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Tuberculosis Research and Treatment

Christopher Vinnard, Isabel Manley, Brittney Scott, Mariana Bernui, Joella Adams, Sheryl Varghese, Isaac Zentner, Michele A Kutzler
Background: Rifampin malabsorption is frequently observed in tuberculosis patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) but cannot be predicted by patient factors such as CD4+ T cell count or HIV viral load. Methods: We sought to describe the relationship between HIV-associated immune activation, measures of gut absorptive capacity and permeability, and rifampin pharmacokinetic parameters in a pilot study of 6 HIV-infected, tuberculosis-uninfected patients who were naïve to antiretroviral therapy...
2017: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
Mulusew Andualem Asemahagn
Background: Despite several interventions, tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a major public health concern in developing countries. Objective: To determine pulmonary TB prevalence and associated factors among shopkeepers in Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2016 among 520 shopkeepers who had TB signs and symptoms using questionnaire interview and sputum samples processing. Shopkeepers were considered TB positive if two sputum slides became positive...
2017: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
Geeta S Pardeshi, Dileep Kadam, Ajay Chandanwale, Andrea Deluca, Pranali Khobragade, Malan Parande, Nishi Suryavanshi, Aarti Kinikar, Anita Basavaraj, Sunita Girish, Sangita Shelke, Nikhil Gupte, Jason Farley, Robert Bollinger
Setting: Government tertiary health care center in India. Objective: To understand the perceptions of medical residents about their risk of developing TB in the workplace. Design: Cross-sectional study in which a semistructured questionnaire which included an open-ended question to assess their main concerns regarding TB in workplace was used to collect data. Results: Out of 305 resident doctors approached, 263 (94%) completed a structured questionnaire and 200 of these responded to an open-ended question...
2017: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
Kwame Owusu-Edusei, Carla A Winston, Suzanne M Marks, Adam J Langer, Roque Miramontes
Objective: To evaluate TB test usage and associated direct medical expenditures from 2013 private insurance claims data in the United States (US). Methods: We extracted outpatient claims for TB-specific and nonspecific tests from the 2013 MarketScan® commercial database. We estimated average expenditures (adjusted for claim and patient characteristics) using semilog regression analyses and compared them to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) national reimbursement limits...
2017: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
Ernest Yorke, Yacoba Atiase, Josephine Akpalu, Osei Sarfo-Kantanka, Vincent Boima, Ida Dzifa Dey
The burden of tuberculosis (TB) especially in developing countries continues to remain high despite efforts to improve preventive strategies. Known traditional risk factors for TB include poverty, malnutrition, overcrowding, and HIV/AIDS; however, diabetes, which causes immunosuppression, is increasingly being recognized as an independent risk factor for tuberculosis, and the two often coexist and impact each other. Diabetes may also lead to severe disease, reactivation of dormant tuberculosis foci, and poor treatment outcomes...
2017: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
Glenn P Morlock, Frances C Tyrrell, Dorothy Baynham, Vincent E Escuyer, Nicole Green, Youngmi Kim, Patricia A Longley-Olson, Nicole Parrish, Courtney Pennington, Desmond Tan, Brett Austin, James E Posey
The primary platform used for pyrazinamide (PZA) susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the MGIT culture system (Becton Dickinson). Since false-resistant results have been associated with the use of this system, we conducted a multicenter evaluation to determine the effect of using a reduced cell density inoculum on the rate of false resistance. Two reduced inoculum densities were compared with that prescribed by the manufacturer (designated as "BD" method). The reduced inoculum methods (designated as "A" and "C") were identical to the manufacturer's protocol in all aspects with the exception of the cell density of the inoculum...
2017: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
Shaip Krasniqi, Arianit Jakupi, Armond Daci, Bahri Tigani, Nora Jupolli-Krasniqi, Mimoza Pira, Valbona Zhjeqi, Burim Neziri
Setting: The poor patient adherence in tuberculosis (TB) treatment is considered to be one of the most serious challenges which reflect the decrease of treatment success and emerging of the Multidrug Resistance-TB (MDR-TB). To our knowledge, the data about patients' adherence to anti-TB treatment in our country are missing. Objective: This study was aimed to investigate the anti-TB treatment adherence rate and to identify factors related to eventual nonadherence among Kosovo TB patients...
