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Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics

Eun-Ju Ko, Sang-Moo Kang
Adjuvants are included in vaccine formulations to enhance the immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccines. MF59® is an oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant and licensed for use in pandemic and seasonal influenza vaccines in many countries. MF59 is safe and well tolerated in humans. MF59-adjuvanted vaccination spares vaccine dose and enhances hemagglutination inhibiting antibodies against homologous and heterologous influenza virus strains. The mechanisms of MF59 involve rapid induction of chemokines, inflammatory cytokines, recruiting multiple immune cells, uric acid and benign apoptosis of certain innate immune cells...
July 17, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Leonard Moise, Bethany Girard, Christine Boyle, Nese Kurt Yilmaz, Hyesun Jang, Celia Schiffer, Ted Ross, William D Martin, Anne S De Groot
The delayed availability of vaccine during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic created a sense of urgency to better prepare for the next influenza pandemic. Advancements in manufacturing technology, speed and capacity have been achieved but vaccine effectiveness remains a significant challenge. Here, we describe a novel vaccine design strategy called immune engineering in the context of H7N9 influenza vaccine development. The approach combines immunoinformatic and structure modeling methods to promote protective antibody responses against H7N9 hemagglutinin (HA) by engineering whole antigens to carry seasonal influenza HA memory CD4+ T cell epitopes - without perturbing native antigen structure - by galvanizing HA-specific memory helper T cells that support sustained antibody development against the native target HA...
July 17, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Joon Young Song, Jae Hyang Lim, Sangyong Lim, Zhi Yong, Ho Seong Seo
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS) is a leading cause of severe invasive disease in neonate, elderly, and immunocompromised patients worldwide. Despite recent advances in the diagnosis and intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) of GBS infections, it remains one of the most common causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality, causing serious infections. Furthermore, recent studies reported an increasing number of GBS infections in pregnant women and elderly. Although IAP is effective, it has several limitations, including increasing antimicrobial resistance and late GBS infection after negative antenatal screening...
July 11, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Chuchu Ye, Weiping Zhu, Jianxing Yu, Zhongjie Li, Wenbiao Hu, Lipeng Hao, Yuanping Wang, Hongmei Xu, Qiao Sun, Genming Zhao
BACKGROUND: Older individuals are at high risk for morbidity and mortality due to influenza, and the most effective way to prevent influenza is yearly vaccination. In China, the influenza vaccine is not covered by the national Expanded Program on Immunization, and more evidence is needed about influenza vaccine usage among older individuals. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influenza vaccination coverage and its influencing factors, and understand barriers to older adults receiving influenza vaccinations in Shanghai, China...
July 11, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Wenlong Wu, Jingjing Lv, Jiaye Liu, Bingyu Yan, Yi Feng, Aiqiang Xu, Li Zhang
Immune memory after hepatitis B vaccination among adults is still under investigation. In this study, adults who had normal and high antibody response to the primary series of hepatitis B vaccination (HepB) were followed up at 5 years after the primary immunization. A booster dose was given to those who had low hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) titers, defined as anti-HBs levels < 10 mIU/mL. Blood samples were collected at two weeks after the booster and anti-HBs levels were measured. We assumed those with ant-HBs levels > = 10 mIU/mL after the booster had anamnestic response...
July 11, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Penina Haber, Muhammad Amin, Ng Carmen, Eric Weintraub, Michael McNeil
A 2018 manufacturer post-licensure safety study identified a possible association between Rotarix (RV1) rotavirus vaccine and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in infants within 0-6 days following receipt of RV1 dose 1. We reviewed reports to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) of LRTI occurring 0-6 days and 0-29 days post vaccination following RotaTeq (RV5) or Rotarix (RV1) vaccinations in conjunction with either Prevnar (PCV7) or Prevnar 13 (PCV13), in infants aged 6 to 15 weeks...
July 11, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
A Odone, V Tramutola, M Morgado, C Signorelli
Immunization polices in Italy has recently reached important milestones, including the approval of the National Immunization Prevention Plan and of a new law mandatory immunization; this stimulating a lively debate at the scientific, political and societal-level, reflected on the media. We applied a model previously published to quantitatively and qualitatively assess media coverage on vaccines and immunization-related topics on the most read Italian newspaper, "Corriere della Sera", over an 11-year study period (2007-2017)...
