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Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

Patrizia Marchetti, Ludmila Peeva, Andrew Livingston
Recent development of organic solvent nanofiltration (OSN) materials has been overwhelmingly directed toward tight membranes with ultrahigh permeance. However, emerging research into OSN applications is suggesting that improved separation selectivity is at least as important as further increases in membrane permeance. Membrane solutions are being proposed to improve selectivity, mostly by exploiting solute/solvent/membrane interactions and by fabricating tailored membranes. Because achieving a perfect separation with a single membrane stage is difficult, process engineering solutions, such as membrane cascades, are also being advocated...
May 16, 2017: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
Luke Cuculis, Charles M Schroeder
Exciting new advances in genome engineering have unlocked the potential to radically alter the treatment of human disease. In this review, we discuss the application of single-molecule techniques to uncover the mechanisms behind two premier classes of genome editing proteins: transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated system (Cas). These technologies have facilitated a striking number of gene editing applications in a variety of organisms; however, we are only beginning to understand the molecular mechanisms governing the DNA editing properties of these systems...
May 10, 2017: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
Joshua A Selekman, Jun Qiu, Kristy Tran, Jason Stevens, Victor Rosso, Eric Simmons, Yi Xiao, Jacob Janey
High-throughput (HT) techniques built upon laboratory automation technology and coupled to statistical experimental design and parallel experimentation have enabled the acceleration of chemical process development across multiple industries. HT technologies are often applied to interrogate wide, often multidimensional experimental spaces to inform the design and optimization of any number of unit operations that chemical engineers use in process development. In this review, we outline the evolution of HT technology and provide a comprehensive overview of how HT automation is used throughout different industries, with a particular focus on chemical and pharmaceutical process development...
May 1, 2017: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
Gulsum Meric, Anne S Robinson, Christopher J Roberts
Nonnative protein aggregation is the process by which otherwise folded, monomeric proteins are converted to stable aggregates composed of protein chains that have undergone some degree of unfolding. Often, a conformational change is needed to allow certain sequences of amino acids-so-called aggregation-prone regions (APRs)-to form stable interprotein contacts such as β-sheet structures. In addition to APRs that are needed to stabilize aggregates, other factors or driving forces are also important in inducing aggregation in practice...
June 7, 2017: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
Yun Jung Yang, Angela L Holmberg, Bradley D Olsen
Modern polymer science increasingly requires precise control over macromolecular structure and properties for engineering advanced materials and biomedical systems. The application of biological processes to design and synthesize artificial protein polymers offers a means for furthering macromolecular tunability, enabling polymers with dispersities of ∼1.0 and monomer-level sequence control. Taking inspiration from materials evolved in nature, scientists have created modular building blocks with simplified monomer sequences that replicate the function of natural systems...
June 7, 2017: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
Xia Wu, Seok-Joon Kwon, Jungbae Kim, Ravi S Kane, Jonathan S Dordick
Bacterial infections remain a major public health concern. However, broad-spectrum antibiotics largely target redundant mechanisms of bacterial survival and lead to gained resistance owing to microbial evolution. New methods are needed to attack bacterial infections, and we have only begun to seek out nature's vast arsenal of antimicrobial weapons. Enzymes offer one such weapon, and their diversity has been exploited to kill bacteria selectively through unique targets, particularly in bacterial cell walls, as well as nonselectively through generation of bactericidal molecules...
June 7, 2017: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
John Prausnitz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 7, 2017: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
Lynn F Gladden, Andrew J Sederman
This review aims to illustrate the diversity of measurements that can be made using magnetic resonance techniques, which have the potential to provide insights into chemical engineering systems that cannot readily be achieved using any other method. Perhaps the most notable advantage in using magnetic resonance methods is that both chemistry and transport can be followed in three dimensions, in optically opaque systems, and without the need for tracers to be introduced into the system. Here we focus on hydrodynamics and, in particular, applications to rheology, pipe flow, and fixed-bed and gas-solid fluidized bed reactors...
June 7, 2017: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
Nicole A Repina, Alyssa Rosenbloom, Abhirup Mukherjee, David V Schaffer, Ravi S Kane
Cells are bombarded by extrinsic signals that dynamically change in time and space. Such dynamic variations can exert profound effects on behaviors, including cellular signaling, organismal development, stem cell differentiation, normal tissue function, and disease processes such as cancer. Although classical genetic tools are well suited to introduce binary perturbations, new approaches have been necessary to investigate how dynamic signal variation may regulate cell behavior. This fundamental question is increasingly being addressed with optogenetics, a field focused on engineering and harnessing light-sensitive proteins to interface with cellular signaling pathways...
June 7, 2017: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
Ramesh Bhujade, Mandan Chidambaram, Avnish Kumar, Ajit Sapre
Algal oil as an alternative to fossil fuel has attracted attention since the 1940s, when it was discovered that many microalgae species can produce large amounts of lipids. Economics and energy security were the motivational factors for a spurt in algae research during the 1970s, 1990s, and early 2000s. Whenever crude prices declined, research on algae stopped. The scenario today is different. Even given low and volatile crude prices ($30-$50/barrel), interest in algae continues all over the world. Algae, with their cure-all characteristics, have the potential to provide sustainable solutions to problems in the energy-food-climate nexus...
