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Leonor Philip, Jean-Claude Martin, Céline Clavel
Facial expressions of emotion provide relevant cues for understanding social interactions and the affective processes involved in emotion perception. Virtual human faces are useful for conducting controlled experiments. However, little is known regarding the possible differences between physiological responses elicited by virtual versus real human facial expressions. The aim of the current study was to determine if virtual and real emotional faces elicit the same rapid facial reactions for the perception of facial expressions of joy, anger, and sadness...
July 2018: I-Perception
Jacob S Nelson, Irene A Kuling, Monica Gori, Albert Postma, Eli Brenner, Jeroen B J Smeets
It has been proposed that haptic spatial perception depends on one's visual abilities. We tested spatial perception in the workspace using a combination of haptic matching and line drawing tasks. There were 132 participants with varying degrees of visual ability ranging from congenitally blind to normally sighted. Each participant was blindfolded and asked to match a haptic target position felt under a table with their nondominant hand using a pen in their dominant hand. Once the pen was in position on the tabletop, they had to draw a line of equal length to a previously felt reference object by moving the pen laterally...
May 2018: I-Perception
Astrid M L Kappers, Aytun Ö R Çetinkaya, Giulio S Tan
A miniature hair clip set-up presented to the first author gave inspiration for this study. After a number of studies investigating what is haptically perceived as parallel on horizontal, frontoparallel or midsagittal planes, the present study focusses on what is felt as parallel behind your head. The results show convincingly that also in this condition physically parallel is not the same as haptically parallel. Moreover, the deviations are large, idiosyncratic and in a direction predicted by assuming a biasing influence of an egocentric reference frame...
May 2018: I-Perception
Zhangfan Shen, Chengqi Xue, Haiyan Wang
This study investigated the effects of users' familiarity with the objects depicted in icons on the cognitive performance of icon identification. First, without knowing the specific semantic information of icons, 20 participants were required to search for target icons among visually similar distractors for 3-hour-long training sessions across 1 week, during which their familiarity with different icons was manipulated by differential exposure frequencies. Half of the icons were presented 10 times more often than the other half...
May 2018: I-Perception
Kana Schwabe, Claudia Menzel, Caitlin Mullin, Johan Wagemans, Christoph Redies
Most recent studies in experimental aesthetics have focused on the cognitive processing of visual artworks. In contrast, the perception of formal compositional features of artworks has been studied less extensively. Here, we investigated whether fast and automatic processing of artistic image composition can lead to a stable and consistent aesthetic evaluation when cognitive processing is minimized or absent. To this aim, we compared aesthetic ratings on abstract artworks and their shuffled counterparts in a gist experiment...
May 2018: I-Perception
Franziska Weiss, Mark W Greenlee, Gregor Volberg
Grapheme-color synesthesia is a condition in which objectively achromatic graphemes induce concurrent color experiences. While it was long thought that the colors emerge during perception, there is growing support for the view that colors are integral to synesthetes' cognitive representations of graphemes. In this work, we review evidence for two opposing theories positing either a perceptual or cognitive origin of concurrent colors: the cross-activation theory and the conceptual-mediation model. The review covers results on inducer and concurrent color processing as well as findings concerning the brain structure and grapheme-color mappings in synesthetes and trained mappings in nonsynesthetes...
May 2018: I-Perception
Hans Strasburger, Jörg Huber, David Rose
Towards the end of the 19th Century, Hering and Helmholtz were arguing about the fineness of visual acuity. In a talk given in 1899, Hering finally established beyond reasonable doubt that humans can see spatial displacements smaller than the diameter of a foveal cone receptor, an ability we nowadays call 'hyperacuity' and still the topic of active research. Hering suggested that this ability is made manifest by averaging across the range of locations stimulated during miniature eye movements. However, this idea was made most clear only in a footnote to this (not well known) publication of his talk and so was missed by many subsequent workers...
May 2018: I-Perception
Parker Crutchfield, Vanessa Pazdernik, Gina Hansen, Jacob Malone, Molly Wagenknecht
Oral size perception is not veridical, and there is disagreement on whether this nonveridicality tends to underestimate or overestimate size. Further, being hungry has been shown to affect oral size perception. In this study, we investigated the effect of hunger on oral size perception. Overall, being hungry had a small but significant effect on oral size perception and seemed to support that oral size perception tends to underestimate the size of objects. Both hungry and sated participants tended to underestimate the size of intraoral objects, but hungry participants underestimated to a significantly lesser degree...
May 2018: I-Perception
Marco Bertamini, Akiyoshi Kitaoka
We compare two versions of two known phenomena, the Curvature blindness and the Kite mesh illusions, to highlight how similar manipulations lead to blindness to curvature and blindness to illusory curvature, respectively. The critical factor is a change in luminance polarity; this factor interferes with the computation of curvature along the contour, for both real and illusory curvature.
May 2018: I-Perception
L J Norman, L Thaler
Humans can learn to use acoustic echoes to detect and classify objects. Echolocators typically use tongue clicks to induce these echoes, and there is some evidence that higher spectral frequency content of an echolocator's tongue click is associated with better echolocation performance. This may be explained by the intensity of the echoes. The current study tested experimentally (a) if emissions with higher spectral frequencies lead to better performance for target detection, and (b) if this is mediated by echo intensity...
