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Claus-Christian Carbon, Tamara Mchedlidze, Marius Hans Raab, Hannes Wächter
Positive effects of aesthetically appreciated designs have long been studied and confirmed since the 19th century: such designs are more enjoyable, they are more forgivable for glitches and can increase users' performance. In the field of information visualization, studies of aesthetics are still a niche approach. In the current study, we aim to specifically understand which parameters in a visualization of node-link diagrams make them aesthetically pleasing-an important extension to already existing research on usability and readability aspects...
September 2018: I-Perception
Mark W Greenlee, John S Werner, Christoph Wagner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: I-Perception
Anne Thaler, Michael N Geuss, Betty J Mohler
The conscious representation of our physical appearance is important for many aspects of everyday life. Here, we asked whether different visual experiences of our bodies influence body width estimates. In Experiment 1, width estimates of three body parts (foot, hips, and shoulders) without any visual access were compared to estimates with visual feedback available in a mirror or from a first-person perspective. In the no visual access and mirror condition, participants additionally estimated their head width...
September 2018: I-Perception
Thomas Hagen, Thomas Espeseth, Bruno Laeng
Some evolutionary psychologists have hypothesized that animals have priority in human attention. That is, they should be detected and selected more efficiently than other types of objects, especially man-made ones. Such a priority mechanism should automatically deploy more attentional resources and dynamic monitoring toward animal stimuli than nonanimals. Consequently, we postulated that variations of the multiple object or identity tracking and multiple event monitoring tasks should be particularly suitable paradigms for addressing the animate monitoring hypothesis, given their dynamic properties and dependency on divided attention...
September 2018: I-Perception
Siyi Chen, Lucas Schnabl, Hermann J Müller, Markus Conci
When searching for a target object in cluttered environments, our visual system appears to complete missing parts of occluded objects-a mechanism known as "amodal completion." This study investigated how different variants of completion influence visual search for an occluded target object. In two experiments, participants searched for a target among distractors in displays that either presented composite objects (notched shapes abutting an occluding square) or corresponding simple objects. The results showed enhanced search performance when composite objects were interpreted in terms of a globally completed whole...
July 2018: I-Perception
Yasmina Jraissati, Igor Douven
So far, color-naming studies have relied on a rather limited set of color stimuli. Most importantly, stimuli have been largely limited to highly saturated colors. Because of this, little is known about how people categorize less saturated colors and, more generally, about the structure of color categories as they extend across all dimensions of color space. This article presents the results from a large Internet-based color-naming study that involved color stimuli ranging across all available chroma levels in Munsell space...
July 2018: I-Perception
Shui'Er Han, David Alais, Randolph Blake
In continuous flash suppression (CFS), a dynamic sequence of Mondrian patterns presented to one eye suppresses a static target in the other eye for several seconds at a time. Its effectiveness has been linked to low-level properties such as spatial frequency and orientation, but the role of higher order influences remains unstudied. Here, using a tracking paradigm, we asked if the spatial and temporal predictability of the Mondrian sequence affects CFS dynamics. Predictable temporal sequences were regularly updated every 100 ms or modulated sinusoidally in pixel luminance at 2 Hz...
July 2018: I-Perception
Jan Koenderink, Andrea van Doorn, Karl Gegenfurtner
In Pointillism and Divisionism, artists moved from tonal to chromatic palettes, as Impressionism did before them, and relied on what is often called optical mixture instead of stirring paints together. The so-called optical mixture is actually not an optical mixture, but a mental blend, because the texture of the paint marks is used as a means to stress the picture plane. The touches are intended to remain separately visible. These techniques require novel methods of colour description that have to depart from standard colorimetric conventions...
July 2018: I-Perception
Nobu Shirai, Erika Izumi, Tomoko Imura, Masami Ishihara, Kuniyasu Imanaka
Representational momentum (RM) is the phenomenon that occurs when an object moves and then disappears, and the recalled final position of the object shifts in the direction of its motion. Some previous findings indicate that the magnitude of RM in early childhood is comparable to that in adulthood, whereas other findings suggest that the magnitude of RM is significantly greater in childhood than in adulthood. We examined whether the inconsistencies between previous studies could be explained by differences in the experimental tasks used in these studies...
July 2018: I-Perception
Stuart Anstis
Ambiguous bounce/stream collision points were hidden behind an occluder so that observers had to complete them amodally. In Movie 1, straight or curved static lines were painted on the occluder. In Movie 2, dotted textures flowed in straight or curved lines across the front of the occluder. In Movie 3, moving eyes, painted on the occluder, either moved in straight lines, as if tracking streaming spots, or else followed curved paths, as if tracking bouncing spots. The straight (or curved) lines, texture flow or eye movements led to judgments of streaming (or bouncing)...
