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Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521640/antibody-mediated-immunotherapy-against-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#1
Ying Gao, Tian-Ying Zhang, Quan Yuan, Ning-Shao Xia
The currently available drugs to treat hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection include interferons and nucleos(t)ide analogues, which can only induce disease remission and are inefficient for the functional cure of patients with chronic HBV infection (CHB). Since high titers of circulating hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) may be essential to exhaust the host anti-HBV immune response and they cannot be significantly reduced by current drugs, new antiviral strategies aiming to suppress serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) could help restore virus-specific immune responses and promote the eradication of the virus...
May 19, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509607/profile-intravacc
#2
Thijs Veerman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509605/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-bio-pox%C3%A2-a-live-varicella-vaccine-oka-strain-in-indian-children-a-comparative-multicentric-randomized-phase-ii-iii-clinical-trial
#3
Anand Prakash Dubey, Mohammad Moonis Akbar Faridi, Monjori Mitra, Iqbal Rajinder Kaur, Aashima Dabas, Jaydeep Choudhury, Mallar Mukherjee, Devendra Mishra
Varicella or chickenpox is a highly contagious disease with a high secondary attack rate. Almost 30% of Indian adolescents lack protective antibodies against varicella, emphasising the need of routine varicella immunization. The Oka VZV is a well-established, safe and efficacious vaccine strain that is highly immunogenic and produces lifelong protective immunity. The present multicentric, open label, randomized, controlled Phase II/III study, compared the Bio Pox™ (indigenous investigational vaccine) with a licensed vaccine, Varivax™, for its safety and immunogenicity profile in 252 healthy subjects in the age group of 1-12 years (cohort I: 6-12 years, II:1-6 years) in three tertiary medical institutions...
May 16, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509601/the-unattainable-criteria-for-new-infant-vaccines
#4
Christopher J Gill, Lauren Hodsdon, Mathuram Santosham, Katherine L O'Brien
Background In 2013, the US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) opted against adding meningococcal vaccines to the infant schedule due to poor cost-effectiveness. This raises a policy question: if meningococcal disease is too rare to justify routine vaccination, are there other vaccine-preventable causes of US infant deaths that could be supported? Methods We tabulated US infant deaths from 2009-2013 using the CDC WONDER database. These causes of death were then categorized into one of three categories: 1) vaccine-preventable using currently available interventions; 2) potentially vaccine-preventable within the next 10 years; and 3) not preventable...
May 16, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498733/immunotherapy-is-different-implications-for-immunotherapy-clinical-trial-design
#5
Richard Simon
Cancer Immunotherapetics differ fundamentally from most cancer therapies in that they involve manipulation of the immune system to induce an anti-tumor response. This fundamental difference results in differences in the pre-clinical and clinical development of immunotherapeutics. Even the regulatory culture of developing one drug at a time and demonstrating that it, when added to standard therapy, prolongs patient survival, is often not suitable for the development of effective immunotherapy regimens. In this commentary, we explore some of these differences and describe novel clinical trial designs which may be useful in immunotherapeutics regimen development...
May 12, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494206/component-resolved-evaluation-of-the-content-of-major-allergens-in-therapeutic-extracts-for-specific-immunotherapy-of-honeybee-venom-allergy
#6
Simon Blank, Stefanie Etzold, Ulf Darsow, Maximilian Schiener, Bernadette Eberlein, Dennis Russkamp, Sara Wolf, Anke Graessel, Tilo Biedermann, Markus Ollert, Carsten B Schmidt-Weber
Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only curative treatment for honeybee venom (HBV) allergy, which is able to protect against further anaphylactic sting reactions. Recent analyses on a molecular level have demonstrated that HBV represents a complex allergen source that contains more relevant major allergens than formerly anticipated. Moreover, allergic patients show very diverse sensitization profiles with the different allergens. HBV-specific immunotherapy is conducted with HBV extracts which are derived from pure venom...
May 11, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494200/a-new-therapeutic-potential-for-cancers-one-car-with-2-different-engines
#7
Abdolkarim Sheikhi, Abdollah Jafarzadeh
Tumor cells escape from immune recognition by several mechanisms such as down-regulating of MHC class I molecules, losing of tumor antigens, etc. The purpose of cancer immunotherapy is to robust or reconstruct the capacity of the immune system to recognize and kill tumor cells by overwhelming the mechanisms by which tumors escape the immune response. One of the novel immunotherapeutic strategies were used to potentiate NK- and T cell functions is chimeric antigen receptor (CAR). CARs are composed of an antigen-binding domain of a molecule such as an antibody (that binds to a tumor associated antigens expressed on the surface of tumor cells) and an intracellular T cell activation domain...
