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Meingold H M Chan, Chia-Huei Tseng
Contagious yawning-the urge to yawn when thinking about, listening to, or viewing yawning-is a well-documented phenomenon in humans and animals. The reduced yawn contagion observed in the autistic population suggested that it might be empathy related; however, it is unknown whether such a connection applies to nonclinical populations. We examined influences from both empathy (i.e., autistic traits) and nonempathy factors (i.e., individuals' perceptual detection sensitivity to yawning, happy, and angry faces) on 41 nonclinical adults...
July 2017: I-Perception
Suzy J Styles, Lauren Gawne
Eighty-seven years ago, Köhler reported that the majority of students picked the same answer in a quiz: Which novel word form ('maluma' or 'takete') went best with which abstract line drawing (one curved, one angular). Others have consistently shown the effect in a variety of contexts, with only one reported failure by Rogers and Ross. In the spirit of transparency, we report our own failure in the same journal. In our study, speakers of Syuba, from the Himalaya in Nepal, do not show a preference when matching word forms 'kiki' and 'bubu' to spiky versus curvy shapes...
July 2017: I-Perception
Ben J Jennings, Frederick A A Kingdom
Symmetry is ubiquitous in the natural world. Numerous investigations, dating back over one hundred years, have explored the visual processing of symmetry. However, these studies have been concerned with mirror symmetry, overlooking radial (or rotational) symmetry, which is also prevalent in nature. Using a visual search paradigm, which approximates the everyday task of searching for an object embedded in background clutter, we have measured how quickly and how accurately human observers detect radially symmetric dot patterns...
July 2017: I-Perception
Zhongpai Gao
In Hwang and Peli (2014), few errors occurred in computing the angular disparities. The direction of peripheral depth distortion (the angular disparity differences between what it is in real-world 3D viewing and S3D viewing) is reversed when the computational errors were corrected, making the perception of the peripheral depth to be expanded, not compressed. This reply points to the error and provides the corrected figures. Correcting these errors does not affect the general conclusion that S3D viewed on single screen display induces peripheral depth distortion which may be a cause of visually induced motion sickness...
July 2017: I-Perception
Benjamin Balas, Amanda E van Lamsweerde, Amanda Auen, Alyson Saville
Face animacy perception is categorical: Gradual changes in the real/artificial appearance of a face lead to nonlinear behavioral responses. Neural markers of face processing are also sensitive to face animacy, further suggesting that these are meaningful perceptual categories. Artificial faces also appear to be an "out-group" relative to real faces such that behavioral markers of expert-level processing are less evident with artificial faces than real ones. In the current study, we examined how categorical processing of real versus doll faces was impacted by the face inversion effect, which is one of the most robust markers of expert face processing...
July 2017: I-Perception
B Ezgi Arikan, Bianca M van Kemenade, Benjamin Straube, Laurence R Harris, Tilo Kircher
Forming a coherent percept of an event requires different sensory inputs originating from the event to be bound. Perceiving synchrony aids in binding of these inputs. In two experiments, we investigated how voluntary movements influence the perception of simultaneity, by measuring simultaneity judgments (SJs) for an audiovisual (AV) stimulus pair triggered by a voluntary button press. In Experiment 1, we manipulated contiguity between the action and its consequences by introducing delays between the button press and the AV stimulus pair...
July 2017: I-Perception
Yi-Lang Chen, Yi-Chien Lee, Tzu-Yu Lee, Meng-Zhen Chen
This study examined how tumbler characteristics influenced the perception of volume at different viewing angles. Three tumbler characteristics were individually examined, namely, shape, size, and elongation. At four viewing angles (0°, 30°, 60°, and 90°), 50 participants poured a certain amount of liquid (150 or 200 mL) into a designated tumbler according to their perception. Results showed that tumbler size and elongation influenced volume perception. At viewing angles of 0° and 30°, the participants poured more liquid into short-wide tumblers than into tall-slender tumblers...
July 2017: I-Perception
Elena Commodari
The ability to read depends on different cognitive skills. This study investigated the role of the main components of attention (selective attention, focused attention, distributed attention, and alternating attention) on the different dimensions of reading skills in novice readers. Participants were 288 Italian children, who attended the first year of primary school. Attention and reading skills (reading "comprehension," "accuracy," and "speed") were measured. Different components of attention influence each dimension of reading...
July 2017: I-Perception
Daniele Zavagno, Luca Tommasi, Bruno Laeng
Pupil diameters were recorded with an eye-tracker while participants observed cruciform patterns of gray-scale gradients that evoked illusions of enhanced brightness (glare) or of enhanced darkness. The illusions were either presented as static images or as dynamic animations which initially appeared as a pattern of filled squares that-in a few seconds-gradually changed into gradients until the patterns were identical to the static ones. Gradients could either converge toward the center, resulting in a central region of enhanced, illusory, brightness or darkness, or oriented toward each side of the screen, resulting in the perception of a peripheral ring of illusory brightness or darkness...
