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Comprehensive Physiology

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George Havenith, Dusan Fiala. Thermal Indices and Thermophysiological Modeling for Heat Stress. Compr Physiol 2016, 6: 255-302. doi: 10.1002/cphy.c140051 Corrections have been made to properly spell out the acronym PHS in two places in the article. The error was introduced during the copyediting process. On page 264, "which led to a new version of the standard, the Public Health System (PHS)" was corrected to "which led to a new version of the standard, the predicted heat strain (PHS)." On page 288, "PHS. To mitigate the adverse health effects…" was corrected to "Public health system...
April 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
Stephen Oppenheimer, David Cechetto
Cortical representation of the heart challenges the orthodox view that cardiac regulation is confined to stereotyped, preprogrammed and rigid responses to exteroceptive or interoceptive environmental stimuli. The insula has been the region most studied in this regard; the results of clinical, experimental, and functional radiological studies show a complex interweave of activity with patterns dynamically varying regarding lateralization and antero-posterior distribution of responsive insular regions. Either acting alone or together with other cortical areas including the anterior cingulate, medial prefrontal, and orbito-frontal cortices as part of a concerted network, the insula can imbue perceptions with autonomic color providing emotional salience, and aiding in learning and behavioral decision choice...
April 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
William Lehman
By interacting with the troponin-tropomyosin complex on myofibrillar thin filaments, Ca2+ and myosin govern the regulatory switching processes influencing contractile activity of mammalian cardiac and skeletal muscles. A possible explanation of the roles played by Ca2+ and myosin emerged in the early 1970s when a compelling "steric model" began to gain traction as a likely mechanism accounting for muscle regulation. In its most simple form, the model holds that, under the control of Ca2+ binding to troponin and myosin binding to actin, tropomyosin strands running along thin filaments either block myosin-binding sites on actin when muscles are relaxed or move away from them when muscles are activated...
April 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
Richard J A Wilson, Luc J Teppema
A debate has raged since the discovery of central and peripheral respiratory chemoreceptors as to whether the reflexes they mediate combine in an additive (i.e., no interaction), hypoadditive or hyperadditive manner. Here we critically review pertinent literature related to O2 and CO2 sensing from the perspective of system integration and summarize many of the studies on which these seemingly opposing views are based. Despite the intensity and quality of this debate, we have yet to reach consensus, either within or between species...
April 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
Timothy W Secomb
A review is presented of the physical principles governing the distribution of blood flow and blood pressure in the vascular system. The main factors involved are the pulsatile driving pressure generated by the heart, the flow characteristics of blood, and the geometric structure and mechanical properties of the vessels. The relationship between driving pressure and flow in a given vessel can be understood by considering the viscous and inertial forces acting on the blood. Depending on the vessel diameter and other physical parameters, a wide variety of flow phenomena can occur...
April 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
Eric P Schmidt, Wolfgang M Kuebler, Warren L Lee, Gregory P Downey
This manuscript will review our current understanding of cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs) relevant to the circulatory system, their physiological role in control of vascular homeostasis, innate and adaptive immune responses, and their importance in pathophysiological (disease) processes such as acute lung injury, atherosclerosis, and pulmonary hypertension. This is a complex and rapidly changing area of research that is incompletely understood. By design, we will begin with a brief overview of the structure and classification of the major groups of adhesion molecules and their physiological functions including cellular adhesion and signaling...
April 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
Karthik Suresh, Larissa A Shimoda
The circulation of the lung is unique both in volume and function. For example, it is the only organ with two circulations: the pulmonary circulation, the main function of which is gas exchange, and the bronchial circulation, a systemic vascular supply that provides oxygenated blood to the walls of the conducting airways, pulmonary arteries and veins. The pulmonary circulation accommodates the entire cardiac output, maintaining high blood flow at low intravascular arterial pressure. As compared with the systemic circulation, pulmonary arteries have thinner walls with much less vascular smooth muscle and a relative lack of basal tone...
April 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
Connie C W Hsia, Dallas M Hyde, Ewald R Weibel
Structural and functional complexities of the mammalian lung evolved to meet a unique set of challenges, namely, the provision of efficient delivery of inspired air to all lung units within a confined thoracic space, to build a large gas exchange surface associated with minimal barrier thickness and a microvascular network to accommodate the entire right ventricular cardiac output while withstanding cyclic mechanical stresses that increase several folds from rest to exercise. Intricate regulatory mechanisms at every level ensure that the dynamic capacities of ventilation, perfusion, diffusion, and chemical binding to hemoglobin are commensurate with usual metabolic demands and periodic extreme needs for activity and survival...
April 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
Stephen M Secor, Hannah V Carey
Extended bouts of fasting are ingrained in the ecology of many organisms, characterizing aspects of reproduction, development, hibernation, estivation, migration, and infrequent feeding habits. The challenge of long fasting episodes is the need to maintain physiological homeostasis while relying solely on endogenous resources. To meet that challenge, animals utilize an integrated repertoire of behavioral, physiological, and biochemical responses that reduce metabolic rates, maintain tissue structure and function, and thus enhance survival...
April 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
James F Staples
Many environmental conditions can constrain the ability of animals to obtain sufficient food energy, or transform that food energy into useful chemical forms. To survive extended periods under such conditions animals must suppress metabolic rate to conserve energy, water, or oxygen. Amongst small endotherms, this metabolic suppression is accompanied by and, in some cases, facilitated by a decrease in core body temperature-hibernation or daily torpor-though significant metabolic suppression can be achieved even with only modest cooling...
April 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
Frederik J Steyn, Virginie Tolle, Chen Chen, Jacques Epelbaum
This article reviews the main findings that emerged in the intervening years since the previous volume on hormonal control of growth in the section on the endocrine system of the Handbook of Physiology concerning the intra- and extrahypothalamic neuronal networks connecting growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin hypophysiotropic neurons and the integration between regulators of food intake/metabolism and GH release. Among these findings, the discovery of ghrelin still raises many unanswered questions...