July 11, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Rajeev Rudraraju, Kanta Subbarao
The isolation of broadly neutralising antibodies against the influenza haemagglutinin has spurred investigation into their clinical potential, and has led to advances in influenza virus biology and universal influenza vaccine development. Studies in animal models have been invaluable for demonstrating the prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of broadly neutralizing antibodies, for comparisons with antiviral drugs used as the standard of care, and for defining their mechanism of action and potential role in providing protection from airborne infection...
July 9, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Guihua Tang, Wen Yin, Youde Cao, Liming Tan, Shuyu Wu, Yudong Cao, Xianyong Fu, Jing Yan, Xingjun Jiang
BACKGROUND: The emergence of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis has become an ongoing burden of poliomyelitis. During this special period from OPV to IPV-only immunization schedule, we did a meta-analysis to compare the immunogenicity of sequential IPV and OPV versus IPV alone in healthy infants. METHODS: This systematic review and meta-analysis was registered at international prospective register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO), and the number was CRD42017054889...
July 9, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Christina G Katsiari, Theodora Simopoulou, Ioannis Alexiou, Lazaros I Sakkas
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic systemic disease characterized by microvasculopathy, immune activation, and extensive collagen deposition. Microvasculopathy and immune activation occur very early in the disease process. Evidence from animal models and in vitro studies indicate that T-cells and B-cells activate fibroblasts to produce collagen. Traditional immunosuppressants, cyclophosphamide(CyP), methotrexate(MTX), and more recently mycophenolate mofetil(MMF), may prove more effective if used very early in the disease course...
July 9, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Shuang Liu, Chaoling Dong, Eroboghene Ekamereno Ubogu
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), the most common cause of acute neuromuscular weakness and paralysis worldwide, encompasses a group of acute immune-mediated disorders restricted to peripheral nerves and roots. Immune-mediated attack of peripheral nervous system myelin, axons or both is presumed to be triggered by molecular mimicry, with both cell- and humoral-dependent mechanisms implicated in disease pathogenesis. Good circumstantial evidence exists for a pathogenic role for molecular mimicry in GBS pathogenesis, especially with its axonal forms, providing insights that could guide future immunotherapy...
June 28, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Madhu Madan, Deepa Sikriwal, Gaurav Sharma, Nidhi Shukla, Ashwani Kumar Mandyal, Sachin Kale, Davinder Gill
To develop a safe and efficacious heat-stable rotavirus vaccine, new lyophilized formulations were developed using rotavirus serotypes constituting RotaTeq®. A series of formulation compositions, differing in buffering agents, bulking agents, cryoprotectants, amino acids and divalent cations, were screened for their ability to provide stability to rotavirus serotypes during lyophilization and when stored under elevated temperatures for extended periods. Lead formulations and lyophilization cycles were further optimized...
June 28, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Min-Joo Choi, Shin-On Kang, Jin-Jeong Oh, Seong-Beom Park, Min-Ja Kim, Hee-Jin Cheong
In South Korea, the National Immunization Program offers a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) for the elderly; however, the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) is not included, and vaccination is not offered to younger, at-risk populations. This study offers a comparative analysis of PCV13 and PPSV23 in Korea's adults, stratified by age and risk group. A Markov model with a lifetime horizon was developed from the healthcare perspective. Data sources included the Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service, Korea Centre for Disease Control & Prevention and Korean medical institutions...
June 28, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Kerry-Ann F O'Grady, Anne B Chang, Allan Cripps, Edward K Mulholland, Heidi Smith-Vaughan, Nicholas Wood, Margaret Danchin, Ruth Thornton, Andrew Wilson, Paul J Torzillo, Peter M Morris, Peter Richmond, Sheree Rablin, Daniel Arnold, Anne Connor, Vikas Goyal, Tanya Stoney, Kirsten Perrett, Keith Grimwood
We aimed to determine the efficacy of the 10-valent pneumococcal-Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) in children aged 18-months to <18-years with recurrent protracted bacterial bronchitis (rPBB), chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD) or bronchiectasis. In a multi-centre, double-blind randomised controlled trial, children received two doses, 2-months apart of the 10vPHiD-CV or quadrivalent meningococcal-ACYW135 conjugate vaccine. Active surveillance for acute exacerbations, respiratory symptoms and antibiotic use was undertaken through to 12-months after the second vaccine dose (clinical cohort only)...
