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Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics

Arun Kumar, Janet E McElhaney, Lisa Walrond, Terry D Cyr, Shahzma Merani, Tobias R Kollmann, Scott A Halperin, David W Scheifele
Cellular immunity is important for protection against the serious complications of influenza in older adults. As it is unclear if newer influenza vaccines elicit greater cellular responses than standard vaccines, we compared responses to two standard and two newer licensed trivalent inactivated vaccines (TIVs) in a randomized trial in older adults. Non-frail adults ≥65 years old were randomly assigned to receive standard subunit, MF59-adjuvanted subunit, standard split-virus or intradermal split-virus TIV...
June 21, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Maria R Castrucci
Annual administration of the seasonal influenza vaccine is strongly recommended to reduce the burden of disease, particularly for persons at the highest risk for the viral infection. Even during years when there is a good match between the vaccine and circulating strains, host-related factors such as age, preexisting immunity, genetic polymorphisms, and the presence of chronic underlying conditions may compromise influenza vaccine responsiveness. The application of new methodologies and large-scale profiling technologies are improving the ability to measure vaccine immunogenicity and our understanding of the immune mechanisms by which vaccines induce protective immunity...
June 15, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Ingrid Karlsson, Marie Borggren, Jens Nielsen, Dennis Christensen, Jim Williams, Anders Fomsgaard
DNA vaccines induce broad immunity, which involves both humoral and strong cellular immunity, and can be rapidly designed for novel or evolving pathogens such as influenza. However, the humoral immunogenicity in humans and higher animals has been suboptimal compared with that of traditional vaccine approaches. We tested whether the emulsion-based and α-tocopherol containing adjuvant Diluvac Forte® has the ability to enhance the immunogenicity of a naked DNA vaccine (i.e., plasmid DNA). As a model vaccine, we used plasmids encoding both a surface-exposed viral glycoprotein (hemagglutinin) and an internal non-glycosylated nucleoprotein in the Th1/Th2 balanced CB6F1 mouse model...
June 14, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Federico Marchetti, Volker Vetter, Giorgio Conforti, Susanna Esposito, Paolo Bonanni
Most of the severe cases of acute gastroenteritis in infants and children under five globally are caused by rotavirus infection. There are nearly 15,000 rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) hospitalizations in Italy each year, which could be reduced by available rotavirus vaccines. In addition to the economic and societal burden, RVGE hospitalization could impact families negatively. The aim of this survey was to obtain parents' insights after hospitalization of their child for RVGE. Parents, of 500 children aged 0-5 years, were interviewed about their experience of RVGE hospitalization and asked to rate their stress on different items and overall...
June 13, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Jalil Hakimi, Ali Azizi, Salvador F Ausar, Stephen M Todryk, Nausheen Rahman, Roger H Brookes
The restimulation of an immune memory response by in vitro culture of blood cells with a specific antigen has been used as a way to gauge immunity to vaccines for decades. In this commentary we discuss a less appreciated application to support vaccine process development. We report that human whole blood from pre-primed subjects can generate a profound adjuvant-modulated, antigen-specific response to several different vaccine formulations. The response is able to differentiate subtle changes in the quality of an immune memory response to vaccine formulations and can be used to select optimal conditions relating to a particular manufacture process step...
June 12, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Yan Su, Eliezer Romeu-Bonilla, Athanasia Anagnostou, David Fitz-Patrick, William Hearl, Teri Heiland
Japanese Red Cedar (JRC) pollen induced allergy affects one third of Japanese and the development of effective therapies remains an unachieved challenge. We designed a DNA vaccine encoding CryJ2 allergen from the JRC pollen and Lysosomal Associated Membrane Protein 1 (LAMP-1) to treat JRC allergy. These Phase IA and IB trials assessed safety and immunological effects of the investigational CryJ2-LAMP DNA vaccine in both non-sensitive and sensitive Japanese expatriates living in Honolulu, Hawaii. In the Phase IA trial, six JRC non-sensitive subjects and nine JRC and/or Mountain Cedar (MC) sensitive subjects were given four vaccine doses (each 4 mg/1 ml) intramuscularly (IM) at 14-day intervals...
