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Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341845/outside-in-inside-out-creating-focus-on-the-patient-a-vaccine-company-perspective
#1
Denis Sohy, Isabelle Dusart, Philibert Goulet, Diane Visy, Luc Gasthuys, Tatjana Poplazarova, Thomas Breuer, Norman Begg
Involving patients in the development of medicines and vaccines should result in benefits to patients. The vaccine recipient is usually a healthy person. We describe the rationale and implementation of a vaccine company's initiative to encourage employees to identify with patients of the conditions prevented by the vaccines they help to produce. The Voice of the Patient ("VoP"), begun in 2014, is an educational programme directed at the 16,000 employees of a global vaccine company. It engages employees through an understanding that they are all "vaccine patients", and that they can make a difference by considering the impact of decisions made in their day to day work...
January 17, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337653/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-a-meningococcal-b-recombinant-vaccine-when-administered-with-routine-vaccines-to-healthy-infants-in-taiwan-a-phase-3-open-label-randomized-study
#2
Nan-Chang Chiu, Li-Min Huang, Arnold Willemsen, Chiranjiwi Bhusal, Ashwani Kumar Arora, Zenaida Reynoso Mojares, Daniela Toneatto
Neisseria meningitidis is associated with high mortality and morbidity in infants and children worldwide. This phase 3 study (NCT02173704) evaluated safety and immunogenicity of a 4-component serogroup B recombinant meningococcal vaccine (4CMenB) co-administered with routine vaccines in Taiwanese infants. In total, 225 healthy infants were randomized (2:1) to receive 4CMenB and routine vaccines (4CMenB+Routine) or routine vaccines only (Routine group) at 2, 4, 6 and 12 months of age. Routine vaccines were diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae type b, 13-valent pneumococcal, hepatitis B, measles-mumps-rubella and varicella vaccines...
January 16, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337652/poorly-neutralizing-polyclonal-antibody-in-vitro-against-coxsackievirus-a16-circulating-strains-can-prevent-a-lethal-challenge-in-vivo
#3
Xin Yao, QunYing Mao, Yajing Li, Chunsheng Hao, LianLian Bian, Pan Chen, Fan Gao, Xing Wu, WeiWei Lu, Qiang Gao, XiuLing Li, Zhenglun Liang
Neutralizing antibodies (NTAbs) is a major criterion for evaluation the immunogenicity of many vaccines, for example, poliovirus and EV71 vaccine. Here, we firstly discovered that polyclonal antibodies induced by inactivated CVA16 vaccine and lived CVA16 virus have poor ability to neutralize circulating CVA16 strains in vitro. However, the passive transfer of poorly neutralizing polyclonal antibodies can protect suckling mice from lethally challenged with circulating strains in vivo. In addition, the obvious dose response was found between the titer of antibodies and the survival rate...
January 16, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337651/the-effects-of-booster-vaccination-of-hepatitis-b-vaccine-on-children-5-15-years-after-primary-immunization-a-5-year-follow-up-study
#4
Zikang Wu, Jun Yao, Hongdan Bao, Yongdi Chen, Shunshun Lu, Jing Li, Linna Yang, Zhenggang Jiang, Jingjing Ren, Kai-Jin Xu, Bing Ruan, Shi-Gui Yang, Tian-Sheng Xie, Qian Li
The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in hepatitis B surface antibody titers (anti-HBs) after booster vaccinations in children aged 5-15 y and to provide suitable immunization strategies. A total of 2208 children were initially enrolled in screening, and 559 children were finally included. The participants were divided into 2 groups according to their pre-booster anti-HBs levels: Group I, <10 mIU/ml and Group II, ≥10 mIU/ml. Group I was administered 3 doses of booster hepatitis B vaccine (0-1-6 months, 10 μg), and Group II was administered 1 dose of booster hepatitis B vaccine (10 μg)...
