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Advances in Biological Regulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759441/nuclear-organization-mediates-cancer-compromised-genetic-and-epigenetic-control
#1
REVIEW
Sayyed K Zaidi, Andrew Fritz, Kirsten Tracy, Jonathan Gordon, Coralee Tye, Joseph Boyd, Andre Van Wijnen, Jeffrey Nickerson, Anthony Imbalzano, Jane Lian, Janet Stein, Gary Stein
Nuclear organization is functionally linked to genetic and epigenetic regulation of gene expression for biological control and is modified in cancer. Nuclear organization supports cell growth and phenotypic properties of normal and cancer cells by facilitating physiologically responsive interactions of chromosomes, genes and regulatory complexes at dynamic three-dimensional microenvironments. We will review nuclear structure/function relationships that include: 1. Epigenetic bookmarking of genes by phenotypic transcription factors to control fidelity and plasticity of gene expression as cells enter and exit mitosis; 2...
May 9, 2018: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703510/foreword-current-trends-in-cancer-and-signalling
#2
EDITORIAL
Pann-Ghill Suh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 11, 2018: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576448/dual-inhibition-of-pi3k-mtor-signaling-in-chemoresistant-aml-primary-cells
#3
Jessika Bertacchini, Chiara Frasson, Francesca Chiarini, Daniele D'Avella, Benedetta Accordi, Laura Anselmi, Patrizia Barozzi, Fabio Foghieri, Mario Luppi, Alberto M Martelli, Giuseppe Basso, Saki Najmaldin, Abbas Khosravi, Fakher Rahim, Sandra Marmiroli
A main cause of treatment failure for AML patients is resistance to chemotherapy. Survival of AML cells may depend on mechanisms that elude conventional drugs action and/or on the presence of leukemia initiating cells at diagnosis, and their persistence after therapy. MDR1 gene is an ATP-dependent drug efflux pump known to be a risk factor for the emergence of resistance, when combined to unstable cytogenetic profile of AML patients. In the present study, we analyzed the sensitivity to conventional chemotherapeutic drugs of 26 samples of primary blasts collected from AML patients at diagnosis...
March 19, 2018: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588208/application-of-htlv-1-tax-transgenic-mice-for-therapeutic-intervention
#4
REVIEW
Hideki Hasegawa, Kaori Sano, Akira Ainai, Tadaki Suzuki
Adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL) is a refractory T-cell malignancy caused by infection of human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I). Although the pathogenesis of ATL remains unclear, HTLV-1 oncoprotein Tax plays an important role in pathogenesis (Matsuoka, 2003; Jeang et al., 2004). Chemotherapy resistance of ATL leads the poor prognosis of this disease. In order to understand the pathogenesis and establish an animal model useful for therapy attempts, we have generated HTLV-1 Tax transgenic mice using the Lck proximal promoter to restrict the Tax expression in T-cells...
February 13, 2018: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482945/metformin-influences-drug-sensitivity-in-pancreatic-cancer-cells
#5
Saverio Candido, Stephen L Abrams, Linda Steelman, Kvin Lertpiriyapong, Alberto M Martelli, Lucio Cocco, Stefano Ratti, Matilde Y Follo, Ramiro M Murata, Pedro L Rosalen, Paolo Lombardi, Giuseppe Montalto, Melchiorre Cervello, Agnieszka Gizak, Dariusz Rakus, Pann-Gill Suh, Massimo Libra, James A McCubrey
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive, highly metastatic malignancy and accounts for 85% of pancreatic cancers. PDAC patients have poor prognosis with a five-year survival of only 5-10% after diagnosis and treatment. Pancreatic cancer has been associated with type II diabetes as the frequency of recently diagnosed diabetics that develop pancreatic cancer within a 10-year period of initial diagnosis of diabetes in increased in comparison to non-diabetic patients. Metformin is a very frequently prescribed drug used to treat type II diabetes...
February 12, 2018: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472147/phosphoinositide-3-kinase-pathways-and-autophagy-require-phosphatidylinositol-phosphate-kinases
#6
Suyong Choi, Xander Houdek, Richard A Anderson
Phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinases (PIPKs) generate a lipid messenger phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI4,5P2 ) that controls essentially all aspects of cellular functions. PI4,5P2 rapidly diffuses in the membrane of the lipid bilayer and does not greatly change in membrane or cellular content, and thus PI4,5P2 generation by PIPKs is tightly linked to its usage in subcellular compartments. Based on this verity, recent study of PI4,5P2 signal transduction has been focused on investigations of individual PIPKs and their underlying molecular regulation of cellular processes...
