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Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27276553/polymer-fluid-dynamics-continuum-and-molecular-approaches
#1
R B Bird, A J Giacomin
To solve problems in polymer fluid dynamics, one needs the equations of continuity, motion, and energy. The last two equations contain the stress tensor and the heat-flux vector for the material. There are two ways to formulate the stress tensor: (a) One can write a continuum expression for the stress tensor in terms of kinematic tensors, or (b) one can select a molecular model that represents the polymer molecule and then develop an expression for the stress tensor from kinetic theory. The advantage of the kinetic theory approach is that one gets information about the relation between the molecular structure of the polymers and the rheological properties...
June 7, 2016: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27276552/biomanufacturing-of-therapeutic-cells-state-of-the-art-current-challenges-and-future-perspectives
#2
Kyung-Ho Roh, Robert M Nerem, Krishnendu Roy
Stem cells and other functionally defined therapeutic cells (e.g., T cells) are promising to bring hope of a permanent cure for diseases and disorders that currently cannot be cured by conventional drugs or biological molecules. This paradigm shift in modern medicine of using cells as novel therapeutics can be realized only if suitable manufacturing technologies for large-scale, cost-effective, reproducible production of high-quality cells can be developed. Here we review the state of the art in therapeutic cell manufacturing, including cell purification and isolation, activation and differentiation, genetic modification, expansion, packaging, and preservation...
June 7, 2016: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27276551/thermodynamics-of-bioreactions
#3
Christoph Held, Gabriele Sadowski
Thermodynamic principles have been applied to enzyme-catalyzed reactions since the beginning of the 1930s in an attempt to understand metabolic pathways. Currently, thermodynamics is also applied to the design and analysis of biotechnological processes. The key thermodynamic quantity is the Gibbs energy of reaction, which must be negative for a reaction to occur spontaneously. However, the application of thermodynamic feasibility studies sometimes yields positive Gibbs energies of reaction even for reactions that are known to occur spontaneously, such as glycolysis...
June 7, 2016: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27276550/polymer-thin-films-and-surface-modification-by-chemical-vapor-deposition-recent-progress
#4
Nan Chen, Do Han Kim, Peter Kovacik, Hossein Sojoudi, Minghui Wang, Karen K Gleason
Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) polymerization uses vapor phase monomeric reactants to synthesize organic thin films directly on substrates. These thin films are desirable as conformal surface engineering materials and functional layers. The facile tunability of the films and their surface properties allow successful integration of CVD thin films into prototypes for applications in surface modification, device fabrication, and protective films. CVD polymers also bridge microfabrication technology with chemical and biological systems...
June 7, 2016: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27276549/a-selection-of-recent-advances-in-c1-chemistry
#5
Carl Mesters
This review presents a selection of recent publications related to the chemistry and catalysis of C1 molecules, including methane, methanol, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. These molecules play an important role in the current supply of energy and chemicals and will likely become even more relevant because of the need to decarbonize fuels (shift from coal to natural gas) in line with CO2 capture and use to mitigate global warming, as well as a gradual shift on the supply side from crude oil to natural gas...
June 7, 2016: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27276548/neutron-scattering-from-polymers-five-decades-of-developing-possibilities
#6
J S Higgins
The first three decades of my research career closely map the development of neutron scattering techniques for the study of molecular behavior. At the same time, the theoretical understanding of organization and motion of polymer molecules, especially in the bulk state, was developing rapidly and providing many predictions crying out for experimental verification. Neutron scattering is an ideal technique for providing the necessary evidence. This autobiographical essay describes the applications by my research group and other collaborators of increasingly sophisticated neutron scattering techniques to observe and understand molecular behavior in polymeric materials...
June 7, 2016: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27146557/engineering-delivery-vehicles-for-genome-editing
#7
Christopher E Nelson, Charles A Gersbach
The field of genome engineering has created new possibilities for gene therapy, including improved animal models of disease, engineered cell therapies, and in vivo gene repair. The most significant challenge for the clinical translation of genome engineering is the development of safe and effective delivery vehicles. A large body of work has applied genome engineering to genetic modification in vitro, and clinical trials have begun using cells modified by genome editing. Now, promising preclinical work is beginning to apply these tools in vivo...
