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Comprehensive Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357134/apelinergic-system-structure-and-function
#1
Kyungsoo Shin, Calem Kenward, Jan K Rainey
Apelin and apela (ELABELA/ELA/Toddler) are two peptide ligands for a class A G-protein-coupled receptor named the apelin receptor (AR/APJ/APLNR). Ligand-AR interactions have been implicated in regulation of the adipoinsular axis, cardiovascular system, and central nervous system alongside pathological processes. Each ligand may be processed into a variety of bioactive isoforms endogenously, with apelin ranging from 13 to 55 amino acids and apela from 11 to 32, typically being cleaved C-terminal to dibasic proprotein convertase cleavage sites...
December 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357133/pathophysiologic-mechanisms-and-current-treatments-for-cutaneous-sequelae-of-burn-wounds
#2
Caroline Hall, Carolyn Hardin, Christopher J Corkins, Alisha Z Jiwani, John Fletcher, Anders Carlsson, Rodney Chan
Burn injuries are a pervasive clinical problem. Extensive thermal trauma can be life-threatening or result in long-lasting complications, generating a significant impact on quality of life for patients as well as a cost burden to the healthcare system. The importance of addressing global or systemic issues such as resuscitation and management of inhalation injuries is not disputed but is beyond the scope of this review, which focuses on cutaneous pathophysiologic mechanisms for current treatments, both in the acute and long-term settings...
December 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357132/leptin-function-and-regulation
#3
Yiying Zhang, Streamson Chua
We summarize the biological impact of leptin signaling as well as the molecular and cellular characteristics of leptin action. Our focus is principally in the central nervous system and we describe the properties of the neuronal networks that are mediators of leptin's effects on ingestive behavior, energy balance, and the reproductive system. The molecular targets of leptin's effects are also responsible for the attenuation and termination of the intracellular signal transduction pathway for leptin, providing a clear understanding of the mechanisms leading to leptin resistance or insensitivity...
December 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357131/structure-and-function-of-bone-marrow-adipocytes
#4
Francisco José Albuquerque de Paula, Clifford J Rosen
Adipocytes are heterogeneous cells strongly linked to energy storage and disposal. In parallel, adipocytes are endowed with an extensive portfolio of endocrine molecules, whose secretion varies depending on nutritional status. Marrow adipose tissue (MAT) has specific characteristics that are not shared by white (WAT) or brown (BAT) adipose tissue. First, marrow adipocytes and osteoblasts are terminally differentiated cells that originate from the same bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cell. Differently from WAT adipocytes, marrow adipocytes expand under conditions of energy restriction and seem to be not influenced by energy surplus, at least in humans...
December 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357130/short-chain-fatty-acid-transporters-role-in-colonic-homeostasis
#5
Sathish Sivaprakasam, Yangzom D Bhutia, Shengping Yang, Vadivel Ganapathy
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA; acetate, propionate, and butyrate) are generated in colon by bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber. Though diffusion in protonated form is a significant route, carrier-mediated mechanisms constitute the major route for the entry of SCFA in their anionic form into colonic epithelium. Several transport systems operate in cellular uptake of SCFA. MCT1 (SLC16A1) and MCT4 (SLC16A3) are H+-coupled and mediate electroneutral transport of SCFA (H+: SCFA stoichiometry; 1:1). MCT1 is expressed both in the apical membrane and basolateral membrane of colonic epithelium whereas MCT4 specifically in the basolateral membrane...
December 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357129/adrenocortical-stress-response-during-the-course-of-critical-illness
#6
Bram Peeters, Lies Langouche, Greet Van den Berghe
Critically ill patients have elevated plasma cortisol concentrations, in proportion to illness severity. This was traditionally attributed exclusively to a central activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary axis. However, low rather than high plasma ACTH concentrations have been reported in critically ill patients, with loss of diurnal ACTH and cortisol rhythm. Low ACTH together with high cortisol is referred to as "ACTH-cortisol dissociation." Although cortisol production is somewhat increased with inflammation, a reduced cortisol breakdown explains to a larger extent the hypercortisolism during critical illness...
December 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357128/contribution-of-adipose-tissue-to-development-of-cancer
#7
Alyssa J Cozzo, Ashley M Fuller, Liza Makowski
Solid tumor growth and metastasis require the interaction of tumor cells with the surrounding tissue, leading to a view of tumors as tissue-level phenomena rather than exclusively cell-intrinsic anomalies. Due to the ubiquitous nature of adipose tissue, many types of solid tumors grow in proximate or direct contact with adipocytes and adipose-associated stromal and vascular components, such as fibroblasts and other connective tissue cells, stem and progenitor cells, endothelial cells, innate and adaptive immune cells, and extracellular signaling and matrix components...
