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Comprehensive Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783864/modulation-of-systemic-metabolism-by-mmp-2-from-mmp-2-deficiency-in-mice-to-mmp-2-deficiency-in-patients
#1
Carlos Fernandez-Patron, Zamaneh Kassiri, Dickson Leung
Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) is a 72-kDa zinc- and calcium-dependent endopeptidase with intracellular and extracellular functions ranging from the modulation of extracellular matrix remodeling to cell growth and migration, angiogenesis, inflammation, and metabolism. An upregulation of MMP-2 activity has the potential to deregulate lipid metabolism through the cleavage of numerous metabolic mediators including plasma lipoproteins and cell surface receptors of lipoproteins. Paradoxically, MMP-2 deficiency induces inflammation and deregulates metabolism...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783863/hpa-axis-interactions-with-behavioral-systems
#2
Amy E B Packard, Ann E Egan, Yvonne M Ulrich-Lai
Perhaps the most salient behaviors that individuals engage in involve the avoidance of aversive experiences and the pursuit of pleasurable experiences. Engagement in these behaviors is regulated to a significant extent by an individual's hormonal milieu. For example, glucocorticoid hormones are produced by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, and influence most aspects of behavior. In turn, many behaviors can influence HPA axis activity. These bidirectional interactions not only coordinate an individual's physiological and behavioral states to each other, but can also tune them to environmental conditions thereby optimizing survival...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783862/adipose-tissue-derived-plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1-function-and-regulation
#3
Hiroshi Kaji
Adipose tissue has recently been reevaluated as an endocrine organ, and adipose-tissue-derived endocrine factors are termed adipokines. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the primary inhibitor of PAs, which convert plasminogen into plasmin, a critical protease involved in fibrinolysis. PAI-1 induces fibrinogenesis by suppressing intravascular and tissue fibrinolysis. Moreover, PAI-1 exerts various cellular effects independently of fibrinolysis. Although PAI-1 is expressed in various tissues, its expression is regulated by numerous growth factors, cytokines, and hormones in a paracrine and endocrine manner...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783861/undiscovered-physiology-of-transcript-and-protein-networks
#4
Emma Monte, Manuel Rosa Garrido, Thomas M Vondriska, Jessica Wang
The past two decades have witnessed a rapid evolution in our ability to measure RNA and protein from biological systems. As a result, new principles have arisen regarding how information is processed in cells, how decisions are made, and the role of networks in biology. This essay examines this technological evolution, reviewing (and critiquing) the conceptual framework that has emerged to explain how RNA and protein networks control cellular function. We identify how future investigations into transcriptomes, proteomes, and other cellular networks will enable development of more robust, quantitative models of cellular behavior whilst also providing new avenues to use knowledge of biological networks to improve human health...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783860/neural-control-of-the-upper-airway-respiratory-and-state-dependent-mechanisms
#5
Leszek Kubin
Upper airway muscles subserve many essential for survival orofacial behaviors, including their important role as accessory respiratory muscles. In the face of certain predisposition of craniofacial anatomy, both tonic and phasic inspiratory activation of upper airway muscles is necessary to protect the upper airway against collapse. This protective action is adequate during wakefulness, but fails during sleep which results in recurrent episodes of hypopneas and apneas, a condition known as the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA)...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783859/calcium-homeostasis-in-health-and-in-kidney-disease
#6
Sharon M Moe
Calcium is an important ion in cell signaling, hormone regulation, and bone health. Its regulation is complex and intimately connected to that of phosphate homeostasis. Both ions are maintained at appropriate levels to maintain the extracellular to intracellular gradients, allow for mineralization of bone, and to prevent extra skeletal and urinary calcification. The homeostasis involves the target organs intestine, parathyroid glands, kidney, and bone. Multiple hormones converge to regulate the extracellular calcium level: parathyroid hormone, vitamin D (principally 25(OH)D or 1,25(OH)2D), fibroblast growth factor 23, and α-klotho...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783858/heart-valve-biomechanics-and-underlying-mechanobiology
#7
Salma Ayoub, Giovanni Ferrari, Robert C Gorman, Joseph H Gorman, Frederick J Schoen, Michael S Sacks
