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Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

Patrizia Marchetti, Ludmila Peeva, Andrew Livingston
Recent development of organic solvent nanofiltration (OSN) materials has been overwhelmingly directed toward tight membranes with ultrahigh permeance. However, emerging research into OSN applications is suggesting that improved separation selectivity is at least as important as further increases in membrane permeance. Membrane solutions are being proposed to improve selectivity, mostly by exploiting solute/solvent/membrane interactions and by fabricating tailored membranes. Because achieving a perfect separation with a single membrane stage is difficult, process engineering solutions, such as membrane cascades, are also being advocated...
May 16, 2017: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
Luke Cuculis, Charles M Schroeder
Exciting new advances in genome engineering have unlocked the potential to radically alter the treatment of human disease. In this review, we discuss the application of single-molecule techniques to uncover the mechanisms behind two premier classes of genome editing proteins: transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated system (Cas). These technologies have facilitated a striking number of gene editing applications in a variety of organisms; however, we are only beginning to understand the molecular mechanisms governing the DNA editing properties of these systems...
May 10, 2017: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
Joshua A Selekman, Jun Qiu, Kristy Tran, Jason Stevens, Victor Rosso, Eric Simmons, Yi Xiao, Jacob Janey
High-throughput (HT) techniques built upon laboratory automation technology and coupled to statistical experimental design and parallel experimentation have enabled the acceleration of chemical process development across multiple industries. HT technologies are often applied to interrogate wide, often multidimensional experimental spaces to inform the design and optimization of any number of unit operations that chemical engineers use in process development. In this review, we outline the evolution of HT technology and provide a comprehensive overview of how HT automation is used throughout different industries, with a particular focus on chemical and pharmaceutical process development...
May 1, 2017: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
L Robert Middleton, Karen I Winey
In this review we summarize recent efforts in understanding nanoaggregation in acid- and ion-containing polymer systems. The acid and ionic groups have specific interactions that drive aggregation and alter polymer behavior at the nano-, micro-, and bulk length scales. Advancements in synthetic methods, characterization techniques, and computer simulations have enabled researchers to better understand the morphologies and dynamics, particularly at the nanoscale. This overview of recent advancements in nano-aggregated polymer systems highlights the current understanding of the field and presents promising directions for future investigations and new applications...
April 26, 2017: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
J P Martin Trusler
Phase behavior and thermophysical properties of mixtures of carbon dioxide with various other substances are very important for the design and operation of carbon capture and storage (CCS) processes. The available empirical data are reviewed, together with some models for the calculation of these properties. The systems considered in detail are, first, mixtures of carbon dioxide, water, and salts; second, carbon dioxide-rich nonelectrolyte mixtures; and third, mixtures of carbon dioxide with water and amines...
April 17, 2017: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
José E Tabora, Nathan Domagalski
The application of statistics in pharmaceutical process research and development has evolved significantly over the past decades, motivated in part by the introduction of the Quality by Design paradigm, a landmark change in regulatory expectations for the level of scientific understanding associated with the manufacturing process. Today, statistical methods are increasingly applied to accelerate the characterization and optimization of new drugs created via numerous unit operations well known to the chemical engineering discipline...
April 17, 2017: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
V Faye McNeill
Although too small to be seen with the human eye, atmospheric particulate matter has major impacts on the world around us, from our health to global climate. Understanding the sources, properties, and transformations of these particles in the atmosphere is among the major challenges in air quality and climate research today. Significant progress has been made over the past two decades in understanding atmospheric aerosol chemistry and its connections to climate. Advances in technology for characterizing aerosol chemical composition and physical properties have enabled rapid discovery in this area...
April 17, 2017: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
Yong-Ha Kim, Lydia K Park, Sotira Yiacoumi, Costas Tsouris
Modular chemical process intensification can dramatically improve energy and process efficiencies of chemical processes through enhanced mass and heat transfer, application of external force fields, enhanced driving forces, and combinations of different unit operations, such as reaction and separation, in single-process equipment. These dramatic improvements lead to several benefits such as compactness or small footprint, energy and cost savings, enhanced safety, less waste production, and higher product quality...
April 7, 2017: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
Jisong Zhang, Kai Wang, Andrew R Teixeira, Klavs F Jensen, Guangsheng Luo
The past two decades have witnessed a rapid development of microreactors. A substantial number of reactions have been tested in microchemical systems, revealing the advantages of controlled residence time, enhanced transport efficiency, high product yield, and inherent safety. This review defines the microchemical system and describes its components and applications as well as the basic structures of micromixers. We focus on mixing, flow dynamics, and mass and heat transfer in microreactors along with three strategies for scaling up microreactors: parallel numbering-up, consecutive numbering-up, and scale-out...
April 3, 2017: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
Irina Smirnova, Pavel Gurikov
The present review deals with recent advances in the rapidly growing field of aerogel research and technology. The major focus of the review lies in approaches that allow tailoring of aerogel properties to meet applicationdriven requirements. The decisive properties of aerogels are discussed with regard to existing and potential application areas. Various tailoring strategies, such as modulation of the pore structure, coating, surface modification, and post-treatment, are illustrated by results of the last decade...
April 3, 2017: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
Qi Chen, I E Grossmann
This article first reviews recent developments in process synthesis and discusses some of the major challenges in the theory and practice in this area. Next, the article reviews key concepts in optimization-based conceptual design, namely superstructure representations, multilevel models, optimization methods, and modeling environments. A brief review of the synthesis of major subsystems and flowsheets is presented. Finally, the article closes with a critical assessment and future research challenges for the process synthesis area...
