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Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742983/should-adults-with-diabetes-mellitus-be-vaccinated-against-hepatitis-b-virus-a-systematic-review-of-diabetes-mellitus-and-the-progression-of-hepatitis-b-disease
#1
Zobair Younossi, Katrin Kochems, Marc de Ridder, Desmond Curran, Eveline M Bunge, Laurence de Moerlooze
Despite the burden of diabetes mellitus (DM), little is known about the role of this and other metabolic syndromes on the severity of hepatitis B virus (HBV) chronicity and liver disease progression. The value of hepatitis B vaccination and its impact on liver diseases and HCC has been largely demonstrated (ref), adult vaccination coverage is however suboptimal and DM diagnosis represents an opportunity for the HCP to discuss hepatitis B and other adult vaccinations. We performed a systematic literature search to identify studies (2000 to January 2017) describing liver disease progression among patients with HBV by DM status...
July 25, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708962/open-label-phase-i-clinical-trial-of-ad5-ebov-in-africans-in-china
#2
Lihua Wu, Zhe Zhang, Hainv Gao, Yuhua Li, Lihua Hou, Hangping Yao, Shipo Wu, Jian Liu, Ling Wang, You Zhai, Huilin Ou, Meihua Lin, Xiaoxin Wu, Jingjing Liu, Guanjing Lang, Qian Xin, Guolan Wu, Li Luo, Pei Liu, Jianzhong Shentu, Nanping Wu, Jifang Sheng, Yunqing Qiu, Wei Chen, Lanjuan Li
BACKGROUND: To determine the safety and immunogenicity of a novel recombinant adenovirus type 5 vector based Ebola virus disease vaccine (Ad5-EBOV) in Africans in China. METHODS: A phase 1, dose-escalation, open-label trial was conducted. 61 healthy Africans were sequentially enrolled, with 31 participants receiving one shot intramuscular injection and 30 participants receiving a double-shot regimen. Primary and secondary end points related to safety and immunogenicity were assessed within 28 days after vaccination...
July 14, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708959/assessment-of-the-potential-public-health-impact-of-herpes-zoster-vaccination-in-germany
#3
Desmond Curran, Desirée Van Oorschot, Lijoy Varghese, Lidia Oostvogels, Tomas Mrkvan, Romulo Colindres, Alfred von Krempelhuber, Anastassia Anastassopoulou
The aim of this study was to compare the public health impact of introducing two Herpes Zoster (HZ) vaccines, Zoster Vaccine Live (ZVL) versus a non-live adjuvanted subunit candidate vaccine (HZ/su), in the German population aged 50+ years split into three age cohorts, i.e. 50-59, 60-69 and 70+ years, respectively. A multi-cohort static Markov model was developed following age cohorts over their lifetime. Demographic data were obtained from the German federal statistical office. HZ incidence and the proportion of HZ individuals developing post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) were derived from German specific sources...
July 14, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708957/influenza-vaccination-in-the-elderly
#4
Smetana Jan, Chlibek Roman, Shaw Jana, Splino Miroslav, Prymula Roman
Seasonal influenza is a prevalent and serious annual illness resulting in widespread morbidity and economic disruption throughout the population; the elderly and immunocompromised are particularly vulnerable to serious sequelae and mortality. The changing demographics worldwide to an aging society have important implications for public health policy and pharmaceutical innovations. For instance, primary prevention via immunization is effective in reducing the burden of influenza illness among the elderly. However, the elderly may be insufficiently protected by vaccination due to the immunosenescence which accompanies aging...
July 14, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708956/the-power-of-combining-adoptive-cell-therapy-act-and-pathogen-boosted-vaccination-to-treat-solid-tumors
#5
Ryan Zander, Weiguo Cui
Recent advancements in adoptive cell therapy (ACT) are opening up new frontiers for cancer immunotherapy. CAR T cells targeting CD19 have emerged as a remarkable T cell-based therapy for the successful treatment of certain types of leukemia and lymphomas. Despite these clinical successes, as well as significant breakthroughs in T cell engineering, the treatment of solid tumors with ACT remains a relentless challenge. Thus, the current consensus of the field is that an urgent need exists for the design of innovative approaches that can improve the efficacy of ACT in treating solid cancers while maintaining a high degree of reliability and safety...
