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Advances in Biological Regulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428221/the-inflammatory-microenvironment-that-promotes-gastrointestinal-cancer-development-and-invasion
#1
REVIEW
Kanae Echizen, Hiroko Oshima, Mizuho Nakayama, Masanobu Oshima
Accumulating evidence has indicated that the inflammatory response is important for tumor promotion. However, the mechanisms underlying the induction of the inflammatory response in cancer tissues and how it promotes tumorigenesis remain poorly understood. We constructed several mouse models that develop inflammation-associated gastric and intestinal tumors and examined the in vivo mechanisms of tumorigenesis. Of note, the activation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)/prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) pathway and Toll-like receptor (TLR)/MyD88 signaling cooperatively induced the generation of an inflammatory microenvironment, which is required for early-stage tumorigenesis...
February 5, 2018: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449169/interaction-of-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-and-ras-erk-pathways-involving-co-stabilization-of-both-%C3%AE-catenin-and-ras-plays-important-roles-in-the-colorectal-tumorigenesis
#2
REVIEW
Sang-Kyu Lee, Jeong-Ha Hwang, Kang-Yell Choi
Cancer development is usually driven by multiple genetic and molecular alterations rather than by a single defect. In the human colorectal cancer (CRC), series of mutations of genes are involved in the different stages of tumorigenesis. For example, adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and KRAS mutations have been known to play roles in the initiation and progression of the tumorigenesis, respectively. However, many studies indicate that mutations of these two genes, which play roles in the Wnt/β-catenin and RAS-extra-cellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) pathways, respectively, cooperatively interact in the tumorigenesis in several different cancer types including CRC...
January 10, 2018: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306548/disrupting-the-warburg-effect-re-routes-cancer-cells-to-oxphos-offering-a-vulnerability-point-via-ferroptosis-induced-cell-death
#3
REVIEW
Maša Ždralević, Milica Vučetić, Boutaina Daher, Ibtissam Marchiq, Scott K Parks, Jacques Pouysségur
The evolution of life from extreme hypoxic environments to an oxygen-rich atmosphere has progressively selected for successful metabolic, enzymatic and bioenergetic networks through which a myriad of organisms survive the most extreme environmental conditions. From the two lethal environments anoxia/high O2, cells have developed survival strategies through expression of the transcriptional factors ATF4, HIF1 and NRF2. Cancer cells largely exploit these factors to thrive and resist therapies. In this review, we report and discuss the potential therapeutic benefit of disrupting the major Myc/Hypoxia-induced metabolic pathway, also known as fermentative glycolysis or "Warburg effect", in aggressive cancer cell lines...
December 28, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287955/remodeling-of-ca2-signaling-in-cancer-regulation-of-inositol-1-4-5-trisphosphate-receptors-through-oncogenes-and-tumor-suppressors
#4
REVIEW
Hideaki Ando, Katsuhiro Kawaai, Benjamin Bonneau, Katsuhiko Mikoshiba
The calcium ion (Ca2+) is a ubiquitous intracellular signaling molecule that regulates diverse physiological and pathological processes, including cancer. Increasing evidence indicates that oncogenes and tumor suppressors regulate the Ca2+ transport systems. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors (IP3Rs) are IP3-activated Ca2+ release channels located on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). They play pivotal roles in the regulation of cell death and survival by controlling Ca2+ transfer from the ER to mitochondria through mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAMs)...
December 20, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425611/foreword
#5
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993230/the-importance-of-blood-platelet-lipid-signaling-in-thrombosis-and-in-sepsis
#6
REVIEW
Fanny Vardon Bounes, Abdulrahman Mujalli, Claire Cenac, Sonia Severin, Pauline Le Faouder, Gaëtan Chicanne, Frédérique Gaits-Iacovoni, Vincent Minville, Marie-Pierre Gratacap, Bernard Payrastre
Blood platelets are the first line of defense against hemorrhages and are also strongly involved in the processes of arterial thrombosis, a leading cause of death worldwide. Besides their well-established roles in hemostasis, vascular wall repair and thrombosis, platelets are now recognized as important players in other processes such as inflammation, healing, lymphangiogenesis, neoangiogenesis or cancer. Evidence is accumulating they are key effector cells in immune and inflammatory responses to host infection...
