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Advances in Biological Regulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221990/molecular-and-cellular-mechanisms-of-chemoresistance-in-pancreatic-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Aleksandra Adamska, Omar Elaskalani, Aikaterini Emmanouilidi, Minkyoung Kim, Norbaini Binti Abdol Razak, Pat Metharom, Marco Falasca
Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most chemoresistant cancers, and current therapies targeting cancer-associated molecular pathways have not given satisfactory results, owing in part to rapid upregulation of alternative compensatory pathways. Most of the available treatments are palliative, focussing on improving the quality of life. At present, available options are surgery, embolization, radiation, chemotherapy, immunotherapy and use of other more targeted drugs. In this review, we describe the cellular and molecular effects of current chemotherapy drugs such as gemcitabine, FOLFIRINOX (5-fluorouracil [5-FU], oxaliplatin, irinotecan, and leucovorin) and ABRAXANE (nab-Paclitaxel), which have shown a survival benefit, although modest, for pancreatic cancer patients...
November 22, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217255/forms-and-functions-of-store-operated-calcium-entry-mediators-stim-and-orai
#2
REVIEW
James W Putney
Calcium signals arise by multiple mechanisms, including mechanisms of release of intracellular stored Ca2+, and the influx of Ca2+ through channels in the plasma membrane. One mechanism that links these two sources of Ca2+ is store-operated Ca2+ entry, the most commonly encountered version of which involves the extensively studied calcium-release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channel. The minimal and essential molecular components of the CRAC channel are the STIM proteins that function as Ca2+ sensors in the endoplasmic reticulum, and the Orai proteins that comprise the pore forming subunits of the CRAC channel...
November 22, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174395/normalization-of-mass-spectrometry-data-nomad
#3
Carl Murie, Brian Sandri, Ann-Sofi Sandberg, Timothy J Griffin, Janne Lehtiö, Christine Wendt, Ola Larsson
iTRAQ and TMT reagent-based mass spectrometry (MS) are commonly used technologies for quantitative proteomics in biological samples. Such studies are often performed over multiple MS runs, potentially resulting in introduction of MS run bias that could affect downstream analysis. Such MS data have therefore commonly been normalized using a reference sample which is included in each MS run. We show, however, that reference normalization does not effectively remove systematic MS run bias. A linear model approach was previously proposed to improve on the reference normalization approach but does not computationally scale to larger data sets...
November 20, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154090/proliferative-and-metastatic-roles-for-phospholipase-d-in-mouse-models-of-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Eric Roth, Michael A Frohman
Phospholipase D (PLD) activity has been proposed to facilitate multiple steps in cancer progression including growth, metabolism, angiogenesis, and mobility. The canonical enzymes PLD1 and PLD2 enact their diverse effects through hydrolyzing the membrane lipid phosphatidylcholine to generate the second messenger and signaling lipid phosphatidic acid (PA). However, the widespread expression of PLD1 and PLD2 in normal tissues and the additional distinct enzymatic mechanisms through which PA can be generated have produced uncertainty regarding the optimal settings in which PLD inhibition might ameliorate cancer...
November 14, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137882/foreword
#5
EDITORIAL
Hidenori Ichijo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 11, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174396/plc%C3%AE-1-potential-arbitrator-of-cancer-progression
#6
REVIEW
Hyun-Jun Jang, Pann-Ghill Suh, Yu Jin Lee, Kyeong Jin Shin, Lucio Cocco, Young Chan Chae
Phospholipase C (PLC) is an essential mediator of cellular signaling. PLC regulates multiple cellular processes by generating bioactive molecules such as inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG). These products propagate and regulate cellular signaling via calcium (Ca2+) mobilization and activation of protein kinase C (PKC), other kinases, and ion channels. PLCγ1, one of the primary subtypes of PLC, is directly activated by membrane receptors, including receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), and adhesion receptors such as integrin...
November 8, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150352/dysregulation-of-mrna-translation-and-energy-metabolism-in-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Matthew Leibovitch, Ivan Topisirovic
Dysregulated mRNA translation and aberrant energy metabolism are frequent in cancer. Considering that mRNA translation is an energy demanding process, cancer cells must produce sufficient ATP to meet energy demand of hyperactive translational machinery. In recent years, the mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) emerged as a central regulatory node which coordinates energy consumption by the translation apparatus and ATP production in mitochondria. Aberrant mTOR signaling underpins the vast majority of cancers whereby increased mTOR activity is thought to be a major determinant of both malignant translatomes and metabolomes...
