible "bridge" species of wild and domestic birds. The study was conducted in 8 Nigerian states. A total of 403 birds from 40 species were sampled. Virus isolation was done in embryonated chicken eggs according to standard protocols...
2012: Influenza Research and Treatment
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