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Markus Bindemann, Matthew Fysh, Katie Cross, Rebecca Watts
This study examined the effect of time pressure on face-matching accuracy. Across two experiments, observers decided whether pairs of faces depict one person or different people. Time pressure was exerted via two additional displays, which were constantly updated to inform observers on whether they were on track to meet or miss a time target. In this paradigm, faces were matched under increasing or decreasing (Experiment 1) and constant time pressure (Experiment 2), which varied from 10 to 2 seconds. In both experiments, time pressure reduced accuracy, but the point at which this declined varied from 8 to 2 seconds...
September 2016: I-Perception
David R R Smith
Whispered vowels, produced with no vocal fold vibration, lack the periodic temporal fine structure which in voiced vowels underlies the perceptual attribute of pitch (a salient auditory cue to speaker sex). Voiced vowels possess no temporal fine structure at very short durations (below two glottal cycles). The prediction was that speaker-sex discrimination performance for whispered and voiced vowels would be similar for very short durations but, as stimulus duration increases, voiced vowel performance would improve relative to whispered vowel performance as pitch information becomes available...
September 2016: I-Perception
Dafni Krystallidou, Peter Thompson
Visual input powerfully modulates the dynamics of tactile orientation perception. This study investigated the transfer of the tilt aftereffect (TAE) from vision to somatosensation. In a visual tilt adaptation paradigm, participants were exposed to clockwise or anticlockwise visual tilt, followed by three brief tactile two-point stimuli delivered on their forehead. In a two-alternative forced choice task, participants had to indicate whether the haptic stimulus was tilted to the right or left. Repeated exposure to oriented visual gratings produced a tactile TAE, such that the subsequent tactile stimuli appeared tilted toward the opposite direction...
September 2016: I-Perception
Juno Kim, Phillip J Marlow
Specular surfaces and refractive media are difficult to distinguish from each other because they both generate distorted images of the surrounding lighting environment. Whereas convex refractive objects invert the orientation of the horizon so the sky appears beneath the ground plane, convex specular surfaces preserve the orientation of the horizon so the sky appears above the ground. Here, we show that a refractive transparent object can be made to appear specular and opaque simply by rotating the image by 180°...
September 2016: I-Perception
Kyriaki Mikellidou, André D Gouws, Hannah Clawson, Peter Thompson, Antony B Morland, Bruce D Keefe
We use the simple, but prominent Helmholtz's squares illusion in which a vertically striped square appears wider than a horizontally striped square of identical physical dimensions to determine whether functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) BOLD responses in V1 underpin illusions of size. We report that these simple stimuli which differ in only one parameter, orientation, to which V1 neurons are highly selective elicited activity in V1 that followed their physical, not perceived size. To further probe the role of V1 in the illusion and investigate plausible extrastriate visual areas responsible for eliciting the Helmholtz squares illusion, we performed a follow-up transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) experiment in which we compared perceptual judgments about the aspect ratio of perceptually identical Helmholtz squares when no TMS was applied against selective stimulation of V1, LO1, or LO2...
September 2016: I-Perception
Roger Newport, Dominic Y Wong, Ellen M Howard, Eden Silver
The Anne Boleyn Illusion exploits the somatotopic representation of touch to create the illusion of an extra digit and demonstrates the instantaneous remapping of relative touch location into body-based coordinates through visuo-tactile integration. Performed successfully on thousands, it is also a simple demonstration of the flexibility of body representations for use at public events, in schools or in the home and can be implemented anywhere by anyone with a mirror and some degree of bimanual coordination...
September 2016: I-Perception
Emmanuele Tidoni, Michele Scandola, Veronica Orvalho, Matteo Candidi
Apparent biological motion is the perception of plausible movements when two alternating images depicting the initial and final phase of an action are presented at specific stimulus onset asynchronies. Here, we show lower subjective apparent biological motion perception when actions are observed from a first relative to a third visual perspective. These findings are discussed within the context of sensorimotor contributions to body ownership.
September 2016: I-Perception
Anouk J de Brouwer, Jeroen B J Smeets, Myrthe A Plaisier
The perception of object properties, such as size and weight, can be subject to illusions. Could a visual size illusion influence perceived weight? Here, we tested whether the size-weight illusion occurs when lifting two physically identical but perceptually different objects, by using an illusion of size. Participants judged the weight and length of 11 to 17 cm brass bars with equal density to which cardboard arrowheads were attached to create a Müller-Lyer illusion. We found that these stimuli induced an illusion in which the bar that was visually perceived as being shorter was also perceived as feeling heavier...
September 2016: I-Perception
Andy T Woods, Fernando Marmolejo-Ramos, Carlos Velasco, Charles Spence
People associate basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty) with specific colors (e.g., pink or red, green or yellow, black or purple, and white or blue). In the present study, we investigated whether a color bordered by another color (either the same or different) would give rise to stronger taste associations relative to a single patch of color. We replicate previous findings, highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. On occasion, color pairs were found to communicate taste expectations more consistently than were single color patches...