December 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357127/molecular-regulation-of-sprouting-angiogenesis
#8
Camille L Duran, David W Howell, Jui M Dave, Rebecca L Smith, Melanie E Torrie, Jeffrey J Essner, Kayla J Bayless
The term angiogenesis arose in the 18th century. Several studies over the next 100 years laid the groundwork for initial studies performed by the Folkman laboratory, which were at first met with some opposition. Once overcome, the angiogenesis field has flourished due to studies on tumor angiogenesis and various developmental models that can be genetically manipulated, including mice and zebrafish. In addition, new discoveries have been aided by the ability to isolate primary endothelial cells, which has allowed dissection of various steps within angiogenesis...
December 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357126/integration-of-central-and-peripheral-regulation-of-the-circulation-during-exercise-acute-and-chronic-adaptations
#9
Patrick J Mueller, Philip S Clifford, Craig G Crandall, Scott A Smith, Paul J Fadel
Physical movement lasting any more than a few seconds (e.g., exercise), requires coordination of motor control with concomitant changes in the cardiovascular and respiratory support necessary to respond to the rapid increases in metabolic demand. Without such coordination, delivery of oxygen and removal of waste products become rate limiting and will restrict the duration, speed, and quality of movement. Fortunately, under healthy conditions, the central and peripheral nervous systems contribute importantly to this remarkable level of coordination via complex mechanisms that remain to be fully elucidated...
December 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357125/hemorrhagic-shock-and-the-microvasculature
#10
Ivo Torres Filho
The microvasculature plays a central role in the pathophysiology of hemorrhagic shock and is also involved in arguably all therapeutic attempts to reverse or minimize the adverse consequences of shock. Microvascular studies specific to hemorrhagic shock were reviewed and broadly grouped depending on whether data were obtained on animal or human subjects. Dedicated sections were assigned to microcirculatory changes in specific organs, and major categories of pathophysiological alterations and mechanisms such as oxygen distribution, ischemia, inflammation, glycocalyx changes, vasomotion, endothelial dysfunction, and coagulopathy as well as biomarkers and some therapeutic strategies...
December 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357124/role-of-perivascular-adipose-tissue-in-health-and-disease
#11
Maria S Fernández-Alfonso, Beatriz Somoza, Dmitry Tsvetkov, Artur Kuczmanski, Mick Dashwood, Marta Gil-Ortega
Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is cushion of fat tissue surrounding blood vessels, which is phenotypically different from other adipose tissue depots. PVAT is composed of adipocytes and stromal vascular fraction, constituted by different populations of immune cells, endothelial cells, and adipose-derived stromal cells. It expresses and releases an important number of vasoactive factors with paracrine effects on vascular structure and function. In healthy individuals, these factors elicit a net anticontractile and anti-inflammatory paracrine effect aimed at meeting hemodynamic and metabolic demands of specific organs and regions of the body...
December 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357123/triglyceride-metabolism-in-the-liver
#12
Michele Alves-Bezerra, David E Cohen
Triglyceride molecules represent the major form of storage and transport of fatty acids within cells and in the plasma. The liver is the central organ for fatty acid metabolism. Fatty acids accrue in liver by hepatocellular uptake from the plasma and by de novo biosynthesis. Fatty acids are eliminated by oxidation within the cell or by secretion into the plasma within triglyceride-rich very low-density lipoproteins. Notwithstanding high fluxes through these pathways, under normal circumstances the liver stores only small amounts of fatty acids as triglycerides...