January 2018: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221990/molecular-and-cellular-mechanisms-of-chemoresistance-in-pancreatic-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Aleksandra Adamska, Omar Elaskalani, Aikaterini Emmanouilidi, Minkyoung Kim, Norbaini Binti Abdol Razak, Pat Metharom, Marco Falasca
Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most chemoresistant cancers, and current therapies targeting cancer-associated molecular pathways have not given satisfactory results, owing in part to rapid upregulation of alternative compensatory pathways. Most of the available treatments are palliative, focussing on improving the quality of life. At present, available options are surgery, embolization, radiation, chemotherapy, immunotherapy and use of other more targeted drugs. In this review, we describe the cellular and molecular effects of current chemotherapy drugs such as gemcitabine, FOLFIRINOX (5-fluorouracil [5-FU], oxaliplatin, irinotecan, and leucovorin) and ABRAXANE (nab-Paclitaxel), which have shown a survival benefit, although modest, for pancreatic cancer patients...
November 22, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217255/forms-and-functions-of-store-operated-calcium-entry-mediators-stim-and-orai
#8
REVIEW
James W Putney
Calcium signals arise by multiple mechanisms, including mechanisms of release of intracellular stored Ca2+, and the influx of Ca2+ through channels in the plasma membrane. One mechanism that links these two sources of Ca2+ is store-operated Ca2+ entry, the most commonly encountered version of which involves the extensively studied calcium-release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channel. The minimal and essential molecular components of the CRAC channel are the STIM proteins that function as Ca2+ sensors in the endoplasmic reticulum, and the Orai proteins that comprise the pore forming subunits of the CRAC channel...
November 22, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174395/normalization-of-mass-spectrometry-data-nomad
#9
Carl Murie, Brian Sandri, Ann-Sofi Sandberg, Timothy J Griffin, Janne Lehtiö, Christine Wendt, Ola Larsson
iTRAQ and TMT reagent-based mass spectrometry (MS) are commonly used technologies for quantitative proteomics in biological samples. Such studies are often performed over multiple MS runs, potentially resulting in introduction of MS run bias that could affect downstream analysis. Such MS data have therefore commonly been normalized using a reference sample which is included in each MS run. We show, however, that reference normalization does not effectively remove systematic MS run bias. A linear model approach was previously proposed to improve on the reference normalization approach but does not computationally scale to larger data sets...
November 20, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154090/proliferative-and-metastatic-roles-for-phospholipase-d-in-mouse-models-of-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Eric Roth, Michael A Frohman
Phospholipase D (PLD) activity has been proposed to facilitate multiple steps in cancer progression including growth, metabolism, angiogenesis, and mobility. The canonical enzymes PLD1 and PLD2 enact their diverse effects through hydrolyzing the membrane lipid phosphatidylcholine to generate the second messenger and signaling lipid phosphatidic acid (PA). However, the widespread expression of PLD1 and PLD2 in normal tissues and the additional distinct enzymatic mechanisms through which PA can be generated have produced uncertainty regarding the optimal settings in which PLD inhibition might ameliorate cancer...
November 14, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137882/foreword
#11
EDITORIAL
Hidenori Ichijo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 11, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174396/plc%C3%AE-1-potential-arbitrator-of-cancer-progression
#12
REVIEW
Hyun-Jun Jang, Pann-Ghill Suh, Yu Jin Lee, Kyeong Jin Shin, Lucio Cocco, Young Chan Chae
Phospholipase C (PLC) is an essential mediator of cellular signaling. PLC regulates multiple cellular processes by generating bioactive molecules such as inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG). These products propagate and regulate cellular signaling via calcium (Ca2+) mobilization and activation of protein kinase C (PKC), other kinases, and ion channels. PLCγ1, one of the primary subtypes of PLC, is directly activated by membrane receptors, including receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), and adhesion receptors such as integrin...
November 8, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150352/dysregulation-of-mrna-translation-and-energy-metabolism-in-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Matthew Leibovitch, Ivan Topisirovic
Dysregulated mRNA translation and aberrant energy metabolism are frequent in cancer. Considering that mRNA translation is an energy demanding process, cancer cells must produce sufficient ATP to meet energy demand of hyperactive translational machinery. In recent years, the mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) emerged as a central regulatory node which coordinates energy consumption by the translation apparatus and ATP production in mitochondria. Aberrant mTOR signaling underpins the vast majority of cancers whereby increased mTOR activity is thought to be a major determinant of both malignant translatomes and metabolomes...
November 2, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108881/phospholipase-c-zeta-and-calcium-oscillations-at-fertilisation-the-evidence-applications-and-further-questions
#14
REVIEW
Junaid Kashir, Michail Nomikos, F Anthony Lai
Oocyte activation is a fundamental event at mammalian fertilisation, initiated by a series of characteristic calcium (Ca(2+)) oscillations in mammals. This characteristic pattern of Ca(2+) release is induced in a species-specific manner by a sperm-specific enzyme termed phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ). Reduction or absence of functional PLCζ within sperm underlies male factor infertility in humans, due to mutational inactivation or abrogation of PLCζ protein expression. Underlying such clinical implications, a significant body of evidence has now been accumulated that has characterised the unique biochemical and biophysical properties of this enzyme, further aiding the unique clinical opportunities presented...
