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GM Crops & Food

L A Popoola, M A Otitoju, L Tanko
Consumption decision and likely expenditure are critical fundamentals that may ultimately shape the future of GM crops development and deployment in Nigeria. The present study constituted an attempt to examine factors of significance with bearing influence on these key consumer-led issues. Structured and pre-tested questionnaire were employed to elicit response from consumers. In all, 232 responses were analysed with Heckman two-stage selection model. The socio-economic data shows that majority of respondents (45...
January 6, 2017: GM Crops & Food
Kasturi Dasgupta, Roger Thilmony, Ed Stover, Maria Luiza Oliveira, James Thomson
The level of anthocyanins in plants vary widely among cultivars, developmental stages and environmental stimuli. Previous studies have reported that the expression of various MYBs regulate anthocyanin pigmentation during growth and development. Here we examine the activity of three novel R2R3-MYB transcription factor (TF) genes, PamMybA.1, PamMybA.3 and PamMybA.5 from Prunus americana. The anthocyanin accumulation patterns mediated by CaMV double35S promoter (db35Sp) controlled expression of the TFs in transgenic tobacco were compared to citrus-MoroMybA, Arabidopsis-AtMybA1 and grapevine-VvMybA1 transgenics during their entire growth cycles...
January 4, 2017: GM Crops & Food
John Davison, Klaus Ammann
In this review, current EU GMO regulations are subjected to a point-by point analysis to determine their suitability for agriculture in modern Europe. Our analysis concerns present GMO regulations as well as suggestions for possible new regulations for genome editing and New Breeding Techniques (for which no regulations presently exist). Firstly, the present GMO regulations stem from the early days of recombinant DNA and are not adapted to current scientific understanding on this subject. Scientific understanding of GMOs has changed and these regulations are now, not only unfit for their original purpose, but, the purpose itself is now no longer scientifically valid...
January 2, 2017: GM Crops & Food
Agustina I Whelan, Martin A Lema
Gene editing technologies are a group of recent innovations in plant breeding using molecular biology, which have in common the capability of introducing a site-directed mutation or deletion in the genome. The first cases of crops improved with these technologies are approaching the market; this has raised an international debate regarding if they should be regulated as genetically modified crops or just as another form of mutagenesis under conventional breeding. This dilemma for policymakers not only entails issues pertaining safety information and legal/regulatory definitions...
January 2, 2017: GM Crops & Food
Fawzy Georges, Heather Ray
Genome editing of crop plants is a rapidly advancing technology whereby targeted mutations can be introduced into a plant genome in a highly specific manner and with great precision. For the most part, the technology does not incorporate transgenic modifications and is far superior to conventional chemical mutagenesis. In this study we bring into focus some of the underlying differences between the 3 existing technologies: classical plant breeding, genetic modification and genome editing. We discuss some of the main achievements from each area and highlight their common characteristics and individual limitations, while emphasizing the unique capabilities of genome editing...
January 2, 2017: GM Crops & Food
Giovanni Tagliabue
The EU regulation of agricultural biotechnology is botched and convoluted: the pseudo-concept of "Genetically Modified Organisms" has no coherent semantic or scientific content. The reasons of the paradox by which the cultivation of "GMOs" is substantially banned in Europe, while enormous quantities of recombinant-DNA cereals and legumes are imported to be used as feedstuff, are explained. The Directive 2015/412, giving Member states the choice to refuse the cultivation of genetically engineered crops at a national or local level, paves the way for a mosaic-like, Harlequinesque form of protectionism: nothing resembling a well-regulated free market...
January 2, 2017: GM Crops & Food
Tetsuya Ishii, Motoko Araki
The global agricultural landscape regarding the commercial cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops is mosaic. Meanwhile, a new plant breeding technique, genome editing is expected to make genetic engineering-mediated crop breeding more socially acceptable because it can be used to develop crop varieties without introducing transgenes, which have hampered the regulatory review and public acceptance of GM crops. The present study revealed that product- and process-based concepts have been implemented to regulate GM crops in 30 countries...
January 2, 2017: GM Crops & Food
Stuart J Smyth
New breeding techniques in plant agriculture exploded upon the scene about two years ago, in 2014. While these innovative plant breeding techniques, soon to be led by CRISPR/Cas9, initially appear to hold tremendous promise for plant breeding, if not a revolution for the industry, the question of how the products of these technologies will be regulated is rapidly becoming a key aspect of the technology's future potential. Regulation of innovative technologies and products has always lagged that of the science, but in the past decade, regulatory systems in many jurisdictions have become gridlocked as they try to regulate genetically modified (GM) crops...
January 2, 2017: GM Crops & Food
Siddhesh B Ghag, Vinayak S Adki, Thumballi R Ganapathi, Vishwas A Bapat
Production of recombinant proteins is primarily established in cultures of mammalian, insect, and bacterial cells. Concurrently, concept of using plants to produce high-value pharmaceuticals such as vaccines, antibodies and dietary proteins have received worldwide attention. Newer technologies for plant transformation such as plastid engineering, agroinfiltration, magnifection and deconstructed viral vectors have been used to enhance protein production in plants along with the inherent advantage of speed, scale and cost of production in plant systems...
