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Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics

Tao Haskins-Coulter, Jo Southern, Nick Andrews, Elizabeth Miller
One hundred and ninety eight females aged 12-15 y were enrolled in an observer-blinded randomized trial to assess the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of the tetravalent HPV vaccine Gardasil® (group 2), in comparison to the bivalent HPV vaccine, Cervarix® (group 1), which was routinely offered in the national vaccination schedule at the time. Participants were blinded to treatment group until all 3 vaccinations had been given, while laboratory staff were masked during testing. For the majority of local and general reactions, recipients of both vaccines reported comparable frequencies...
March 20, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Jingjing Kang, Jie Gao, Wenwu Yao, Lin Kang, Shan Gao, Hao Yang, Bin Ji, Ping Li, Jing Liu, Jiahao Yao, Wenwen Xin, Baohua Zhao, Jinglin Wang
Epsilon toxin (ETX), a potent toxin, is produced by types B and D strains of Clostridium perfringens, which could cause severe diseases in humans and domestic animals. Mutant rETX(F199E) was previously demonstrated to be a good vaccine candidate. However, the mechanism concerned remains unknown. To clarify how F199E substitution reduced ETX toxicity, we performed a series of experiments. The results showed that the cell-binding and pore-forming ability of rETX(F199E) was almost abolished. We speculated that F199E substitution reduced toxicity by depriving the receptor binding capability of ETX, which contributed to the hypothesis that domain I of ETX is responsible for cell binding...
March 17, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Yongliang Feng, Jing Shi, Linying Gao, Tian Yao, Dan Feng, Dan Luo, Zhansheng Li, Yawei Zhang, Fuzhen Wang, Fuqiang Cui, Li Li, Xiaofeng Liang, Suping Wang
Due to the low uptake, adherence, and completion of vaccination among drug users, and their compromised immune responses to hepatitis B vaccination, the current practice of hepatitis B vaccination may not provide optimal protection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of 60 µg and 20 µg hepatitis B vaccines among drug users. A randomized, open-labeled, blank-controlled trial was conducted among drug users at 2 drug rehabilitation centers in China. The eligible participants were drug users who were serologically negative for the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and the hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs)...
March 16, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Qianqian Li, Qiang Liu, Weijing Huang, Aijing Song, Chenyan Zhao, Jiajing Wu, Youchun Wang
Pre-existing neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) directed against vaccine vectors have attracted considerable research attention. Therefore, our aim was to establish a high-throughput economical neutralization assay to investigate the epidemiology of adenovirus type 2 (Ad2)-specific immunity in China and developed countries, including in a Chinese Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-infected population, and to guide the application of Ad2-vectored vaccines. We established a FluoroSpot-based anti-Ad2-virus neutralization assay using a recombinant replication-deficient Ad2 that expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein and standardized the critical parameters, including the choice of cell line, cell concentration, viral infective dose, and incubation time...
March 16, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Filiz Kosar, Devrim Emel Alici, Basak Hacibedel, Burcu Arpınar Yigitbas, Pejman Golabi, Caglar Cuhadaroglu
This study aimed to determine the economic burden and affecting factors in adult community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients (≥18 years) by retrospectively evaluating the data of two centers in Istanbul province, Turkey. Data of outpatients and inpatients with CAP from January 2013 through June 2014 were evaluated. The numbers of laboratory analyses, imaging, hospitalization days, and specialist visits were multiplied by the relevant unit costs and the costs of the relevant items per patient were obtained...
March 10, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Pierre Van Damme, Geert Leroux-Roels, P Suryakiran, Nicolas Folschweiller, Olivier Van Der Meeren
Vaccination is the most effective and well-tolerated method of conferring long-term protection against hepatitis A and B viruses (HAV; HBV). Long-term studies are required to characterize the duration of protection and need for boosters. Following primary immunization of 150 and 157 healthy adults with 3-doses of combined hepatitis A/hepatitis B vaccine (HAB; Twinrix™, GSK Vaccines, Belgium) at 0-1-6 months in 2 separate studies, we measured vaccine-induced antibody persistence against HAV and HBV annually for 20 y (Study A: NCT01000324; Study B: NCT01037114)...