April 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
Susan A Bloomfield, Daniel A Martinez, Ramon D Boudreaux, Anita V Mantri
The major alterations in bone and the dense connective tissues in humans and animals exposed to microgravity illustrate the dependency of these tissues' function on normal gravitational loading. Whether these alterations depend solely on the reduced mechanical loading of zero g or are compounded by fluid shifts, altered tissue blood flow, radiation exposure, and altered nutritional status is not yet well defined. Changes in the dense connective tissues and intervertebral disks are generally smaller in magnitude but occur more rapidly than those in mineralized bone with transitions to 0 g and during recovery once back to the loading provided by 1 g conditions...
April 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
Sarah Burbridge, Iain Stewart, Marysia Placzek
The neuroendocrine hypothalamus is composed of the tuberal and anterodorsal hypothalamus, together with the median eminence/neurohypophysis. It centrally governs wide-ranging physiological processes, including homeostasis of energy balance, circadian rhythms and stress responses, as well as growth and reproductive behaviours. Homeostasis is maintained by integrating sensory inputs and effecting responses via autonomic, endocrine and behavioural outputs, over diverse time-scales and throughout the lifecourse of an individual...
April 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
James P Herman, Jessica M McKlveen, Sriparna Ghosal, Brittany Kopp, Aynara Wulsin, Ryan Makinson, Jessie Scheimann, Brent Myers
The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis is required for stress adaptation. Activation of the HPA axis causes secretion of glucocorticoids, which act on multiple organ systems to redirect energy resources to meet real or anticipated demand. The HPA stress response is driven primarily by neural mechanisms, invoking corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) release from hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) neurons. Pathways activating CRH release are stressor dependent: reactive responses to homeostatic disruption frequently involve direct noradrenergic or peptidergic drive of PVN neurons by sensory relays, whereas anticipatory responses use oligosynaptic pathways originating in upstream limbic structures...
April 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
Syed Jalal Khundmiri, Rebecca D Murray, Eleanor Lederer
PTH and Vitamin D are two major regulators of mineral metabolism. They play critical roles in the maintenance of calcium and phosphate homeostasis as well as the development and maintenance of bone health. PTH and Vitamin D form a tightly controlled feedback cycle, PTH being a major stimulator of vitamin D synthesis in the kidney while vitamin D exerts negative feedback on PTH secretion. The major function of PTH and major physiologic regulator is circulating ionized calcium. The effects of PTH on gut, kidney, and bone serve to maintain serum calcium within a tight range...
April 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
Sun Lee, Alan P Farwell
In this review, we discuss the characteristics, pathophysiology, and therapeutic implications of the euthyroid sick syndrome. Multiple mechanisms have been identified to contribute to the development of euthyroid sick syndrome, including alterations in the iodothyronine deiodinases, thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion, thyroid hormone binding to plasma protein, transport of thyroid hormone in peripheral tissues, and thyroid hormone receptor activity. The euthyroid sick syndrome appears to be a complex mix of physiologic adaptation and pathologic response to acute illness...
March 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
Jean-Claude Rostain, Cécile Lavoute
Gases that are not metabolized by the organism are thus chemically inactive under normal conditions. Such gases include the "noble gases" of the Periodic Table as well as hydrogen and nitrogen. At increasing pressure, nitrogen induces narcosis at 4 absolute atmospheres (ATAs) and more in humans and at 11 ATA and more in rats. Electrophysiological and neuropharmacological studies suggest that the striatum is a target of nitrogen narcosis. Glutamate and dopamine release from the striatum in rats are decreased by exposure to nitrogen at a pressure of 31 ATA (75% of the anesthetic threshold)...
2016: Comprehensive Physiology
Chantal Housset, Yues Chrétien, Dominique Debray, Nicolas Chignard
The gallbladder stores and concentrates bile between meals. Gallbladder motor function is regulated by bile acids via the membrane bile acid receptor, TGR5, and by neurohormonal signals linked to digestion, for example, cholecystokinin and FGF15/19 intestinal hormones, which trigger gallbladder emptying and refilling, respectively. The cycle of gallbladder filling and emptying controls the flow of bile into the intestine and thereby the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids. The gallbladder also largely contributes to the regulation of bile composition by unique absorptive and secretory capacities...
2016: Comprehensive Physiology
David W Busija, Ibolya Rutkai, Somhrita Dutta, Prasad V Katakam
Mitochondria not only produce energy in the form of ATP to support the activities of cells comprising the neurovascular unit, but mitochondrial events, such as depolarization and/or ROS release, also initiate signaling events which protect the endothelium and neurons against lethal stresses via pre-/postconditioning as well as promote changes in cerebral vascular tone. Mitochondrial depolarization in vascular smooth muscle (VSM), via pharmacological activation of the ATP-dependent potassium channels on the inner mitochondrial membrane (mitoKATP channels), leads to vasorelaxation through generation of calcium sparks by the sarcoplasmic reticulum and subsequent downstream signaling mechanisms...
2016: Comprehensive Physiology
Dimitrios Baltzis, Jessie P Bakker, Sanjay R Patel, Aristidis Veves
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects a large proportion of adults, and is as an independent risk factor for cerebrovascular and cardiovascular disease. The repetitive airway obstruction that characterizes OSA results in intermittent hypoxia, intrathoracic pressure swings, and sleep fragmentation, which in turn lead to sympathetic activation, oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. This review outlines the associations between OSA and vascular diseases and describes basic mechanisms that may be responsible for this association, in both the micro- and macrocirculation...
2016: Comprehensive Physiology
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