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Comprehensive Physiology

Vincenza Cifarelli, Nada A Abumrad
Several proteins have been implicated in fatty acid (FA) transport by enterocytes including the scavenger receptor CD36 (SR-B2), the scavenger receptor B1 (SR-B1) a member of the CD36 family and the FA transport protein 4 (FATP4). Here, we review the regulation of enterocyte FA uptake and its function in lipid absorption including prechylomicron formation, assembly and transport. Emphasis is given to CD36, which is abundantly expressed along the digestive tract of rodents and humans and has been the most studied...
March 26, 2018: Comprehensive Physiology
Hua Xu, Fayez K Ghishan, Pawel R Kiela
The Slc9 family of Na+ /H+ exchangers (NHEs) plays a critical role in electroneutral exchange of Na+ and H+ in the mammalian intestine as well as other absorptive and secretory epithelia of digestive organs. These transport proteins contribute to the transepithelial Na+ and water absorption, intracellular pH and cellular volume regulation as well as the electrolyte, acid-base, and fluid volume homeostasis at the systemic level. They also influence the function of other membrane transport mechanisms, affect cellular proliferation and apoptosis as well as cell migration, adherence to the extracellular matrix, and tissue repair...
March 26, 2018: Comprehensive Physiology
Adam Russell-Hallinan, Chris J Watson, John A Baugh
Remodeling of cardiac tissue architecture is essential for normal organ development and maintaining homeostasis after injury. Injurious insults to the heart, such as hypertension and myocardial infarction, promote cellular responses including stimulation of resident inflammatory cells, activation of endothelial cells and recruitment of immune cells, hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes, and activation of fibroblasts. The physiological goal of this coordinated cellular response is to repair damaged tissue while maintaining or restoring cardiac contractile function...
March 26, 2018: Comprehensive Physiology
John R Fitz-Clarke
Breath-hold diving is practiced by recreational divers, seafood divers, military divers, and competitive athletes. It involves highly integrated physiology and extreme responses. This article reviews human breath-hold diving physiology beginning with an historical overview followed by a summary of foundational research and a survey of some contemporary issues. Immersion and cardiovascular adjustments promote a blood shift into the heart and chest vasculature. Autonomic responses include diving bradycardia, peripheral vasoconstriction, and splenic contraction, which help conserve oxygen...
March 25, 2018: Comprehensive Physiology
Robert Rodríguez-Roisin, Michael J Krowka, Alvar Agustí
This review concentrates on the determinants of gas exchange abnormalities in liver-induced pulmonary vascular disorders, more specifically in the hepatopulmonary syndrome. Increased alveolar-arterial O2 difference, with or without different levels of arterial hypoxemia, and reduced diffusing capacity represent the most characteristic gas exchange disturbances in the absence of cardiac and pulmonary comorbidities. Pulmonary gas exchange abnormalities in the hepatopulmonary syndrome are unique encompassing all three pulmonary factors determining arterial PO2 , that is, ventilation-perfusion imbalance, increased intrapulmonary shunt and oxygen diffusion limitation that, combined, interplay with two relevant nonpulmonary determinants, that is, increased total ventilation and high cardiac output...
March 25, 2018: Comprehensive Physiology
Britta Spanier, Florian Rohm
As the organ with one of the largest surface areas facing the environment and responsible for nutrient uptake, the small intestine expresses numerous transport proteins in its brush-border membrane for efficient absorption and supply of dietary macro- and micronutrients. The understanding of regulation and functional interplay of these nutrient transporters is of emerging interest in nutrition and medical physiology research in respect to development of diabetes, obesity, and inflammatory bowel disease worldwide...
March 25, 2018: Comprehensive Physiology
David R Harder, Kevin R Rarick, Debebe Gebremedhin, Susan S Cohen
There have been numerous reviews related to the cerebral circulation. Most of these reviews are similar in many ways. In the present review, we thought it important to provide an overview of function with specific attention to details of cerebral arterial control related to brain homeostasis, maintenance of neuronal energy demands, and a unique perspective related to the role of astrocytes. A coming review in this series will discuss cerebral vascular development and unique properties of the neonatal circulation and developing brain, thus, many aspects of development are missing here...