December 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915335/ecm-related-myopathies-and-muscular-dystrophies-pros-and-cons-of-protein-therapies
#13
Pam M Van Ry, Tatiana M Fontelonga, Pamela Barraza-Flores, Apurva Sarathy, Andreia M Nunes, Dean J Burkin
Extracellular matrix (ECM) myopathies and muscular dystrophies are a group of genetic diseases caused by mutations in genes encoding proteins that provide critical links between muscle cells and the extracellular matrix. These include structural proteins of the ECM, muscle cell receptors, enzymes, and intracellular proteins. Loss of adhesion within the myomatrix results in progressive muscle weakness. For many ECM muscular dystrophies, symptoms can occur any time after birth and often result in reduced life expectancy...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915334/epithelial-organization-the-gut-and-beyond
#14
Nitesh Shashikanth, Sunil Yeruva, Ma Lora Drizella M Ong, Matthew A Odenwald, Roman Pavlyuk, Jerrold R Turner
Epithelial cells are essential to the survival and homeostasis of complex organisms. These cells cover the surfaces of all mucosae, the skin, and other compartmentalized structures essential to physiological function. In addition to maintenance of barriers that separate internal and external compartments, epithelia display a variety of organ-specific differentiated functions. Function is reflected in overall epithelial structure and organization, shape of individual cells, and proteins expressed by these cells...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915333/air-pollution-and-other-environmental-modulators-of-cardiac-function
#15
Matthew W Gorr, Michael J Falvo, Loren E Wold
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in developed regions and a worldwide health concern. Multiple external causes of CVD are well known, including obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, age, and sedentary behavior. Air pollution has been linked with the development of CVD for decades, though the mechanistic characterization remains unknown. In this comprehensive review, we detail the background and epidemiology of the effects of air pollution and other environmental modulators on the heart, including both short- and long-term consequences...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915332/obesity-and-cardiometabolic-defects-in-heart-failure-pathology
#16
Ganesh V Halade, Vasundhara Kain
Obesity is a major global epidemic that sets the stage for diverse multiple pathologies, including cardiovascular disease. The obesity-related low-grade chronic inflamed milieu is more pronounced in aging and responsive to cardiac dysfunction in heart failure pathology. Metabolic dysregulation of obesity integrates with immune reservoir in spleen and kidney network. Therefore, an integrative systems biology approach is necessary to delay progressive cardiac alternations. The purpose of this comprehensive review is to largely discuss the impact of obesity on the cardiovascular pathobiology in the context of problems and challenges, with major emphasis on the diversified models, and to study cardiac remodeling in obesity...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915331/dual-specificity-phosphatase-5-substrate-interaction-a-mechanistic-perspective
#17
Raman G Kutty, Marat R Talipov, Robert D Bongard, Rachel A Jones Lipinski, Noreena L Sweeney, Daniel S Sem, Rajendra Rathore, Ramani Ramchandran
The mammalian genome contains approximately 200 phosphatases that are responsible for catalytically removing phosphate groups from proteins. In this review, we discuss dual specificity phosphatase 5 (DUSP5). DUSP5 belongs to the dual specificity phosphatase (DUSP) family, so named after the family members' abilities to remove phosphate groups from serine/threonine and tyrosine residues. We provide a comparison of DUSP5's structure to other DUSPs and, using molecular modeling studies, provide an explanation for DUSP5's mechanistic interaction and specificity toward phospho-extracellular regulated kinase, its only known substrate...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915330/impact-of-adrenal-steroids-on-regulation-of-adipose-tissue
#18
Marco Infante, Andrea Armani, Caterina Mammi, Andrea Fabbri, Massimiliano Caprio
Corticosteroids are secreted by the adrenal glands and control the functions of adipose tissue via the activation of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR). In turn, adipocytes release a large variety of adipokines into the bloodstream, regulating the function of several organs and tissues, including the adrenal glands, hereby controlling corticosteroid production. In adipose tissue, the activation of the MR by glucocorticoids (GC) and aldosterone affects important processes such as adipocyte differentiation, oxidative stress, autophagic flux, adipokine expression as well as local production of GC through upregulation of the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1)...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915329/mitophagy-as-a-protective-mechanism-against-myocardial-stress
#19
Jihoon Nah, Shigeki Miyamoto, Junichi Sadoshima
Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that can undergo fusion, fission, biogenesis, and autophagic elimination to maintain mitochondrial quality control. Since the heart is in constant need of high amounts of energy, mitochondria, as a central energy supply source, play a crucial role in maintaining optimal cardiac performance. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with the pathophysiology of heart diseases. In non-dividing, post-mitotic cells such as cardiomyocytes, elimination of dysfunctional organelles is essential to maintaining cellular function because non-dividing cells cannot dilute dysfunctional organelles through cell division...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915328/cns-targets-of-adipokines
#20
Craig Beall, Lydia Hanna, Kate L J Ellacott
Our understanding of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ has been transformed over the last 20 years. During this time, a number of adipocyte-derived factors or adipokines have been identified. This article will review evidence for how adipokines acting via the central nervous system (CNS) regulate normal physiology and disease pathology. The reported CNS-mediated effects of adipokines are varied and include the regulation of energy homeostasis, autonomic nervous system activity, the reproductive axis, neurodevelopment, cardiovascular function, and cognition...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
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