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Case Reports in Infectious Diseases

Abdul Razzakh Poil, Adila Shaukat, Devendra Kumar
Intracranial abscesses, postinfectious vasculitis, and hydrocephalus are rare complications of Streptococcus pneumoniae ( S. pneumoniae ) meningitis, and to our knowledge, there have been no case reports where all these 3 complications occurred in a single patient with Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis. Here, we report a case of a 48-year-old male who developed postinfectious vasculitis, abscess, hydrocephalus, and hearing loss after S. pneumoniae meningitis. Clinicians ought to be aware of the possible adverse outcomes of S...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Amos Lal, Jamal Akhtar, Ashfaq Ullah, George M Abraham
Staphylococcus simulans is a coagulase-negative organism, mainly an animal pathogen. Reports of human infection have been infrequent, mainly in patients with repeated animal contact. We report the first case of pleural empyema in an elderly woman. S. simulans tends to cause more severe infection because of a biofilm layer which helps in adherence and colonization of smooth surfaces, especially prosthetic devices, shunts, and catheters. The challenging problem even after CoNS isolation and identification is the assessment of their clinical relevance...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Michael U Williams, Ashley Burris, Amy Zingalis, David A Lindholm, Brian K White
Orchiepididymitis is a clinical diagnosis. The acute form secondary to sexually transmitted or enteric pathogens is well known to primary care providers. However, chronic orchiepididymitis may be secondary to genitourinary tuberculosis (TB), and physicians in countries with a low prevalence of TB might not consider it in their differential diagnosis. Indeed, cognitive errors, such as anchoring or availability bias, may contribute to a delayed diagnosis of genitourinary TB. We present a case of chronic orchiepididymitis as a result of disseminated TB in a Cameroonian male who was visiting the United States for military training...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Bindu Gandrapu, Preeyanka Sundar, Paula Aucoin
Vertebral osteomyelitis secondary to pneumococcal infection is an uncommon condition caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae . Fever, back pain, and raised ESR are common features in the clinical setting. We report a 62-year-old female patient who presented with an unusual presentation. Later on, vertebral osteomyelitis secondary to pneumococcal infection was confirmed at T8, 9 by CT scan, MRI, and cytology. The patient was treated successfully with high-dose ceftriaxone.
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Fatma Al-Farsi, Ibrahim Al-Busaidi, Khalfan Al-Zeedi
Septic arthritis is an orthopedic emergency that is commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus . Old age, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, prosthetic joint, and recent surgery are the main predisposing risk factors. Most cases of septic arthritis are caused by hematogenous spread of infection. Infectious sacroiliitis is a rare form of septic arthritis which is often clinically challenging to diagnose due its various and nonspecific presentations. Streptococcus mitis belongs to viridans group streptococci (VGS) bacteria, which is a component of body flora that is commonly involved in bacterial endocarditis...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Hugo Martínez-Rojano, Julio C Noguez, Herón Huerta
The presence of nosocomial myiasis reflects a lack of adequate medical attention, due to the physical facilities and/or the health care personnel. Patients requiring special attention are more susceptible, such as those with a loss of consciousness, assisted mechanical ventilation, tracheal tubes, or nasogastric probes. Nosocomial myiasis is a rare event that has a greater occurrence in the hospitals of poor and developing countries. The two cases herein described represent the first report of nosocomial myiasis in Mexico...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
C L Fonseka, T E Kanakkahewa, S D A L Singhapura, J S Hewavithana, L P Kolambage, H M M Herath, K D Pathirana, Thilak Priyantha Weeraratna
Background: Tuberculous pachymeningitis is a rare form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis usually suspected from the detection of thickening of the dura in contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Progressive nature of the disease can lead to chronic headache with focal neurological signs due to compression from the thickened dura. Case Report: We report a 40-year-old female who presented with chronic headache over a decade associated with recurrent neurological abnormalities including optic neuritis, hemisensory loss, migraine, facial nerve palsy, and recurrent vertigo...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Robert Jakubowski, Lisa L Steed, Susan E Dorman, Camelia Marculescu
We describe a febrile adult returning to the U.S. from Nigeria. Malaria was diagnosed by rapid antigen testing, but recognition of invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella disease was delayed. While the moniker, "typhomalaria," once used to describe an illness with features of malaria and typhoid fever, has fallen out of favor, it may nevertheless be a helpful reminder to clinicians that both infectious diseases can arise in the same patient. Blood cultures should be obtained routinely in febrile returning travelers from malaria-endemic regions, including those in whom the diagnosis of malaria has already been established...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Jesintha Navaratnam, Lumnije Dedi, Andreas Myklebust Tjølsen, Ragnheiður Bragadóttir
To the best of our knowledge, we report the first case of Dietzia species in a patient with endophthalmitis. A 47-year-old man presented to the ophthalmology department with decreased vision, redness, and minimal pain in his right eye after a foreign body struck his eye following working using a hammer and chisel. Broad-spectrum polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequencing targeting 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid-(rRNA-) encoding gene on an undiluted vitreous sample revealed 100% identity with GenBank sequences of Dietzia species including D...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Majid Darraj
Infections caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb) have a global distribution, with infections occurring most frequently in persons residing in or who have resided in developing nations. Pulmonary tuberculosis (Tb) is the most common form of infection caused by MTb. Osteoarticular Tb is a far less common condition than pulmonary Tb and is frequently overlooked in the differential diagnosis of persons with joint pathology. Osteoarticular Tb infections are far less common than pulmonary Tb and are usually not considered in the differential diagnosis...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
