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Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics

Joanna Krzowska-Firych, Krzysztof Tomasiewicz, Agata Kozøowska
Rabies continues to be one of the most important viral diseases and remains a significant threat to public health across the globe. The post-exposure prophylaxis in humans can effectively prevent death after exposure to a potentially infected animal. In Poland, recommendations for rabies PEP followed the  national guidelines which recommend that people should receive PEP when bitten by an animal suspected to be infected by rabies. PEP in humans  includes cleansing and disinfecting the wound or point of contact, and administering anti-rabies immunization...
February 6, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Kumanan Wilson, Katherine Atkinson, Natasha Crowcroft
We believe that public health efforts to address issues of vaccine hesitancy should increase their focus on childhood education. An opportunity exists to create positive, accurate vaccine attitudes through fun and interactive approaches early in life. Leveraging digital technologies may provide a way to deliver these messages to children in a way that complements immune system and immunization education in school curricula. We recommend that public health officials explore and identify the most effective ways to deliver positive digital messages to children in hopes of "inoculating" the next generation against vaccine hesitancy...
February 6, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Beatriz P Quiambao, Ashish Bavdekar, Anand Prakash Dubey, Hemant Jain, Devayani Kolhe, Véronique Bianco, Jacqueline M Miller, Marie Van der Wielen
Long-term protection against meningococcal disease relies on antibody persistence after vaccination. We report antibody persistence up to 5 years after vaccination in adolescents who received a single dose of either meningococcal serogroups A, C, W, Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT, Pfizer) or MenACWY polysaccharide vaccine (MenPS, GSK Vaccines) at the age of 11-17 years in the randomized controlled primary study NCT00464815. In this phase III, open, controlled, multi-center persistence follow-up study conducted in India and the Philippines (NCT00974363), antibody persistence was evaluated by a serum bactericidal antibody assay using rabbit complement (rSBA) yearly, up to year 5 after vaccination...
February 2, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
I V Dolzhikova, O V Zubkova, A I Tukhvatulin, A S Dzharullaeva, N M Tukhvatulina, D V Shcheblyakov, M M Shmarov, E A Tokarskaya, Y V Simakova, D A Egorova, D N Scherbinin, I L Tutykhina, A A Lysenko, A V Kostarnoy, P G Gancheva, T A Ozharovskaya, B V Belugin, L V Kolobukhina, V B Pantyukhov, S I Syromyatnikova, I V Shatokhina, T V Sizikova, I G Rumyantseva, A F Andrus, N V Boyarskaya, A N Voytyuk, V F Babira, S V Volchikhina, D A Kutaev, A N Bel'skih, K V Zhdanov, S M Zakharenko, S V Borisevich, D Y Logunov, B S Naroditsky, A L Gintsburg
Ebola hemorrhagic fever, also known as Ebola virus disease or EVD, is one of the most dangerous viral diseases in humans and animals. In this open-label, dose-escalation clinical trial, we assessed the safety, side effects, and immunogenicity of a novel, heterologous prime-boost vaccine against Ebola, which was administered in 2 doses to 84 healthy adults of both sexes between 18 and 55 years. The vaccine consists of live-attenuated recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and adenovirus serotype-5 (Ad5) expressing Ebola envelope glycoprotein...
February 2, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Rahmi Tuna Tekin, Ener Cagri Dinleyici, Mehmet Ceyhan, Adem Karbuz, Nuran Salman, Murat Sutçu, Zafer Kurugol, Yasemin Balliel, Melda Celik, Mustafa Hacimustafaoglu, Necdet Kuyucu, Meda Kondolot, Gülnar Sensoy, Ozge Metin, Soner Sertan Kara, Meltem Dinleyici, Omer Kılıç, Cihangul Bayhan, Venhar Gurbuz, Emre Aycan, Aygun Memedova, Arzu Karli, Gulçin Bozlu, Solmaz Celebi
The serogroup epidemiology of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD), which varies considerably by geographic region and immunization schedule, changes continuously. Meningococcal carriage data are crucial for assessing IMD epidemiology and designing f potential vaccination strategies. Meningococcal seroepidemiology in Turkey differs from that in other countries: serogroups W and B are the predominant strains for IMD during childhood, whereas no serogroup C cases were identified over the last 10 years and no adolescent peak for IMD was found...
January 31, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Yoshiyuki Tanaka, Ruriko Yokokawa, Han Shi Rong, Hiroyuki Kishino, Jon E Stek, Margaret Nelson, Jody Lawrence
Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children. Most children are infected with rotavirus, and the health and economic burdens of rotavirus gastroenteritis on healthcare systems and families are considerable. In 2012 pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) and diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis and inactivated poliovirus vaccine derived from Sabin strains (DTaP-sIPV) were licensed in Japan. We examined the immunogenicity and safety of DTaP-sIPV when administrated concomitantly with RV5 in Japanese infants...