July 14, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708954/pneumococcal-and-influenza-vaccination-status-of-hospitalized-adults-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-and-the-effects-of-vaccination-on-clinical-presentation
#6
Ezgi Demirdogen Cetinoglu, Esra Uzaslan, Abdullah Sayıner, Aykut Cilli, Oguz Kılınc, Aysın Sakar Coskun, Armağan Hazar, Nurdan Kokturk, Ayten Filiz, Mehmet Polatli
BACKGROUND: Previous reports have shown that vaccination rates of adult at-risk populations are low in Turkey. There are differing reports with regards to the effectiveness of the influenza and the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) on the clinical outcomes of community acquired pneumonia (CAP). The purpose of this study was to analyze the influenza (FV) and pneumococcal vaccination (PV) status, the factors that influence the receipt of influenza/pneumococcal vaccine and the effects of prior vaccination on the clinical outcomes in adults hospitalized with CAP...
July 14, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708953/trends-of-influenza-b-during-the-2010-2016-seasons-in-two-regions-of-north-and-south-italy-the-impact-of-the-vaccine-mismatch-on-influenza-immunisation-strategy
#7
Andrea Orsi, Giuseppina Maria Elena Colomba, Fanny Pojero, Giuseppe Calamusa, Cristiano Alicino, Cecilia Trucchi, Paola Canepa, Filippo Ansaldi, Francesco Vitale, Fabio Tramuto
Influenza A and B viruses are responsible for respiratory infections, representing globally seasonal threats to human health. The two viral types often co-circulate and influenza B plays an important role in the spread of infection. A 6-year retrospective surveillance study was conducted between 2010 and 2016 in two large administrative regions of Italy, located in the north (Liguria) and in the south (Sicily) of the country, in order to describe the burden and epidemiology of both B/Victoria and B/Yamagata lineages in different healthcare settings...
July 14, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708952/influenza-vaccination-during-pregnancy-for-prevention-of-influenza-confirmed-illness-in-the-infants-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Marta C Nunes, Shabir A Madhi
Infants younger than 6 months of age are at particular risk for serious illness from influenza infection. Currently available influenza vaccines are, however, not licensed for use in infants <6 months old. Influenza vaccination during pregnancy elicits robust antibody responses in the women that will protect the infants against influenza infection during the first few months of life. We aimed to determine the impact of influenza vaccination during pregnancy to prevent laboratory-confirmed influenza infection and influenza-associated hospitalisations in infants <6 months old...
July 14, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708951/control-of-a-community-outbreak-of-hepatitis-a-in-an-area-of-low-endemicity-wales-2016
#9
J Vaz, C Floyd, B Mason, A G Shankar, H Lewis
Incidence of hepatitis A in Wales is low (average of 0.48/100,000 inhabitants from 2004-2015). We describe a community outbreak of hepatitis A involving 3 schools (primary and secondary) in South Wales between March and June 2016 and reflect on the adequacy of the control measures used. Anyone in South Wales epidemiologically linked to a serological and/or RNA positive confirmed case of hepatitis A during the 15-50 days before onset of symptoms (diarrhoea, vomiting, fever, nausea, AND jaundice, or jaundice-associated symptom) was defined as a case...
July 14, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708948/hospitalizations-associated-with-malignant-neoplasia-and-in-situ-carcinoma-in-the-anus-and-penis-in-men-and-women-during-a-5-year-period-2009-2013-in-spain-an-epidemiological-study
#10
Noelia López, Ángel Gil-de-Miguel, Raquel Pascual-García, Ruth Gil-Prieto
BACKGROUND: Approximately 40,000 new cases of anal cancer and 26,000 new cases of penile cancer occurred in 2012 worldwide. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is responsible for 88.3% and 33.0% of these cancers, respectively. The aim of this study was to describe the hospital burden associated with malignant neoplasm (MN) and in situ carcinoma (ISC) in the anus and penis in Spain from 2009 to 2013. METHODS: This observational, retrospective study used discharge information obtained from the national surveillance system for hospital data, Conjunto Mínimo Básico de Datos, provided by the Ministry of Health...