March 10, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Luisa Berenise Gamez-Gonzalez, Hiromichi Hamada, Beatriz Adriana Llamas-Guillen, Miguel Ruiz-Fernandez, Marco Yamazaki-Nakashimada
Dr. Tomisaku Kawasaki was the first to describe BCG reactivation in Kawasaki Disease (KD), and this sign is present in about 30-50% of KD patients. It is a very specific early sign of the disease and although it has been recognized for decades, its pathophysiology continues to be an enigma. Recently, Yamada et al. reported a severe BCG reaction with tuberculid in 2 Japanese KD patients. We present 2 cases with KD and severe BCG reaction, one from Japan and the other from Mexico and review the policies of administration of BCG in both countries...
March 10, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Denise C Hsu, Robert J O'Connell
An HIV-1 vaccine is needed to curtail the HIV epidemic. Only one (RV144) out of the 6 HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trials performed showed efficacy. A potential mechanism of protection is the induction of functional antibodies to V1V2 region of HIV envelope. The 2 main current approaches to the generation of protective immunity are through broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAb) and induction of functional antibodies (non-neutralizing Abs with other potential anti-viral functions). Passive immunization using bnAb has advanced into phase II clinical trials...
March 10, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Khitam Muhsen, Daniel Cohen
We present an overview of the impact of universal rotavirus immunization with the pentavalent vaccine, RotaReq, which was introduced in Israel in 2010. The vaccine is given free of charge at age two, four and six months, with an 80% coverage that was shortly achieved during the universal immunization period. Compared to pre-universal immunization years (2008-2010), a reduction of 66-68% in the incidence of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) hospitalizations was observed in 2011-2015 among children aged 0-23 months in central and northern Israel...
March 10, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Yufei Wang, Wanbo Tai, Jie Yang, Guangyu Zhao, Shihui Sun, Chien-Te K Tseng, Shibo Jiang, Yusen Zhou, Lanying Du, Jimin Gao
Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) continues to raise worldwide concerns due to its pandemic potential. Increased MERS cases and no licensed MERS vaccines highlight the need to develop safe and effective vaccines against MERS. We have previously demonstrated that a receptor-binding domain (RBD) fragment containing residues 377-588 of MERS-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) spike protein is a critical neutralizing domain and an important vaccine target. Nevertheless, its optimal immunogen dosage and immunization interval, key factors for human-used vaccines that induce protective immunity, have never been investigated...
March 9, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Constantina Boikos, Jesse Papenburg, Christine Martineau, Lawrence Joseph, David Scheifele, Mark Chilvers, Larry C Lands, Gaston De Serres, Caroline Quach
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to explore the effects of viral co-detection in individuals recently vaccinated with the live-attenuated intranasal influenza virus vaccine (LAIV) on the detection of influenza RNA. METHODS: Before the 2013-2014 influenza season, nasal swabs were obtained from 59 pediatric participants with cystic fibrosis (CF) and 17 of their healthy siblings immediately before vaccination and 4 times during the week of follow-up. Real-time RT-PCR assays were used to detect influenza RNA...
March 8, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
A N Meleshko, N A Petrovskaya, N Savelyeva, K P Vashkevich, S N Doronina, N V Sachivko
We report on the design of a phase I, non-randomized, open-label study of idiotypic DNA vaccination in patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (ISRCTN31090206). The study uses DNA fusion gene vaccination encoding patient-specific single chain variable fragment, or idiotype, linked to an immunostimulatory sequence. Two types of immunostimulatory sequence are being explored: potato virus X coat protein and human chemokine MIP3α. Linear polyethylenimine with low molecular weight (8 kDa) is used as a synthetic vehicle for vaccine delivery...
March 8, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Xing Wu, Pan Chen, Huijuan Lin, Yao Su, Xiaotian Hao, Fengyu Cao, Li Li, Fengcai Zhu, Zhenglun Liang
Hepatitis E virus still poses a great threat to public health worldwide. To date, Hecolin® is the only licensed HEV vaccine in China. Total anti-HEV antibody has been used to reflect vaccine induced immune response in clinical trials for the lack of robust HEV neutralizing antibody detection methods. In this study, we applied a broad neutralizing mouse monoclonal antibody 8G12 to develop a competitive ELSIA assay and quantified 8G12 competitive antibody (8G12-like antibody) in serum samples. The presence of 8G12-like antibody was detected both from participants from HEV vaccine clinical trial and mice immunized with HEV vaccine...