March 27, 2017: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
Sven H Behrens, Victor Breedveld, Maritza Mujica, Michael A Filler
Nanomanufacturing-the fabrication of macroscopic products from well-defined nanoscale building blocks-in a truly scalable and versatile manner is still far from our current reality. Here, we describe the barriers to large-scale nanomanufacturing and identify routes to overcome them. We argue for nanomanufacturing systems consisting of an iterative sequence of synthesis/ assembly and separation/sorting unit operations, analogous to those used in chemicals manufacturing. In addition to performance and economic considerations, phenomena unique to the nanoscale must guide the design of each unit operation and the overall process flow...
March 27, 2017: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
Mark R Prausnitz
Microneedle patches (MNPs) contain arrays of solid needles measuring hundreds of microns in length that deliver drugs and vaccines into skin in a painless, easy-to-use manner. Optimal MNP design balances multiple interdependent parameters that determine mechanical strength, skininsertion reliability, drug delivery efficiency, painlessness, manufacturability, and other features of MNPs that affect their performance. MNPs can be made by adapting various microfabrication technologies for delivery of small-molecule drugs, biologics, and vaccines targeted to the skin, which can have pharmacokinetic and immunologic advantages...
March 24, 2017: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
C W Bamforth
The brewing of beer is an ancient biotechnology, the unit processes of which have not changed in hundreds of years. Equally, scientific study within the brewing industry not only has ensured that modern beer making is highly controlled, leading to highly consistent, high-quality, healthful beverages, but also has informed many other fermentation-based industries. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Volume 8 is June 7, 2017. Please see http://www...
March 15, 2017: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
Hannah Nguyen, Robert F DeJaco, Nitish Mittal, J Ilja Siepmann, Michael Tsapatsis, Mark A Snyder, Wei Fan, Basudeb Saha, Dionisios G Vlachos
With technological advancement of thermocatalytic processes for valorizing renewable biomass carbon, development of effective separation technologies for selective recovery of bioproducts from complex reaction media and their purification becomes essential. The high thermal sensitivity of biomass intermediates and their low volatility and high reactivity, along with the use of dilute solutions, make the bioproducts separations energy intensive and expensive. Novel separation techniques, including solvent extraction in biphasic systems and reactive adsorption using zeolite and carbon sorbents, membranes, and chromatography, have been developed...
March 15, 2017: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
Leo Chiang, Bo Lu, Ivan Castillo
Big data analytics is the journey to turn data into insights for more informed business and operational decisions. As the chemical engineering community is collecting more data (volume) from different sources (variety), this journey becomes more challenging in terms of using the right data and the right tools (analytics) to make the right decisions in real time (velocity). This article highlights recent big data advancements in five industries, including chemicals, energy, semiconductors, pharmaceuticals, and food, and then discusses technical, platform, and culture challenges...
February 27, 2017: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
Joseph A Singh, Nuoya Yang, Stacey F Bent
A new generation of catalysts is needed to meet society's energy and resource requirements. Current catalyst synthesis does not fully achieve optimum control of composition, size, and structure. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is an emerging technique that allows synthesizing of highly controlled catalysts in the forms of films, nanoparticles, and single sites. The addition of ALD coatings can also be used to introduce promoters and improve the stability of traditional catalysts. Evolving research shows promise for applying ALD to understand catalytically active sites and create next-generation catalysts using advanced 3D nanostructures...
February 27, 2017: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
John J McKetta, Thomas M Truskett
John J. McKetta, Jr. is a foundational figure in chemical engineering education and energy policy in the United States. An authority on the thermodynamic properties of hydrocarbons and an energy adviser to several US presidents, McKetta helped to educate and mentor thousands of students at the University of Texas at Austin for over 40 years, many of whom became leading figures in the energy and petrochemical industries, as well as in academia. As dean of the College of Engineering, McKetta helped to establish a bioengineering program, which later became the Biomedical Engineering Department, at the University of Texas at Austin, and was a tireless advocate for excellence and a focus on the student...
January 20, 2017: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
R B Bird, A J Giacomin
To solve problems in polymer fluid dynamics, one needs the equations of continuity, motion, and energy. The last two equations contain the stress tensor and the heat-flux vector for the material. There are two ways to formulate the stress tensor: (a) One can write a continuum expression for the stress tensor in terms of kinematic tensors, or (b) one can select a molecular model that represents the polymer molecule and then develop an expression for the stress tensor from kinetic theory. The advantage of the kinetic theory approach is that one gets information about the relation between the molecular structure of the polymers and the rheological properties...
June 7, 2016: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
Kyung-Ho Roh, Robert M Nerem, Krishnendu Roy
Stem cells and other functionally defined therapeutic cells (e.g., T cells) are promising to bring hope of a permanent cure for diseases and disorders that currently cannot be cured by conventional drugs or biological molecules. This paradigm shift in modern medicine of using cells as novel therapeutics can be realized only if suitable manufacturing technologies for large-scale, cost-effective, reproducible production of high-quality cells can be developed. Here we review the state of the art in therapeutic cell manufacturing, including cell purification and isolation, activation and differentiation, genetic modification, expansion, packaging, and preservation...
June 7, 2016: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
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