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Marouane Ouhnana, Frederick A A Kingdom
The motion trajectory of an object's cast shadow has been shown to alter the perceived trajectory of a casting object, an effect that holds even if the cast shadow appears unrealistic. This raises the question of whether a cast shadow per se is necessary for this influence, a question that has been studied only with stationary targets. We examined the relative influence of a shadow and a spherical object on the perceived motion trajectory of an identical spherical object, using a paradigm similar to Kersten, Mamassian, and Knill's ball-in-box animation...
November 2016: I-Perception
Akihiko Gobara, Yuki Yamada, Kayo Miura
The present study investigated whether aurally presented mimetic words affect the judgment of the final position of a moving object. In Experiment 1, horizontal apparent motion of a visual target was presented, and an auditory mimetic word of "byun" (representing rapid forward motion), "pitari" (representing stop of motion), or "nisahi" (nonsense syllable) was presented via headphones. Observers were asked to judge which of two test stimuli was horizontally aligned with the target. The results showed that forward displacement in the "pitari" condition was significantly smaller than in the "byun" and "nisahi" conditions...
November 2016: I-Perception
Stephanie Lay, Nicola Brace, Graham Pike, Frank Pollick
The uncanny valley effect (UVE) is a negative emotional response experienced when encountering entities that appear almost human. Research on the UVE typically investigates individual, or collections of, near human entities but may be prone to methodological circularity unless the properties that give rise to the emotional response are appropriately defined and quantified. In addition, many studies do not sufficiently control the variation in human likeness portrayed in stimulus images, meaning that the nature of stimuli that elicit the UVE is also not well defined or quantified...
November 2016: I-Perception
Cyril Vienne, Justin Plantier, Pascaline Neveu, Anne-Emmanuelle Priot
Vertical binocular disparity is a source of distance information allowing the portrayal of the layout and 3D metrics of the visual space. The role of vertical disparity in the perception of depth, size, curvature, or slant of surfaces was revealed in several previous studies using cue conflict paradigms. In this study, we varied the configuration of stereo-cameras to investigate how changes in the horizontal and vertical disparity fields, conflicting with the vergence cue, affect perceived distance and depth...
November 2016: I-Perception
Richard Wiseman
The Beuchet Chair is a powerful and highly popular optical illusion. The illusion involves two reasonably large pieces of apparatus: an oversized chair seat and four normal-sized chair legs. When properly arranged and viewed from a precise location, a person standing on the seat appears to be much smaller than they actually are. Although compelling, the illusion is relatively challenging and expensive to construct, requires a large amount of space to stage, and is not especially portable. Here, I outline a new version of the illusion that just involves a small piece of cardboard, a cloth, and a tripod...
November 2016: I-Perception
Ruth Ogden, Alexis D J Makin, Letizia Palumbo, Marco Bertamini
Previous research has shown that explicit emotional content or physical image properties (e.g., luminance, size, and numerosity) alter subjective duration. Palumbo recently demonstrated that the presence or absence of abstract reflectional symmetry also influenced subjective duration. Here, we explored this phenomenon further by varying the type of symmetry (reflection or rotation) and the objective duration of stimulus presentation (less or more than 1 second). Experiment 1 used a verbal estimation task in which participants estimated the presentation duration of reflection, rotation symmetry, or random square-field patterns...
November 2016: I-Perception
Fabian Gebauer, Marius H Raab, Claus-Christian Carbon
People typically process information to confirm their prior held attitudes and stereotypes. As the political relations between NATO and Russia have distinctively drifted apart in recent years, we were interested in how far old-established color depictions referring to the Cold War's demarcations (USSR = red; NATO = blue) might reinforce people's political perception of an East versus West antagonism nowadays. Participants received a fabricated news article in which both world powers were either depicted on a map as Russia = red and NATO = blue or vice versa (Study 1)...
November 2016: I-Perception
Jan Koenderink, Andrea van Doorn, Baingio Pinna, Robert Pepperell
We investigated the familiar phenomenon of the uncanny feeling that represented people in frontal pose invariably appear to "face you" from wherever you stand. We deploy two different methods. The stimuli include the conventional one-a flat portrait rocking back and forth about a vertical axis-augmented with two novel variations. In one alternative, the portrait frame rotates whereas the actual portrait stays motionless and fronto-parallel; in the other, we replace the (flat!) portrait with a volumetric object...
November 2016: I-Perception
James T Townsend
The slope of the set size function as a critical statistic first gained favor in the 1960s due in large part to the seminal papers on short-term memory search by Saul Sternberg and soon, many others. In the 1980s, the slope statistic reemerged in much the same role in visual search as Anne Treisman and again, soon many others brought that research topic into great prominence. This note offers the historical and current perspective of the present author, who has devoted a significant portion of his theoretical efforts to this and related topics over the past 50 years...
November 2016: I-Perception
Árni Kristjánsson
Wolfe (2016) responds to my article (Kristjánsson, 2015), arguing among other things, that the differences in slope by response method in my data reflect speed accuracy trade-offs. But when reaction times and errors are combined in one score (inverse efficiency) to sidestep speed accuracy trade-offs, slope differences still remain. The problem that slopes, which are thought to measure search speed, differ by response type therefore remains.
November 2016: I-Perception
Hong-Wen Cao, Kai-Fu Yang, Hong-Mei Yan
This study investigated the character decomposition and transposition processes of Chinese two-character compound words (canonical and transposed words) and pseudowords in the right and left visual fields using a dual-target rapid serial visual presentation paradigm. The results confirmed a right visual field superiority for canonical words, but this advantage vanished for transposed words. The findings further indicated that the same quality of lexical processing could be obtained from the foveal and parafoveal regions of the right and left visual fields, regardless of the character order, but not in the periphery of the right visual field...
