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Case Reports in Infectious Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895947/subacute-bacterial-endocarditis-with-leptotrichia-goodfellowii-in-a-patient-with-a-valvular-allograft-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#1
Wilfredo R Matias, Daniel L Bourque, Tomoko Niwano, Andrew B Onderdonk, Joel T Katz
Leptotrichia species are normal constituents of the oral cavity and the genitourinary tract microbiota that are known to provoke disease in immunocompromised patients and rarely in immunocompetent individuals. Following the description of Leptotrichia goodfellowii sp. nov., two cases of endocarditis by this species have been reported. Here, we report a case of Leptotrichia goodfellowii endocarditis in an immunocompetent patient with a valvular allograft. The isolation and identification of Leptotrichia can be challenging, and it is likely that infection with this pathogen is significantly underdiagnosed...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895946/a-case-of-false-positive-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-caused-by-mycobacterium-celatum
#2
Edward Gildeh, Zaid Abdel-Rahman, Ruchira Sengupta, Laura Johnson
Mycobacterium celatum is a nontuberculous mycobacterium shown to cause symptoms similar to pulmonary M. tuberculosis. Certain strains have been shown to cross-react with the probes used to detect M. tuberculosis, making this a diagnostic challenge. We present a 56-year-old gentleman who developed signs and symptoms of lung infection with computed tomography scan of the chest showing right lung apex cavitation. Serial sputum samples were positive for acid-fast bacilli and nucleic acid amplification testing identified M...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882254/nicolau-syndrome-due-to-penicillin-injection-a-report-of-3-cases-without-long-term-complication
#3
Sara Memarian, Behdad Gharib, Mohammd Gharagozlou, Hosein Alimadadi, Zahra Ahmadinejad, Vahid Ziaee
Nicolau syndrome (NS) or livedo-like dermatitis is a rare complication of injection of various medications such as penicillin. The pathophysiology of this events is not clear, but some hypotheses are suggested, such as sympathetic nerve stimulation, embolic occlusion, inflammation, or mechanical injury. In this paper we report 3 cases of NS following benzathine penicillin. Clinical symptoms improved in 2 cases during 2-month follow-up, but one of them had a residual necrosis in the distal phalanges of the toes...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882253/candida-glabrata-pneumonia-in-a-patient-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#4
Onur Yazici, Mustafa Cortuk, Hasan Casim, Erdogan Cetinkaya, Ali Mert, Ali Ramazan Benli
Pneumonia remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality among infectious diseases. Streptococcus pneumoniae and viruses are the most common cause of pneumonia. Candidiasis in such patients has been associated with haemodialysis, fungal colonization, exposure to broad-spectrum antibiotics, intensive care unit (ICU) hospitalization, and immunocompromised patients. The most common cause of infection is C. albicans. The case presented here is of a 66-year-old male patient diagnosed with C. glabrata. The patient suffered from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872775/infrarenal-aorta-thrombosis-associated-with-h1n1-influenza-a-virus-infection
#5
Can Hüzmeli, Mustafa Saglam, Ali Arıkan, Barıs Doner, Gulay Akıncı, Ferhan Candan
Influenza viruses are members of the Orthomyxoviridae family, of which influenza A, B, and C viruses constitute three separate genera. Arterial thrombosis associated with H1N1 influenza A virus infection has rarely been reported. A Turkish man aged 28 years was admitted to our emergency department with dyspnea, bilateral lower extremity insensitivity, and cold. He reported symptoms of fever, myalgia, and cough, which he had had for fifteen days before being admitted to our hospital. The patient was tested for pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests, which were positive...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872774/pulmonary-kaposi-sarcoma-an-uncommon-cause-of-respiratory-failure-in-the-era-of-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#6
Stanley M Nwabudike, Stefan Hemmings, Yonette Paul, Yordanis Habtegebriel, Octavius Polk, Alem Mehari
Kaposi Sarcoma (KS) is the most common malignancy associated with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and is caused by Human Herpesvirus 8 (HHV 8) or Kaposi Sarcoma Herpesvirus (KSHV). In about 90% of cases Kaposi Sarcoma is associated with cutaneous lesions; however visceral disease can occur in the absence of cutaneous involvement. In the era of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), the incidence of KS has declined. Clinical features of pulmonary KS might be difficult to distinguish from pneumonia in the immunocompromised patients and could lead to diagnostic challenges...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872773/bacteremia-caused-by-kocuria-kristinae-from-egypt-are-there-more-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#7
Reem M Hassan, Dina M Bassiouny, Yomna Matar
Kocuria kristinae is opportunistic Gram-positive cocci from the family Micrococcaceae. It is usually considered part of the normal flora that rarely is isolated from clinical specimens. Here, we report a case of Kocuria kristinae bacteremia; to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report from Egypt.