June 12, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Jun Cao, Fei Yi, Qiufeng Tian, Guanghui Dang, Wei Si, Siguo Liu, Shenye Yu
The use of antibiotics to target bacteria is a well-validated approach for controlling infections in animals and humans. Peptidoglycan biosynthesis is a crucial process in bacteria, and the conserved peptidoglycan synthase MraY is an attractive target for drug design. However, due to the lack of detailed MraY structural information, antibiotics targeting MraY have not yet been developed. In the present study, two hydrophilic regions of MraY from Escherichia coli were expressed as a fusion protein and used to raise a monoclonal antibody in mice...
June 12, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Juliana L Meyers, Shweta Madhwani, Debora Rausch, Sean D Candrilli, Girishanthy Krishnarajah, Songkai Yan
Few peer-reviewed publications present real-world United States (US) data describing resource utilization and costs associated with herpes zoster (HZ) and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). The primary objective of this analysis (GSK study identifier: HO-14-14270) was to assess direct costs associated with HZ and PHN in the US using a retrospective managed care insurance claims database. Patients ≥ 50 y at HZ diagnosis were selected. Patients were excluded if they were immunocompromised before diagnosis or received an HZ vaccine at any time...
June 12, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Joseph P Fava, Jacob Colleran, Francesca Bignasci, Raymond Cha, Paul E Kilgore
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination faces several barriers, including a social stigma which carries religious and philosophical implications among parents of adolescents as well as young adults. Hundreds of immunization interventions and programs have been developed to address these factors and boost HPV vaccination rates in the United States. We sought to review the existing literature highlighting barriers to HPV immunization, as well as programs targeting increased HPV vaccine uptake in effort to develop novel vaccination initiatives...
June 12, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Bernhard Resch
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) accounts for about 20% of all respiratory infections in children below the age of 5 years. It is associated with up to 63% of all acute respiratory infections and up to 81% of all viral lower respiratory tract infections causing hospitalization in infants and young children. RSV leads to seasonal epidemics between November and April in the northern hemisphere. Most severe infections (RSV accounts for 50 to 80% of all cause bronchiolitis) affect infants younger than 6 months of age and high-risk infants including those born preterm with or without bronchopulmonary dysplasia and those with hemodynamically significant congenital heart disease up to an age of 24 months...
June 12, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Eugene Shapiro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 12, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Sabarinath Venniyil Radhakrishnan, Neelam Bhardwaj, Mary Steinbach, Janet Weidner, Tim Luetkens, Djordje Atanackovic
Treatment of multiple myeloma has undergone significant change in the last decade with the introduction of new immunomodulatory agents, proteasome inhibitors, and immunotherapeutic approaches. Elotuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting CS1, which is a member of the SLAM (Signaling Lymphocyte Activation Molecule) family of proteins, expressed on the surface of myeloma plasma cells. Here we review the preclinical investigations that led to the development of elotuzumab and the clinical studies that resulted in its approval for the treatment of relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma...
June 12, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Sao Puth, Seol Hee Hong, Mi Jin Park, Hye Hwa Lee, Youn Suhk Lee, Kwangjoon Jeong, In-Chol Kang, Jeong Tae Koh, Byounggon Moon, Sang Chul Park, Joon Haeng Rhee, Shee Eun Lee
Chronic periodontitis is caused by interactions between the oral polymicrobial community and host factors. Periodontal diseases are associated with dysbiotic shift in oral microbiota. Vaccination against periodontopathic bacteria could be a fundamental therapeutic to modulate polymicrobial biofilms. Because oral cavity is the site of periodontopathic bacterial colonization, mucosal vaccines should provide better protection than vaccines administered systemically. We previously reported that bacterial flagellin is an excellent mucosal adjuvant...
