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Tuberculosis Research and Treatment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638662/comparison-of-dna-extraction-protocols-and-molecular-targets-to-diagnose-tuberculous-meningitis
#1
Flavia Silva Palomo, Martha Gabriela Celle Rivero, Milene Gonçalves Quiles, Fernando Pereira Pinto, Antonia Maria de Oliveira Machado, Antonio Carlos Campos Pignatari
Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is a severe form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. The aims of this study were to evaluate in-house molecular diagnostic protocols of DNA extraction directly from CSF samples and the targets amplified by qPCR as an accurate and fast diagnosis of TBM. One hundred CSF samples from 68 patients suspected of TBM were studied. Four DNA extraction techniques (phenol-chloroform-thiocyanate guanidine, silica thiocyanate guanidine, resin, and resin with ethanol) were compared and CSF samples were used to determine the best target (IS6110, MPB64, and hsp65 KDa) by qPCR...
2017: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424748/immigrant-arrival-and-tuberculosis-among-large-immigrant-and-refugee-receiving-countries-2005-2009
#2
Zachary White, John Painter, Paul Douglas, Ibrahim Abubakar, Howard Njoo, Chris Archibald, Jessica Halverson, John Robson, Drew L Posey
Objective. Tuberculosis control in foreign-born populations is a major public health concern for Australia, Canada, New Zealand, United Kingdom, and the United States, large immigrant- and refugee-receiving countries that comprise the Immigration and Refugee Health Working Group (IRHWG). Identifying and comparing immigration and distribution of foreign-born tuberculosis cases are important for developing targeted and collaborative interventions. Methods. Data stratified by year and country of birth from 2005 to 2009 were received from these five countries...
2017: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352474/factors-associated-with-mortality-among-patients-on-tb-treatment-in-the-southern-region-of-zimbabwe-2013
#3
Kudakwashe C Takarinda, Charles Sandy, Nyasha Masuka, Patrick Hazangwe, Regis C Choto, Tsitsi Mutasa-Apollo, Brilliant Nkomo, Edwin Sibanda, Owen Mugurungi, Anthony D Harries, Nicholas Siziba
Background. In 2013, the tuberculosis (TB) mortality rate was highest in southern Zimbabwe at 16%. We therefore sought to determine factors associated with mortality among registered TB patients in this region. Methodology. This was a retrospective record review of registered patients receiving anti-TB treatment in 2013. Results. Of 1,971 registered TB patients, 1,653 (84%) were new cases compared with 314 (16%) retreatment cases. There were 1,538 (78%) TB/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfected patients, of whom 1,399 (91%) were on antiretroviral therapy (ART) with median pre-ART CD4 count of 133 cells/uL (IQR, 46-282)...
2017: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348887/factors-associated-with-treatment-delay-among-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients-in-public-and-private-health-facilities-in-addis-ababa-ethiopia
#4
Getinet Shewaseged Adenager, Fessahaye Alemseged, Henok Asefa, Amanuel Tesfay Gebremedhin
Background. Early detection and diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) and the timely commencement of antituberculosis (anti-TB) treatment are the parts of efficient tuberculosis prevention and control program. Delay in the commencement of anti-TB treatment worsens the prognosis and increases the risk of death and the chance of transmission in the community and among health care workers. Objective. To assess tuberculosis treatment delay and associated factors among pulmonary TB patients in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods...
2017: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210505/nanotechnology-based-approach-in-tuberculosis-treatment
#5
REVIEW
Mohammad Nasiruddin, Md Kausar Neyaz, Shilpi Das
Tuberculosis, commonly known as TB, is the second most fatal infectious disease after AIDS, caused by bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Prolonged treatment, high pill burden, low compliance, and stiff administration schedules are factors that are responsible for emergence of MDR and XDR cases of tuberculosis. Till date, only BCG vaccine is available which is ineffective against adult pulmonary TB, which is the most common form of disease. Various unique antibodies have been developed to overcome drug resistance, reduce the treatment regimen, and elevate the compliance to treatment...
