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Case Reports in Infectious Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523197/disseminated-mycobacterium-chimaera-presenting-as-vertebral-osteomyelitis
#1
Daphne M Moutsoglou, Frank Merritt, Ethan Cumbler
Mycobacterium chimaera, a member of the Mycobacterium avium complex, is a slow-growing, nontuberculous mycobacterium associated with outbreaks in cardiac-surgery patients supported on heart-lung machines. We report a case of an elderly woman on chronic prednisone who presented with a six-month history of worsening chronic back pain, recurrent low-grade fevers, and weight loss. Imaging identified multilevel vertebral osteomyelitis and lumbar soft-tissue abscess. Abscess culture identified M. chimaera.
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512590/acute-bacterial-meningitis-and-systemic-abscesses-due-to-streptococcus-dysgalactiae-subsp-equisimilis-infection
#2
M Jourani, T Duprez, V Roelants, H Rodriguez-Villalobos, P Hantson
Disseminated abscesses due to group G β-hemolytic Streptococcus dysgalactiae were observed in a 57-year-old cirrhotic patient with the skin being the putative way of entry for the pathogen. S. dysgalactiae is a rare agent in human infections responsible for acute pyogenic meningitis. The mortality rate associated with S. dysgalactiae bacteraemia and meningitis may be as high as 50%, particularly in the presence of endocarditis or brain abscesses. In our patient, main sites of infections were meningitis and ventriculitis, spondylodiscitis, septic arthritis, and soft-tissue infections...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512589/a-case-of-early-disseminated-neurological-lyme-disease-followed-by-atypical-cutaneous-manifestations
#3
Vamsi Kantamaneni, Vikas Sunder, Mohammad Bilal, Scott Vargo
Lyme disease (LD) is a tick-borne illness caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. An 80-year-old female from Pennsylvania, USA, presented to an outside hospital with fever, confusion, lower extremity weakness, and stool incontinence. CT head and MRI spine were unremarkable. An infectious work-up including lumbar puncture was negative. She was transferred to our tertiary care hospital. Patient was noted to have mild unilateral right-sided facial droop and a diffuse macular rash throughout the body. She denied any outdoor activities, tick bites, or previous rash...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487789/abdominopelvic-tuberculosis-with-a-frozen-section-analysis-consistent-with-ovarian-cancer
#4
Agrimaldo Martins-Filho, Paula Carolina Arvelos Crispim, Renata Margarida Etchebehere, Cristina da Cunha Hueb Barata de Oliveira, Eddie Fernando Candido Murta, Rosekeila Simões Nomelini
Pelvic tuberculosis is a type of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. The disease is accompanied by clinical and laboratory findings which may be unspecific and present aspects of other diseases, including gynecological malignancies. In this report, the authors presented a case of pelvic tuberculosis associated with peritoneal tuberculosis in a young woman exhibiting imaging and tumor markers consistent with ovarian neoplasm. An intraoperative frozen section analysis detected atypical cells that were suggestive of ovarian borderline or malignant epithelial neoplasia...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487788/giant-condyloma-acuminatum-of-vulva-in-an-hiv-infected-woman
#5
Athanase Lilungulu, Bonaventura C T Mpondo, Abdallah Mlwati, Dismas Matovelo, Albert Kihunrwa, Balthazar Gumodoka
First described in 1925, giant condyloma acuminatum also known as Buschke-Löwenstein tumor (BLT) is a benign, slow-growing, locally destructive cauliflower-like lesion usually in the genital region. The disease is usually locally aggressive and destructive with a potential for malignant transformation. The causative organism is human papilloma virus. The most common risk factor is immunosuppression with HIV; however, any other cause of immunodeficiency can be a predisposing factor. We present a case of 33-year-old female patient, a known HIV patient on antiretroviral therapy for ten months...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484654/exophiala-wangiella-dermatitidis-prosthetic-aortic-valve-endocarditis-and-prosthetic-graft-infection-in-an-immune-competent-patient
#6
Jay S Berger, Lucas R Cusumano, Joseph J Derose, Uzma N Sarwar
Exophiala (Wangiella) dermatitidis is an emerging dematiaceous fungus associated with high mortality rates and is a rare cause of endocarditis. We describe the first case of E. dermatitidis endocarditis of a prosthetic aortic valve and aortic graft in an immune competent patient with no clear risk factors of hematological acquisition.
