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Advances in Biological Regulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29980405/introduction-of-wt-tp53-into-pancreatic-cancer-cells-alters-sensitivity-to-chemotherapeutic-drugs-targeted-therapeutics-and-nutraceuticals
#1
Stephen L Abrams, Kvin Lertpiriyapong, Li V Yang, Alberto M Martelli, Lucio Cocco, Stefano Ratti, Marco Falasca, Ramiro M Murata, Pedro L Rosalen, Paolo Lombardi, Massimo Libra, Saverio Candido, Giuseppe Montalto, Melchiorre Cervello, Linda S Steelman, James A McCubrey
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive, highly metastatic malignancy and accounts for 85% of pancreatic cancers. PDAC patients have poor prognosis with a five-year survival of only 5-10%. Mutations at the TP53 gene are readily detected in pancreatic tumors isolated from PDAC patients. We have investigated the effects of restoration of wild-type (WT) TP53 activity on the sensitivity of pancreatic cancer cells to: chemotherapy, targeted therapy, as well as, nutraceuticals. Upon introduction of the WT-TP53 gene into the MIA-PaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cell line, the sensitivity to drugs used to treat pancreatic cancer cells such as: gemcitabine, fluorouracil (5FU), cisplatin, irinotecan, oxaliplatin, and paclitaxel increased significantly...
June 28, 2018: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29970351/the-regulation-of-normal-and-neoplastic-hematopoiesis-is-dependent-on-microenvironmental-cells
#2
REVIEW
Kenneth Kaushansky, Huichun Zhan
Each day the adult human produces 4 × 1011 red blood cells, 1 × 1011 white blood cells and 1 × 1011 platelets, levels of production which can increase 10-20 fold in times of heightened demand. Hematopoiesis, or the formation of the ten different types of blood and marrow cells, is a complex process involving hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), cytokine growth factors and cell surface adhesion molecules, and both specific and ubiquitous transcription factors. The marrow micro-environmental niche is defined as the site at which HSCs reside and are nurtured, receiving the signals that lead to their survival, replication and/or differentiation...
June 27, 2018: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29958836/systematic-analysis-of-gsk-3-signaling-pathways-in-aging-of-cerebral-tissue
#3
D Drulis-Fajdasz, D Rakus, J R Wiśniewski, J A McCubrey, A Gizak
Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a constitutively active kinase, involved in regulation of multiple physiological processes. In brain, changes in GSK-3 signaling are related to neurodegenerative issues, including Alzheimer's disease. Due to the wide range of GSK-3 cellular targets, a therapeutic use of the enzyme inhibitors entails significant risk of side effects. Thus, altering the ratio of specific pool of GSK-3 or specific substrates instead of changing the global activity of GSK-3 in brains might be a more appropriate strategy...
June 21, 2018: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29861174/roles-of-p53-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-the-androgen-receptor-in-controlling-ngal-expression-in-prostate-cancer-cell-lines
#4
William H Chappell, Saverio Candido, Stephen L Abrams, Suzanne Russo, Roger Ove, Alberto M Martelli, Lucio Cocco, Giulia Ramazzotti, Melchiorre Cervello, Giuseppe Montalto, Linda S Steelman, Xiaohong Leng, Ralph B Arlinghaus, Massimo Libra, James A McCubrey
Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL a.k.a lipocalin 2, lnc2) is a secreted protein which can form a complex with matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9). This MMP9/NGAL complex has been associated with metastasis. MMP9 and NGAL are detected in the urine of patients afflicted with many different types of cancer, including prostate cancer. The effects of p53, NF-κB and the androgen receptor (AR) on the expression of NGAL was examined in four prostate cancer cell lines. Prostate cancer cell lines that are AR negative and expressed either mutant or no p53 (DU145 and PC3) displayed higher levels of NGAL expression compared to the prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP and 22Rv-1) which are AR positive and express wild type (WT) p53...