2017: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197340/phenotypic-and-genotypic-analysis-of-multidrug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-from-sudanese-patients
#6
Solima M A Sabeel, Mohamed Ahmed Salih, Manasik Ali, Salah-Eldin El-Zaki, Nadir Abuzeid, Zeinab Abubaker Mohammed Elgadi, Hisham N Altayb, Asrar M A Elegail, Nuha Y Ibrahim, Bahaeldin K Elamin
Background. Currently, mutations in rpoB, KatG, and rrs genes and inhA promoter were considered to be involved in conferring resistance to rifampicin, isoniazid, and streptomycin in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). Objective. The aims of this study were to detect the prevalence of first-line tuberculosis (TB) drug resistance among a group of previously treated and newly detected TB patients, to determine the association between prevalence of multidrug resistance (MDR) and demographic information (age and sex), to explain genes correlated with MDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and to characterize MTB via 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) analysis...
2017: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668093/active-tuberculosis-case-finding-in-port-au-prince-haiti-experiences-results-and-implications-for-tuberculosis-control-programs
#7
Guesly J Delva, Ingrid Francois, Cassidy W Claassen, Darwin Dorestan, Barbara Bastien, Sandra Medina-Moreno, Dumesle St Fort, Robert R Redfield, Ulrike K Buchwald
Background. Haiti has the highest tuberculosis (TB) prevalence in the Americas with 254 cases per 100,000 persons. Case detection relies on passive detection and TB services in many regions suffer from poor diagnostic and clinical resources. Methods. Mache Chache ("Go and Seek") was a TB REACH Wave 3 funded TB case finding project in Port-au-Prince between July 2013 and September 2014, targeting four intervention areas with insufficient TB diagnostic performance. Results. Based on a verbal symptom screen emphasizing the presence of cough, the project identified 11,150 (11...
2016: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27656293/predictors-of-treatment-outcome-for-retreatment-pulmonary-tuberculosis-cases-among-tribal-people-of-an-eastern-india-district-a-prospective-cohort-study
#8
Rajib Saha
Objective. The study was conducted to assess the treatment outcome of different category retreatment cases with the aim of finding out the important predictors of unfavorable outcomes. Methodology. This hospital based prospective cohort study was conducted in three tuberculosis units (TUs) of west Midnapore (a district of Eastern India), covering mostly the tribal populated areas. Patients who were registered for Category II antituberculosis treatment between 1st quarter of 2013 (Jan to Mar) and 4th quarter of 2013 (Oct to Dec) were considered as our study cohort and they were followed up till December 2014...
2016: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597896/treatment-outcome-and-associated-factors-among-tuberculosis-patients-in-debre-tabor-northwestern-ethiopia-a-retrospective-study
#9
Addisu Melese, Balew Zeleke, Biniam Ewnete
Background. Assessing the outcomes of tuberculosis (TB) treatment is an important indicator for evaluation of the effectiveness of tuberculosis control programs. In Ethiopia, directly observed treatment short course (DOTS) was included in the national tuberculosis control program as a strategy but little is known about its effectiveness in the study area. Therefore, this study was aimed at assessing the treatment outcomes of TB patients and associated factors in Debre Tabor, northwest Ethiopia. Methods. A retrospective study was conducted among TB patients for the period from May 2008 to April 2013 at Debre Tabor Health Center, northwest Ethiopia...
2016: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595021/tuberculosis-as-an-etiological-factor-in-liver-abscess-in-adults
#10
Jaideep Dey, Hitender Gautam, Shwetha Venugopal, Chhavi Porwal, Bijay Ranjan Mirdha, Naresh Gupta, Urvashi B Singh
Background. Tuberculosis of the liver without active pulmonary or miliary tuberculosis is considered as an uncommon diagnosis. The aim of the present study was to determine the etiological role of tuberculosis in adult patients presenting with features of liver abscess. Methods. A total of 40 patients with liver abscess were included in the study. The liver abscess aspirate was subjected to microscopy, culture, and polymerase chain reaction to determine the role of tuberculosis as an etiological factor in liver abscess...