June 26, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Xintao Hu, Zhongyan Lu, Antonio Valentin, Margherita Rosati, Kate E Broderick, Niranjan Y Sardesai, Preston A Marx, James I Mullins, George N Pavlakis, Barbara K Felber
HIV sequence diversity and the propensity of eliciting immunodominant responses targeting inessential variable regions are hurdles in the development of an effective AIDS vaccine. We developed a DNA vaccine comprising conserved elements (CE) of SIV p27Gag and HIV-1 Env and found that priming vaccination with CE DNA is critical to efficiently overcome the dominance imposed by Gag and Env variable regions. Here, we show that DNA vaccinated macaques receiving the CE prime/CE+full-length DNA co-delivery booster vaccine regimens developed broad, potent and durable cytotoxic T cell responses targeting conserved protein segments of SIV Gag and HIV Env...
June 25, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Jessica Leung, Mona Marin
We reported previously that the annual average mortality rate in the United States in 2008-2011 for varicella listed as the underlying cause declined 87% compared with the prevaccine period (1990-1994). Here, we update the analysis with five additional years of data. We used varicella death data from the 2012-2016 Mortality Multiple Cause-of Death records to calculate mortality rates during 2012-2016 and trends since the prevaccine period and end of 1-dose vaccination program (2005-2007). The annual average age-adjusted mortality rate for varicella as the underlying cause was 0...
June 25, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Paul A Gastañaduy, Emily Banerjee, Chas DeBolt, Pamela Bravo-Alcántara, Samia A Samad, Desiree Pastor, Paul A Rota, Manisha Patel, Natasha S Crowcroft, David N Durrheim
In late September 2016, the Americas became the first region in the world to have eliminated endemic transmission of measles virus. Several other countries have also verified measles elimination, and countries in all six World Health Organization regions have adopted measles elimination goals. The public health strategies used to respond to measles outbreaks in elimination settings are thus becoming relevant to more countries. This review highlights the strategies used to limit measles spread in elimination settings: (1) assembly of an outbreak control committee; (2) isolation of measles cases while infectious; (3) exclusion and quarantining of individuals without evidence of immunity; (4) vaccination of susceptible individuals; (5) use of immunoglobulin to prevent measles in exposed susceptible high-risk persons; (6) and maintaining laboratory proficiency for confirmation of measles...
June 22, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Fabien J Fuche, Jennifer A Jones, Girish Ramachandran, Ellen E Higginson, Raphael Simon, Sharon M Tennant
Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) are a leading cause of foodborne infections worldwide, and serogroups B, C1 , C2- C3 and D are the most common serogroups associated with human disease. While live vaccine candidates that protect against S. Typhimurium (serogroup B) and S. Enteritidis (serogroup D) have been described by us and others, far less effort has been directed towards vaccines that target either serogroup C1 or C2- C3 Salmonella. Here we describe a Salmonella Newport-based live-attenuated vaccine (serogroup C2- C3 )...
June 21, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Jialei Hu, Lei Jiao, Yuemei Hu, Kai Chu, Jingxin Li, Fengcai Zhu, Taishun Li, Zhiyuan Wu, Dong Wei, Fanyue Meng, Bingxiang Wang
Background To evaluate the one-year immunogenicity and safety of a subunit plague vaccine. Methods In the initial study, 240 healthy adults aged 18-55 years were administrated with 2 doses of 15 or 30 µg plague vaccines at day 0 and 28, respectively. In this extended follow-up study, we evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of the plague vaccine up to one year. Results For antibody to envelope antigen faction 1 (F1) antigen, titers were up to new peaks at month 6, then declined slowly to month 12, but remained at higher levels than those at day 56...
June 21, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
A R Giuliani, A Mattei, A Appetiti, D Pompei, F Di Donna, F Fiasca, L Fabiani
When the meningococcus B vaccine was introduced into Italy in 2017, it was recommended for newborns based on national epidemiological data indicating that they were at greater risk. However, the vaccination service of the local health authority of L'Aquila had already been receiving spontaneous parental requests to provide vaccination for children in lower-risk age groups from the beginning of 2016. We therefore decided to use a self-administered questionnaire in order to investigate the parents' socio-demographic data; their children's history of other recommended vaccinations (against measles, mumps and rubella, varicella, meningococcus C and, for females, human papilloma virus); the information sources concerning meningococcal vaccination; and the timing of its administration...
June 21, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
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