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872772/an-uncommon-feature-of-chronic-granulomatous-disease-in-a-neonate
#8
Razieh Afrough, Sayyed Shahabeddin Mohseni, Setareh Sagheb
Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD) represents recurrent life-threatening bacterial and fungal infections and granuloma formation with a high mortality rate. CGD's sign and symptoms usually appear in infancy and children before the age of five; therefore, its presentation in neonatal period with some uncommon features may be easily overlooked. Here we describe a case of CGD in a 24-day-old boy, presenting with a diffuse purulent vesiculopustular rash and multiple osteomyelitis.
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847658/direct-acting-antivirals-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-and-down-syndrome
#9
Eric R Yoo, Ryan B Perumpail, George Cholankeril, Aijaz Ahmed
Patients with Down syndrome who received blood transfusions, likely in conjunction with cardiothoracic surgery for congenital heart disease and prior to the implementation of blood-donor screening for hepatitis C virus infection, face a substantial risk of acquiring the infection. In the past, interferon-based therapy for chronic hepatitis C infection in patients with Down syndrome was noted to have lower efficacy and potentially higher risk of adverse effects. Recently, the treatment for chronic hepatitis C has been revolutionized with the introduction of interferon-free direct acting antivirals with favorable safety, tolerability, and efficacy profile...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840750/chronic-leptomeningitis-and-spinal-intradural-mass-secondary-to-alternaria-infection-in-a-patient-with-ventriculoperitoneal-shunt
#10
Sanjeet S Dadwal, Russell Thompson, Rahul Jandial, Bernard Tegtmeier, Mike Yue Chen
Fungal infection following placement of ventriculostomy or ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt is uncommon. We report the first case of Alternaria related central nervous system (CNS) shunt infection in a patient with CNS ependymoma manifesting as leptomeningitis and a spinal intradural mass. This case illustrates the diagnostic and management challenges.
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840749/a-rare-case-of-glossitis-due-to-pasteurella-multocida-after-a-cat-scratch
#11
Negin Niknam, Thien Doan, Elizabeth Revere
Pasteurella is one of the zoonotic pathogens that can cause variety of serious infections in animals and humans such as bacteremia, septic shock, endocarditis, meningitis, prosthetic and native valve infections, osteomyelitis, skin and soft tissue infections, abscesses, and even pneumonia with empyema. However, there have been few reports of upper respiratory involvements like tonsillitis and epiglottitis in humans. We present a case of recurrent Pasteurella glossitis after a cat scratch which has not been reported in humans...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830097/histoplasmosis-induced-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-in-an-adult-patient-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#12
Ramona Vesna Untanu, Syed Akbar, Stephen Graziano, Neerja Vajpayee
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is an aggressive and life-threating immune dysregulation syndrome characterized by persistent activation of the mononuclear phagocytic system leading to uncontrolled systemic hyperinflammatory response. The proliferation and activation of histiocytes and lymphocytes lead to production of large amounts of cytokines, also called cytokine storm. Hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues are directly involved while other organs are damaged by circulating cytokines. Primary HLH is attributed to genetic defects of the immune system and secondary HLH is usually seen in adults secondary to malignancy, infection, or autoimmune diseases...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818811/first-report-of-aids-related-burkitt-s-lymphoma-presenting-as-bilateral-orbital-masses
#13
Monica Alves de Almeida, Juliana Nesi Cardoso Migliano Porto, Ana Carolina de Brito Lyra, Luiz Arthur Calheiros Leite, Rodrigo Panno Basilio-de-Oliveira, Rogério Neves-Motta, Andréa Ramos Correa, Fernando Raphael de Almeida Ferry, Walter de Araujo Eyer-Silva, Ronaldo Grechi Pacheco
Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) is an aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and one of the fastest growing tumors in humans. It is an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome- (AIDS-) defining disease and occurs with relatively preserved CD4 cell counts. It rarely affects the orbital region in the setting of AIDS. We report unusual presentation of a fatal case of AIDS-associated BL in a 42-year-old female patient with severe CD4 cell depletion who presented with dramatic fast growing (within days) bilateral orbital masses leading to striking facial deformities...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818810/familial-adenomatous-polyposis-manifesting-as-lactococcus-endocarditis-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-association-of-lactococcus-with-underlying-gastrointestinal-disease
#14
Taylor C Bazemore, Stacey A Maskarinec, Kahli Zietlow, Edward F Hendershot, John R Perfect