Heart valves control unidirectional blood flow within the heart during the cardiac cycle. They have a remarkable ability to withstand the demanding mechanical environment of the heart, achieving lifetime durability by processes involving the ongoing remodeling of the extracellular matrix. The focus of this review is on heart valve functional physiology, with insights into the link between disease-induced alterations in valve geometry, tissue stress, and the subsequent cell mechanobiological responses and tissue remodeling...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783857/magnocellular-neurons-and-posterior-pituitary-function
#8
Colin H Brown
The posterior pituitary gland secretes oxytocin and vasopressin (the antidiuretic hormone) into the blood system. Oxytocin is required for normal delivery of the young and for delivery of milk to the young during lactation. Vasopressin increases water reabsorption in the kidney to maintain body fluid balance and causes vasoconstriction to increase blood pressure. Oxytocin and vasopressin secretion occurs from the axon terminals of magnocellular neurons whose cell bodies are principally found in the hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783856/cardiac-metabolism-in-perspective
#9
Heinrich Taegtmeyer, Truong Lam, Giovanni Davogustto
The heart is a biological pump that converts chemical to mechanical energy. This process of energy conversion is highly regulated to the extent that energy substrate metabolism matches energy use for contraction on a beat-to-beat basis. The biochemistry of cardiac metabolism includes the biochemistry of energy transfer, metabolic regulation, and transcriptional, translational as well as posttranslational control of enzymatic activities. Pathways of energy substrate metabolism in the heart are complex and dynamic, but all of them conform to the First Law of Thermodynamics...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783855/diseases-of-the-nucleoskeleton
#10
James M Holaska
The nucleus is separated from the cytosol by the nuclear envelope, which is a double lipid bilayer composed of the outer nuclear membrane and the inner nuclear membrane. The intermediate filament proteins lamin A, lamin B, and lamin C form a network underlying the inner nuclear membrane. This proteinaceous network provides the nucleus with its strength, rigidity, and elasticity. Positioned within the inner nuclear membrane are more than 150 inner nuclear membrane proteins, many of which interact directly with lamins and require lamins for their inner nuclear membrane localization...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783854/neurocardiology-structure-based-function
#11
Jeffrey L Ardell, John Andrew Armour
Cardiac control is mediated via a series of reflex control networks involving somata in the (i) intrinsic cardiac ganglia (heart), (ii) intrathoracic extracardiac ganglia (stellate, middle cervical), (iii) superior cervical ganglia, (iv) spinal cord, (v) brainstem, and (vi) higher centers. Each of these processing centers contains afferent, efferent, and local circuit neurons, which interact locally and in an interdependent fashion with the other levels to coordinate regional cardiac electrical and mechanical indices on a beat-to-beat basis...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783853/physiology-of-visceral-pain
#12
G F Gebhart, Klaus Bielefeldt
Pain involving thoracic, abdominal, or pelvic organs is a common cause for physician consultations, including one-third of chronic pain patients who report that visceral organs contribute to their suffering. Chronic visceral pain conditions are typically difficult to manage effectively, largely because visceral sensory mechanisms and factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of visceral pain are poorly understood. Mechanistic understanding is particularly problematic in "functional" visceral diseases where there is no apparent pathology and pain typically is the principal complaint...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783852/mitochondrial-actions-of-thyroid-hormone
#13
Antonia Lanni, Maria Moreno, Fernando Goglia
The hypermetabolic effects of thyroid hormones (THs), the major endocrine regulators of metabolic rate, are widely recognized. Although, the cellular mechanisms underlying these effects have been extensively investigated, much has yet to be learned about how TH regulates diverse cellular functions. THs have a profound impact on mitochondria, the organelles responsible for the majority of cellular energy production, and several studies have been devoted to understand the respective importance of the nuclear and mitochondrial pathways for organelle activity...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27347900/obstructive-sleep-apnea-and-vascular-diseases
#14
Dimitrios Baltzis, Jessie P Bakker, Sanjay R Patel, Aristidis Veves
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects a large proportion of adults, and is as an independent risk factor for cerebrovascular and cardiovascular disease. The repetitive airway obstruction that characterizes OSA results in intermittent hypoxia, intrathoracic pressure swings, and sleep fragmentation, which in turn lead to sympathetic activation, oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. This review outlines the associations between OSA and vascular diseases and describes basic mechanisms that may be responsible for this association, in both the micro- and macrocirculation...