October 27, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107568/ask-family-in-cardiovascular-biology-and-medicine
#15
REVIEW
Tingting Liu, Huanjiao Jenny Zhou, Wang Min
Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of death worldwide. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal cascades signaling pathways play crucial roles in cardiovascular pathophysiology. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase (ASK) family members ASK1, ASK2 and ASK3 are the key molecules in MAPK signal cascades and are activated by various stresses. ASK1 is the most extensively studied MAPKKK and is involved in regulation of the cellular functions such as cell survival, proliferation, inflammation and apoptosis...
October 24, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248300/review-of-four-major-distinct-types-of-human-phospholipase-a2
#16
REVIEW
Alexis M Vasquez, Varnavas D Mouchlis, Edward A Dennis
The phospholipase A2 superfamily of enzymes plays a significant role in the development and progression of numerous inflammatory diseases. Through their catalytic action on membrane phospholipids, phospholipases are the upstream regulators of the eicosanoid pathway releasing free fatty acids for cyclooxygenases, lipoxygenases, and cytochrome P450 enzymes which produce various well-known inflammatory mediators including leukotrienes, thromboxanes and prostaglandins. Elucidating the association of phospholipases A2 with the membrane, the extraction and binding of phospholipid substrates, and their interactions with small-molecule inhibitors is crucial for the development of new anti-inflammatory therapeutics...
October 23, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102395/nuclear-inositide-signaling-and-cell-cycle
#17
REVIEW
Stefano Ratti, Giulia Ramazzotti, Irene Faenza, Roberta Fiume, Sara Mongiorgi, Anna Maria Billi, James A McCubrey, Pann-Ghill Suh, Lucia Manzoli, Lucio Cocco, Matilde Y Follo
Phosphatidylinositols (PIs) are responsible for several signaling pathways related to many cellular functions, such as cell cycle regulation at different check-points, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, membrane trafficking and gene expression. PI metabolism is not only present at the cytoplasmic level, but also at the nuclear one, where different signaling pathways affect essential nuclear mechanisms in eukaryotic cells. In this review we focus on nuclear inositide signaling in relation to cell cycle regulation...
October 23, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111105/pim-activity-in-tumours-a-key-node-of-therapy-resistance
#18
REVIEW
Richard J Rebello, Alisée V Huglo, Luc Furic
The PIM kinases are proto-oncogenes which have been shown to facilitate cell survival and proliferation to drive malignancy and resistance post-therapy. They are able to suppress cell death signals, sustain PI3K/AKT/mTORC1 pathway activity and regulate the MYC oncogenic program. Recent work has revealed PIM kinase essentiality for advanced tumour maintenance and described tumour sensitivity to small molecule inhibitors targeting PIM kinase in multiple malignancies.
October 22, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122554/physiological-roles-of-ask-family-members-in-innate-immunity-and-their-involvement-in-pathogenesis-of-immune-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Atsushi Matsuzawa
Cells are always exposed to various types of stress, including physical, chemical, and biological stresses, and are required to sense immediately and respond appropriately to these stresses. The apoptosis signal-regulating kinase (ASK) family members are stress-responsive kinases, which are activated by not only physicochemical stresses, such as oxidative stress, osmotic pressure, calcium overload, and anti-cancer drugs, but also biological stresses, such as inflammatory cytokines and pathogen infection. Recently, we found that ASK1, a member of ASK family, is activated by bacterial components, such as lipopolysaccharide, in a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent manner, demonstrating that ASK1 is required for the innate immune response and plays a critical role in the regulation of innate immune signaling...
October 19, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066276/signaling-by-cell-surface-death-receptors-alterations-in-head-and-neck-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Brandon C Leonard, Daniel E Johnson
Cell surface death receptors are members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily and mediate signals leading to the induction of apoptosis or necroptosis, as well as NF-κB-mediated cell survival. These biochemical processes play key roles in cell growth, development, tissue homeostasis, and immune responses. The downstream signaling complexes activated by different death receptors can differ significantly and are subject to multiple, distinct regulatory mechanisms. Dysregulation of signaling by the TNFR superfamily contributes to a variety of pathologic conditions, including defective immune responses and cancer...
October 18, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
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