July 14, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708945/methods-used-for-immunization-coverage-assessment-in-canada-a-canadian-immunization-research-network-cirn-study
#11
Sarah E Wilson, Susan Quach, Shannon E MacDonald, Monika Naus, Shelley L Deeks, Natasha S Crowcroft, Salaheddin M Mahmud, Dat Tran, Jeff Kwong, Karen Tu, Nicolas L Gilbert, Caitlin Johnson, Shalini Desai
Accurate and complete immunization data are necessary to assess vaccine coverage, safety and effectiveness. Across Canada, different methods and data sources are used to assess vaccine coverage, but these have not been systematically described. Our primary objective was to examine and describe the methods used to determine immunization coverage in Canada. The secondary objective was to compare routine infant and childhood coverage estimates derived from the Canadian 2013 Childhood National Immunization Coverage Survey (cNICS) with estimates collected from provinces and territories (P/Ts)...
July 14, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700282/a-randomized-open-label-clinical-trial-to-evaluate-immunogenicity-and-safety-of-an-indigenously-developed-dtwp-hib-tetravalent-combination-vaccine-easyfour%C3%A2-tt-with-quadrovax%C3%A2-in-indian-infants
#12
Lalitendu Mohanty, Sunil Sharma, Beauty Behera, Sachin Panwar, Charu Paliwal, Anit Singh, Anu Gupta, Deepak Chandra Chilkoti
An open-label, randomized, multi-centre trial was conducted to compare the immunogenicity and safety of an indigenously developed tetravalent DTwP-Hib vaccine, Easyfour®-TT with a commercially available vaccine, Quadrovax®. A total of 244 infants in good health, aged 6-10 weeks, were randomised in a 1:1 allocation to receive three doses of the test or comparator vaccine. Immunogenicity of the vaccines was determined by measuring the baseline and post-vaccination antibody response against the vaccine antigens; safety was evaluated in terms of local and systemic reactions (solicited and unsolicited) reported during the trial...
July 12, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700268/us-healthcare-costs-attributable-to-type-a-and-type-b-influenza
#13
Songkai Yan, Derek Weycker, Stefania Sokolowski
While the overall healthcare burden of seasonal influenza in the United States (US) has been well characterized, the proportion of influenza burden attributable to type A and type B illness warrants further elucidation. The aim of this study was to estimate numbers of healthcare encounters and healthcare costs attributable to influenza viral strains A and B in the US during the 2001/2002 - 2008/2009 seasons. Healthcare encounters and costs in the US during the 2001/2002 - 2008/2009 seasons for influenza type A and influenza type B were estimated separately and collectively, by season and age group, based on data from published literature and secondary sources for: rates of influenza-related encounters requiring formal healthcare, unit costs of influenza-related healthcare encounters, and estimates of population size...
July 12, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700265/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-a-quadrivalent-influenza-vaccine-in-adults-65%C3%A2-years-of-age-and-older
#14
David P Greenberg, Corwin A Robertson, H Keipp Talbot, Michael D Decker
Frequent mismatches between the predominant circulating B strain lineage and the B strain lineage in trivalent influenza vaccines have resulted in missed opportunities to prevent influenza illness. Quadrivalent influenza vaccines containing B strains from each of the two lineages have been developed for improved prevention of influenza B infections. Here, we describe the results of a phase III, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, multicenter trial examining the safety and immunogenicity of a split-virion inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine (IIV4) in 675 adults ≥ 65 years of age (NCT01218646)...
July 12, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700264/overall-effectiveness-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-an-economic-analysis-of-phid-cv-and-pcv-13-in-the-immunization-of-infants-in-italy
#15
Paolo Castiglia, Lorenzo Pradelli, Stefano Castagna, Veronica Freguglia, Giorgio Palù, Susanna Esposito
Pneumococcal diseases are associated with a significant clinical and economic burden. The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) has been used for the immunization of newborns against invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) in Italy while now the pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) and the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) are available. The aim of this analysis was to compare the estimated health benefits, cost and cost-effectiveness of immunization strategies vs...