June 13, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27347897/hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid-axis
#15
Tania M Ortiga-Carvalho, Maria I Chiamolera, Carmen C Pazos-Moura, Fredic E Wondisford
The hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis determines the set point of thyroid hormone (TH) production. Hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulates the synthesis and secretion of pituitary thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone, TSH), which acts at the thyroid to stimulate all steps of TH biosynthesis and secretion. The THs thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) control the secretion of TRH and TSH by negative feedback to maintain physiological levels of the main hormones of the HPT axis...
June 13, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27347894/sex-hormones-and-cognition-neuroendocrine-influences-on-memory-and-learning
#16
Dwayne K Hamson, Meighen M Roes, Liisa A M Galea
Sex differences in neurological disease exist in incidence, severity, progression, and symptoms and may ultimately influence treatment. Cognitive disturbances are frequent in neuropsychiatric disease with men showing greater cognitive impairment in schizophrenia, but women showing more severe dementia and cognitive decline with Alzheimer's disease. Although there are no overall differences in intelligence between the sexes, men, and women demonstrate slight but consistent differences in a number of cognitive domains...
June 13, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27347892/overview-of-the-anatomy-physiology-and-pharmacology-of-the-autonomic-nervous-system
#17
Erica A Wehrwein, Hakan S Orer, Susan M Barman
Comprised of the sympathetic nervous system, parasympathetic nervous system, and enteric nervous system, the autonomic nervous system (ANS) provides the neural control of all parts of the body except for skeletal muscles. The ANS has the major responsibility to ensure that the physiological integrity of cells, tissues, and organs throughout the entire body is maintained (homeostasis) in the face of perturbations exerted by both the external and internal environments. Many commonly prescribed drugs, over-the-counter drugs, toxins, and toxicants function by altering transmission within the ANS...
June 13, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27347888/reproductive-steroid-regulation-of-mood-and-behavior
#18
Crystal Edler Schiller, Sarah L Johnson, Anna C Abate, Peter J Schmidt, David R Rubinow
In this article, we examine evidence supporting the role of reproductive steroids in the regulation of mood and behavior in women and the nature of that role. In the first half of the article, we review evidence for the following: (i) the reproductive system is designed to regulate behavior; (ii) from the subcellular to cellular to circuit to behavior, reproductive steroids are powerful neuroregulators; (iii) affective disorders are disorders of behavioral state; and (iv) reproductive steroids affect virtually every system implicated in the pathophysiology of depression...
June 13, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27065177/corrigendum
#19
(no author information available yet)
George Havenith, Dusan Fiala. Thermal Indices and Thermophysiological Modeling for Heat Stress. Compr Physiol 2016, 6: 255-302. doi: 10.1002/cphy.c140051 Corrections have been made to properly spell out the acronym PHS in two places in the article. The error was introduced during the copyediting process. On page 264, "which led to a new version of the standard, the Public Health System (PHS)" was corrected to "which led to a new version of the standard, the predicted heat strain (PHS)." On page 288, "PHS. To mitigate the adverse health effects…" was corrected to "Public health system...
April 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27065176/the-insular-cortex-and-the-regulation-of-cardiac-function
#20
Stephen Oppenheimer, David Cechetto
Cortical representation of the heart challenges the orthodox view that cardiac regulation is confined to stereotyped, preprogrammed and rigid responses to exteroceptive or interoceptive environmental stimuli. The insula has been the region most studied in this regard; the results of clinical, experimental, and functional radiological studies show a complex interweave of activity with patterns dynamically varying regarding lateralization and antero-posterior distribution of responsive insular regions. Either acting alone or together with other cortical areas including the anterior cingulate, medial prefrontal, and orbito-frontal cortices as part of a concerted network, the insula can imbue perceptions with autonomic color providing emotional salience, and aiding in learning and behavioral decision choice...
April 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
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