January 16, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337646/stability-of-an-aluminum-salt-adjuvanted-protein-d-conjugated-pneumococcal-vaccine-after-exposure-to-subzero-temperatures
#5
Juliette Fortpied, Florence Wauters, Christelle Rochart, Philippe Hermand, Bernard Hoet, Nicolas Moniotte, Ivo Vojtek
Accidental exposure of a vaccine containing an aluminum-salt adjuvant to temperatures below 0°C in the cold chain can lead to freeze damage. Our study evaluated the potential for freeze damage in a licensed aluminum-salt-containing protein-D-conjugated pneumococcal vaccine (PHiD-CV; Synflorix, GSK) in conditions that included static storage, single subzero-temperature excursions, and simulated air-freight transportation. Several parameters were assessed including freezing at subzero temperatures, aluminum-salt-particle size, antigen integrity and immunogenicity in the mouse...
January 16, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337643/models-for-predicting-the-evolution-of-influenza-to-inform-vaccine-strain-selection
#6
Joseph K Agor, Osman Y Özaltın
Influenza vaccine composition is reviewed before every flu season because influenza viruses constantly evolve through antigenic changes. To inform vaccine updates, laboratories that contribute to the World Health Organization Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System monitor the antigenic phenotypes of circulating viruses all year round. Vaccine strains are selected in anticipation of the upcoming influenza season to allow adequate time for production. A mismatch between vaccine strains and predominant strains in the flu season can significantly reduce vaccine effectiveness...
January 16, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336668/safety-and-biodistribution-of-sulfated-archaeal-glycolipid-archaeosomes-as-vaccine-adjuvants
#7
Bassel Akache, Felicity C Stark, Umar Iqbal, Wangxue Chen, Yimei Jia, Lakshmi Krishnan, Michael J McCluskie
Archaeosomes are liposomes comprised of ether lipids derived from various archaea. Unlike conventional ester-linked liposomes, archaeosomes exhibit high pH and thermal stability. As adjuvants, archaeosomes can induce robust, long-lasting humoral and cell-mediated immune responses and enhance protection in murine models of infectious disease and cancer. Archaeosomes constituted with total polar lipids (TPL) of various archaea are relatively complex, comprising >10 different lipid compounds. Archaeosomes can be constituted with semi-synthetic glycerolipids built on ether-linked isoprenoid phytanyl cores with varied synthetic glycol- and amino-head groups...
January 16, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333980/percentages-of-pd-1-cd4-t-cells-and-pd-l1-dcs-are-increased-and-spd-1-level-is-elevated-in-patients-with-immune-thrombocytopenia
#8
Yingying Wang, Nannan Pang, Xinyou Wang, Ying Liu, Xiujuan Wang, Lei Wang, Mingling Sun, Halida Yasen, Fang Zhao, Wenxia Fan, Jianbing Ding, Xinhong Guo
The present study is to measure the expression of programmed death (PD)-1 / programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) negative costimulatory molecules, soluble format sPD-1 in patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), and to investigate their correlation with the secretion of cytokines. A total of 35 patients with ITP were included in the present study. Twenty healthy subjects who received physical examination at our hospital were included as control group. Peripheral blood was collected from all ITP patients and healthy subjects...
January 15, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333950/willingness-to-pay-for-an-ebola-vaccine-during-the-2014-2016-ebola-outbreak-in-west-africa-results-from-a-u-s-national-sample
#9
Julia E Painter, Michael E von Fricken, Suyane Viana de O Mesquita, Ralph J DiClemente
The 2014-2016 Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa led to advances in the development of vaccines against Ebola. This study examined factors associated with willingness to pay for an Ebola vaccine among a U.S. national sample during the recent Ebola outbreak. From April 30-May 8, 2015, a national survey was conducted using the GfK Group's KnowlegePanel®. Main outcome measures included willingness to pay at least $1; more than $50; and more than $100 for an Ebola vaccine. Analyses were conducted using weighted multivariable logistic regression...