October 27, 2016: GM Crops & Food
Alan McHughen
Regulatory policies governing the safety of genetic engineering (rDNA) and the resulting products (GMOs) have been contentious and divisive, especially in agricultural applications of the technologies. These tensions led to vastly different approaches to safety regulation in different jurisdictions, even though the intent of regulations-to assure public and environmental safety-are common worldwide, and even though the international scientific communities agree on the basic principles of risk assessment and risk management...
October 2016: GM Crops & Food
Alemayehu Teressa Negawo, Linda Baranek, Hans-Jörg Jacobsen, Fathi Hassan
Transgenic pea lines transformed with the cry1Ac gene were characterized at molecular (PCR, RT-PCR, qRT-PCR and immunostrip assay) and functional levels (leaf paint and insect feeding bioassays). The results showed the presence, expression, inheritance and functionality of the introduced transgene at different progeny levels. Variation in the expression of the cry1Ac gene was observed among the different transgenic lines. In the insect bioassay studies using the larvae of Heliothis virescens, both larval survival and plant damage were highly affected on the different transgenic plants...
October 2016: GM Crops & Food
Akhter Ali, Dil Bahadur Rahut, Muhammad Imtiaz
In Pakistan majority of the consumers do not have information about genetically modified (GM) foods. In developing countries particularly in Pakistan few studies have focused on consumers' acceptability about GM foods. Using comprehensive primary dataset collected from 320 consumers in 2013 from Pakistan, this study analyzes the determinants of consumers' acceptability of GM foods. The data was analyzed by employing the bivariate probit model and censored least absolute deviation (CLAD) models. The empirical results indicated that urban consumers are more aware of GM foods compared to rural consumers...
April 2, 2016: GM Crops & Food
Graham Brookes, Peter Barfoot
This paper updates previous assessments of important environmental impacts associated with using crop biotechnology in global agriculture. It focuses on the environmental impacts associated with changes in pesticide use and greenhouse gas emissions arising from the use of GM crops since their first widespread commercial use in the mid 1990s. The adoption of GM insect resistant and herbicide tolerant technology has reduced pesticide spraying by 581.4 million kg (-8.2%) and, as a result, decreased the environmental impact associated with herbicide and insecticide use on these crops (as measured by the indicator, the Environmental Impact Quotient [EIQ]) by18...
April 2, 2016: GM Crops & Food
Brandon J Fast, Maria P Galan, Ariane C Schafer
Soybean event DAS-444Ø6-6 is tolerant to the herbicides 2,4-D, glyphosate, and glufosinate. An investigation of potential unintended adverse compositional changes in a genetically modified crop is required to meet government regulatory requirements in various geographies. A study to meet these requirements in Brazil was completed demonstrating compositional equivalency between DAS-444Ø6-6 and non-transgenic soybean. This study supplements the extensive literature supporting transgenesis as less disruptive of crop composition compared with traditional breeding methods...
April 2, 2016: GM Crops & Food
Paige E Finkelstein
Billions of people worldwide are unable to meet their daily micro nutritional needs. Genetically modified (GM) foods, while initially developed to tolerate herbicides and resist disease and insects, have the potential to help alleviate this issue that is currently posing a serious public health concern. However, there is a negative public perception surrounding GM foods, calling for more research regarding the risks that GM foods could pose to the public, specifically on the topics of allergenicity and gene transfer...
February 18, 2016: GM Crops & Food
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2, 2016: GM Crops & Food
Graham Brookes, Peter Barfoot
This paper provides an economic assessment of the value of using genetically modified (GM) crop technology in agriculture at the farm level. It follows and updates earlier annual studies which examined economic impacts on yields, key costs of production, direct farm income and effects, and impacts on the production base of the 4 main crops of soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. The commercialisation of GM crops has continued to occur at a rapid rate since the mid 1990s, with important changes in both the overall level of adoption and impact occurring in 2014...
January 2, 2016: GM Crops & Food
Woldeyesus Sinebo, Karim Maredia
The regulation of genetically modified (GM) crops is a topical issue in agriculture and environment over the past 2 decades. The objective of this paper is to recount regulatory and adoption practices in some developing countries that have successfully adopted GM crops so that aspiring countries may draw useful lessons and best practices for their biosafatey regulatory regimes. The first 11 mega-GM crops growing countries each with an area of more than one million hectares in 2014 were examined. Only five out of the 11 countries had smooth and orderly adoption of these crops as per the regulatory requirement of each country...
January 2, 2016: GM Crops & Food
Ranjini Warrier, Hem Pande
In order to proactively identify emerging issues that may impact the risk assessment and risk management functions of the Indian biosafety regulatory system, the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change sought to understand the nature and diversity of genetically engineered crops that may move to product commercialization within the next 10 y. This paper describes the findings from a questionnaire designed to solicit information about public and private sector research and development (R&D) activities in plant biotechnology...
January 2, 2016: GM Crops & Food
Toru Nishizawa, Nobuyoshi Nakajima, Masanori Tamaoki, Mitsuko Aono, Akihiro Kubo, Hikaru Saji
Previously, we conducted a roadside survey to reveal the occurrence of genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape along a Japanese roadside (Route 51). In this study, we performed successive and thorough fixed-route monitoring in 5 sections along another road (Route 23). Oilseed rape plants were detected on both sides of the road in each section between autumn 2009 and winter 2013, which included 3 flowering seasons. In four sections, more plants were found on the side of the road leading from the Yokkaichi port than on the opposite side...
January 2, 2016: GM Crops & Food
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