September 2016: I-Perception
Nick Schlüter, Franz Faul
It has been proposed that the visual system is able to estimate the refractive index of thick transparent objects from background distortions caused by them. More specifically, it was hypothesized that this is done based on a mid-level cue, the distortion field, whose computation from the input requires comparing the part of the background seen through the object with the part visible in plain view. We test two predictions derived from this hypothesis: (a) scene variables that do not change the distortion field, for instance, the density of the background texture, should not systematically influence the subjects' settings in a material matching task...
September 2016: I-Perception
Akio Honda, Kagesho Ohba, Yukio Iwaya, Yôiti Suzuki
Movement detection for a virtual sound source was measured during the listener's horizontal head rotation. Listeners were instructed to do head rotation at a given speed. A trial consisted of two intervals. During an interval, a virtual sound source was presented 60° to the right or left of the listener, who was instructed to rotate the head to face the sound image position. Then in one of a pair of intervals, the sound position was moved slightly in the middle of the rotation. Listeners were asked to judge the interval in a trial during which the sound stimuli moved...
September 2016: I-Perception
Stuart Anstis, Sae Kaneko, Alan Ho
When two adjacent surfaces move in step, this can generate a sensation of transparency, even in the absence of intersections. Stopping the motion of one surface makes it look suddenly opaque.
September 2016: I-Perception
Atsunori Ariga, Yuki Yamada, Yusuke Yamani
Perceived objects automatically potentiate afforded action. Object affordances also facilitate perception of such objects, and this occurrence is known as the affordance effect. This study examined whether object affordances facilitate the initial visual processing stage, or perceptual entry processes, using the temporal order judgment task. The onset of the graspable (right-handled) coffee cup was perceived earlier than that of the less graspable (left-handled) cup for right-handed participants. The affordance effect was eliminated when the coffee cups were inverted, which presumably conveyed less affordance information...
September 2016: I-Perception
Stefano Mastandrea, John M Kennedy
A new everyday visual size illusion is presented-the Pot/Lid illusion. Observers choose an unduly large lid for a pot. We ask whether the optic slant of the pot brim would increase its apparent size or if vision underestimates the size of tilted lids.
September 2016: I-Perception
Stuart Anstis, Sae Kaneko
Rotating squares appeared to be distorted into pincushions with concave sides. These illusory shape changes were caused by a perceived compression along the curved path of motion.
September 2016: I-Perception
Christoph Witzel
This study proposes and evaluates a simple stimulus display that allows one to measure memory color effects (the effect of object knowledge and memory on color perception). The proposed approach is fast and easy and does not require running an extensive experiment. It shows that memory color effects are robust to minor variations due to a lack of color calibration.
September 2016: I-Perception
Christoph Witzel
Through their thorough investigation of the Hadza, a nonindustrialized language community in Tanzania, Lindsey and colleagues (2015) developed a new approach to understand the evolution of color terms. In the present commentary, I discuss the possibility that some of their results might be explained by the lacking control of saturation of their color stimuli. The saturation of colors plays an important yet widely neglected role in color naming. The additional analyses presented here suggest that the results on Hadzane color naming could be due to variations in saturation in the stimulus set rather than being evidence for universal constraints on color term evolution...
September 2016: I-Perception
Kaitlyn R Bankieris, Richard N Aslin
Most current theories regarding the development of synesthesia focus on cross-modal neural connections and genetic underpinnings, but recent evidence has revitalized the potential role of associative learning. In the present study, we compared synesthetes' and controls' ability to explicitly learn shape-color pairings. Using a continuous measure of accuracy and multiple testing blocks, we found that synesthetes learned these pairings faster than controls. In a delayed retest, synesthetes outperformed controls, demonstrating enhanced long-term memory for shape-color associations...
September 2016: I-Perception
Simon J Hazenberg, Rob van Lier
In three experiments, we investigated the influence of object-specific sounds on haptic scene recognition without vision. Blindfolded participants had to recognize, through touch, spatial scenes comprising six objects that were placed on a round platform. Critically, in half of the trials, object-specific sounds were played when objects were touched (bimodal condition), while sounds were turned off in the other half of the trials (unimodal condition). After first exploring the scene, two objects were swapped and the task was to report, which of the objects swapped positions...
July 2016: I-Perception
Helmut Leder, Aleksandra Mitrovic, Jürgen Goller
We showed that the looking time spent on faces is a valid covariate of beauty by testing the relation between facial attractiveness and gaze behavior. We presented natural scenes which always pictured two people, encompassing a wide range of facial attractiveness. Employing measurements of eye movements in a free viewing paradigm, we found a linear relation between facial attractiveness and gaze behavior: The more attractive the face, the longer and the more often it was looked at. In line with evolutionary approaches, the positive relation was particularly pronounced when participants viewed other sex faces...
July 2016: I-Perception
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