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Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics

Nianmin Shi, Anvar Rasuli, Yaël Thollot
Hepatitis A is a vaccine-preventable infection caused by the HA virus (HAV) with transitional to intermediate endemicity in China. An inactivated vaccine first licensed in China in 2010 (Avaxim® 80U Pediatric) is indicated for primary and booster vaccination in children from 12 months to 15 years of age. This Phase IV, open-label, single-arm trial supported licensure in pediatric age groups in China. A total of 355 healthy infants and toddlers (< 2 years of age), children (2 to 11 years of age), and adolescents (≥ 12 years of age) were enrolled to receive two doses of intramuscular HA vaccine, separated by 6 months...
November 7, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Joon Young Song, Jacob Lee, Heung Jeong Woo, Seong-Heon Wie, Jin Soo Lee, Shin Woo Kim, Tae Hyong Kim, Sook-In Jung, Ji Yun Noh, Won Suk Choi, Hee Jin Cheong, Woo Joo Kim
Two antigenically distinct influenza B lineage viruses (Yamagata/Victoria) have been co-circulating globally since the mid-1980s. The quadrivalent influenza vaccine (QIV) may provide better protection against unpredictable B strains. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, phase Ⅲ trial to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of an egg-based inactivated, split-virion QIV (GC3110A). Subjects aged ≥ 19 years were randomized 2:1:1 to be vaccinated with QIV- GC3110A, trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) containing the Yamagata lineage strain (TIV-Yamagata), or TIV containing the Victoria lineage strain (TIV-Victoria)...
November 5, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Xiaoli Nan, Kelly Daily, Adam Richards, Cheryl Holt, Min Qi Wang, Kate Tracy, Yan Qin
This research examines how and why trust in health information from medical authorities (i.e., doctors or health care professionals and government health agencies) predicts acceptance of the HPV vaccine for one's child among African American parents. A survey of African American parents recruited from community venues revealed that low trust in health information from government health agencies was associated with less favorable attitudes and intentions toward vaccinating their child against HPV. Trust in health information from a doctor or health care professional did not predict vaccine acceptance...
November 5, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
R Heggie, H Murdoch, E McIntosh, C Cameron, A Smith-Palmer, J Bouttell
AIM: In July 2013, the Scottish Government introduced a rotavirus vaccination programme into the childhood immunisation schedule. The aim of this research was to estimate the cost impact of this programme. METHODS: Data for rotavirus-related resource use were identified including laboratory reports, hospitalisations, attendances at Accident and Emergency Departments, general practice consultations, calls to the National Health Service telephone helpline and prescriptions for common rehydration treatments...
November 5, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Ozlem Equils, Caitlyn Kellogg, Lucy Baden, Wendy Berger, Shannon Connolly
PURPOSE: This study was conducted to characterize the vaccination practices and challenges of family medicine physicians in Los Angeles County, California. METHODS: The Los Angeles Academy of Family Physicians (LA AFP) sent out electronic surveys to all of their active members (N = 1121) between December 2017 and January 2018, and asked them to answer questions about themselves, their practice, their patient population, and their immunization practices and challenges...
November 5, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Heba Ghandora, Donna M Halperin, Jennifer E Isenor, Beth A Taylor, Philippe Fullsack, Antonia M Di Castri, Scott A Halperin
Influenza infection poses the same risk to healthcare students as practicing clinicians. While there is substantial dialog about the benefits, risks, and ethics of mandatory influenza immunization policies in Canada, there has been little engagement of healthcare students. To explore the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviours of healthcare students, we administered a web-based survey to students at Dalhousie University. Influenza vaccination status varied by program type, with 86.3% of medical students (n = 124) and 52...
November 5, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Michelle L Giles, Sushena Krishnaswamy, Kristine Macartney, Allen Cheng
Pregnant women are at increased risk of morbidity and mortality from influenza and are recognized as a priority group for influenza vaccination. Despite this, uptake is often poor and one reason cited for this is concerns about safety. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review of the safety of inactivated influenza vaccination (IIV) in pregnancy. Studies were included if they were: (i) observational or experimental design; (ii) included a comparator group comprising of unvaccinated pregnant women; (iii) comprised of either seasonal IIV or monovalent H1N1 IIV (including adjuvanted vaccines); and (iv) addressed one of the following outcomes: preterm birth (PTB), small for gestational age (SGA), fetal death (including stillbirth or spontaneous abortion), low birth weight (LBW) or congenital abnormalities...