A 45-year-old male with a prosthetic aortic valve presented to the hospital with several months of generalized malaise. On admission, he was noted to have anemia of unclear etiology and subsequently became febrile with multiple blood cultures growing Lactococcus garvieae. Inpatient workup was concerning for infectious endocarditis (IE) secondary to Lactococcus. The patient was discharged home with appropriate antimicrobial therapy; however, he was readmitted for persistent, symptomatic anemia and underwent colonoscopy, which revealed innumerable colonic polyps consistent with Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) that was later confirmed with genetic testing...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818809/neurobrucellosis-a-case-report-from-himachal-pradesh-india-and-review-of-the-literature
#15
Sujeet Raina, Ashish Sharma, Rajesh Sharma, Amit Bhardwaj
Human brucellosis is a multisystem disease that commonly presents as a febrile illness along with variable spectrum of clinical manifestations. Neurological complications include encephalitis, meningoencephalitis, radiculitis, myelitis, peripheral and cranial neuropathies, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and psychiatric manifestations. We report a case diagnosed as neurobrucellosis who presented with fever and bilateral upper motor neuron symptoms and signs along with bilateral sensorineural deafness. Diagnosis was confirmed by Rose Bengal Test (RBT) and standard tube agglutination test (SAT)...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818808/persistent-bacteremia-from-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-with-in-vitro-resistance-to-the-novel-antibiotics-ceftolozane-tazobactam-and-ceftazidime-avibactam
#16
Louie Mar Gangcuangco, Patricia Clark, Cynthia Stewart, Goran Miljkovic, Zane K Saul
Ceftazidime-avibactam and ceftolozane-tazobactam are new antimicrobials with activity against multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We present the first case of persistent P. aeruginosa bacteremia with in vitro resistance to these novel antimicrobials. A 68-year-old man with newly diagnosed follicular lymphoma was admitted to the medical intensive care unit for sepsis and right lower extremity cellulitis. The patient was placed empirically on vancomycin and piperacillin-tazobactam. Blood cultures from Day 1 of hospitalization grew P...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807490/a-case-of-tuberculous-meningitis-with-paradoxical-response-in-a-14-year-old-boy
#17
Murat Özer, Yasemin Özsürekci, Ali Bülent Cengiz, Nagehan Emiralioğlu, Deniz Doğru, Kader Karlı Oğuz, Onur Akça, Özgür Özkayar
A clinical or radiological worsening of already existing lesions or an emergence of new lesions after beginning treatment in patients with tuberculosis (TB) is referred to as the paradoxical response. This has aroused suspicion regarding the accuracy of diagnosis, the possibilities of treatment failure, or the presence of another underlying disease, and thus it is an important topic for clinicians to understand. In this article, the development of a paradox reaction in a 14-year-old male patient diagnosed with and treated for tuberculosis meningitis is reported...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807489/bacteremia-with-an-unusual-pathogen-mycobacterium-neoaurum
#18
Hesham Awadh, Munthir Mansour, Mahmoud Shorman
Mycobacterium neoaurum (M. neoaurum) is an infrequently encountered cause of infection in humans. It is a member of the rapidly growing mycobacteria family. It predominately afflicts those with a compromised immune status and a chronically indwelling vascular access. Isolation of this organism is challenging yet the advent of 16s ribosomal sequencing paved the way for more sensitive detection. No treatment guidelines are available and treatment largely depends on the experience of the treating physician and nature of the isolate...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803825/native-mitral-valve-endocarditis-caused-by-neisseria-elongata-subsp-nitroreducens-in-a-patient-with-marfan-syndrome-first-case-in-italy-and-review-of-the-literature
#19
Parrinello Rossella, Carità Patrizia, Triolo Fabio Oreste, Trapani Renato, Grassedonio Emanuele, Argano Vincenzo, Novo Giuseppina, Vallone Silvana, Fasciana Teresa, Verdecchia Massimo, Giammanco Anna, Midiri Massimo, Novo Salvatore
Neisseria elongata (NE) is an aerobic Gram-negative organism that constitutes part of the commensal human normal oropharyngeal flora. Although previously considered not to be pathogenic, it has been recognized as an occasional cause of significant infections in humans. We report here the first case in Italy of infective endocarditis of a native prolapsing mitral valve in a patient with Marfan syndrome, caused by NE subspecies nitroreducens which has been rarely isolated from clinical specimens. The culprit organism has been confirmed by mass spectrometry directly from the positive blood culture, as previously reported...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803824/successful-treatment-of-disseminated-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-disease-in-an-hiv-infected-child-with-a-linezolid-containing-regimen
#20
Srđan Roglić, Drusia Dickson, Branko Miše, Klaudija Višković, Vera Katalinić-Janković, George Rutherford, Josip Begovac
Upon HIV infection diagnosis, an 8-month-old boy was transferred for evaluation of worsening respiratory distress requiring mechanical ventilation. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) was diagnosed; the boy also had a nonhealing ulcer at the site of vaccination with Statens Serum Institut (Danish strain) Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine and associated axillary lymphadenopathy. PCP treatment resulted in weaning from mechanical ventilation. Antimycobacterial treatment was immediately attempted but was discontinued because of hepatotoxicity...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
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