January 15, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333947/persistence-of-hepatitis-b-immune-memory-until-9-10%C3%A2-years-of-age-following-hepatitis-b-vaccination-at-birth-and-dtap-ipv-hb-prp%C3%A2-t-vaccination-at-2-4-and-6-months
#10
Pope Kosalaraksa, Kulkanya Chokephaibulkit, Suwat Benjaponpitak, Chitsanu Pancharoen, Sunate Chuenkitmongkol, Siham B'Chir, Xavier Da Costa, Emmanuel Vidor
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term persistence of anti-hepatitis B surface (HBs) antibodies and the response to a HB challenge re-vaccination in children who had received a primary series of DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP∼T (Hexaxim™) or DTaP-IPV-HB/PRP∼T (Infanrix hexa™). METHODS: Two cohorts of participants who had previously received HB vaccine at birth followed by either DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP∼T or DTaP-IPV-HB/PRP∼T co-administered with PCV7 at 2, 4, 6 months of age in a randomized, Phase III, observer-blind study in Thailand, were followed up for anti-HBs antibodies (geometric mean concentrations [GMCs] and seroprotection [SP] rate [% of participants with a titer ≥10 mIU/mL]) at 12-18 months of age and 9-10 years of age...
January 15, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333939/parents-attitude-awareness-and-behaviour-towards-influenza-vaccination-in-pakistan
#11
Allah Bukhsh, Habib-Ur Rehman, Inayat Ur Rehman, Tahir Mehmood Khan, Tauqeer Hussain Mallhi
National immunization program of Pakistan does not include Influenza vaccines. The low rate of immunization might be attributed to the poor knowledge of influenza vaccination in Pakistan. Current study was aimed to assess the knowledge and attitude of influenza vaccination among parents. A questionnaire-based cross sectional study was conducted among randomly selected parents with at least one child aged >6 months. The responses were recorded against 27 items questionnaire assessing knowledge, perception, attitude and behaviours of parents...
January 15, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333935/association-between-human-papilloma-virus-hpv-vaccination-and-risk-of-multiple-sclerosis-a-systematic-review
#12
Angela Meggiolaro, Giuseppe Migliara, Giuseppe La Torre
INTRODUCTION: The vaccination against Humanpapilloma Virus (HPV) is an effective strategy to prevent high-risk HPV infection and subsequent cervical carcinogenesis. Although the safety profile has been ascertained, the relation with the development of central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune disorders (AD) appears still controversial. Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is the most common cause of chronic neurological impairment in young people, typically striking females. The main purpose of this review was to assess the association between HPV vaccination and MS...
January 15, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319427/legal-approaches-to-promoting-parental-compliance-with-childhood-immunization-recommendations
#13
Lois A Weithorn, Dorit Rubinstein Reiss
Rates of vaccine-preventable diseases have increased in the United States in recent years, largely due to parental refusals of recommended childhood immunizations. Empirical studies have demonstrated a relationship between nonvaccination rates and permissive state vaccine exemption policies, indicating that legal reforms may promote higher immunization rates. This article reviews relevant data and considers the legal landscape. It analyzes federal and state Constitutional law, concluding that religious and personal belief exemptions to school-entry vaccine mandates are not constitutionally required...
January 10, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313458/clinician-perspectives-on-strategies-to-improve-patient-maternal-immunization-acceptability-in-obstetrics-and-gynecology-practice-settings
#14
Paula M Frew, Laura A Randall, Fauzia Malik, Rupali Lamaye, Andrew Wilson, Sean T O'Leary, Daniel Salmon, Meghan Donnelly, Kevin Ault, Matthew Z Dudley, Vincent L Fenimore, Saad B Omer
Pregnancy is an ideal time to communicate with women about vaccines for themselves and their infants, yet maternal immunization rates remain suboptimal. This study aimed to identify clinic, provider, and staff-related attributes and facilitators to be utilized for a comprehensive vaccine intervention in ob-gyn clinical settings. We conducted in-depth interviews with 24 providers, both healthcare providers (e.g., physicians, nurse practitioners, midwives) and practice managers, from urban and suburban ob-gyn practices in Georgia and Colorado about their immunization attitudes, practices, and patient experiences...