2017: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
A O Hassan, Richard Olukolade, Q C Ogbuji, S Afolabi, L C Okwuonye, O C Kusimo, J A Osho, K A Osinowo, O A Ladipo
Tuberculosis (TB) constitutes a significant and major public health emergency globally. Nigeria is one of the 22 high burden Tuberculosis countries. A high level of community awareness and positive perception towards TB and its management is crucial for the success of any control strategy. A national baseline survey was conducted in 2008 and a follow-up study in 2012 to measure knowledge of TB among the general population. This study therefore evaluated the knowledge of the target population about Tuberculosis in the follow-up study...
2017: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
Kingsfield Ong, Keerthi Rajapaksha, Chin Siang Ong, Ali Akbar Fazuludeen, Aneez Dokeu Basheer Ahmed
BACKGROUND: There is a continuous debate on the appropriate diagnostic approach and surgical management of mycobacterial empyema, with widely varied diagnostic practices and surgical outcomes. The aim of this study is to highlight the diagnostic approach and clinical features of patients who required surgical intervention for mycobacterial empyema. METHODS: We performed a 5-year retrospective cohort study of all patients with mycobacterial empyema requiring surgery in a single institution from November 2009 to November 2014...
2017: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
Mahasweta Satpati, Sharath Burugina Nagaraja, Hemant Deepak Shewade, Prabhakaran Ottapura Aslesh, Blesson Samuel, Ashwani Khanna, Sarabjit Chadha
OBJECTIVE: To identify the challenges encountered by private health care providers (PHCP) to notify tuberculosis cases through a programme developed web-based portal mechanism called "NIKSHAY." Study Design. It is a descriptive qualitative study conducted at two revised national tuberculosis control programme (RNTCP) districts of New Delhi. The study included in-depth interviews of PHCP registered with "NIKSHAY" and RNTCP programme personnel. Grounded theory was used to conceptualise the latent social patterns in implementation of tuberculosis case notification process and promptly identifying their challenges...
2017: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
Flavia Silva Palomo, Martha Gabriela Celle Rivero, Milene Gonçalves Quiles, Fernando Pereira Pinto, Antonia Maria de Oliveira Machado, Antonio Carlos Campos Pignatari
Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is a severe form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. The aims of this study were to evaluate in-house molecular diagnostic protocols of DNA extraction directly from CSF samples and the targets amplified by qPCR as an accurate and fast diagnosis of TBM. One hundred CSF samples from 68 patients suspected of TBM were studied. Four DNA extraction techniques (phenol-chloroform-thiocyanate guanidine, silica thiocyanate guanidine, resin, and resin with ethanol) were compared and CSF samples were used to determine the best target (IS6110, MPB64, and hsp65 KDa) by qPCR...
2017: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
Zachary White, John Painter, Paul Douglas, Ibrahim Abubakar, Howard Njoo, Chris Archibald, Jessica Halverson, John Robson, Drew L Posey
Objective. Tuberculosis control in foreign-born populations is a major public health concern for Australia, Canada, New Zealand, United Kingdom, and the United States, large immigrant- and refugee-receiving countries that comprise the Immigration and Refugee Health Working Group (IRHWG). Identifying and comparing immigration and distribution of foreign-born tuberculosis cases are important for developing targeted and collaborative interventions. Methods. Data stratified by year and country of birth from 2005 to 2009 were received from these five countries...
2017: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
Kudakwashe C Takarinda, Charles Sandy, Nyasha Masuka, Patrick Hazangwe, Regis C Choto, Tsitsi Mutasa-Apollo, Brilliant Nkomo, Edwin Sibanda, Owen Mugurungi, Anthony D Harries, Nicholas Siziba
Background. In 2013, the tuberculosis (TB) mortality rate was highest in southern Zimbabwe at 16%. We therefore sought to determine factors associated with mortality among registered TB patients in this region. Methodology. This was a retrospective record review of registered patients receiving anti-TB treatment in 2013. Results. Of 1,971 registered TB patients, 1,653 (84%) were new cases compared with 314 (16%) retreatment cases. There were 1,538 (78%) TB/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfected patients, of whom 1,399 (91%) were on antiretroviral therapy (ART) with median pre-ART CD4 count of 133 cells/uL (IQR, 46-282)...