May 11, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494195/functionally-inactivated-dominant-viral-antigens-of-human-cytomegalovirus-delivered-in-replication-incompetent-adenovirus-type-6-vectors-as-vaccine-candidates
#8
Aimin Tang, Daniel C Freed, Fengsheng Li, Steve Meschino, Michael Prokop, Andrew Bett, Danilo Casimiro, Dai Wang, Tong-Ming Fu
T cell immunity is critical in controlling human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection in transplant recipients, and T cells targeting viral immediate early proteins such as IE1, IE2 and pp65 have been speculated to be more effective against reactivation. Here we report efforts to construct replication incompetent adenovirus 6 vectors expressing these viral antigens as vaccine candidates. To reduce the potential liabilities of these viral proteins as vaccine antigens, we introduced mutations to inactivate their reported functions including their nuclear localization signals...
May 11, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494193/long-term-trends-in-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-manitoba-canada
#9
Salaheddin M Mahmud, Hasantha Sinnock, Luiz C Mostaço-Guidolin, Gurpreet Pabla, Aleksandra K Wierzbowski, Songul Bozat-Emre
Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) remains a significant public health problem in Manitoba, Canada although publically-funded pneumococcal conjugate (PCV7 and PCV13) and polysaccharide (PPV23) vaccination programs exist. We analyzed routine surveillance and administrative health data to examine trends in IPD rates as these vaccines were introduced. Data on all individuals with a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of IPD between 2001 and 2014 were obtained from the provincial Communicable Diseases Surveillance database and linked with Manitoba's provincial immunization registry and physician and hospital databases...
May 11, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481728/a-bioluminescent-imaging-mouse-model-for-marburg-virus-based-on-a-pseudovirus-system
#10
Li Zhang, Qianqian Li, Qiang Liu, Weijin Huang, Jianhui Nie, Youchun Wang
Marburg virus (MARV) can cause lethal hemorrhagic fever in humans. Handling of MARV is restricted to high-containment biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) facilities, which greatly impedes research into this virus. In this study, a high titer of MARV pseudovirus was generated through optimization of the HIV backbone vectors, the ratio of backbone vector to MARV glycoprotein expression vector, and the transfection reagents. An in vitro neutralization assay and an in vivo bioluminescent imaging mouse model for MARV were developed based on the pseudovirus...
May 8, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481726/rotavirus-shedding-following-administration-of-rv3-bb-human-neonatal-rotavirus-vaccine
#11
Daniel Cowley, Karen Boniface, Nada Bogdanovic-Sakran, Carl D Kirkwood, Julie E Bines
The RV3-BB human neonatal rotavirus vaccine aims to provide protection from severe rotavirus disease from birth. A phase IIa safety and immunogenicity trial was undertaken in Dunedin, New Zealand between January 2012 and April 2014. Healthy, full-term (≥36 weeks gestation) babies, who were 0-5 days old were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive three doses of oral RV3-BB vaccine with the first dose given at 0-5 days after birth (neonatal schedule), or the first dose given at about 8 weeks after birth (infant schedule), or to receive placebo (placebo schedule)...
May 8, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481695/a-new-frontier-in-treatment-of-advanced-melanoma-redefining-clinical-management-in-the-era-of-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#12
Oren Levine, Tahira Devji, Feng Xie
Immune checkpoint inhibitors have revolutionized treatment of advanced cutaneous melanoma. This group of novel therapeutic agents differs from other systemic treatments and has necessitated a new approach for several fundamental aspects of clinical practice in oncology. Marked differences in outcomes associated with immune checkpoint inhibitors compared to other systemic therapies has required a new paradigm for prognostication in the setting of advanced melanoma. Distinct patterns of tumor response have required new norms for disease monitoring...
May 8, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481693/immunotherapy-of-mold-allergy-a-review
#13
A Bozek, K Pyrkosz
Mold allergies are common, mainly target the respiratory tract and present as allergic rhinitis and/or bronchial asthma. Molds include a large group of different allergens that induce all types of allergic reactions. Allergen specific immunotherapies (AITs) to molds are common; however, at the present time, they are limited to Alternaria. This review presents not only the benefits but also the problems with such types of AIT based on the literature and our experience.
May 8, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481690/two-year-antibody-persistence-in-children-vaccinated-at-12-15%C3%A2-months-with-a-measles-mumps-rubella-virus-vaccine-without-human-serum-albumin
#14
Andrea A Berry, Remon Abu-Elyazeed, Clemente Diaz-Perez, Maurice A Mufson, Christopher J Harrison, Michael Leonardi, Jerry D Twiggs, Christopher Peltier, Stanley Grogg, Antonio Carbayo, Steven Shapiro, Michael Povey, Carmen Baccarini, Bruce L Innis, Ouzama Henry
One combined measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine without Human Serum Albumin (HSA) is currently licensed in the USA (M-M-R II; Merck, USA) and another has been developed (Priorix™ [MMR-RIT, GSK, Belgium]). In this follow-up study, children from USA or Puerto Rico, who had received one dose of M-M-R II or MMR-RIT at 12-15 months of age in the primary study (NCT00861744), were followed-up for two years post-vaccination. Anti-measles and anti-rubella antibodies were measured using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), and anti-mumps antibodies using ELISA and plaque reduction neutralization (PRN) assays...