May 2018: I-Perception
Jan Koenderink, Andrea van Doorn, Robert Pepperell
The 'viewing sphere', as defined by Euclid and explored by Gibson as the 'optic array', is generally thought of as wrapped around the eye. Can an observer step out of it? With currently popular photographic techniques, the spectator is forced to, because the viewing sphere is presented as a pictorial object. Then the question is whether human observers are able to use such pictorial representations in an intuitive manner. Can the spectator 'mentally step into the interior' of the pictorial viewing sphere? We explore this issue in a short experiment...
May 2018: I-Perception
Bruno Laeng, Fredrik Svartdal Færevaag, Stine Tanggaard, Stephen von Tetzchner
Previous studies indicate that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) do not experience optical illusions in the same manner as individuals with typical development. This study uses pupillary responses as an objective measure of perception of visual illusions, with the hypothesis that adults with ASD will show weaker pupillary constrictions to the illusions than adults without ASD. An eye-tracker was used to investigate the spontaneous pupillary changes to brightness illusions in adults diagnosed with ASD ( N  = 11) and in a control group ( N  = 24)...
May 2018: I-Perception
Jan Koenderink, Andrea van Doorn, Johan Wagemans
Full-horizon cylindrical projections of the optic array are in common use. One wonders whether the public actually profits from such pictorial information, since the space behind one's back does not exist in visual awareness. In an experiment, a test image included six persons located at the corners of an irregular hexagon centred at the camera. Two persons faced the camera, two turned their back to the camera and two others faced a direction at right angles to the camera. The distances to the camera were unequal and varied from 1 to 2 m...
May 2018: I-Perception
Marianne Duyck, Mark Wexler, Eric Castet, Thérèse Collins
Saccades are crucial to visual information intake by re-orienting the fovea to regions of interest in the visual scene. However, they cause drastic disruptions of the retinal input by shifting the retinal image at very high speeds. The resulting motion and smear are barely noticed, a phenomenon known as saccadic omission. Here, we studied the perception of motion during simulated saccades while observers fixated, moving naturalistic visual scenes across the retina with saccadic speed profiles using a very high temporal frequency display...
May 2018: I-Perception
Lingxia Fan, Huan Yu, Xuemin Zhang, Qing Feng, Mengdan Sun, Mengsi Xu
The present study explored the attentional processing mechanisms of gaze and arrow cues in two different types of conflict tasks. In Experiment 1, participants performed a flanker task in which gaze and arrow cues were presented as central targets or bilateral distractors. The congruency between the direction of the target and the distractors was manipulated. Results showed that arrow distractors greatly interfered with the attentional processing of gaze, while the processing of arrow direction was immune to conflict from gaze distractors...
May 2018: I-Perception
Christopher W Tyler, Joshua A Solomon
It is popular to attribute the appearance of extended colour fields to a process of filling-in from the differential colour signals at colour edges, where one colour transitions to another. We ask whether such a process can account for the appearance of extended colour fields in natural images. Some form of colour filling-in must underlie the equiluminant colour Craik-O'Brien-Cornsweet effect and the Watercolour Effect, but these effects are too weak to account for the appearance of extended colour fields in natural images...
May 2018: I-Perception
Jitka Fialová, Agnieszka Sorokowska, S Craig Roberts, Lydie Kubicová, Jan Havlíček
It is well established that composite facial images are perceived as more attractive compared with individual images, suggesting a preference for heterozygosity. Similarly, there is evidence that preferences for body odours might be linked to heterozygosity. Here, we tested whether blending individual body odours into composites would follow a similar pattern as observed in the perception of faces. We collected axillary odour samples from 38 individuals, which were subsequently assessed individually and as composites of two ( N  = 19) or four ( N  = 9) body odours regarding their pleasantness, attractiveness and intensity...
May 2018: I-Perception
Christoph Witzel, Maria Olkkonen, Karl R Gegenfurtner
According to the memory colour effect, the colour of a colour-diagnostic object is not perceived independently of the object itself. Instead, it has been shown through an achromatic adjustment method that colour-diagnostic objects still appear slightly in their typical colour, even when they are colourimetrically grey. Bayesian models provide a promising approach to capture the effect of prior knowledge on colour perception and to link these effects to more general effects of cue integration. Here, we model memory colour effects using prior knowledge about typical colours as priors for the grey adjustments in a Bayesian model...
May 2018: I-Perception
Birgitta Dresp-Langley, Adam Reeves
Colour information not only helps sustain the survival of animal species by guiding sexual selection and foraging behaviour but also is an important factor in the cultural and technological development of our own species. This is illustrated by examples from the visual arts and from state-of-the-art imaging technology, where the strategic use of colour has become a powerful tool for guiding the planning and execution of interventional procedures. The functional role of colour information in terms of its potential benefits to behavioural success across the species is addressed in the introduction here to clarify why colour perception may have evolved to generate behavioural success...
March 2018: I-Perception
Hans Strasburger, Michael Bach, Sven P Heinrich
Optical blur from defocus is quite frequently considered as equivalent to low-pass filtering. Yet that belief, although not entirely wrong, is inaccurate. Here, we wish to disentangle the concepts of dioptric blur, caused by myopia or mis-accommodation, from blur due to low-pass filtering when convolving with a Gaussian kernel. Perhaps surprisingly-if well known in optometry-the representation of a blur kernel (or point-spread function) for dioptric blur is, to a good approximation and disregarding diffraction, simply a cylinder...
March 2018: I-Perception
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