M Aon, T Al-Enezi
Mild anemia and leukopenia are the most common hematologic findings in the course of acute brucellosis. Severe form of thrombocytopenia is less frequently reported. We describe a case of acute brucellosis in a 20-year-old man, who presented with fever, purpuric skin lesions, epistaxis, and hematuria. The absolute platelet count was 2 × 109 /L. The patient was diagnosed as suffering from brucellosis on the basis of a strongly positive serologic reaction and was treated with antibiotics and a short course of corticosteroids, with a rapid rise in platelet count...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Parmvir Parmar, Curtis L Cooper, Daniel Kobewka
Rapidly progressive dementia is a curious and elusive clinical description of a pattern of cognitive deficits that progresses faster than typical dementia syndromes. The differential diagnosis and clinical workup for rapidly progressive dementia are quite extensive and involve searching for infectious, inflammatory, autoimmune, neoplastic, metabolic, and neurodegenerative causes. We present the case of a previously highly functional 76-year-old individual who presented with a 6-month history of rapidly progressive dementia...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Tommaso Manciulli, Aigerim Mustapayeva, Konrad Juszkiewicz, Ekaterina Sokolenko, Zhaksylik Maulenov, Ambra Vola, Mara Mariconti, Gani Serikbaev, Amangul Duisenova, Enrico Brunetti, Zhamilya Zholdybay
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a parasitic zoonosis caused by E. granulosus primarily affecting the liver and lungs. CE of the bone is by far the most debilitating form of the disease and is very difficult to manage as it mimics malignant tumors. We reviewed bone CE cases admitted to a reference oncological hospital in Kazakhstan from January 2010 to February 2017. Among eight patients, the mean age was 33.5 years, and the male/female ratio was 1 : 3. Patients were examined by X-ray (8/8), CT (7/8), and MRI (3/8)...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
John Koo, Gregory D Deans
Bacteria of the Burkholderia cepacia complex have rarely been reported to cause septic arthritis. Cases have been reported in patients who were immunocompromised, at extremes of age or who had history of steroid injection or penetrating trauma. A 67-year-old man with a history of opioid use disorder, osteoarthritis, and gout but no known immunocompromise was admitted to hospital with pain and swelling of his right knee. Cultures of synovial fluid and urine grew Burkholderia cepacia complex. Microscopy of synovial fluid also identified intracellular calcium pyrophosphate crystals...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Ayla Green, Samer Elmasry, Himali Ihalagama, Saman Senaratne
A 52-year-old postmenopausal female of Filipino heritage presented with a three-day history of increasing abdominal bloating, vomiting, and fever. A CT scan revealed a 22 cm ovarian mass and ascites. Her laboratory results were unremarkable except for CA-125 and CA-19.9 which were slightly elevated. Due to suspicion of ovarian neoplasm, she underwent a laparotomy where multiple inflammatory deposits were observed throughout the pelvis. Histology confirmed florid granulomatous inflammation with caseous necrosis, and peritoneal fluid culture was positive for tuberculosis...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Sui Kwong Li, William B Messer
Gram-negative vertebral osteomyelitis infections are increasing due to rising intravenous drug use but overall remain uncommon. Here, we present a case of Burkholderia cepacia complex cervical osteomyelitis in an intravenous drug user. Burkholderia cepaciacomplex vertebral osteomyelitis has been infrequently described in the literature thus far with varied antibiotic treatment regimens. A 68-year-old male presented to the emergency department with neck pain after minor trauma. He endorsed active intravenous heroin and methamphetamine use...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Marco Sciarra, Andrea Schimmenti, Tommaso Manciulli, Cristina Sarda, Marco Mussa, Laura Sacco, Bianca Mariani, Angela Maria Di Matteo, Paolo Orsolini
Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a soft tissue infection affecting subcutaneous tissue and the muscular fascia without involvement of the muscle and can be either monomicrobial or polymicrobial. Monomicrobial infections are usually caused by group A streptococci, while infections caused by anaerobic germs usually affect immunodepressed patients. We report a rare case of NF caused by two anaerobic bacteria in an immunocompetent patient.
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
R Manmathan, T Kumanan, J A Pradeepan
Acinetobacter species frequently causes nosocomial infection, particularly in patients receiving invasive ventilation at intensive care units for a prolonged period. Odynophagia is a rare, initial clinical manifestation of prevertebral abscess which subsequently develops when the abscess extends into the retropharyngeal space causing a midline bulge of the posterior pharyngeal wall. Here, we present and discuss a patient with uncontrolled diabetic mellitus who presented with severe odynophagia and dysphagia...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Ivan Gowe, Christopher Parsons, Michael Best, Eveline Parsons, Scott Prechter, Stephen Vickery
A livestock farmer with a history of arthropathy presented with unilateral olecranon bursal swelling and tenderness. Multiple wound and intraoperative cultures revealed growth of Trueperella bernardiae , a Gram-positive coccobacillus, with symptom resolution following appropriate antimicrobial therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of olecranon bursitis caused by this organism. Coryneform bacteria are often regarded as contaminants in clinical cultures, but advanced techniques for species identification may reveal expanded pathogenic potential of individual species like T...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Polina Trachuk, Wendy A Szymczak, Peter Muscarella, Uzma N Sarwar
Gastrointestinal mucormycosis is a rare life-threatening infection to which neutropenic patients are especially vulnerable. Mycotypha microspora is a mucormycete that has not been described as a human pathogen. We discuss the successful eradication of gastrointestinal Mycotypha microspora in a neutropenic patient with simultaneous pulmonary Aspergillus fumigatus infection.
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
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