May 8, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481687/a-trivalent-subunit-antigen-glycoprotein-vaccine-as-immunotherapy-for-genital-herpes-in-the-guinea-pig-genital-infection-model
#15
Sita Awasthi, Lauren M Hook, Carolyn E Shaw, Harvey M Friedman
An estimated 417 million people worldwide ages 15 to 49 are infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), the most common cause of genital ulcer disease. Some individuals experience frequent recurrences of genital lesions, while others only have subclinical infection, yet all risk transmitting infection to their intimate partners. A vaccine was developed that prevents shingles, which is a recurrent infection caused by varicella-zoster virus (VZV), a closely related member of the Herpesviridae family. The success of the VZV vaccine has stimulated renewed interest in a therapeutic vaccine for genital herpes...
May 8, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481680/modeling-the-hepatitis-a-epidemiological-transition-in-brazil-and-mexico
#16
Thierry Van Effelterre, Adrienne Guignard, Cinzia Marano, Rosalba Rojas, Kathryn H Jacobsen
BACKGROUND: Many low- to middle-income countries have completed or are in the process of transitioning from high or intermediate to low endemicity for hepatitis A virus (HAV). Because the risk of severe hepatitis A disease increases with age at infection, decreased incidence that leaves older children and adults susceptible to HAV infection may actually increase the population-level burden of disease from HAV. Mathematical models can be helpful for projecting future epidemiological profiles for HAV...
May 8, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481678/herpes-zoster-vaccine-a-health-economic-evaluation-for-switzerland
#17
Patricia R Blank, Zanfina Ademi, Xiaoyan Lu, Thomas D Szucs, Matthias Schwenkglenks
Herpes zoster (HZ) or "shingles" results from a reactivation of the varicella zoster virus (VZV) acquired during primary infection (chickenpox) and surviving in the dorsal root ganglia. In about 20% of cases, a complication occurs, known as post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN). A live attenuated vaccine against VZV is available for the prevention of HZ and subsequent PHN. The present study aims to update an earlier evaluation estimating the cost-effectiveness of the HZ vaccine from a Swiss third party payer perspective...
May 8, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481675/-to-each-his-own-discussions-of-vaccine-decision-making-in-top-parenting-blogs
#18
Zoë Meleo-Erwin, Corey Basch, Sarah A MacLean, Courtney Scheibner, Valerie Cadorett
Although social media provides a way for people to congregate with like-minded others, it can also play a role in spreading misinformation about public health interventions. Previous research demonstrates that parents who use the Internet to gather information on vaccination are more likely to hold anti-vaccination beliefs. There has been little examination of vaccination decision-making discussions on parenting blogs. This study seeks to fill that gap. Posts and comments on the top 25 top parenting blogs were analyzed using a mixed-method approach...
May 8, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481673/influenza-vaccine-effectiveness-among-high-risk-groups-a-systematic-literature-review-and-meta-analysis-of-case-control-and-cohort-studies
#19
Vincenzo Restivo, Claudio Costantino, Stefania Bono, Marialuisa Maniglia, Valentina Marchese, Gianmarco Ventura, Alessandra Casuccio, Fabio Tramuto, Francesco Vitale
Vaccination represents the most effective intervention to prevent infection, hospitalization and mortality due to influenza. This meta-analysis quantifies data reporting influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) on influenza visits and hospitalizations of case-control and cohort studies among high-risk groups. A systematic literature review including original articles published between 2007 and 2016, using a protocol registered on Prospero with No. 42017054854, and a meta-analysis were conducted. For three high-risk groups (subjects with underlying health conditions, pregnant women and health care workers) only a qualitative evaluation was carried out...
May 8, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463636/evaluation-of-optic-neuritis-following-human-papillomavirus-vaccination
#20
Gayathri Sridhar, Fang Tian, Richard Forshee, Martin Kulldorff, Nandini Selvam, Andrea Sutherland, Wilson Bryan, Samuel Barone, Lei Xu, Hector S Izurieta
To assess the relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and occurrence of optic neuritis (ON) and to evaluate a claims-based algorithm for identification of ON. Females of 9-26 year olds in the HealthCore's Integrated Research Database (HIRD(SM)) with and without claims evidence of HPV vaccination between 2007 and 2012 were included in this study. Potential ON cases were identified using the claims-based algorithm, positive predictive value (PPV) was determined using medical chart review...
May 2, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
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