March 25, 2018: Comprehensive Physiology
Jennifer Lising Roxas, V K Viswanathan
The passive and regulated movement of ions, solutes, and water via spaces between cells of the epithelial monolayer plays a critical role in the normal intestinal functioning. This paracellular pathway displays a high level of structural and functional specialization, with the membrane-spanning complexes of the tight junctions, adherens junctions, and desmosomes ensuring its integrity. Tight junction proteins, like occludin, tricellulin, and the claudin family isoforms, play prominent roles as barriers to unrestricted paracellular transport...
March 25, 2018: Comprehensive Physiology
John S Torday, William B Miller
The common relationships among a great variety of biological phenomena seem enigmatic when considered solely at the level of the phenotype. The deep connections in physiology, for example, between the effects of maternal food restriction in utero and the subsequent incidence of metabolic syndrome in offspring, the effects of microgravity on cell polarity and reproduction in yeast, stress effects on jellyfish, and their endless longevity, or the relationship between nutrient abundance and the colonial form in slime molds, are not apparent by phenotypic observation...
March 25, 2018: Comprehensive Physiology
Eric Delpire, Kenneth B Gagnon
Two genes encode the Na+ -K+ -2Cl- cotransporters, NKCC1 and NKCC2, that mediate the tightly coupled movement of 1Na+ , 1K+ , and 2Cl- across the plasma membrane of cells. Na+ -K+ -2Cl- cotransport is driven by the chemical gradient of the three ionic species across the membrane, two of them maintained by the action of the Na+ /K+ pump. In many cells, NKCC1 accumulates Cl- above its electrochemical potential equilibrium, thereby facilitating Cl- channel-mediated membrane depolarization. In smooth muscle cells, this depolarization facilitates the opening of voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels, leading to Ca2+ influx, and cell contraction...
March 25, 2018: Comprehensive Physiology
Maha Coucha, Mohammed Abdelsaid, Rebecca Ward, Yasir Abdul, Adviye Ergul
Metabolic diseases including obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes have profound effects on cerebral circulation. These diseases not only affect the architecture of cerebral blood arteries causing adverse remodeling, pathological neovascularization, and vasoregression but also alter the physiology of blood vessels resulting in compromised myogenic reactivity, neurovascular uncoupling, and endothelial dysfunction. Coupled with the disruption of blood brain barrier (BBB) integrity, changes in blood flow and microbleeds into the brain rapidly occur...
March 25, 2018: Comprehensive Physiology
Emilie Viennois, Adani Pujada, Jane Zen, Didier Merlin
Mammalian members of the proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter family are integral membrane proteins that mediate the cellular uptake of di/tripeptides and peptide-like drugs and couple substrate translocation to the movement of H+ , with the transmembrane electrochemical proton gradient providing the driving force. Peptide transporters are responsible for the (re)absorption of dietary and/or bacterial di- and tripeptides in the intestine and kidney and maintaining homeostasis of neuropeptides in the brain...
March 25, 2018: Comprehensive Physiology
James D Thomas, Ruan Oliveira, Łukasz J Sznajder, Maurice S Swanson
Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is a multisystemic disorder caused by microsatellite expansion mutations in two unrelated genes leading to similar, yet distinct, diseases. DM disease presentation is highly variable and distinguished by differences in age-of-onset and symptom severity. In the most severe form, DM presents with congenital onset and profound developmental defects. At the molecular level, DM pathogenesis is characterized by a toxic RNA gain-of-function mechanism that involves the transcription of noncoding microsatellite expansions...