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480087/rhodotorula-endogenous-endophthalmitis-a-novel-harbinger-of-the-injection-drug-epidemic-in-the-united-states
#7
Preston M Luong, Basilio Kalpakian, Lawrence J Jaeger, Timothy Lahey, Christopher B Chapman, Michael E Zegans
Endogenous endophthalmitis is a rare but feared infectious ocular complication of injection drug use (IDU). The recent opioid epidemic in the United States threatens to increase the incidence of this disease. We report the first case of endogenous endophthalmitis in the United States caused by the emerging fungal pathogen Rhodotorula in an injection drug user which led to no light perception vision (NLP). Worldwide experience with Rhodotorula endogenous endophthalmitis is limited, but existing cases suggest infection by this particular fungal genus has a grim prognosis...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473933/melioidosis-with-portal-vein-thrombosis
#8
Thanyaporn Direksunthorn
Melioidosis, caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, is a common infectious disease in tropical regions. The author reports a case of melioidosis with a rare manifestation of portal vein thrombosis and cavernous transformation of the portal vein. Melioidosis should be considered a differential diagnosis in patients with underlying risk factors who present with multiple liver abscesses; moreover, portal vein thrombosis can be a potential complication. Computed tomography is the modality of choice to demonstrate venous thrombosis in various organs...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409041/bilateral-facial-diplegia-a-rare-presenting-symptom-of-lyme
#9
John Ashurst, Matthew Perry
Lyme disease is a common disease that is faced by the physician but also acts a mimicker of many other disease processes. Facial palsies, especially bilateral, are a relatively rare presenting symptom of Lyme disease and may warrant further investigation. A thorough history and physical examination coupled with precision testing may aid the physician when faced with a patient with the diagnostic dilemma of facial diplegia.
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392952/clinical-implications-for-the-timely-diagnosis-of-mycobacterium-marinum-in-the-age-of-biologic-therapy-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#10
Chris J Lata, Kelle Edgar, Stephen Vaughan
Mycobacterium marinum infections typically present as cutaneous nodular lesions with a sporotrichoid lymphatic spread on extensor surfaces of extremities. The natural history of this infection can be altered if the host is immunosuppressed, leading to disseminated presentations. A detailed exposure history and high degree of suspicion for this indolent pathogen are often required for the correct diagnosis of this disease. We present a case of a 67-year-old male misdiagnosed with seronegative rheumatoid arthritis presenting with rheumatic nodules...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386493/dengue-and-scrub-typhus-coinfection-in-a-patient-presenting-with-febrile-illness
#11
Surendra Sapkota, Sudeep Bhandari, Subash Sapkota, Rabin Hamal
Dengue fever and scrub typhus are common causes of acute febrile illness of unclear origin in Asia. Though coinfections of many vector-borne diseases have been described, articles on dengue and scrub typhus coinfection are distinctly limited. In case of coinfection with dengue and scrub typhus, vigilant monitoring of vitals, platelets transfusion, and timely treatment with doxycycline are necessary. High degree of suspicion has to be made for coinfection in a patient presenting with febrile illness with thrombocytopenia and deranged laboratory parameters in postmonsoon season in endemic regions in Asia...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386492/a-case-of-recurrent-skin-abscesses-a-conundrum-solved-after-obtaining-a-thorough-sexual-history
#12
Diego P Peralta, Aymara Y Chang, Enrique Soto-Ruiz
Background. Despite the improvement in patient-physician communication techniques, sexuality and sexual health continue to be challenging areas for discussion during a clinical encounter. Most people are not prepared to discuss sexual matters openly as it can be perceived as negative or inappropriate. Consequently, an incomplete health assessment can result in delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis. Case Report. We present a 33-year-old woman who developed recurrent left breast abscesses. She required multiple incision and drainage procedures in the operating room followed by antimicrobial therapy...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386491/multidrug-resistant-pseudomonas-mycotic-pseudoaneurysm-following-cardiac-transplant-bridged-by-ventricular-assistant-device
#13
C Aye, M Williams, R Horvath
Mycotic pseudoaneurysm of aorta following cardiac surgery is rare but is highly fatal if it is unrecognized and untreated. Here, we report a case of a 45-year-old male patient who presented with rapidly progressive multiple pseudoaneurysms of the ascending aorta infected with multidrug resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 5 weeks after cardiac transplantation, on a background of prior bridging therapy with left ventricular assistant device (LVAD). The patient was successfully treated with the newer cephalosporin, Ceftolozane/Tazobactam, in combination with surgery...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373917/leflunomide-in-the-treatment-of-a-pseudotumoral-genital-herpes-simplex-virus-infection-in-an-hiv-patient