June 12, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Ivan F N Hung, Kwok-Yung Yuen
Intradermal influenza vaccination has been studied for more than 80 years. The revived interest in this strategy of vaccination is a result of the innovative technologies in needle design allowing more precise injection and making the device easier to use. Furthermore, clinical trials on these novel devices have demonstrated significant dose sparing effects, improved immunogenicity and very few adverse effects. This review compares intradermal vaccination with various devices with subcutaneous and intramuscular vaccination...
June 12, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Abbey B Berenson, V Gnaukita Brown, Erika L Fuchs, Jacqueline M Hirth, Mihyun Chang
The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has been available for over a decade but its uptake rate is still low. To explore the relationship between the HPV vaccination status of a child and their mother's beliefs, behaviors and knowledge, we surveyed 1497 women with at least one child aged 9-17 years between September 2011 and November 2015. Physician recommendation was the most important factor associated with reported child vaccination status. Mothers who reported receiving a provider recommendation for the HPV vaccine were 32 times more likely to have a child who had been vaccinated compared to mothers who did not report provider recommendation (aOR) = 32...
June 12, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Giuseppe La Torre, Rosella Saulle, Brigid Unim, Angela Meggiolaro, Angelo Barbato, Alice Mannocci, Antonietta Spadea
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine in reducing hospitalizations for infectious disease, targeted and not targeted, as well as from respiratory diseases in children in Rome. METHODS: . The cohort was recomposed through record linkage of two archives (vaccination register and hospital discharge records. RESULTS: The analysis included 11,004 children. 20.9% did not receive the MMR vaccination, 49% and 30...
June 12, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Heather Friberg, Anuja Mathew
Dengue viruses are some of the most important mosquito-borne pathogens worldwide. They cause illness in 50-100 million individuals per year and have a significant global health impact in low- and middle-income countries. It is important to improve our understanding of the humoral response to dengue virus, as antibodies (Abs) are associated with protection from or susceptibility to severe dengue disease. In recent years, significant advances have been made toward identifying Ab targets and evaluating the functional properties of Abs...
June 12, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Wei Tao, Hai-Qun Zheng, Ting Fu, Zhuo-Jing He, Yan Hong
Adjuvants are essential for enhancing vaccine potency by improving the humoral and/or cell-mediated immune response to vaccine antigens. This study was performed to evaluate the immuno-enhancing characteristic of N-(2-hydroxy) propyl-3-trimethylammonium chitosan chloride (HTCC), the cationically modified chitosan, as an adjuvant for hepatitis E virus (HEV) recombinant polypeptide vaccine. Animal experiments showed that HTCC provides adjuvant activity when co-administered with HEV recombinant polypeptide vaccine by intramuscularly route...
June 12, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Yukari Nakajima, Kanae Mukai, Kana Takaoka, Toshiko Hirose, Keiko Morishita, Takuya Yamamoto, Yuka Yoshida, Tamae Urai, Toshio Nakatani
It is becoming increasingly important for clinicians to identify a safer intramuscular (IM) injection site in the deltoid muscle because of possible complications following the vaccine administration of IM injections. We herein examined four original IM sites located on the perpendicular line through the mid-acromion in order to establish a safer IM injection site. Thirty healthy volunteers participated in this study and the distances from our four IM sites to some anatomical landmarks on their left arms were measured...
June 12, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Yu Hu, Ying Wang, Yaping Chen, Qian Li
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the degree and determinants of inequality in up-to-date fully immunization (UTDFI) coverage among children of Zhejiang province, east China. METHOD: We used data from the Zhejiang provincial vaccination coverage survey of 2014 and the health outcome was the UTDFI status among children aged 24-35 months. The household income per month was used as an index of socio-economic status for the inequality analysis. The concentration index (CI) was used to quantify the degree of inequality and the decomposition approach was applied to quantify the contributions from demographic factors to inequality in UTDFI coverage...
June 12, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
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