November 2, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108881/phospholipase-c-zeta-and-calcium-oscillations-at-fertilisation-the-evidence-applications-and-further-questions
#8
REVIEW
Junaid Kashir, Michail Nomikos, F Anthony Lai
Oocyte activation is a fundamental event at mammalian fertilisation, initiated by a series of characteristic calcium (Ca(2+)) oscillations in mammals. This characteristic pattern of Ca(2+) release is induced in a species-specific manner by a sperm-specific enzyme termed phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ). Reduction or absence of functional PLCζ within sperm underlies male factor infertility in humans, due to mutational inactivation or abrogation of PLCζ protein expression. Underlying such clinical implications, a significant body of evidence has now been accumulated that has characterised the unique biochemical and biophysical properties of this enzyme, further aiding the unique clinical opportunities presented...
October 27, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107568/ask-family-in-cardiovascular-biology-and-medicine
#9
REVIEW
Tingting Liu, Huanjiao Jenny Zhou, Wang Min
Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of death worldwide. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal cascades signaling pathways play crucial roles in cardiovascular pathophysiology. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase (ASK) family members ASK1, ASK2 and ASK3 are the key molecules in MAPK signal cascades and are activated by various stresses. ASK1 is the most extensively studied MAPKKK and is involved in regulation of the cellular functions such as cell survival, proliferation, inflammation and apoptosis...
October 24, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102395/nuclear-inositide-signaling-and-cell-cycle
#10
REVIEW
Stefano Ratti, Giulia Ramazzotti, Irene Faenza, Roberta Fiume, Sara Mongiorgi, Anna Maria Billi, James A McCubrey, Pann-Ghill Suh, Lucia Manzoli, Lucio Cocco, Matilde Y Follo
Phosphatidylinositols (PIs) are responsible for several signaling pathways related to many cellular functions, such as cell cycle regulation at different check-points, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, membrane trafficking and gene expression. PI metabolism is not only present at the cytoplasmic level, but also at the nuclear one, where different signaling pathways affect essential nuclear mechanisms in eukaryotic cells. In this review we focus on nuclear inositide signaling in relation to cell cycle regulation...
October 23, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111105/pim-activity-in-tumours-a-key-node-of-therapy-resistance
#11
REVIEW
Richard J Rebello, Alisée V Huglo, Luc Furic
The PIM kinases are proto-oncogenes which have been shown to facilitate cell survival and proliferation to drive malignancy and resistance post-therapy. They are able to suppress cell death signals, sustain PI3K/AKT/mTORC1 pathway activity and regulate the MYC oncogenic program. Recent work has revealed PIM kinase essentiality for advanced tumour maintenance and described tumour sensitivity to small molecule inhibitors targeting PIM kinase in multiple malignancies.
October 22, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122554/physiological-roles-of-ask-family-members-in-innate-immunity-and-their-involvement-in-pathogenesis-of-immune-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Atsushi Matsuzawa
Cells are always exposed to various types of stress, including physical, chemical, and biological stresses, and are required to sense immediately and respond appropriately to these stresses. The apoptosis signal-regulating kinase (ASK) family members are stress-responsive kinases, which are activated by not only physicochemical stresses, such as oxidative stress, osmotic pressure, calcium overload, and anti-cancer drugs, but also biological stresses, such as inflammatory cytokines and pathogen infection. Recently, we found that ASK1, a member of ASK family, is activated by bacterial components, such as lipopolysaccharide, in a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent manner, demonstrating that ASK1 is required for the innate immune response and plays a critical role in the regulation of innate immune signaling...
October 19, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066276/signaling-by-cell-surface-death-receptors-alterations-in-head-and-neck-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Brandon C Leonard, Daniel E Johnson
Cell surface death receptors are members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily and mediate signals leading to the induction of apoptosis or necroptosis, as well as NF-κB-mediated cell survival. These biochemical processes play key roles in cell growth, development, tissue homeostasis, and immune responses. The downstream signaling complexes activated by different death receptors can differ significantly and are subject to multiple, distinct regulatory mechanisms. Dysregulation of signaling by the TNFR superfamily contributes to a variety of pathologic conditions, including defective immune responses and cancer...
October 18, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102394/regulation-of-ask1-signaling-by-scaffold-and-adaptor-proteins
#14
REVIEW
Lauren Rusnak, Haian Fu
The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway is a three-tiered kinase cascade where mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP3Ks) lead to the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MAP2K), and ultimately MAPK proteins. MAPK signaling can promote a diverse set of biological outcomes, ranging from cell death to proliferation. There are multiple mechanisms which govern MAPK output, such as the duration and strength of the signal, cellular localization to upstream and downstream binding partners, pathway crosstalk and the binding to scaffold and adaptor molecules...