July 2018: I-Perception
Tomomi Koizumi, Hiroyuki Ito, Shoji Sunaga, Masaki Ogawa, Erika Tomimatsu
Assumed lighting direction in cast-shadow interpretation was investigated. Experiment 1 used an ambiguous object-shadow-matching task to measure bias in shadow-matching direction. The shadow-matching bias was largest when the lighting direction was on average 38.3° left from above (a median of 25.1°). Experiment 2 tested the effect of body posture (head orientation) on cast-shadow interpretation using stimuli aligned in a head-centrically vertical or horizontal orientation. The below-shadow (light-from-above) bias in the head-centric frame was robust across the sitting upright, reclining-on-the-left-side, reclining-on-the-right-side, and supine conditions...
July 2018: I-Perception
Bence Nanay
Amodal completion is the representation of those parts of the perceived object that we get no sensory stimulation from. In the case of vision, it is the representation of occluded parts of objects we see: When we see a cat behind a picket fence, our perceptual system represents those parts of the cat that are occluded by the picket fence. The aim of this piece is to argue that amodal completion plays a constitutive role in our everyday perception and trace the theoretical consequences of this claim.
July 2018: I-Perception
Guido Maiello, Vivian C Paulun, Lina K Klein, Roland W Fleming
We report an illusion in which the felt weight of an object changes depending on whether a previously manipulated object was lighter or heavier. The illusion is not modulated by visual weight cues, yet it transfers across hands.
July 2018: I-Perception
Gerard B Remijn, Tatsuya Yoshizawa, Hiroaki Yano
When the objects in a typical stream-bounce stimulus are made to rotate on a circular trajectory, not two but four percepts can be observed: streaming, bouncing, clockwise rotation, and counterclockwise rotation, often with spontaneous reversals between them. When streaming or bouncing is perceived, the objects seem to move on individual, opposite trajectories. When rotation is perceived, however, the objects seem to move in unison on the same circular trajectory, as if constituting the edges of a virtual pane that pivots around its axis...
July 2018: I-Perception
Patrick Cavanagh, Stuart Anstis
A Cornsweet edge creates the perception of a step in surface lightness between two adjacent regions of identical mean luminance due to a gradient on both sides. We might imagine that in a concatenated set of these gradients, the lightness steps would accumulate, but they do not. However, a diamond pattern, with each diamond filled with an identical luminance gradient does give a cumulative Cornsweet effect. Here, we offer an illumination explanation for why the cumulative effect is visible in the diamonds but not in the basic ramp grating and we demonstrate that when the diamonds drift, they produce a strong brightening effect (depending on the direction of the motion) and a dimming aftereffect...
July 2018: I-Perception
Daniele Zavagno, Olga Daneyko, Zili Liu
Three experiments investigated the role of physical illumination on lightness perception in simultaneous lightness contrast (SLC). Four configurations were employed: the classic textbook version of the illusion and three configurations that produced either enhanced or reduced SLC. Experiment 1 tested the effect of ambient illumination on lightness perception. It simulated very dark environmental conditions that nevertheless still allowed perception of different shades of gray. Experiment 2 tested the effect of the intensity of Gelb lighting on lightness perception...
July 2018: I-Perception
Jan Koenderink, Andrea van Doorn, Johan Wagemans
Participants had to indicate the location of points on what might be called "amodal contours" in some works of art. The works represented mutually quite different cases. In one case, there were not even scattered modal cues, thus the amodal contour had to be hallucinated on the basis of generic familiarity. Here, observers indicated coherent geometrical structures (to a good approximation a smooth curve), although at idiosyncratic locations. In another case, we presented an ambiguous image that led to much more "fuzzy" amodal completions...
July 2018: I-Perception
Leonor Philip, Jean-Claude Martin, Céline Clavel
Facial expressions of emotion provide relevant cues for understanding social interactions and the affective processes involved in emotion perception. Virtual human faces are useful for conducting controlled experiments. However, little is known regarding the possible differences between physiological responses elicited by virtual versus real human facial expressions. The aim of the current study was to determine if virtual and real emotional faces elicit the same rapid facial reactions for the perception of facial expressions of joy, anger, and sadness...
July 2018: I-Perception
Manami Furuno, Yuri Sakurai, Shu Imaizumi, Shinichi Koyama
A cluster of dots such as lotus seed pods evokes extremely strong disgust when it is placed on human and animal skins. However, few empirical studies have examined the role of the background image, such as skin, in the generation of disgust. In this study, we investigated whether the orientation of background faces influences the disgust evoked by the dot pattern. The participants were asked to evaluate disgust to an upright, inverted, or phase-scrambled face image with or without a cluster of dots on it and then complete a questionnaire measuring trypophobia proneness (Trypophobia Questionnaire)...
May 2018: I-Perception
Yuki Ishihara, Kenri Kodaka
In the paradigm of mirror visual feedback, it remains unclear how images of the mirrored hand directly affect the sense of motion of the hidden hand (kinesthetic illusion). To examine this question, we created an original mirror visual feedback setup using a horizontal mechanism of motion for the mirror and the hidden hand, each of which could independently be given a specific velocity. It should be noted that this setup can cause the hand viewed in the mirror to move without the involvement of the visible hand...
May 2018: I-Perception
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