January 31, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Nicola Principi, Susanna Esposito
Influenza is a common disease and in children it can be severe enough to lead to hospitalization and death. Protection of all children against influenza, particularly the youngest, is strongly recommended by most health authorities. However, available vaccines cannot be used in the first 6 months of age, a period of life characterized by the highest risk of influenza-related complications. Maternal immunization is an attractive possibility to overcome this problem. For years, protection against influenza has been pursued by administering the trivalent inactivated vaccine given intramuscularly (IIV3)...
January 27, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Paola Stefanelli, Gabriele Buttinelli, Paola Vacca, Alberto E Tozzi, Fabio Midulla, Rita Carsetti, Giorgio Fedele, Alberto Villani, Carlo Concato
We conducted a study to determine the main traits of pertussis among unimmunized infants less than 6 months of age. From August 2012 to March 2015, 141 nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) were collected from infants with respiratory symptoms attending two major hospitals in Rome. Clinical data were recorded and analyzed. Lab-confirmation was performed by culture and realtime PCR. B. pertussis virulence-associated genes (ptxP, ptxA and prn), together with multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), were also investigated by the sequence-based analysis on the DNAs extracted from positive samples...
January 27, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Hui Wu, Yuanyuan Bao, Xiang Wang, Dongming Zhou, Wenzhe Wu
Influenza viral infections are significant global public health concerns due to the morbidity and mortality associated with acute respiratory disease, secondary complications, and pandemic threats; thus, continuous efforts have been made to develop potent influenza vaccines. In this study, three different mucosal adjuvants-alkyl polyglycoside (APG), gellan gum, and chitosan (CS)-were evaluated for their efficacy in intranasal A/H1N1 or B split influenza vaccines administered to BALB/c mice. Protective immunity was monitored by serum analysis for IgG, hemagglutination inhibition (HI), and neutralizing antibody levels, as well as mucosal IgA levels in nasal and pulmonary lavage fluids...
January 27, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Hye Suk Hwang, Ki-Hye Kim, Youri Lee, Young-Tae Lee, Eun-Ju Ko, SooJin Park, Jong Seok Lee, Byung-Cheol Lee, Young-Man Kwon, Martin L Moore, Sang-Moo Kang
Vaccine-enhanced disease has been a major obstacle in developing a safe vaccine against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). This study demonstrates the immunogenicity, efficacy, and safety of virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines containing RSV F (F VLP), G (G VLP), or F and G proteins (FG VLP) in cotton rats. RSV specific antibodies were effectively induced by vaccination of cotton rats with F VLP or FG VLP vaccines. After challenge, lung RSV clearance was observed with RSV F, G, FG VLP, and formalin inactivated RSV (FI-RSV) vaccines...
January 27, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Nicolas L Gilbert, Heather Gilmour, Sarah E Wilson, Lyne Cantin
Vaccination coverage remains suboptimal in Canada and sporadic outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases such as measles and pertussis continue to occur. This study was undertaken to identify sociodemographic determinants of total non-vaccination (having never received any vaccine), non-vaccination for measles (0 doses) and incomplete vaccination for pertussis (<4 doses) among 2-year-old Canadian children. Data from the 2013 Childhood National Immunization Coverage Survey (CNICS) were used. Associations between sociodemographic factors and outcomes were measured by multiple logistic regressions and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were calculated...
January 27, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Ana Marli Christovam Sartori, Luciana Martins Rozman, Tassia Cristina Decimoni, Roseli Leandro, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh Novaes, Patrícia Coelho de Soárez
BACKGROUND: In Brazil, since 2005, the Ministry of Health requires Health Economic Evaluation (HEE) of vaccines for introduction into the National Immunization Program. OBJECTIVES: To describe and analyze the full HEE on vaccines conducted in Brazil from 1980 to 2013. METHODS: Systematic review of the literature. We searched multiple databases. Two researchers independently selected the studies and extracted the data. The methodological quality of individual studies was evaluated using CHEERS items...
January 27, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Yadong A Cui, Harshila Patel, William M O'Neil, Se Li, Patricia Saddier
S. pneumoniae infection remains a serious public health concern despite the availability of vaccines covering up to 23 of more than 94 known serotypes. The purpose of the present study was to monitor recent serotype distribution data. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Reviews and Ingenta databases were searched. Serotype data covering invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and non-IPD were extracted from articles published from March 2014 to March 2015. Fifty-nine studies presented pneumococcal serotype prevalence by specific age categories...