2016: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595020/impact-of-who-2010-guidelines-on-antiretroviral-therapy-initiation-among-patients-with-hiv-associated-tuberculosis-in-clinics-with-and-without-onsite-hiv-services-in-the-democratic-republic-of-congo
#11
Marcel Yotebieng, Martine Tabala, Marie Louise Batumbula, Landry Wenzi, Emmanuel Basaki, Eugenie Mungoyo, Richard Mangala, Frieda Behets
Background. We assessed the impact of WHO's 2010 guidelines that removed the requirement of CD4 count before ART, on timely initiation of ART among HIV/TB patients in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Methods. Data collected to monitor implementation of provider initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC) and linkage to HIV care from 65 and 13 TB clinics in Kinshasa and Kisangani, respectively, between November 2010 and June 2013. Results. Prior to the WHO's 2010 guidelines, in Kinshasa, 79.1% (401/507) of HIV/TB patients referred for HIV services were initiated on ART in clinics with onsite ART services compared to 50...
2016: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27493800/the-use-of-xpert-mtb-rif-for-active-case-finding-among-tb-contacts-in-north-west-province-south-africa
#12
Limakatso Lebina, Nigel Fuller, Tolu Osoba, Lesley Scott, Katlego Motlhaoleng, Modiehi Rakgokong, Pattamukkil Abraham, Ebrahim Variava, Neil Alexander Martinson
Introduction. Tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality especially in high HIV burden settings. Active case finding is one strategy to potentially reduce TB disease burden. Xpert MTB/Rif has recently been recommended for diagnosis of TB. Methods. Pragmatic randomized trial to compare diagnosis rate and turnaround time for laboratory testing for Xpert MTB/Rif with TB microscopy and culture in household contacts of patients recently diagnosed with TB. Results. 2464 household contacts enrolled into the study from 768 active TB index cases...
2016: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27375902/molecular-and-growth-based-drug-susceptibility-testing-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex-for-ethambutol-resistance-in-the-united-states
#13
Mitchell A Yakrus, Jeffrey Driscoll, Allison McAlister, David Sikes, Denise Hartline, Beverly Metchock, Angela M Starks
Ethambutol (EMB) is used as a part of drug regimens for treatment of tuberculosis (TB). Susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolates to EMB can be discerned by DNA sequencing to detect mutations in the embB gene associated with resistance. US Public Health Laboratories (PHL) primarily use growth-based drug susceptibility test (DST) methods to determine EMB resistance. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) provides a service for molecular detection of drug resistance (MDDR) by DNA sequencing and concurrent growth-based DST using agar proportion...
2016: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27313887/characteristics-and-treatment-outcomes-of-transfer-out-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients-in-gondar-ethiopia
#14
Tadesse Belayneh, Afework Kassu, Desalgne Tigabu, Gashaw Asmare, Sofanit Tilaye, Eveline Klinkenberg
Background. During tuberculosis treatment, patients may transfer to continue treatment at another health facility. To ensure adherence until treatment completion, keeping track of patients is paramount. This study aimed to investigate treatment outcomes of patients who transferred out from the University of Gondar Hospital. Methods. This was a retrospective cohort evaluation of patients registered from 2009 to 2013. Treatment outcomes were collected from the TB registers of receiving units using a standardized data capture format...
2016: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27293887/tuberculosis-case-finding-in-benin-2000-2014-and-beyond-a-retrospective-cohort-and-time-series-study
#15
Serge Ade, Wilfried Békou, Mênonli Adjobimey, Omer Adjibode, Gabriel Ade, Anthony D Harries, Séverin Anagonou
Objective. To determine any changes in tuberculosis epidemiology in the last 15 years in Benin, seasonal variations, and forecasted numbers of tuberculosis cases in the next five years. Materials and Methods. Retrospective cohort and time series study of all tuberculosis cases notified between 2000 and 2014. The "R" software version 3.2.1 (Institute for Statistics and Mathematics Vienna Austria) and the Box-Jenkins 1976 modeling approach were used for time series analysis. Results. Of 246943 presumptive cases, 54303 (22%) were diagnosed with tuberculosis...