June 7, 2017: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
Patrick Preuster, Alexander Alekseev, Peter Wasserscheid
Future energy systems will be determined by the increasing relevance of solar and wind energy. Crude oil and gas prices are expected to increase in the long run, and penalties for CO2 emissions will become a relevant economic factor. Solar- and wind-powered electricity will become significantly cheaper, such that hydrogen produced from electrolysis will be competitively priced against hydrogen manufactured from natural gas. However, to handle the unsteadiness of system input from fluctuating energy sources, energy storage technologies that cover the full scale of power (in megawatts) and energy storage amounts (in megawatt hours) are required...
June 7, 2017: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
L Robert Middleton, Karen I Winey
In this review we summarize recent efforts in understanding nanoaggregation in acid- and ion-containing polymer systems. The acid and ionic groups have specific interactions that drive aggregation and alter polymer behavior at the nano-, micro-, and bulk length scales. Advancements in synthetic methods, characterization techniques, and computer simulations have enabled researchers to better understand the morphologies and dynamics, particularly at the nanoscale. This overview of recent advancements in nano-aggregated polymer systems highlights the current understanding of the field and presents promising directions for future investigations and new applications...
April 26, 2017: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
J P Martin Trusler
Phase behavior and thermophysical properties of mixtures of carbon dioxide with various other substances are very important for the design and operation of carbon capture and storage (CCS) processes. The available empirical data are reviewed, together with some models for the calculation of these properties. The systems considered in detail are, first, mixtures of carbon dioxide, water, and salts; second, carbon dioxide-rich nonelectrolyte mixtures; and third, mixtures of carbon dioxide with water and amines...
April 17, 2017: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
José E Tabora, Nathan Domagalski
The application of statistics in pharmaceutical process research and development has evolved significantly over the past decades, motivated in part by the introduction of the Quality by Design paradigm, a landmark change in regulatory expectations for the level of scientific understanding associated with the manufacturing process. Today, statistical methods are increasingly applied to accelerate the characterization and optimization of new drugs created via numerous unit operations well known to the chemical engineering discipline...
April 17, 2017: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
V Faye McNeill
Although too small to be seen with the human eye, atmospheric particulate matter has major impacts on the world around us, from our health to global climate. Understanding the sources, properties, and transformations of these particles in the atmosphere is among the major challenges in air quality and climate research today. Significant progress has been made over the past two decades in understanding atmospheric aerosol chemistry and its connections to climate. Advances in technology for characterizing aerosol chemical composition and physical properties have enabled rapid discovery in this area...
April 17, 2017: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
Yong-Ha Kim, Lydia K Park, Sotira Yiacoumi, Costas Tsouris
Modular chemical process intensification can dramatically improve energy and process efficiencies of chemical processes through enhanced mass and heat transfer, application of external force fields, enhanced driving forces, and combinations of different unit operations, such as reaction and separation, in single-process equipment. These dramatic improvements lead to several benefits such as compactness or small footprint, energy and cost savings, enhanced safety, less waste production, and higher product quality...
April 7, 2017: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
Jisong Zhang, Kai Wang, Andrew R Teixeira, Klavs F Jensen, Guangsheng Luo
The past two decades have witnessed a rapid development of microreactors. A substantial number of reactions have been tested in microchemical systems, revealing the advantages of controlled residence time, enhanced transport efficiency, high product yield, and inherent safety. This review defines the microchemical system and describes its components and applications as well as the basic structures of micromixers. We focus on mixing, flow dynamics, and mass and heat transfer in microreactors along with three strategies for scaling up microreactors: parallel numbering-up, consecutive numbering-up, and scale-out...
April 3, 2017: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
Irina Smirnova, Pavel Gurikov
The present review deals with recent advances in the rapidly growing field of aerogel research and technology. The major focus of the review lies in approaches that allow tailoring of aerogel properties to meet applicationdriven requirements. The decisive properties of aerogels are discussed with regard to existing and potential application areas. Various tailoring strategies, such as modulation of the pore structure, coating, surface modification, and post-treatment, are illustrated by results of the last decade...
April 3, 2017: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
Qi Chen, I E Grossmann
This article first reviews recent developments in process synthesis and discusses some of the major challenges in the theory and practice in this area. Next, the article reviews key concepts in optimization-based conceptual design, namely superstructure representations, multilevel models, optimization methods, and modeling environments. A brief review of the synthesis of major subsystems and flowsheets is presented. Finally, the article closes with a critical assessment and future research challenges for the process synthesis area...
March 27, 2017: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
Sven H Behrens, Victor Breedveld, Maritza Mujica, Michael A Filler
Nanomanufacturing-the fabrication of macroscopic products from well-defined nanoscale building blocks-in a truly scalable and versatile manner is still far from our current reality. Here, we describe the barriers to large-scale nanomanufacturing and identify routes to overcome them. We argue for nanomanufacturing systems consisting of an iterative sequence of synthesis/ assembly and separation/sorting unit operations, analogous to those used in chemicals manufacturing. In addition to performance and economic considerations, phenomena unique to the nanoscale must guide the design of each unit operation and the overall process flow...
March 27, 2017: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
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