March 25, 2018: Comprehensive Physiology
Li Wang, Janelle Geist, Alyssa Grogan, Li-Yen R Hu, Aikaterini Kontrogianni-Konstantopoulos
Sarcomeres consist of highly ordered arrays of thick myosin and thin actin filaments along with accessory proteins. Thick filaments occupy the center of sarcomeres where they partially overlap with thin filaments. The sliding of thick filaments past thin filaments is a highly regulated process that occurs in an ATP-dependent manner driving muscle contraction. In addition to myosin that makes up the backbone of the thick filament, four other proteins which are intimately bound to the thick filament, myosin binding protein-C, titin, myomesin, and obscurin play important structural and regulatory roles...
March 13, 2018: Comprehensive Physiology
Kyungsoo Shin, Calem Kenward, Jan K Rainey
Apelin and apela (ELABELA/ELA/Toddler) are two peptide ligands for a class A G-protein-coupled receptor named the apelin receptor (AR/APJ/APLNR). Ligand-AR interactions have been implicated in regulation of the adipoinsular axis, cardiovascular system, and central nervous system alongside pathological processes. Each ligand may be processed into a variety of bioactive isoforms endogenously, with apelin ranging from 13 to 55 amino acids and apela from 11 to 32, typically being cleaved C-terminal to dibasic proprotein convertase cleavage sites...
December 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
Caroline Hall, Carolyn Hardin, Christopher J Corkins, Alisha Z Jiwani, John Fletcher, Anders Carlsson, Rodney Chan
Burn injuries are a pervasive clinical problem. Extensive thermal trauma can be life-threatening or result in long-lasting complications, generating a significant impact on quality of life for patients as well as a cost burden to the healthcare system. The importance of addressing global or systemic issues such as resuscitation and management of inhalation injuries is not disputed but is beyond the scope of this review, which focuses on cutaneous pathophysiologic mechanisms for current treatments, both in the acute and long-term settings...
December 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
Yiying Zhang, Streamson Chua
We summarize the biological impact of leptin signaling as well as the molecular and cellular characteristics of leptin action. Our focus is principally in the central nervous system and we describe the properties of the neuronal networks that are mediators of leptin's effects on ingestive behavior, energy balance, and the reproductive system. The molecular targets of leptin's effects are also responsible for the attenuation and termination of the intracellular signal transduction pathway for leptin, providing a clear understanding of the mechanisms leading to leptin resistance or insensitivity...
December 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
Francisco José Albuquerque de Paula, Clifford J Rosen
Adipocytes are heterogeneous cells strongly linked to energy storage and disposal. In parallel, adipocytes are endowed with an extensive portfolio of endocrine molecules, whose secretion varies depending on nutritional status. Marrow adipose tissue (MAT) has specific characteristics that are not shared by white (WAT) or brown (BAT) adipose tissue. First, marrow adipocytes and osteoblasts are terminally differentiated cells that originate from the same bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cell. Differently from WAT adipocytes, marrow adipocytes expand under conditions of energy restriction and seem to be not influenced by energy surplus, at least in humans...
December 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
Sathish Sivaprakasam, Yangzom D Bhutia, Shengping Yang, Vadivel Ganapathy
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA; acetate, propionate, and butyrate) are generated in colon by bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber. Though diffusion in protonated form is a significant route, carrier-mediated mechanisms constitute the major route for the entry of SCFA in their anionic form into colonic epithelium. Several transport systems operate in cellular uptake of SCFA. MCT1 (SLC16A1) and MCT4 (SLC16A3) are H+-coupled and mediate electroneutral transport of SCFA (H+: SCFA stoichiometry; 1:1). MCT1 is expressed both in the apical membrane and basolateral membrane of colonic epithelium whereas MCT4 specifically in the basolateral membrane...
December 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
Bram Peeters, Lies Langouche, Greet Van den Berghe
Critically ill patients have elevated plasma cortisol concentrations, in proportion to illness severity. This was traditionally attributed exclusively to a central activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary axis. However, low rather than high plasma ACTH concentrations have been reported in critically ill patients, with loss of diurnal ACTH and cortisol rhythm. Low ACTH together with high cortisol is referred to as "ACTH-cortisol dissociation." Although cortisol production is somewhat increased with inflammation, a reduced cortisol breakdown explains to a larger extent the hypercortisolism during critical illness...
December 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
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