2017: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
Getinet Shewaseged Adenager, Fessahaye Alemseged, Henok Asefa, Amanuel Tesfay Gebremedhin
Background. Early detection and diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) and the timely commencement of antituberculosis (anti-TB) treatment are the parts of efficient tuberculosis prevention and control program. Delay in the commencement of anti-TB treatment worsens the prognosis and increases the risk of death and the chance of transmission in the community and among health care workers. Objective. To assess tuberculosis treatment delay and associated factors among pulmonary TB patients in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods...
2017: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
Mohammad Nasiruddin, Md Kausar Neyaz, Shilpi Das
Tuberculosis, commonly known as TB, is the second most fatal infectious disease after AIDS, caused by bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Prolonged treatment, high pill burden, low compliance, and stiff administration schedules are factors that are responsible for emergence of MDR and XDR cases of tuberculosis. Till date, only BCG vaccine is available which is ineffective against adult pulmonary TB, which is the most common form of disease. Various unique antibodies have been developed to overcome drug resistance, reduce the treatment regimen, and elevate the compliance to treatment...
2017: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
Solima M A Sabeel, Mohamed Ahmed Salih, Manasik Ali, Salah-Eldin El-Zaki, Nadir Abuzeid, Zeinab Abubaker Mohammed Elgadi, Hisham N Altayb, Asrar M A Elegail, Nuha Y Ibrahim, Bahaeldin K Elamin
Background. Currently, mutations in rpoB, KatG, and rrs genes and inhA promoter were considered to be involved in conferring resistance to rifampicin, isoniazid, and streptomycin in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). Objective. The aims of this study were to detect the prevalence of first-line tuberculosis (TB) drug resistance among a group of previously treated and newly detected TB patients, to determine the association between prevalence of multidrug resistance (MDR) and demographic information (age and sex), to explain genes correlated with MDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and to characterize MTB via 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) analysis...
2017: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
Guesly J Delva, Ingrid Francois, Cassidy W Claassen, Darwin Dorestan, Barbara Bastien, Sandra Medina-Moreno, Dumesle St Fort, Robert R Redfield, Ulrike K Buchwald
Background. Haiti has the highest tuberculosis (TB) prevalence in the Americas with 254 cases per 100,000 persons. Case detection relies on passive detection and TB services in many regions suffer from poor diagnostic and clinical resources. Methods. Mache Chache ("Go and Seek") was a TB REACH Wave 3 funded TB case finding project in Port-au-Prince between July 2013 and September 2014, targeting four intervention areas with insufficient TB diagnostic performance. Results. Based on a verbal symptom screen emphasizing the presence of cough, the project identified 11,150 (11...
2016: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
Rajib Saha
Objective. The study was conducted to assess the treatment outcome of different category retreatment cases with the aim of finding out the important predictors of unfavorable outcomes. Methodology. This hospital based prospective cohort study was conducted in three tuberculosis units (TUs) of west Midnapore (a district of Eastern India), covering mostly the tribal populated areas. Patients who were registered for Category II antituberculosis treatment between 1st quarter of 2013 (Jan to Mar) and 4th quarter of 2013 (Oct to Dec) were considered as our study cohort and they were followed up till December 2014...
2016: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
Addisu Melese, Balew Zeleke, Biniam Ewnete
Background. Assessing the outcomes of tuberculosis (TB) treatment is an important indicator for evaluation of the effectiveness of tuberculosis control programs. In Ethiopia, directly observed treatment short course (DOTS) was included in the national tuberculosis control program as a strategy but little is known about its effectiveness in the study area. Therefore, this study was aimed at assessing the treatment outcomes of TB patients and associated factors in Debre Tabor, northwest Ethiopia. Methods. A retrospective study was conducted among TB patients for the period from May 2008 to April 2013 at Debre Tabor Health Center, northwest Ethiopia...
2016: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
Jaideep Dey, Hitender Gautam, Shwetha Venugopal, Chhavi Porwal, Bijay Ranjan Mirdha, Naresh Gupta, Urvashi B Singh
Background. Tuberculosis of the liver without active pulmonary or miliary tuberculosis is considered as an uncommon diagnosis. The aim of the present study was to determine the etiological role of tuberculosis in adult patients presenting with features of liver abscess. Methods. A total of 40 patients with liver abscess were included in the study. The liver abscess aspirate was subjected to microscopy, culture, and polymerase chain reaction to determine the role of tuberculosis as an etiological factor in liver abscess...
2016: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
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