November 2016: I-Perception
Kevin R Brooks, Peter Thompson
The perception of speed is susceptible to manipulations of image contrast, both for simple sine wave and more complex stimuli, such that low-contrast patterns generally appear slower than their high-contrast equivalents. It is not known whether the crucial factor is the contrast of the underlying Fourier components or the contrast of the overall complex pattern. Here, two experiments investigate this issue using compound gratings, comprising two vertical sine wave stimuli with equal contrast, but a 3:1 spatial frequency ratio...
September 2016: I-Perception
Avital S Cherniawsky, Kathy T Mullen
The apparent contrast of a plaid is a reflection of the neural relationship between the responses to its two orthogonal component gratings. To investigate the perceived contrast summation of the responses to component gratings in plaids, we compared the apparent contrasts of monocular plaids to a component grating presented alone across chromaticity and spatial frequency. Observers performed a contrast-matching task for red-green color and luminance stimuli at low- and medium-spatial frequencies. Using the measured points of subjective equality between plaids and gratings, we evaluate perceived contrast summation across conditions, which may vary between 1 (no summation) and 2 (full summation)...
September 2016: I-Perception
Steven Vanmarcke, Filip Calders, Johan Wagemans
Although categorization can take place at different levels of abstraction, classic studies on semantic labeling identified the basic level, for example, dog, as entry point for categorization. Ultrarapid categorization tasks have contradicted these findings, indicating that participants are faster at detecting superordinate-level information, for example, animal, in a complex visual image. We argue that both seemingly contradictive findings can be reconciled within the framework of parallel distributed processing and its successor Leabra (Local, Error-driven and Associative, Biologically Realistic Algorithm)...
September 2016: I-Perception
Markus Bindemann, Matthew Fysh, Katie Cross, Rebecca Watts
This study examined the effect of time pressure on face-matching accuracy. Across two experiments, observers decided whether pairs of faces depict one person or different people. Time pressure was exerted via two additional displays, which were constantly updated to inform observers on whether they were on track to meet or miss a time target. In this paradigm, faces were matched under increasing or decreasing (Experiment 1) and constant time pressure (Experiment 2), which varied from 10 to 2 seconds. In both experiments, time pressure reduced accuracy, but the point at which this declined varied from 8 to 2 seconds...
September 2016: I-Perception
David R R Smith
Whispered vowels, produced with no vocal fold vibration, lack the periodic temporal fine structure which in voiced vowels underlies the perceptual attribute of pitch (a salient auditory cue to speaker sex). Voiced vowels possess no temporal fine structure at very short durations (below two glottal cycles). The prediction was that speaker-sex discrimination performance for whispered and voiced vowels would be similar for very short durations but, as stimulus duration increases, voiced vowel performance would improve relative to whispered vowel performance as pitch information becomes available...
September 2016: I-Perception
Dafni Krystallidou, Peter Thompson
Visual input powerfully modulates the dynamics of tactile orientation perception. This study investigated the transfer of the tilt aftereffect (TAE) from vision to somatosensation. In a visual tilt adaptation paradigm, participants were exposed to clockwise or anticlockwise visual tilt, followed by three brief tactile two-point stimuli delivered on their forehead. In a two-alternative forced choice task, participants had to indicate whether the haptic stimulus was tilted to the right or left. Repeated exposure to oriented visual gratings produced a tactile TAE, such that the subsequent tactile stimuli appeared tilted toward the opposite direction...
September 2016: I-Perception
Juno Kim, Phillip J Marlow
Specular surfaces and refractive media are difficult to distinguish from each other because they both generate distorted images of the surrounding lighting environment. Whereas convex refractive objects invert the orientation of the horizon so the sky appears beneath the ground plane, convex specular surfaces preserve the orientation of the horizon so the sky appears above the ground. Here, we show that a refractive transparent object can be made to appear specular and opaque simply by rotating the image by 180°...
September 2016: I-Perception
Kyriaki Mikellidou, André D Gouws, Hannah Clawson, Peter Thompson, Antony B Morland, Bruce D Keefe
We use the simple, but prominent Helmholtz's squares illusion in which a vertically striped square appears wider than a horizontally striped square of identical physical dimensions to determine whether functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) BOLD responses in V1 underpin illusions of size. We report that these simple stimuli which differ in only one parameter, orientation, to which V1 neurons are highly selective elicited activity in V1 that followed their physical, not perceived size. To further probe the role of V1 in the illusion and investigate plausible extrastriate visual areas responsible for eliciting the Helmholtz squares illusion, we performed a follow-up transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) experiment in which we compared perceptual judgments about the aspect ratio of perceptually identical Helmholtz squares when no TMS was applied against selective stimulation of V1, LO1, or LO2...
September 2016: I-Perception
Roger Newport, Dominic Y Wong, Ellen M Howard, Eden Silver
The Anne Boleyn Illusion exploits the somatotopic representation of touch to create the illusion of an extra digit and demonstrates the instantaneous remapping of relative touch location into body-based coordinates through visuo-tactile integration. Performed successfully on thousands, it is also a simple demonstration of the flexibility of body representations for use at public events, in schools or in the home and can be implemented anywhere by anyone with a mirror and some degree of bimanual coordination...
September 2016: I-Perception
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