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Case Reports in Infectious Diseases

Nikolaos Petridis, Athanasia Apsemidou, Georgios Kalopitas, Georgios Pilianidis, Iakovos Avramidis
Streptococcus thoraltensis has mainly been reported to cause infections in animals. Its clinical significance as a human pathogen has not yet been fully elucidated and needs further investigation. We describe here a case of bacteremia attributed to S. thoraltensis in a 55-year-old female patient admitted to our department due to fever of unknown origin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of S. thoraltensis bacteremia in a human and the first reported case of S. thoraltensis as a cause of fever of unknown origin in human...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Tomoya Harada, Yuriko Sueda, Kensaku Okada, Tsuyoshi Kitaura, Kosuke Yamaguchi, Haruhiko Makino, Masaki Nakamoto, Hiroki Chikumi, Akira Yamasaki
We present a case report of a 35-year-old woman who had splenic infarction. She had persistent high fever, systemic joint pain, and abnormal liver function. She was diagnosed with cytomegalovirus and human parvovirus B19 concomitant infection. Her coagulopathy test revealed no abnormal results. She was treated with intravenous ganciclovir for 13 days; consequently, her splenic infarction improved after 7 weeks. As per our knowledge, this is the first case of cytomegalovirus and parvovirus B19 coinfection complicated by splenic infarction...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
A Shreenivasa, K A Vishak, K Sindhu, Kauslya Sahu, G V Chaithra
Pulmonary actinomycosis is an important differential diagnosis in patients with long-standing pulmonary infiltrates related to poor oral hygiene or compromised immune function. Up to a quarter of cases of thoracic actinomycosis are misdiagnosed as lung malignancy. Here, we report a 56-year-old man with a hypodense lesion in the left lower lobe presenting with recurrent massive haemoptysis for about one year. He underwent left lower lobe lobectomy due to intractable haemoptysis. Histopathological examination demonstrated actinomycosis infiltrating the left lower lobe...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Natasha Spottiswoode, Michael J Peluso, Tobias Deuse, Jennifer M Babik
Background: Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) is a pathogen that causes several human clinical illnesses, most commonly gastroenteritis. Focal infections are rare and are generally reported in the gastrointestinal and genitourinary systems. Very few studies have reported NTS abscess as a postoperative complication. Case report: We describe an elderly patient who developed NTS bacteremia and mediastinal abscess after aortic valve replacement. Conclusions: This report describes an extremely rare occurrence of an NTS mediastinal abscess complicating a surgical procedure...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Ranna Al-Dossari, Sana Zekri
Pyomyositis is a purulent infection of striated muscle tissue that usually leads to an abscess, commonly due to S. aureus . Pyomyositis is typically found in tropic regions, but it is increasingly being recognized in temperate climates, especially in immunocompromised individuals. Patient presentation ranges from afebrile with mildly elevated WBC to frank sepsis. In many reported cases, patients may develop multiple abscesses at different sites. We report a case of a 54-year-old male with a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) presenting with right pectoral infection...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Taro Shinozaki, Kotaro Sasahara, Eri Iwami, Aoi Kuroda, Tatsu Matsuzaki, Takahiro Nakajima, Takeshi Terashima
A 19-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of a persistent fever and cough that lasted for over a week. Influenza B virus infection was diagnosed using the rapid test kit. Initially, the patient was diagnosed with influenza B infection associated with lobar pneumonia and treated with an anti-influenza virus drug and sulbactam/ampicillin. The patient's fever persisted, and her respiratory condition worsened. On day 5, a computed tomography (CT) scan revealed an extension of the consolidation areas in the left lung and new opacities in the right lung...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Ho-Man Yeung, BrijaƩ Chavarria, Dariush Shahsavari
While bacteremia due to Serratia marcescens is not uncommon, it rarely causes infective endocarditis. We report an isolated case of a 53-year-old male with history of intravenous drug abuse who presented with multiple acute pain symptoms and was found to have S. marcescens bacteremia with septic emboli in his spleen, brain, and testes, secondary to a large aortic vegetation, as well as aortic infective endocarditis with severe aortic regurgitation requiring aortic valve replacement. His course of disease was further complicated by epidural and psoas abscesses and a necrotic testicle requiring orchiectomy due to his ongoing intravenous drug abuse...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Noha Ghusson, Gustavo Vasquez
Objectives: To examine the burden of norovirus- and sapovirus-related diarrhea in renal transplant patients and to propose the use of nitazoxanide as a therapeutic option for treatment. Methods: We reviewed three renal transplant patients with viral diarrhea requiring hospitalization due to acute renal failure and signs of graft rejection. All three patients were treated with nitazoxanide. We examined their clinical courses after therapy and compared time to resolution of symptoms and viral shedding...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Vidya Kollu, Margarida Magalhaes-Silverman, Guido Tricot, Dilek Ince
Infection with Toxoplasma gondii is a rare but often fatal complication in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients. Most cases have been reported in allogeneic (allo-) HSCT recipients, with only narrative reports following autologous HSCT (ASCT). We report the case of a 58-year-old Caucasian male presenting with toxoplasma encephalitis following tandem ASCT for myeloma and successfully treated with diagnosis by polymerase chain reaction analysis of cerebrospinal fluid. He was treated with sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine (with leucovorin) followed by pyrimethamine and atovaquone as secondary prophylaxis while receiving subsequent therapy for progressive multiple myeloma...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Mridul Gupta, Radhika Annam, Joseph Bahgat, Margaret Eng