May 18, 2018: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759441/nuclear-organization-mediates-cancer-compromised-genetic-and-epigenetic-control
#5
REVIEW
Sayyed K Zaidi, Andrew J Fritz, Kirsten M Tracy, Jonathan A Gordon, Coralee E Tye, Joseph Boyd, Andre J Van Wijnen, Jeffrey A Nickerson, Antony N Imbalzano, Jane B Lian, Janet L Stein, Gary S Stein
Nuclear organization is functionally linked to genetic and epigenetic regulation of gene expression for biological control and is modified in cancer. Nuclear organization supports cell growth and phenotypic properties of normal and cancer cells by facilitating physiologically responsive interactions of chromosomes, genes and regulatory complexes at dynamic three-dimensional microenvironments. We will review nuclear structure/function relationships that include: 1. Epigenetic bookmarking of genes by phenotypic transcription factors to control fidelity and plasticity of gene expression as cells enter and exit mitosis; 2...
May 9, 2018: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703510/foreword-current-trends-in-cancer-and-signalling
#6
EDITORIAL
Pann-Ghill Suh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588208/application-of-htlv-1-tax-transgenic-mice-for-therapeutic-intervention
#7
REVIEW
Hideki Hasegawa, Kaori Sano, Akira Ainai, Tadaki Suzuki
Adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL) is a refractory T-cell malignancy caused by infection of human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I). Although the pathogenesis of ATL remains unclear, HTLV-1 oncoprotein Tax plays an important role in pathogenesis (Matsuoka, 2003; Jeang et al., 2004). Chemotherapy resistance of ATL leads the poor prognosis of this disease. In order to understand the pathogenesis and establish an animal model useful for therapy attempts, we have generated HTLV-1 Tax transgenic mice using the Lck proximal promoter to restrict the Tax expression in T-cells...
May 2018: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576448/dual-inhibition-of-pi3k-mtor-signaling-in-chemoresistant-aml-primary-cells
#8
Jessika Bertacchini, Chiara Frasson, Francesca Chiarini, Daniele D'Avella, Benedetta Accordi, Laura Anselmi, Patrizia Barozzi, Fabio Forghieri, Mario Luppi, Alberto M Martelli, Giuseppe Basso, Saki Najmaldin, Abbas Khosravi, Fakher Rahim, Sandra Marmiroli
A main cause of treatment failure for AML patients is resistance to chemotherapy. Survival of AML cells may depend on mechanisms that elude conventional drugs action and/or on the presence of leukemia initiating cells at diagnosis, and their persistence after therapy. MDR1 gene is an ATP-dependent drug efflux pump known to be a risk factor for the emergence of resistance, when combined to unstable cytogenetic profile of AML patients. In the present study, we analyzed the sensitivity to conventional chemotherapeutic drugs of 26 samples of primary blasts collected from AML patients at diagnosis...
May 2018: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482945/metformin-influences-drug-sensitivity-in-pancreatic-cancer-cells
#9
Saverio Candido, Stephen L Abrams, Linda Steelman, Kvin Lertpiriyapong, Alberto M Martelli, Lucio Cocco, Stefano Ratti, Matilde Y Follo, Ramiro M Murata, Pedro L Rosalen, Paolo Lombardi, Giuseppe Montalto, Melchiorre Cervello, Agnieszka Gizak, Dariusz Rakus, Pann-Gill Suh, Massimo Libra, James A McCubrey
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive, highly metastatic malignancy and accounts for 85% of pancreatic cancers. PDAC patients have poor prognosis with a five-year survival of only 5-10% after diagnosis and treatment. Pancreatic cancer has been associated with type II diabetes as the frequency of recently diagnosed diabetics that develop pancreatic cancer within a 10-year period of initial diagnosis of diabetes in increased in comparison to non-diabetic patients. Metformin is a very frequently prescribed drug used to treat type II diabetes...