July 2017: I-Perception
Yuki Kobayashi, Soyogu Matsushita, Kazunori Morikawa
Whereas geometric illusions in human faces have been reported by several studies, illusions of color or lightness in faces have seldom been explored. Here, we psychophysically investigated whether lip color influences facial skin's perceived lightness. Results of Experiment 1 demonstrated that redder lips lightened and darker lips darkened the perceived complexion. These lightness or darkness inducing effects differ from the classical illusion of lightness contrast in nonface objects for two reasons. First, illusory effects are more assimilative than contrastive...
July 2017: I-Perception
Salammbo Connolly, Denis Connolly, Anne Cleary, Laura Herman, Patrick Cavanagh
A wearable 'helmet' version of the S cone isolating technique was constructed to explore vision at equiluminance. For my high school summer science project, I visited parks and streets while wearing the helmet and report that the helmet appears to have captured the main properties described for the large-scale, more cumbersome stage version.
July 2017: I-Perception
Nicola Binetti, Charlotte Harrison, Isabelle Mareschal, Alan Johnston
We studied temporal order judgements (TOJs) of gaze shift behaviours and evaluated the impact of gaze direction (direct and averted gaze) and face context information (both eyes set within a single face or each eye within two adjacent hemifaces) on TOJ performance measures. Avatar faces initially gazed leftwards or rightwards (Starting Gaze Direction). This was followed by sequential and independent left and right eye gaze shifts with various amounts of stimulus onset asynchrony. Gaze shifts could be either Matching (both eyes end up pointing direct or averted) or Mismatching (one eye ends up pointing direct, the other averted)...
July 2017: I-Perception
David Alais, Tam Ho, Shui'er Han, Erik Van der Burg
Sustained exposure to an asynchronous multisensory signal causes perceived simultaneity to shift in the direction of the leading component of the adapting stimulus. This is known as temporal recalibration, and recent evidence suggests that it can occur very rapidly, even after a single asynchronous audiovisual (AV) stimulus. However, this form of rapid recalibration appears to be unique to AV stimuli, in contrast to recalibration following sustained asynchronies which occurs with audiotactile (AT) and visuotactile (VT) stimuli...
July 2017: I-Perception
Robert P O'Shea, Urte Roeber, Nicholas J Wade
Gottfried Wilhelm Osann (1796-1866) was a German scientist most renowned for his work in chemistry and physics. However, inspired by Goethe's work on color, he published a paper on simultaneous color contrast in 1833 using a method that is similar to that of later authors: reflection of an achromatic spot from an angled piece of glass. He wrote at least four more papers on color contrasts, in 1836 using essentially the same method as credited to others. We provide a description and translation of Osann's 1833 paper and the relevant part of his 1836 paper, say why these papers are interesting and important, give some biographical information about Osann, comment on the fate of Osann's papers, and describe Osann's other papers on color...
July 2017: I-Perception
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1177/2041669517707769.].
May 2017: I-Perception
Richard Wiseman, Adrian M Owen
Past research shows that in drawn or photographic portraits, people are significantly more likely to be posed facing to their right than their left. We examined whether the same type of bias exists among sagittal images of the human brain. An exhaustive search of Google images using the term 'brain sagittal view' yielded 425 images of a left or right facing brain. The direction of each image was coded and revealed that 80% of the brains were right-facing. This bias was present in images that did not contain any representation of a human head...
May 2017: I-Perception
Stella T T Cheng, Gary Y H Lam, Carol K S To
Enhanced low-level pitch perception has been universally reported in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This study examined whether tone language speakers with ASD exhibit this advantage. The pitch perception skill of 20 Cantonese-speaking adults with ASD was compared with that of 20 neurotypical individuals. Participants discriminated pairs of real syllable, pseudo-syllable (syllables that do not conform the phonotactic rules or are accidental gaps), and non-speech (syllables with attenuated high-frequency segmental content) stimuli contrasting pitch levels...
May 2017: I-Perception
V S Ramachandran, Zeve Marcus
Synesthetes, who see printed black letters and numbers as being colored, are thought to have enhanced cross-activation between brain modules for color and form. Since the McCollough effect also results from oriented contours (i.e., form) evoking specific colors, we conjectured that synesthetes may experience an enhanced McCollough effect, and find that this is indeed true.
May 2017: I-Perception
Annabelle S Redfern, Christopher P Benton
We recognise familiar faces irrespective of their expression. This ability, crucial for social interactions, is a fundamental feature of face perception. We ask whether this constancy of facial identity may be compromised by changes in expression. This, in turn, addresses the issue of whether facial identity and expression are processed separately or interact. Using an identification task, participants learned the identities of two actors from naturalistic (so-called ambient) face images taken from movies. Training was either with neutral images or their expressive counterparts, perceived expressiveness having been determined experimentally...
May 2017: I-Perception
Daniel R Coates, Johan Wagemans, Bilge Sayim
Peripheral vision is strongly limited by crowding, the deleterious influence of neighboring stimuli on target perception. Many quantitative aspects of this phenomenon have been characterized, but the specific nature of the perceptual degradation remains elusive. We utilized a drawing technique to probe the phenomenology of peripheral vision, using the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure, a standard neuropsychological clinical instrument. The figure was presented at 12° or 6° in the right visual field, with eye tracking to ensure that the figure was only presented when observers maintained stable fixation...
May 2017: I-Perception
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