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Case Reports in Infectious Diseases

Alexa Bello, Alejandro Castaneda, Abhay Vakil, Joseph Varon, Salim Surani
We present the case of a 55-year-old gentleman, with bilateral pulmonary embolism and a large pericardial effusion that lead to a pericardial window with evacuation of creamy pus. Gram stains were negative, with culture growing Capnocytophaga . Pathology revealed acute necrotizing and exudative changes, including frank abscess formation. In developed countries, pericardial abscess and acute pericarditis are uncommon due to availability of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Pericardial abscess due to Capnocytophaga is even more uncommon...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Joanna Schneider, Rhett Mays
Leprosy, or Hansen's disease, is caused by infection with Mycobacterium leprae . It is a rare diagnosis within the continental United States. We present the case of a 13-year-old immigrant from the Marshall Islands who presented with recurrent nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain which are found to be due to intermittent gastric volvulus. Gastric volvulus is also exceedingly rare, with less than 8 pediatric cases on average per year. During her second hospitalization for recurrent acute gastrointestinal issues, nonspecific skin lesions were biopsied, revealing infection with M...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Maria A Kyritsi, Varvara A Mouchtouri, Anna Katsiafliaka, Foteini Kolokythopoulou, Elias Plakokefalos, Vasileios Nakoulas, George Rachiotis, Christos Hadjichristodoulou
Healthcare-associated Legionnaires' disease often leads to fatal respiratory tract infection among hospitalized patients. In this report, three cases of Legionnaires' disease among patients in two different hospitals (Hospital A and Hospital B) were investigated. After conducting an epidemiologic and environmental investigation, the water distribution systems (WDSs) were identified as the possible source of infection, as Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 ( Lp 1) was isolated from both clinical and environmental samples...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
A Schimmenti, E Brunetti, E Seminari, B Mariani, P Cambieri, P Orsolini
Antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae, has become a leading cause of morbidity and mortality and a serious public health concern. Gram-negative bacteria carrying extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) enzymes now represent a significant proportion of all bacteria isolated from different countries worldwide. Furthermore, the increasing number of isolates carrying carbapenemases in recent years includes multidrug-resistant (MDR), extensively drug-resistant (XDR), and pandrug-resistant (PDR) bacteria...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Patrick Langguth, Lothar Leissner, Günther Zick, Arno Fischer, Christiane Stuhlmann-Laiesz, Mona Salehi Ravesh, Friederike Austein, Olav Jansen, Marcus Both
Capnocytophaga canimorsus (CC) belongs to the family Flavobacteriaceae which physiologically occurs in the natural flora of the oral mucosa of dogs and cats. In patients with a compromised immune system, CC can induce a systemic infection with a fulminant course of disease. Infections with CC are rare, and the diagnosis is often complicated and prolonged. We describe a patient with a medical history of prior splenectomy who presented with an acute sepsis and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and was initially treated on Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome (WFS)...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Alison B Lane, Nathanial K Copeland, Fatma Onmus-Leone, James V Lawler
Antibiotic-associated diarrhea is typically associated with Clostridium difficile . However, Staphylococcus aureus has also been described as a cause of antibiotic-associated enterocolitis and diarrhea and is likely an underrecognized etiology. We present a case of enterocolitis and urinary tract infection caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus following antibiotic treatment.
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Aikaterini Stamou, Charalampos Pavlopoulos, Stefanos Roumeliotis, Efthymios Samoladas, Ippokratis Xatzokos, Konstantina Kontopoulou
Although Rhizobium radiobacter is a pathogen commonly found in soil and plants, human disease caused by the Rhizobium genus is rare and cited in immunocompromised patients and in those who carry foreign plastic bodies such as catheters. We present a case of a 24-year-old woman with an adequate immune system who underwent surgery for an open fracture of the right tibia and humerus due to a car accident. One year later, she was readmitted to the hospital, due to a nonunion of the humeral fracture for surgical debridement and revision of the internal fixation with iliac crest autograft...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Ahmed M Alkhunaizi, Ali M Bazzi, Ali A Rabaan, Elwaleed A Ahmed
Fusarium infections in solid-organ transplant recipients are rare and carry high mortality. We report a case of a kidney transplant recipient who developed infection with Fusarium species. The patient received treatment with oral voriconazole for five months with good response.
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Paruspak Payoong, Natcha Saetiew, Opass Putcharoen, Chusana Suankratay
Orbital actinomycosis is a very rare clinical manifestation of orbital infection caused by Actinomyces species, anaerobic Gram-positive filamentous bacteria. We report herein a case of a 58-year-old man who presented with chronic progressive course of total ophthalmoparesis in association with productive cough, leading to the diagnosis after extensive investigation. In addition, all reported cases of orbital actinomycosis in the literature are reviewed.