October 16, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066278/structural-aspects-of-protein-kinase-ask1-regulation
#15
REVIEW
Tomas Obsil, Veronika Obsilova
Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1, also known as MAP3K5), a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K) family, activates the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling cascades in response to various stressors. ASK1 activity is tightly regulated through phosphorylation and interaction with various binding partners. However, the mechanistic details underlying the ASK1 regulation are still not fully understood. This review focuses on recent advances in structural studies of protein kinase ASK1 and on the insights they provide into its mechanism of regulation...
October 16, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066277/therapeutic-application-of-apoptosis-signal-regulating-kinase-1-inhibitors
#16
REVIEW
Takao Fujisawa
Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) is a member of the stress-activated mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K) family. ASK1 is an attractive drug target, owing to its essential role in a wide variety of human diseases including neurodegenerative disorders, inflammatory diseases and cancer. Recent studies have suggested that pharmacological manipulations using small molecule ASK1 inhibitors may be beneficial in experimental human disease models. In this review, we highlight the current understanding of ASK1 inhibitors as a potential therapy for human diseases...
October 16, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055687/sphingosine-kinase-1-in-breast-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Kurt Geffken, Sarah Spiegel
Breast cancer affects 1 out of 8 women in the US and is the second highest cause of death from cancer for women, leading to considerable research examining the causes, progression, and treatment of breast cancer. Over the last two decades, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a potent sphingolipid metabolite, has been implicated in many processes important for breast cancer including growth, progression, transformation and metastasis, and is the focus of this review. In particular, one of the kinases that produces S1P, sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1), has come under increasing scrutiny as it is commonly upregulated in breast cancer cells and has been linked with poorer prognosis and progression, possibly leading to resistance to certain anti-cancer therapies...
October 16, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092784/ask-family-in-infection-and-inflammatory-disease
#18
REVIEW
Tomohiko Okazaki
Living organisms are continuously exposed to pathogens such as viruses and bacteria. Soon after a limited number of germline-encoded receptors, called pathogen recognition receptors, sense pathogen-associated molecular patterns, hosts trigger innate immune responses, including production of type Ⅰ interferons, proinflammatory cytokines, and cellular apoptosis, to limit propagation of invading pathogens. Importantly, these host responses are also activated during inflammatory diseases, irrespective of pathogen infection, and often play a causal role in pathogenesis and progression of these diseases, thereby implying an intimate link between immune responses and inflammatory disease...
October 14, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988970/effects-of-berberine-curcumin-resveratrol-alone-and-in-combination-with-chemotherapeutic-drugs-and-signal-transduction-inhibitors-on-cancer-cells-power-of-nutraceuticals
#19
James A McCubrey, Stephen L Abrams, Kvin Lertpiriyapong, Lucio Cocco, Stefano Ratti, Alberto M Martelli, Saverio Candido, Massimo Libra, Ramiro M Murata, Pedro L Rosalen, Paolo Lombardi, Giuseppe Montalto, Melchiorre Cervello, Agnieszka Gizak, Dariusz Rakus, Linda S Steelman
Over the past fifty years, society has become aware of the importance of a healthy diet in terms of human fitness and longevity. More recently, the concept of the beneficial effects of certain components of our diet and other compounds, that are consumed often by different cultures in various parts of the world, has become apparent. These "healthy" components of our diet are often referred to as nutraceuticals and they can prevent/suppress: aging, bacterial, fungal and viral infections, diabetes, inflammation, metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases and have other health-enhancing effects...
October 3, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993230/the-importance-of-blood-platelet-lipid-signaling-in-thrombosis-and-in-sepsis
#20
REVIEW
Fanny Vardon Bounes, Abdulrahman Mujalli, Claire Cenac, Sonia Severin, Pauline Le Faouder, Gaëtan Chicanne, Frédérique Gaits-Iacovoni, Vincent Minville, Marie-Pierre Gratacap, Bernard Payrastre
Blood platelets are the first line of defense against hemorrhages and are also strongly involved in the processes of arterial thrombosis, a leading cause of death worldwide. Besides their well-established roles in hemostasis, vascular wall repair and thrombosis, platelets are now recognized as important players in other processes such as inflammation, healing, lymphangiogenesis, neoangiogenesis or cancer. Evidence is accumulating they are key effector cells in immune and inflammatory responses to host infection...
September 29, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
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