January 9, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313417/beyond-the-verbal-pregnant-women-s-preferences-for-receiving-influenza-and-tdap-vaccine-information-from-their-obstetric-care-providers
#15
Mallory Ellingson, Allison T Chamberlain
OBJECTIVE: Prenatal providers are pregnant women's most trusted sources of health information, and a provider's recommendation is a strong predictor of maternal vaccine receipt. However, other ways women prefer receiving vaccine-related information from prenatal providers, aside from face-to-face conversations, is unclear. This study explores what secondary communication methods are preferred for receiving maternal vaccine-related information. STUDY DESIGN: Obstetric patients at four prenatal clinics around Atlanta, Georgia received a 27-item survey between May 5th, 2016 and June 15th, 2016...
January 9, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308971/knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-kap-toward-seasonal-influenza-vaccine-among-young-workers-in-south-china
#16
Yu Ma, Tiegang Li, Wanqi Chen, Jiandong Chen, Meixia Li, Zhicong Yang
BACKGROUND: Vaccination against seasonal influenza is usually very protective. However, coverage in service workers is low due to the large population density and high turnover. The aim of this study was to document the knowledge, attitudes and practices towards the influenza vaccine among young service workers. METHODS: A face-to-face interview and questionnaire were administered at the Guangzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention (GZCDC) clinic. The questionnaires were analyzed to evaluate knowledge, attitudes and willingness to vaccinate in the service industry population...
January 8, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303681/patient-experiences-with-influenza-immunizations-administered-by-pharmacists
#17
Jennifer E Isenor, Amy C Wagg, Susan K Bowles
Influenza vaccination is the most effective way to reduce influenza infection and related complications. Unfortunately, vaccination coverage remains suboptimal. The addition of pharmacists as immunizers may assist in improving vaccine coverage. The experiences of patients who have received influenza vaccines from pharmacists is an important consideration for jurisdictions considering the addition of pharmacists as immunizers. We describe the reported experiences of recipients of influenza vaccinations by pharmacists in the community pharmacy setting in Nova Scotia, Canada...
January 5, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303677/vaccinations-among-italian-adolescents-knowledge-attitude-and-behavior
#18
Concetta Paola Pelullo, Gabriella Di Giuseppe
This study evaluates knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of adolescents regarding vaccinations. A cross-sectional study was conducted among a sample of 771 adolescents, aged 11 to 18 selected from a random sample of 5 public schools, in the period between March and May 2017, in the geographical area of Naples. A self-administered questionnaire was used to seek information about: 1) socio-demographic characteristics; 2) knowledge of vaccine-preventable diseases; 3) attitudes towards vaccinations; 4) behavior regarding vaccinations...
January 5, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300686/220-mutation-in-the-hemagglutinin-of-avian-influenza-a-h7n9-virus-alters-antigenicity-during-vaccine-strain-development
#19
Liqi Liu, Jian Lu, Zi Li, Jianfang Zhou, Junfeng Guo, Xiyan Li, Jia Liu, Yuelong Shu, Dayan Wang
Since the first confirmed case of H7N9 infection was reported in China, there have been five epidemic waves of human H7N9 infections between 2013 and 2017. The fifth wave differed from the previous four waves in that highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H7N9 viruses with multiple basic amino acids at the cleavage site were detected in humans, poultry and environmental samples. The HPAI H7N9 viruses were genetically and antigenically distinct from previous H7N9 viruses. Therefore, a new candidate vaccine virus(CVV) derived from a HPAI A/Guangdong/17SF003/2016-like virus was proposed by the World Health Organization(WHO)...
January 4, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300685/development-of-novel-vaccine-vectors-chimpanzee-adenoviral-vectors
#20
Jingao Guo, Moumita Mondal, Dongming Zhou
Adenoviral vector has been employed as one of the most efficient means against infectious diseases and cancer. It can be genetically modified and armed with foreign antigens to elicit specific antibody responses and T cell responses in hosts as well as engineered to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. The chimpanzee adenovirus-based vector is one kind of novel vaccine carriers whose unique features and non-reactivity to pre-existing human adenovirus neutralizing antibodies makes it an outstanding candidate for vaccine research and development...
January 4, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
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