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Moiz Topiwala, Nachiket Dubale, Mahender K Medisetty, Sunil Gaikwad, Divya Patel, Sanjay Pujari
We present the first case report of cytomegalovirus (CMV) cholangiopathy as possible immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individual, within two months of starting effective HAART. The patient presented with abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, decreased appetite, and jaundice. The patient was diagnosed on ERCP as AIDS cholangiopathy, and biopsy of the ampulla showed acute inflammation with CMV inclusion bodies. The patient underwent sphincterotomy with CBD stenting and HAART continued without use of ganciclovir or valganciclovir...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Beatrice Tiri, Giulia Priante, Lavinia Maria Saraca, Lucia Assunta Martella, Stefano Cappanera, Daniela Francisci
Listeria monocytogenes (LM) is an opportunistic pathogen, and the most common central nervous system manifestation is meningitis while listerial brain abscesses are rare. We describe 2 cases of brain abscess due to LM and a literature review. Only 73 cases were reported in the literature from 1968 to 2017. The mean age was 51.9, and the mortality rate was 27.3%. In 19% of cases, no risk factors for neurolisteriosis were identified. Blood cultures were positive in 79.5% while CSF or brain abscess biopsy material was positive in 50...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Harsh Khatri, Heli Shah, Dhara Roy, Kaushalendra Mani Tripathi
Chikungunya is a rerising alphavirus infection that has resulted from enhanced vector competence. Alphaviruses are divided into arthritogenic viruses (old world) and encephalitogenic viruses (new world) including equine encephalitis viruses. Chikungunya is a dengue-like illness characterized by acute febrile polyarthralgia, arthritis, malaise, body ache, rash, headache, and nausea. The illness is self-limiting. The neurological manifestations are uncommon and incorporate meningoencephalitis, myelitis, Guillain-Barre syndrome, cranial nerve palsies, myelopathy, and neuropathy; MRI abnormalities in patients with encephalopathy from India have been reported in the form of multiple punctuate white matter lesions that are more prominent on diffusion-weighted MRI than on T2 or T1...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Gisela Borges, Diana Neves, Inês Pintado Maury, Aida Pereira, Maria de Jesus Silva
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a well-known cause of different types of malignancies particularly Burkitt's lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, Hodgkin's lymphomas, and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas including primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). A higher tendency of malignant transformation associated with EBV has been noticed in immunocompromised patients, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients. The rapid and effective immune reconstitution is crucial to prevent PCNSL in HIV-positive patients...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Peter S Ginn, Serina B Tart, Stephen M Sharkady, Dorothea K Thompson
Cedecea neteri , a member of the Enterobacteriaceae family, has only been identified as a human pathogen in a few previous clinical cases, thus complicating assessment of this organism's pathogenicity and medical relevance. Documented infections attributed to C. neteri primarily involved bacteremia in severely immunocompromised patients. We report a rare case of urinary catheter colonization by a multidrug-resistant C. neteri strain in a patient of advanced age with benign prostatic hyperplasia and other chronic comorbidities...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Yahya Salim Yahya Al-Fifi, Kamran Kadkhoda, Mike Drebot, Beverly Wudel, E J Bow
The 1999 New York City outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) was associated with a high incidence of West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease (WNVND) where the outcomes for these patients were very poor. We describe a case of West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease (WNVND) characterized by acute flaccid quadriplegia with a favorable outcome in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Jamie Bee Xian Tan, Alvin Ren Kwang Tng, Htay Htay
Peritonitis is a common and serious complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) with significant morbidity. We report the first case of relapsing Dokdonella koreensis peritonitis in a patient on peritoneal dialysis. A 63-year-old Chinese man, with history of renal failure on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, presented with cloudy peritoneal effluent and abdominal pain. There was no sign or symptom suggestive of exit-site/tunnel tract infection. Peritoneal effluent cultures yielded Dokdonella koreensis which was initially misidentified as Weeksella virosa and Brevundimonas species by the API® 20 NE and VITEK® 2 GN ID card, respectively...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Cátia Dias, Filipa Duarte-Ribeiro, Sara Pipa, Margarida Mota
Aspergillus species are ubiquitous in nature; however, infection is uncommon, except in immunocompromised or immunosuppressed hosts. We present the case of a 71-year-old woman with a history of human immunodeficiency virus infection who presented with fever, weight loss, and diarrhea, posteriorly diagnosed with intestinal aspergillosis after examination of a segmental enterectomy piece. The diagnosis was made postmortem once the patient died after fast and progressive deterioration in the postoperative period...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Divyesh Reddy Nemakayala, Manoj P Rai, Shilpa Kavuturu, Supratik Rayamajhi
Lemierre's disease is a rare but life-threatening condition characterized by an oropharyngeal infection complicating with thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein and disseminated abscesses. We are presenting a case of a young female who initially presented with fevers, chills, sore throat, and swollen neck later developed progressively worsening shortness of breath along with sudden onset pleuritic chest pain. She then developed progressively worsening acute hypoxic respiratory failure requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Clifford Akateh, Christina A Arnold, Dathe Benissan-Messan, Anthony Michaels, Sylvester M Black
Introduction: Cystoisospora belli (previously Isospora belli ) is a parasitic protozoan of the human gastrointestinal system. It rarely causes symptoms in immunocompetent hosts but can cause severe diarrhea in immunocompromised patients, with a rate of recurrence and risk of dissemination. Gallbladder infections are however rare. The treatment of choice for symptomatic patients is a 7-10-day course of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Case: In this case, we report on an incidental finding of Cystoisospora belli organisms in the donor gallbladder following a transplant cholecystectomy...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Umut Gomceli, Srija Vangala, Cosmina Zeana, Paul J Kelly, Manisha Singh
Introduction: Systemic absorption of oral vancomycin is poor due to the size of the molecule and its pharmacokinetics. It has an elimination half life of 5-11 hours in patients with normal renal function. We present a rare case of ototoxicity after oral vancomycin administration and detectable serum vancomycin levels 24 hours after cessation of vancomycin. Case Presentation: A 42-year-old woman with a history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and previously treated Clostridium difficile colitis presented with abdominal pain and diarrhea for two weeks...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
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