October 31, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Hugo López-Gatell, Lourdes García-García, Gabriela Echániz-Avilés, Pablo Cruz-Hervert, María Olamendi-Portugal, Deyanira Castañeda-Desales, Miguel Ángel Sanchez-Alemán, Martin Romero-Martínez, Rodrigo DeAntonio, Maria Yolanda Cervantes-Apolinar, Ricardo Cortes-Alcalá, Celia Alpuche-Aranda
OBJECTIVES: To estimate hepatitis B virus (HBV) seroprevalence from natural infection or vaccination in 10-25-year-olds in Mexico, using the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT). METHODS: Randomly selected serum samples (1,581) from adolescents and young adults, representative of 38,924,584 Mexicans, were analyzed to detect hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) and hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc). Weighted HBV seroprevalence in the Mexican population and association with sociodemographic variables were calculated...
October 31, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Shahinaz Bedri, Ali A Sultan, Moussa Alkhalaf, Ala-Eddin Al Moustafa, Semir Vranic
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a well-characterized oncovirus, associated with several malignancies. The complex and heterogeneous nature of colorectal cancer (CRC) has led to many epidemiological causal associations with CRC. However, a direct causal link between microbial infections and CRC has not been established yet. Our review indicates that the current evidence for the presence and role in EBV in CRC is insufficient and contradictory. The design of the analyzed studies, sample size as well as methodology used for EBV detection varied markedly and consequently may not lead to meaningful conclusions...
October 31, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Gerardo Luna-Casas, Patricia Juliao, Roberto Carreño-Manjarrez, Andrés Castañeda-Prado, Maria Yolanda Cervantes-Apolinar, Ricardo Navarro-Rodriguez, Gilberto Sánchez-González, Ricardo Cortés-Alcalá, Rodrigo DeAntonio
Worldwide, rotavirus infection has been a leading cause of severe diarrhea morbidity and mortality. Two rotavirus vaccines have been used in the National Immunization Program (NIP) in Mexico; two-dose Rotarix from 2006 to 2011 and three-dose RotaTeq since 2011. This study assessed coverage (receiving at least one dose or full dose series) in eligible infants, compliance (% completing dose series and % completing series on schedule) in eligible infants vaccinated with Rotarix (2010) versus RotaTeq (2012), using Mexican Social Security Institute data nationwide and by regions...
October 31, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Richard Burt, Dana Warcel, Adele K Fielding
Blinatumomab (Blincyto, Amgen), a bi-specific antibody, is a first-in-class, targeted immunotherapy agent for treatment of B-cell malignancies with a novel mechanism of action which involves in-vivo engagement of the patient's T cells with CD19-expressing tumour cells. Clinical trials have demonstrated its efficacy in relapsed B-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (B-ALL) and B-cell Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma including in patients who are refractory to chemotherapy. This review summarises the development and design of Blinatumomab, the outcome of clinical studies demonstrating its efficacy and how to manage the administration, practically, including relevant toxicities...
October 31, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
John M McLaughlin, David L Swerdlow, Raul E Isturiz, Luis Jodar
Thirteen-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was licensed in adults to address the unmet medical need of vaccine-type community acquired pneumonia (CAP) and the limitations of previous plain-polysaccharide vaccines. Since then, some have questioned the utility of adult PCV13 use, arguing that: i) high PCV13 uptake in young children would provide indirect effects that, by themselves, would sufficiently protect unvaccinated adults and ii) no data describing the real-world effectiveness of PCV13 use in adults (especially with immunocompromising conditions) exist...