June 7, 2016: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27146556/nanoparticle-based-modulation-of-the-immune-system
#8
Ronnie H Fang, Liangfang Zhang
The immune system is an incredibly complex biological network that plays a significant role in almost all disease pathogenesis. With an increased understanding of how this vital system operates, there has been a great emphasis on leveraging, manipulating, and/or supplementing endogenous immunity to better prevent or treat different disease states. More recently, the advent of nanotechnology has ushered in a plethora of new nanoparticle-based platforms that can be used to improve existing immunomodulation modalities...
June 7, 2016: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27146555/lewis-acid-zeolites-for-biomass-conversion-perspectives-and-challenges-on-reactivity-synthesis-and-stability
#9
Helen Y Luo, Jennifer D Lewis, Yuriy Román-Leshkov
Zeolites containing Sn, Ti, Zr, Hf, Nb, or Ta heteroatoms are versatile catalysts for the activation and conversion of oxygenated molecules owing to the unique Lewis acid character of their tetrahedral metal sites. Through fluoride-mediated synthesis, hydrophobic Lewis acid zeolites can behave as water-tolerant catalysts, which has resulted in a recent surge of experimental and computational studies in the field of biomass conversion. However, many open questions still surround these materials, especially relating to the nature of their active sites...
June 7, 2016: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27088667/new-vistas-in-chemical-product-and-process-design
#10
Lei Zhang, Deenesh K Babi, Rafiqul Gani
Design of chemicals-based products is broadly classified into those that are process centered and those that are product centered. In this article, the designs of both classes of products are reviewed from a process systems point of view; developments related to the design of the chemical product, its corresponding process, and its integration are highlighted. Although significant advances have been made in the development of systematic model-based techniques for process design (also for optimization, operation, and control), much work is needed to reach the same level for product design...
June 7, 2016: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27088666/theoretical-heterogeneous-catalysis-scaling-relationships-and-computational-catalyst-design
#11
Jeffrey Greeley
Scaling relationships are theoretical constructs that relate the binding energies of a wide variety of catalytic intermediates across a range of catalyst surfaces. Such relationships are ultimately derived from bond order conservation principles that were first introduced several decades ago. Through the growing power of computational surface science and catalysis, these concepts and their applications have recently begun to have a major impact in studies of catalytic reactivity and heterogeneous catalyst design...
June 7, 2016: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27070767/the-carbon-water-interface-modeling-challenges-and-opportunities-for-the-water-energy-nexus
#12
Alberto Striolo, Angelos Michaelides, Laurent Joly
Providing clean water and sufficient affordable energy to all without compromising the environment is a key priority in the scientific community. Many recent studies have focused on carbon-based devices in the hope of addressing this grand challenge, justifying and motivating detailed studies of water in contact with carbonaceous materials. Such studies are becoming increasingly important because of the miniaturization of newly proposed devices, with ubiquitous nanopores, large surface-to-volume ratio, and many, perhaps most of the water molecules in contact with a carbon-based surface...
June 7, 2016: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27070766/progress-in-the-development-of-oxygen-reduction-reaction-catalysts-for-low-temperature-fuel-cells
#13
Dongguo Li, Haifeng Lv, Yijin Kang, Nenad M Markovic, Vojislav R Stamenkovic
We present a brief summary on the most recent progress in the design of catalysts for electrochemical reduction of oxygen. The main challenge in the wide spread of fuel cell technology is to lower the content of, or even eliminate, Pt and other precious metals in catalysts without sacrificing their performance. Pt-based nanosized catalysts with novel and refined architectures continue to dominate in catalytic performance, and formation of Pt-skin-like surfaces is key to achieving the highest values in activity...