July 12, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699820/expanded-strain-coverage-for-a-highly-successful-public-health-tool-prophylactic-9-valent-human-papillomavirus-vaccine
#16
Zhigang Zhang, Jun Zhang, Ningshao Xia, Qinjian Zhao
Human papillomavirus is considered the causative factor for cervical cancer, which accounts for approximately 5% of the global cancer burden and more than 600,000 new cases annually that are attributable to HPV infection worldwide. The first-generation prophylactic HPV vaccines, Gardasil® and Cervarix®, were licensed approximately a decade ago. Both vaccines contain the most prevalent high-risk types, HPV16 and 18, which are associated with 70% of cervical cancer. To further increase the type coverage, five additional oncogenic HPV types (31, 33, 45, 52 and 58) were added to the existing Gardasil-4 to develop a 9-valent HPV vaccine (9vHPV), Gardasil 9®, increasing the potential level of protection from ∼70% to ∼90%...
July 12, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699816/enrichment-of-ly6c-hi-monocytes-by-multiple-gm-csf-injections-with-hbv-vaccine-contributes-to-viral-clearance-in-a-hbv-mouse-model
#17
Weidong Zhao, Xian Zhou, Gan Zhao, Qing Lin, Xianzheng Wang, Xueping Yu, Bin Wang
Adjuvants are considered a necessary component for HBV therapeutic vaccines but few are licensed in clinical practice due to concerns about safety or efficiency. In our recent study, we established that a combination protocol of 3-day pretreatments with GM-CSF before a vaccination (3 × GM-CSF+VACCINE) into the same injection site could break immune tolerance and cause over 90% reduction of HBsAg level in the HBsAg transgenic mouse model. Herein, we further investigated the therapeutic potential of the combination in AAV8-1...
July 12, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699812/epitope-mapping-of-ebola-virus-dominant-and-subdominant-glycoprotein-epitopes-facilitates-construction-of-an-epitope-based-dna-vaccine-able-to-focus-the-antibody-response-in-mice
#18
Daniel A J Mitchell, Lesley C Dupuy, Mariano Sanchez-Lockhart, Gustavo Palacios, Jaap W Back, Katya Shimanovskaya, Sidhartha Chaudhury, Daniel R Ripoll, Anders Wallqvist, Connie S Schmaljohn
We performed epitope mapping studies on the major surface glycoprotein (GP) of Ebola virus (EBOV) using Chemically Linked Peptides on Scaffolds (CLIPS), which form linear and potential conformational epitopes. This method identified monoclonal antibody epitopes and predicted additional epitopes recognized by antibodies in polyclonal sera from animals experimentally vaccinated against or infected with EBOV. Using the information obtained along with structural modeling to predict epitope accessibility, we then constructed two DNA vaccines encoding immunodominant and subdominant epitopes predicted to be accessible on EBOV GP...
July 12, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696863/update-on-oral-immunotherapy-for-egg-allergy
#19
François Graham, Natacha Tardio, Louis Paradis, Anne Des Roches, Philippe Bégin
Oral immunotherapy (OIT) is an emerging treatment for IgE-mediated egg allergy. In the past decade, a multitude of studies have assessed the potential for egg OIT to induce clinical desensitization. The following review will evaluate the efficacy and safety of this therapy as determined by randomized controlled, non-randomized controlled and uncontrolled trials. Recent studies using reduced allergenic egg products and anti-IgE assisted therapy to improve egg OIT safety will also be discussed. Recent advances in the mechanisms underlying food OIT suggest that certain immune parameters may be helpful in monitoring response to therapy, including egg OIT...
July 11, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696824/age-appropriate-versus-up-to-date-coverage-of-routine-childhood-vaccinations-among-young-children-in-israel
#20
Chen Stein-Zamir, Avi Israeli
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Routine childhood vaccinations schedules recommend that children receive the vaccine doses at specific ages. Vaccination coverage data are conventionally reported by the up-to-date method. We aimed to assess vaccination timeliness by the age-appropriate method and compare to the up-to-date vaccination coverage. METHODS: Assessment of age-appropriate and up-to-date vaccination coverage among children born in Israel in 2009 and followed to age 48 months (national representative sample, n = 3892)...
July 11, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
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