October 23, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Taylor Rubens-Augustson, Lindsay A Wilson, Malia Sq Murphy, Cindy Jardine, Kevin Pottie, Charles Hui, Martin Stafström, Kumanan Wilson
Human papillomavirus is among the most common sexually transmitted infections in the world. Newcomers, defined in Canada as foreign-born individuals who are either immigrants or refugees, but may also include students and undocumented migrants, face numerous barriers to HPV vaccination. This study sought to understand, from the perspective of healthcare providers, barriers and facilitators to HPV vaccination, and recommendations to improve HPV vaccine uptake among newcomers. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 healthcare providers between March and April 2018...
October 23, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Silvana Acquafredda, Silvio Tafuri
Since 2017, 10 vaccines are compulsory for newborns in Italy and unvaccinated children are not admitted to kindergartens. Recently the Italian Government announced the perspective of reforming the law about the compulsory vaccination. A debated started about the presence, in the same class of the schools, of unvaccinated and immunocompromised children. Cancer is the one of the most important cause of immunodepression among children: after the chemoterapy, there is a period of 13-23 months in which the cancer survivors have to come back at the school and at to the "normal life" (even for psychological exigency) but remain at risk of infectious disease for the immunodepression...
October 23, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Ewelina Grywalska, Dorota Siwicka-Gieroba, Michał Mielnik, Martyna Podgajna, Krzysztof Gosik, Wojciech Dąbrowski, Jacek Roliński
Splenectomy is a surgery indicated in case of splenic rupture after injury, when there are tumors in the spleen, or as a treatment for certain diseases, such as idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and spherocytosis. The aims of the study were to assess the immunological response to the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine and the post-vaccination changes in lymphocyte subsets and cell activation markers in splenectomized patients and healthy volunteers. Blood samples were collected from 25 patients that had undergone splenectomy and from 15 healthy, non-splenectomized volunteers...
October 23, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Alessia Biolchi, Sara Tomei, Laura Santini, Jo Anne Welsch, Daniela Toneatto, Nikolaos Gaitatzis, Xilian Bai, Ray Borrow, Marzia Monica Giuliani, Elena Mori, Mariagrazia Pizza
The 4-component vaccine 4CMenB, developed against invasive disease caused by meningococcal serogroup B, is approved for use in infants in several countries worldwide. 4CMenB is mostly used as 3 + 1 schedule, except for the UK, where a 2 + 1 schedule is used, and where the vaccine showed an effectiveness of 82.9%. Here we compared the coverage of two 4CMenB vaccination schedules (3 + 1 [2.5, 3.5, 5, 11 months] versus 2 + 1 [3.5, 5, 11 months of age]) against 40 serogroup B strains, representative of epidemiologically-relevant isolates circulating in England and Wales in 2007-2008, using sera from a previous phase 3b clinical trial...
October 23, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Jan Poolman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 22, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Xiting Dai, Ruolan Bai, Miaomiao Jian, Zhenhua Ji, Zhe Ding, Feng Wang, Yunfeng Bi, Abi Manzamaesso, Taigui Chen, Lisha Luo, Aihua Liu, Fukai Bao
Rotavirus immunization strategies have become part of a comprehensive global public health program to control rotavirus-associated gastroenteritis, particularly in infants and children in developing countries. Several studies have reported the efficacy of different rotavirus vaccine dosing schedules, but with mixed findings. Therefore a systematic review of the published literature on rotavirus vaccination dosing schedules using the live attenuated RV1 rotavirus vaccine in infants and children, including randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs), published between January 1998 to January 2018 was conducted, with meta-analysis of the published data...
October 22, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Joel Maslow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 22, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Monica Tafalla, Dace Gardovska, Kusuma Gopala, Liga Kozlovska
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus (RV) is worldwide an important cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in infants and young children. There is no specific treatment for AGE caused by RV (RVGE) but since 2006 two safe and effective vaccines have been available. RV vaccination was included in the national immunization program (NIP) of Latvia in 2015 with full reimbursement, and within the first year a coverage of 87% was achieved. This surveillance study was carried out to investigate the proportion of RVGE among AGE episodes in Latvia up to the inclusion of RV vaccination in the NIP to provide a basis for future assessments of the impact of RV vaccination...
October 18, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
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