February 8, 2018: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428221/the-inflammatory-microenvironment-that-promotes-gastrointestinal-cancer-development-and-invasion
#7
REVIEW
Kanae Echizen, Hiroko Oshima, Mizuho Nakayama, Masanobu Oshima
Accumulating evidence has indicated that the inflammatory response is important for tumor promotion. However, the mechanisms underlying the induction of the inflammatory response in cancer tissues and how it promotes tumorigenesis remain poorly understood. We constructed several mouse models that develop inflammation-associated gastric and intestinal tumors and examined the in vivo mechanisms of tumorigenesis. Of note, the activation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)/prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) pathway and Toll-like receptor (TLR)/MyD88 signaling cooperatively induced the generation of an inflammatory microenvironment, which is required for early-stage tumorigenesis...
February 5, 2018: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449169/interaction-of-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-and-ras-erk-pathways-involving-co-stabilization-of-both-%C3%AE-catenin-and-ras-plays-important-roles-in-the-colorectal-tumorigenesis
#8
REVIEW
Sang-Kyu Lee, Jeong-Ha Hwang, Kang-Yell Choi
Cancer development is usually driven by multiple genetic and molecular alterations rather than by a single defect. In the human colorectal cancer (CRC), series of mutations of genes are involved in the different stages of tumorigenesis. For example, adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and KRAS mutations have been known to play roles in the initiation and progression of the tumorigenesis, respectively. However, many studies indicate that mutations of these two genes, which play roles in the Wnt/β-catenin and RAS-extra-cellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) pathways, respectively, cooperatively interact in the tumorigenesis in several different cancer types including CRC...
January 10, 2018: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425611/foreword
#9
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248300/review-of-four-major-distinct-types-of-human-phospholipase-a-2
#10
REVIEW
Alexis M Vasquez, Varnavas D Mouchlis, Edward A Dennis
The phospholipase A2 superfamily of enzymes plays a significant role in the development and progression of numerous inflammatory diseases. Through their catalytic action on membrane phospholipids, phospholipases are the upstream regulators of the eicosanoid pathway releasing free fatty acids for cyclooxygenases, lipoxygenases, and cytochrome P450 enzymes which produce various well-known inflammatory mediators including leukotrienes, thromboxanes and prostaglandins. Elucidating the association of phospholipases A2 with the membrane, the extraction and binding of phospholipid substrates, and their interactions with small-molecule inhibitors is crucial for the development of new anti-inflammatory therapeutics...
January 2018: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174396/plc%C3%AE-1-potential-arbitrator-of-cancer-progression
#11
REVIEW
Hyun-Jun Jang, Pann-Ghill Suh, Yu Jin Lee, Kyeong Jin Shin, Lucio Cocco, Young Chan Chae
Phospholipase C (PLC) is an essential mediator of cellular signaling. PLC regulates multiple cellular processes by generating bioactive molecules such as inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3 ) and diacylglycerol (DAG). These products propagate and regulate cellular signaling via calcium (Ca2+ ) mobilization and activation of protein kinase C (PKC), other kinases, and ion channels. PLCγ1, one of the primary subtypes of PLC, is directly activated by membrane receptors, including receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), and adhesion receptors such as integrin...
January 2018: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174395/normalization-of-mass-spectrometry-data-nomad
#12
Carl Murie, Brian Sandri, Ann-Sofi Sandberg, Timothy J Griffin, Janne Lehtiö, Christine Wendt, Ola Larsson
iTRAQ and TMT reagent-based mass spectrometry (MS) are commonly used technologies for quantitative proteomics in biological samples. Such studies are often performed over multiple MS runs, potentially resulting in introduction of MS run bias that could affect downstream analysis. Such MS data have therefore commonly been normalized using a reference sample which is included in each MS run. We show, however, that reference normalization does not effectively remove systematic MS run bias. A linear model approach was previously proposed to improve on the reference normalization approach but does not computationally scale to larger data sets...
January 2018: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154090/proliferative-and-metastatic-roles-for-phospholipase-d-in-mouse-models-of-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Eric Roth, Michael A Frohman
Phospholipase D (PLD) activity has been proposed to facilitate multiple steps in cancer progression including growth, metabolism, angiogenesis, and mobility. The canonical enzymes PLD1 and PLD2 enact their diverse effects through hydrolyzing the membrane lipid phosphatidylcholine to generate the second messenger and signaling lipid phosphatidic acid (PA). However, the widespread expression of PLD1 and PLD2 in normal tissues and the additional distinct enzymatic mechanisms through which PA can be generated have produced uncertainty regarding the optimal settings in which PLD inhibition might ameliorate cancer...