Lemierre's syndrome is a rare disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. It begins with an oropharyngeal infection, which spreads locally to involve the internal jugular vein causing thrombophlebitis, followed by distant spread and metastatic infections. Affected individuals are commonly young adults. Causative organisms are usually oropharyngeal flora, most commonly being the anaerobe Fusobacterium necrophorum . Porphyromonas asaccharolytica is a rare etiological agent with only three cases being reported in the literature...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Kartik Natrajan, Mahenderkumar Medisetty, Raviraj Gawali, Ajit Tambolkar, Divya Patel, Vinay Thorat, Nachiket Dubale, Vrushali Khirid, Chinmay Saraf, Ameet Dravid
Parasitic infections such as Strongyloides stercoralis and HIV have been reported to coexist, particularly in resource-limited settings such as India. In an immunocompromised host, S. stercoralis can progress to strongyloidiasis hyperinfection syndrome (SHS). However, SHS is not common in patients with advanced HIV disease. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) developing after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) can target multiple pathogens including S . stercoralis . The authors present here a 46-year-old HIV-infected female who was recently diagnosed with HIV-1 infection, started ART, and developed SHS...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Alaap Mehta, Kali Larson, Bindu Sarika Ganapathineedi, Esteffania Villegas, Susmitha Dande, Wahaj Ahmed, Nadew Sebro
A 21-year-old woman was found to have fulminant myocarditis as a result of Coxsackie B infection (a virus shown to exhibit summer-fall seasonality) in mid-December. In this case report, seasonality of enteroviruses is examined, as well as additional factors which may contribute to sporadic cases during winter months. The case report also discusses clinical criteria for endomyocardial biopsy, utility of PCR vs. antibody serological tests, coinfection with multiple serotypes, and rhabdomyolysis in Coxsackie B...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Christoph Sossou, Chaitanya Pal, Jose R Bustillo
This is a case of a 38-year-old female with latent TB complicated by disseminated peritoneal TB with associated spontaneous abortion, who was initially thought to have an ovarian neoplasm, prompting extensive workup. Laparoscopy with biopsy later confirmed the patient's condition; she was initiated on the appropriate therapy and had a full recovery.
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Durga Shankar Meena, Vikram Singh Sonwal, Amit Kumar Rohila, Vasudha Meena
Brucellosis is one of the most widespread zoonosis in the world. Hematological complications in brucellosis usually present as mild anemia, leukopenia, or pancytopenia. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia in brucellosis is rarely reported. Here, we report an 18-year-old female presented to us with progressive fatigue, jaundice, and fever. Hematological investigations revealed hemolytic anemia. Direct Coombs test was positive. Further evaluation showed positive serology and culture for Brucella. The patient was diagnosed with brucellosis with autoimmune hemolytic anemia...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Alexandra W Dretler, Jesse T Jacob, Nadine G Rouphael
A 74-year-old man presented to the emergency department with severe right leg cellulitis following a trip to the Bahamas where he swam in both chlorinated pools and the ocean. His blood cultures grew Shewanella species, a marine pathogen known to cause disease in humans, following exposure to seawater. He was treated with cefepime for a total of two weeks without needing any surgical intervention. The patient had complete resolution of infection and was able to return to his activities of daily living.
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Sammy G Nakhla
Coccidioidomycosis, also known as San Joaquin Valley Fever or Valley Fever, is mostly a pulmonary infection caused by inhalation of spores in an endemic region. Dissemination to bone, joints, meninges, and skin occurs less than one percent of the time. Skeletal involvement accounts for approximately half of the disseminated coccidioidomycosis with the vertebrae as the most common skeletal region. We present a very rare case of disseminated coccidioidomycosis with osteomyelitis and compression fracture of the lumbar vertebral body...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Jose Ruiz, Maedeh Ganji, Catarina Canha, Carmen Isache
Approximately 2 billion people, which is about one third of the world's population, are infected with tuberculosis (TB). Around 10% of infected people will develop active TB at one point in their lifetime. We present a rare case of a 68-year-old male who presented to the emergency department with a 2-week progressive dyspnea. In addition, the patient complained of generalized weakness, subjective fevers, and abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant. Ascites was noted on physical exam, and the patient underwent a diagnostic paracentesis with initial workup that was unrevealing for underlying etiology...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Akshay Khatri, Naga Sasidhar Kanaparthy, Bright Jebaraj Selvaraj, Eunna Cho, Marc Y El Khoury
Osteomyelitis is commonly caused by Staphylococci , Streptococci , Escherichia coli , and anaerobes. There have been cases of rare organisms like Klebsiella pneumoniae ( Kp ) being initially overlooked as causes of osteomyelitis. We report a case of an elderly cirrhotic adult male transferred for further management of liver failure, who was subsequently diagnosed with Kp osteomyelitis and sepsis. He had a history of blunt leg trauma, and MRI of the leg revealed osteomyelitis, with a negative workup for other sources of infection...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Abdul Razzakh Poil, Adila Shaukat, Devendra Kumar
Intracranial abscesses, postinfectious vasculitis, and hydrocephalus are rare complications of Streptococcus pneumoniae ( S. pneumoniae ) meningitis, and to our knowledge, there have been no case reports where all these 3 complications occurred in a single patient with Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis. Here, we report a case of a 48-year-old male who developed postinfectious vasculitis, abscess, hydrocephalus, and hearing loss after S. pneumoniae meningitis. Clinicians ought to be aware of the possible adverse outcomes of S...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Amos Lal, Jamal Akhtar, Ashfaq Ullah, George M Abraham
Staphylococcus simulans is a coagulase-negative organism, mainly an animal pathogen. Reports of human infection have been infrequent, mainly in patients with repeated animal contact. We report the first case of pleural empyema in an elderly woman. S. simulans tends to cause more severe infection because of a biofilm layer which helps in adherence and colonization of smooth surfaces, especially prosthetic devices, shunts, and catheters. The challenging problem even after CoNS isolation and identification is the assessment of their clinical relevance...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
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