January 26, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
M E Molyneux
Known and novel pathogens continue to afflict the world's population, and we deploy existing and new vaccines - the best type of weapon we've got - against them. One consequence is that we are accumulating steadily more experience of both the scientific and the ethical requirements of conducting vaccine trials in people. Good science is itself an ethical requirement, as it is meaningless to apply ethical principles to a scientifically flawed product or plan. Bad science can only be bad ethics. And we have learned that ethical principles are a necessity when we apply the benefits of science to the improving of human health...
January 25, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Suhendan Ekmekcioglu, Elizabeth A Grimm, Jason Roszik
Inducible NO synthase (iNOS/NOS2) protein expression is a well-studied predictor of poor outcome in multiple cancers, and it has also been associated with inflammatory and immunosuppressive processes in the tumor microenvironment. Immunotherapies are becoming increasingly key components in cancer treatment, and iNOS is receiving more attention as a potential regulator of treatment resistance. As we have reported in pancreatic cancer, by modulation of effector T-cell activity, iNOS overexpression may allow the tumor to escape the immune response through creating a microenvironment which causes recalcitrance to immunotherapy...
January 25, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Nianmin Shi, Yibin Zhang, Huizhen Zheng, Zhenggang Zhu, Dingming Wang, Sihai Li, Yuhua Li, Liqing Yang, Junnan Zhang, Yunhua Bai, Qiang Lu, Zheng Zhang, Fengji Luo, Chun Yu, Li Li
AIM: To compare the safety, immunogenicity and long-term effect of a purified vero cell cultured rabies vaccine in post-exposure subjects following two intramuscular regimens, Zagreb or Essen regimen. METHODS: Serum samples were collected prior to vaccination and on days 7, 14, 42, 180 and 365 post vaccination. Solicited adverse events were recorded for 7 days following each vaccine dose, and unsolicited adverse events throughout the entire study period. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials...
January 25, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Aurélien Jamotte, Emilie Clay, Bérengère Macabeo, Andrès Caicedo, Juan Guillermo Lopez, Lucia Bricks, Martín Romero Prada, Rubén Marrugo, Pamela Alfonso, Brechla Moreno Arévalo, Danilo Franco, Lourdes Garcia Diaz, Yadira Isaza de Molto
Annual trivalent influenza vaccines (TIV) containing 2 A strains and one B lineage have been recommended for the prevention of influenza in most of Latin American countries. However, the circulation of 2 B lineages (Victoria and Yamagata) and difficulties in predicting the predominating lineage have led to the development of quadrivalent influenza vaccines (QIV), including both B lineages. Thus, the objective was to estimate the public health impact and influenza-related costs if QIV would have been used instead of TIV in 3 Latin American countries...
January 24, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Elisabeth J M Huijbers, Arjan W Griffioen
In light of the increasing number of approved monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of cancer, it seems peculiar that the development of antibody inducing vaccines get so little attention. In our view there is a tremendous opportunity in the development of cancer vaccines inducing humoral immune responses, involving a couple of major advantages. Firstly, the effectivity of a polyclonal antibody response is expected to exceed the one of monoclonal antibodies. This is supported by preclinical data that show pronounced anti-tumor responses and early clinical trials in which benefit is observed in patients with advanced cancer...
January 24, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Jianqiang Li, Mengru Bao, Jun Ge, Sulin Ren, Tong Zhou, Fengchun Qi, Xiuying Pu, Jia Dou
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a member of Hepadnavirus family, which leads to chronic infection in around 5% of patients with a high risk of developing liver cirrhosis, liver failure, and hepatocellular carcinoma. (1) Despite the availability of prophylactic vaccines against hepatitis B for over three decades, there are still more than two billion people have been infected and 240 million of them were chronic. Antiviral therapies currently used in the treatment of CHB (chronic hepatitis B) infection include peg-interferon, standard α-interferon and nucleos/tide analogues (NAs), but none of them can provide sustained control of viral replication...
January 24, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Wei Lue Tong, Yaping N Tu, Mohammad D Samy, Wade J Sexton, George Blanck
It has recently become apparent that it is possible to characterize productively recombined, T-cell receptor (TcR) gene segments in tumor exome files, which presumably include representations of the DNA of other cells in the microenvironment. Similar characterizations have been done for TcR recombinations in tumor specimen RNASeq files. While exome files have been used to characterize immunoglobulin gene segment recombinations for tumors closely related to B-cells, immunoglobulin recombinations have yet to be characterized for putative microenvironment cells for solid tumors...
January 13, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
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