June 7, 2016: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27070765/complex-fluids-and-hydraulic-fracturing
#14
Alexander C Barbati, Jean Desroches, Agathe Robisson, Gareth H McKinley
Nearly 70 years old, hydraulic fracturing is a core technique for stimulating hydrocarbon production in a majority of oil and gas reservoirs. Complex fluids are implemented in nearly every step of the fracturing process, most significantly to generate and sustain fractures and transport and distribute proppant particles during and following fluid injection. An extremely wide range of complex fluids are used: naturally occurring polysaccharide and synthetic polymer solutions, aqueous physical and chemical gels, organic gels, micellar surfactant solutions, emulsions, and foams...
June 7, 2016: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27070764/computer-simulations-of-ion-transport-in-polymer-electrolyte-membranes
#15
Santosh Mogurampelly, Oleg Borodin, Venkat Ganesan
Understanding the mechanisms and optimizing ion transport in polymer membranes have been the subject of active research for more than three decades. We present an overview of the progress and challenges involved with the modeling and simulation aspects of the ion transport properties of polymer membranes. We are concerned mainly with atomistic and coarser level simulation studies and discuss some salient work in the context of pure binary and single ion conducting polymer electrolytes, polymer nanocomposites, block copolymers, and ionic liquid-based hybrid electrolytes...
June 7, 2016: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27070763/advances-in-nanoimprint-lithography
#16
Matthew C Traub, Whitney Longsine, Van N Truskett
Nanoimprint lithography (NIL), a molding process, can replicate features <10 nm over large areas with long-range order. We describe the early development and fundamental principles underlying the two most commonly used types of NIL, thermal and UV, and contrast them with conventional photolithography methods used in the semiconductor industry. We then describe current advances toward full commercial industrialization of UV-curable NIL (UV-NIL) technology for integrated circuit production. We conclude with brief overviews of some emerging areas of research, from photonics to biotechnology, in which the ability of NIL to fabricate structures of arbitrary geometry is providing new paths for development...
June 7, 2016: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27023663/thiol-disulfide-exchange-reactions-in-the-mammalian-extracellular-environment
#17
Michael C Yi, Chaitan Khosla
Disulfide bonds represent versatile posttranslational modifications whose roles encompass the structure, catalysis, and regulation of protein function. Due to the oxidizing nature of the extracellular environment, disulfide bonds found in secreted proteins were once believed to be inert. This notion has been challenged by the discovery of redox-sensitive disulfides that, once cleaved, can lead to changes in protein activity. These functional disulfides are twisted into unique configurations, leading to high strain and potential energy...
June 7, 2016: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27023662/status-of-solid-state-lighting-product-development-and-future-trends-for-general-illumination
#18
Thomas M Katona, P Morgan Pattison, Steve Paolini
After decades of research and development on fabrication of efficient light-emitting diodes (LEDs) throughout the visible spectrum, LED-based lighting has reached unparalleled performance with respect to energy efficiency and has become the light source for virtually all new lighting products being designed today. The development of the core light sources and their subsequent integration into lighting systems continue to present unique challenges and opportunities for product designers. We review these systems and the current development status, as well as provide context for the trends in solid state lighting that are leading to the development of value-added lighting solutions that extend the domain of lighting beyond light generation, into fields as diverse as communications, healthcare, and agricultural production...
June 7, 2016: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27023661/the-energy-water-food-nexus
#19
D L Keairns, R C Darton, A Irabien
As the global population grows in size and increasingly lives in cities, and with lifestyles based on greater material consumption, more attention is being given to the integrated system that supplies our energy, water, and food, the Nexus. There is also mounting concern about effects on the Nexus of climate change and damage to the natural environment that provides essential ecosystem services. Nexus analysis applies existing techniques, such as computational modelling and Life Cycle Assessment, but new frameworks and tools are needed, including those that will integrate societal and technical dimensions...
June 7, 2016: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27023660/switchable-materials-for-smart-windows
#20
Yang Wang, Evan L Runnerstrom, Delia J Milliron
This article reviews the basic principles of and recent developments in electrochromic, photochromic, and thermochromic materials for applications in smart windows. Compared with current static windows, smart windows can dynamically modulate the transmittance of solar irradiation based on weather conditions and personal preferences, thus simultaneously improving building energy efficiency and indoor human comfort. Although some smart windows are commercially available, their widespread implementation has not yet been realized...
June 7, 2016: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
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