January 2018: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150352/dysregulation-of-mrna-translation-and-energy-metabolism-in-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Matthew Leibovitch, Ivan Topisirovic
Dysregulated mRNA translation and aberrant energy metabolism are frequent in cancer. Considering that mRNA translation is an energy demanding process, cancer cells must produce sufficient ATP to meet energy demand of hyperactive translational machinery. In recent years, the mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) emerged as a central regulatory node which coordinates energy consumption by the translation apparatus and ATP production in mitochondria. Aberrant mTOR signaling underpins the vast majority of cancers whereby increased mTOR activity is thought to be a major determinant of both malignant translatomes and metabolomes...
January 2018: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111105/pim-activity-in-tumours-a-key-node-of-therapy-resistance
#15
REVIEW
Richard J Rebello, Alisée V Huglo, Luc Furic
The PIM kinases are proto-oncogenes which have been shown to facilitate cell survival and proliferation to drive malignancy and resistance post-therapy. They are able to suppress cell death signals, sustain PI3K/AKT/mTORC1 pathway activity and regulate the MYC oncogenic program. Recent work has revealed PIM kinase essentiality for advanced tumour maintenance and described tumour sensitivity to small molecule inhibitors targeting PIM kinase in multiple malignancies.
January 2018: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108881/phospholipase-c-zeta-and-calcium-oscillations-at-fertilisation-the-evidence-applications-and-further-questions
#16
REVIEW
Junaid Kashir, Michail Nomikos, F Anthony Lai
Oocyte activation is a fundamental event at mammalian fertilisation, initiated by a series of characteristic calcium (Ca2+ ) oscillations in mammals. This characteristic pattern of Ca2+ release is induced in a species-specific manner by a sperm-specific enzyme termed phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ). Reduction or absence of functional PLCζ within sperm underlies male factor infertility in humans, due to mutational inactivation or abrogation of PLCζ protein expression. Underlying such clinical implications, a significant body of evidence has now been accumulated that has characterised the unique biochemical and biophysical properties of this enzyme, further aiding the unique clinical opportunities presented...
January 2018: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102395/nuclear-inositide-signaling-and-cell-cycle
#17
REVIEW
Stefano Ratti, Giulia Ramazzotti, Irene Faenza, Roberta Fiume, Sara Mongiorgi, Anna Maria Billi, James A McCubrey, Pann-Ghill Suh, Lucia Manzoli, Lucio Cocco, Matilde Y Follo
Phosphatidylinositols (PIs) are responsible for several signaling pathways related to many cellular functions, such as cell cycle regulation at different check-points, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, membrane trafficking and gene expression. PI metabolism is not only present at the cytoplasmic level, but also at the nuclear one, where different signaling pathways affect essential nuclear mechanisms in eukaryotic cells. In this review we focus on nuclear inositide signaling in relation to cell cycle regulation...
January 2018: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079355/dgk%C3%AE-ablation-engenders-upregulation-of-p53-level-in-the-spleen-upon-whole-body-ionizing-radiation
#18
Toshiaki Tanaka, Ken Iseki, Ken Tanaka, Tomoyuki Nakano, Mitsuyoshi Iino, Kaoru Goto
The tumor suppressor gene product p53, which coordinates the cellular response to various stresses, is subject to tight regulation by a complex network of signal transduction. The DGK family metabolizes lipidic second messenger diacylglycerol to produce phosphatidic acid. Our earlier studies showed that one isozyme, DGKζ, is involved in the regulatory mechanism of p53. In a cellular model of doxorubicin-induced DNA damage, overexpression of wild-type DGKζ suppresses p53 protein induction and reduces apoptosis, whereas knockdown of DGKζ upregulates p53 protein level and promotes apoptosis...
January 2018: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066276/signaling-by-cell-surface-death-receptors-alterations-in-head-and-neck-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Brandon C Leonard, Daniel E Johnson
Cell surface death receptors are members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily and mediate signals leading to the induction of apoptosis or necroptosis, as well as NF-κB-mediated cell survival. These biochemical processes play key roles in cell growth, development, tissue homeostasis, and immune responses. The downstream signaling complexes activated by different death receptors can differ significantly and are subject to multiple, distinct regulatory mechanisms. Dysregulation of signaling by the TNFR superfamily contributes to a variety of pathologic conditions, including defective immune responses and cancer...
January 2018: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055687/sphingosine-kinase-1-in-breast-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Kurt Geffken, Sarah Spiegel
Breast cancer affects 1 out of 8 women in the US and is the second highest cause of death from cancer for women, leading to considerable research examining the causes, progression, and treatment of breast cancer. Over the last two decades, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a potent sphingolipid metabolite, has been implicated in many processes important for breast cancer including growth, progression, transformation and metastasis, and is the focus of this review. In particular, one of the kinases that produces S1P, sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1), has come under increasing scrutiny as it is commonly upregulated in breast cancer cells and has been linked with poorer prognosis and progression, possibly leading to resistance to certain anti-cancer therapies...
January 2018: Advances in Biological Regulation
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