March 8, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Misty Stevens
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Shima Mahmoudi, Hossein Keshavarz
Although vaccines would be the ideal tool for control, prevention, elimination, and eradication of many infectious diseases, developing of parasites vaccines such as malaria vaccine is very complex. The most advanced malaria vaccine candidate RTS,S, a pre-erythrocytic vaccine, has been recommended for licensure by EMEA. The results of this phase III trial suggest that this candidate malaria vaccine has relatively little efficacy, and the vaccine apparently will not meet the goal of malaria eradication by itself...
March 8, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Mohamed A Farrag, Haitham M Amer, Peter Öhlschläger, Maaweya E Hamad, Fahad N Almajhdi
The development of safe and potent vaccines for human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is still a challenge for researchers worldwide. DNA-based immunization is currently a promising approach that has been used to generate human vaccines for different age groups. In this study, novel HRSV DNA vaccine candidates were generated and preclinically tested in BALB/c mice. Three different versions of the codon-optimized HRSV fusion (F) gene were individually cloned into the pPOE vector. The new recombinant vectors either express full-length (pPOE-F), secretory (pPOE-TF), or M282-90 linked (pPOE-FM2) forms of the F protein...
March 8, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Luisa Romanò, Cristina Galli, Catia Tagliacarne, Maria Elena Tosti, Claudio Velati, Laura Fomiatti, Maria Chironna, Rosa Cristina Coppola, Mario Cuccia, Rossana Mangione, Fosca Marrone, Francesco Saverio Negrone, Antonino Parlato, Carla Maria Zotti, Alfonso Mele, Alessandro Remo Zanetti
This study was aimed at assessing the anti-HBs persistence and immune memory 18-19 y after vaccination against hepatitis B in healthy individuals primed as infants or adolescents. We enrolled 405 teenagers (Group A) vaccinated as infants, and 409 young adults (Group B) vaccinated as adolescents. All vaccinees were tested for anti-HBs and anti-HBc antibodies; those found anti-HBc positive were further tested for HBsAg and HBV DNA. Eight individuals belonging to Group B were positive for anti-HBc alone, and were excluded from analysis...
March 8, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Asami Yagi, Yutaka Ueda, Tomomi Egawa-Takata, Yusuke Tanaka, Ruriko Nakae, Akiko Morimoto, Yoshito Terai, Masahide Ohmichi, Tomoyuki Ichimura, Toshiyuki Sumi, Hiromi Murata, Hidetaka Okada, Hidekatsu Nakai, Masaki Mandai, Shinya Matsuzaki, Eiji Kobayashi, Kiyoshi Yoshino, Tadashi Kimura, Junko Saito, Yumiko Hori, Eiichi Morii, Tomio Nakayama, Yukio Suzuki, Yoko Motoki, Akiko Sukegawa, Mikiko Asai-Sato, Etsuko Miyagi, Manako Yamaguchi, Risa Kudoh, Sosuke Adachi, Masayuki Sekine, Takayuki Enomoto, Yorihiko Horikoshi, Tetsu Takagi, Kentaro Shimura
OBJECTIVE: In Japan, the possible adverse events upon HPV vaccination was widely reported in the media. MHLW announced the suspension of aggressively encouraging HPV vaccination in 2013, and inoculation rate has sharply declined. The aim of the present study was estimation of future cervical cancer risk. METHODS: The latest data on vaccination rate at each age in Sakai City were first investigated. The rate of experiencing sexual intercourse at the age of 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 and throughout lifetime is assumed to be 0%, 1%, 2%, 5%, 15%, 25%, and 85% respectively...
March 8, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Xuequn Xu, Jin Qiu, Yi Sun
Chimeric antigen receptor T cells are T cells genetically engineered with CAR constructs which mainly contain scFV and TCR zeta chain. With promising development in blood cancers, CAR T trials are also applied in solid cancers. However, the treatment effect in solid cancers is lower than expected. This review summarizes difference of CAR T applications in solid and blood cancers. Future challenges of CAR T cell treatment in solid cancer are also discussed using ovarian cancer as an example.
March 8, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Terence T Lao
Hepatitis B vaccination is held to provide life-long protection against hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, but evidence for this notion remains wanting, since no studies have assessed the vaccinees in their fourth decade of life. Indeed, there are several reports indicating that despite vaccination in infancy, the prevalence of HBV infection still increased with age in the vaccinees, and that both anti-HBs titer and anamnestic response declined with age. Clearly it is time to clarify the long-term protection conferred by vaccination in infancy, and to implement remedial measures such as booster doses of vaccine in subjects without immunoprotection...
March 1, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
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