#14
Marie R Roger, Gregory M Anstead
The patient is a 52-year-old African American man with a past medical history of HIV infection (on antiretroviral therapy, CD4 count 399 cells/µL, and undetectable HIV viral load) and recurrent genital herpes. While on valacyclovir, the patient presented with four tumorous lesions on the perineum and scrotum. A biopsy specimen stained positively with HSV-1 and HSV-2 immunostains and displayed a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. The patient received foscarnet and imiquimod for two weeks with minimal improvement...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367343/meningococcal-neonatal-purulent-conjunctivitis-sepsis-and-asymptomatic-carriage-of-n-meningitidis-in-mother-s-vagina-and-both-parents-nasopharynx
#15
Enrique Chacon-Cruz, Jorge Arturo Alvelais-Palacios, Jaime Alfonso Rodriguez-Valencia, Erika Zoe Lopatynsky-Reyes, Maria Luisa Volker-Soberanes, Rosa Maria Rivas-Landeros
Neonatal conjunctivitis is usually associated with vagina's infection by Chlamydia sp., N. gonorrhoeae, and/or other bacteria during delivery. Meningococcal neonatal conjunctivitis is an extremely rare disease. We report a case of neonatal meningococcal sepsis/conjunctivitis and asymptomatic carriage of N. meningitidis from both parents (vagina and nasopharynx). As part of our active surveillance for meningococcal disease at the Tijuana General Hospital (TGH), Mexico, we identified a 3-day-old newborn with meningococcal conjunctivitis and sepsis...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352482/haemophilus-influenzae-pyomyositis-in-a-patient-with-diabetic-ketoacidosis-a-unique-case-and-review-of-literature
#16
Kamolyut Lapumnuaypol, Sanna Fatima, Pradhum Ram, Gemlyn George, Antoinette Climaco
Haemophilus influenzae is a Gram-negative bacillus commonly known to cause upper respiratory tract infections. Skin and soft tissue infections are very uncommon. Of these, the majority were associated with necrotizing fasciitis requiring emergent debridement. We report a case of pyomyositis caused by Haemophilus influenzae in an adult with diabetes.
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348903/successful-treatment-of-clostridium-difficile-bacteremia-with-aortic-mycotic-aneurysm-in-a-patient-with-prior-endovascular-aortic-aneurysm-repair
#17
Kairav Shah, Rebecca Brauch, Kartikeya Cherabuddi
The clinical spectrum of Clostridium difficile infection can range from benign gastrointestinal colonization to mild diarrhea and life threatening conditions such as pseudomembranous colitis and toxic megacolon. Extraintestinal manifestations of C. difficile are rare. Here, we report a patient with a history of an endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) presenting with an endovascular leak complicated by C. difficile bacteremia and a mycotic aneurysm. He was successfully treated with an explant of the EVAR, an aorto-left renal bypass, and aorto-bi-iliac bypass graft placement along with a six-week duration of intravenous vancomycin and oral metronidazole...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337351/a-rare-form-of-brucella-bursitis-with-negative-serology-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#18
F M Almajid
Brucellosis is still endemic in certain parts of the world including the Mediterranean, the Middle East, Latin America, and African regions. Osteoarticular manifestations are common presenting features. Brucellosis presenting as prepatellar bursitis has already been reported. We present a case of seronegative olecranon bursitis with positive blood and aspirate cultures. The patient improved remarkably by treatment with streptomycin and doxycycline with no evidence or relapse.
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331642/lemierre-s-syndrome-associated-with-mechanical-ventilation-and-profound-deafness
#19
Lukas Birkner
Lemierre's syndrome is a rare disorder that is characterized by anaerobic organisms inducing a thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein (IJV) following a course of oropharyngeal infection. It often occurs in young and healthy patients. Clinicians continuously misinterpret early symptoms until infection disseminates systematically and life-threatening sepsis transpires. We report the case of a 58-year-old female developing Lemierre's syndrome accompanied by invasive ventilation support and a profound deafness requiring the implementation of a cochlear implant...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331641/penicillin-susceptible-oxidase-negative-nonhemolytic-nonmotile-bacillus-megaterium-in-disguise-of-bacillus-anthracis
#20
Shih Keng Loong, Boon Teong Teoh, Jefree Johari, Chee Sieng Khor, Juraina Abd-Jamil, Siti Sarah Nor'e, Nur Izyan Samsudin, Noor Syahida Azizan, Che Norainon Yaacob, Asma Anati CheMatSeri, Nur Hidayana Mahfodz, Sazaly AbuBakar
Bacillus anthracis is a bacterial pathogen of major concern. The spores of this bacteria can survive harsh environmental conditions for extended periods and are well recognized as a potential bioterror weapon with significant implications. Accurate and timely identification of this Bacillus species in the diagnostic laboratory is essential for disease and public health management. Biosafety Level 3 measures and ciprofloxacin treatment were instituted when B. anthracis was suspected from a patient with gangrenous foot...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
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