2016: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27190646/hematological-and-biochemistry-profile-and-risk-factors-associated-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients-in-guyana
#16
Rajini Kurup, Keon Flemming, Sudish Daniram, Shenika Marks-James, Roberta Roberts Martin
Objective. To evaluate the hematological and biochemistry profile of patients with or without HIV-TB at the Georgetown Chest Clinic, Guyana. Methods. An observational, laboratory based study was designed to assess the relationship of PTB and HIV with patients routine biochemical and hematological values. The study was conducted during the period January 2013 to December 2014; a total sample size of 316 patients was enrolled following exclusion and inclusion criteria. Results. Mean age of study population was 40...
2016: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27144020/delay-for-first-consultation-and-its-associated-factors-among-new-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients-of-central-nepal
#17
Wongsa Laohasiriwong, Roshan Kumar Mahato, Rajendra Koju, Kriangsak Vaeteewootacharn
Tuberculosis (TB) is still a major public health challenge in Nepal and worldwide. Most transmissions occur between the onset of symptoms and the consultation with formal health care centers. This study aimed to determine the duration of delay for the first consultation and its associated factors with unacceptable delay among the new sputum pulmonary tuberculosis cases in the central development region of Nepal. An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted in the central development region of Nepal between January and May 2015...
2016: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27110400/characteristics-and-treatment-outcomes-of-retreatment-tuberculosis-patients-in-benin
#18
Serge Ade, Omer Adjibodé, Prudence Wachinou, Narcisse Toundoh, Bérénice Awanou, Gildas Agodokpessi, Dissou Affolabi, Gabriel Adè, Anthony D Harries, Séverin Anagonou
Objective. To determine among retreatment tuberculosis patients in Benin baseline characteristics, culture, and drug sensitivity testing (DST) results and treatment outcomes. Materials and Methods. A retrospective national cohort study of all retreatment tuberculosis patients in Benin in 2013 using registers and treatment cards. Results. Of 3957 patients with tuberculosis, 241 (6%) were retreatment cases. Compared to new pulmonary bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis (NPBCT) patients, there were significantly higher numbers of males (P = 0...
2016: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27066271/qualitative-assessment-of-challenges-in-tuberculosis-control-in-west-gojjam-zone-northwest-ethiopia-health-workers-and-tuberculosis-control-program-coordinators-perspectives
#19
Senedu B Gebreegziabher, Solomon A Yimer, Gunnar A Bjune
Background. Weak health systems pose many barriers to effective tuberculosis (TB) control. This study aimed at exploring health worker's and TB control program coordinator's perspectives on health systems challenges facing TB control in West Gojjam Zone, Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Methods. This was a qualitative descriptive study. Eight in-depth interviews with TB control program coordinators and two focus group discussions among 16 health workers were conducted. Purposive sampling was used to recruit study participants...
2016: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27022483/health-seeking-behaviour-and-associated-factors-among-pulmonary-tuberculosis-suspects-in-lay-armachiho-district-northwest-ethiopia-a-community-based-study
#20
Eshetu Haileselassie Engeda, Berihun Assefa Dachew, Hiwot Kassa Woreta, Mengistu Mekonnen Kelkay, Tesfaye Demeke Ashenafie
Studies in the northern part of Ethiopia showed high prevalence of undiagnosed cluster of tuberculosis cases within the community which demanded an investigation of the health care seeking behaviour of tuberculosis suspects. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Lay Armachiho district, Northwest Ethiopia. Individuals who had cough for at least two weeks and aged greater than or equal to 15 years were included in the study. Data were collected by interview using pretested and structured questionnaire...
2016: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
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