May 2018: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472147/phosphoinositide-3-kinase-pathways-and-autophagy-require-phosphatidylinositol-phosphate-kinases
#10
Suyong Choi, Xander Houdek, Richard A Anderson
Phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinases (PIPKs) generate a lipid messenger phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI4,5P2 ) that controls essentially all aspects of cellular functions. PI4,5P2 rapidly diffuses in the membrane of the lipid bilayer and does not greatly change in membrane or cellular content, and thus PI4,5P2 generation by PIPKs is tightly linked to its usage in subcellular compartments. Based on this verity, recent study of PI4,5P2 signal transduction has been focused on investigations of individual PIPKs and their underlying molecular regulation of cellular processes...
May 2018: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449169/interaction-of-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-and-ras-erk-pathways-involving-co-stabilization-of-both-%C3%AE-catenin-and-ras-plays-important-roles-in-the-colorectal-tumorigenesis
#11
REVIEW
Sang-Kyu Lee, Jeong-Ha Hwang, Kang-Yell Choi
Cancer development is usually driven by multiple genetic and molecular alterations rather than by a single defect. In the human colorectal cancer (CRC), series of mutations of genes are involved in the different stages of tumorigenesis. For example, adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and KRAS mutations have been known to play roles in the initiation and progression of the tumorigenesis, respectively. However, many studies indicate that mutations of these two genes, which play roles in the Wnt/β-catenin and RAS-extra-cellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) pathways, respectively, cooperatively interact in the tumorigenesis in several different cancer types including CRC...
May 2018: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428221/the-inflammatory-microenvironment-that-promotes-gastrointestinal-cancer-development-and-invasion
#12
REVIEW
Kanae Echizen, Hiroko Oshima, Mizuho Nakayama, Masanobu Oshima
Accumulating evidence has indicated that the inflammatory response is important for tumor promotion. However, the mechanisms underlying the induction of the inflammatory response in cancer tissues and how it promotes tumorigenesis remain poorly understood. We constructed several mouse models that develop inflammation-associated gastric and intestinal tumors and examined the in vivo mechanisms of tumorigenesis. Of note, the activation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)/prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) pathway and Toll-like receptor (TLR)/MyD88 signaling cooperatively induced the generation of an inflammatory microenvironment, which is required for early-stage tumorigenesis...
May 2018: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306548/disrupting-the-warburg-effect-re-routes-cancer-cells-to-oxphos-offering-a-vulnerability-point-via-ferroptosis-induced-cell-death
#13
REVIEW
Maša Ždralević, Milica Vučetić, Boutaina Daher, Ibtissam Marchiq, Scott K Parks, Jacques Pouysségur
The evolution of life from extreme hypoxic environments to an oxygen-rich atmosphere has progressively selected for successful metabolic, enzymatic and bioenergetic networks through which a myriad of organisms survive the most extreme environmental conditions. From the two lethal environments anoxia/high O2 , cells have developed survival strategies through expression of the transcriptional factors ATF4, HIF1 and NRF2. Cancer cells largely exploit these factors to thrive and resist therapies. In this review, we report and discuss the potential therapeutic benefit of disrupting the major Myc/Hypoxia-induced metabolic pathway, also known as fermentative glycolysis or "Warburg effect", in aggressive cancer cell lines...
May 2018: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287955/remodeling-of-ca-2-signaling-in-cancer-regulation-of-inositol-1-4-5-trisphosphate-receptors-through-oncogenes-and-tumor-suppressors
#14
REVIEW
Hideaki Ando, Katsuhiro Kawaai, Benjamin Bonneau, Katsuhiko Mikoshiba
The calcium ion (Ca2+ ) is a ubiquitous intracellular signaling molecule that regulates diverse physiological and pathological processes, including cancer. Increasing evidence indicates that oncogenes and tumor suppressors regulate the Ca2+ transport systems. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3 ) receptors (IP3 Rs) are IP3 -activated Ca2+ release channels located on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). They play pivotal roles in the regulation of cell death and survival by controlling Ca2+ transfer from the ER to mitochondria through mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAMs)...
May 2018: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221990/molecular-and-cellular-mechanisms-of-chemoresistance-in-pancreatic-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Aleksandra Adamska, Omar Elaskalani, Aikaterini Emmanouilidi, Minkyoung Kim, Norbaini Binti Abdol Razak, Pat Metharom, Marco Falasca
Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most chemoresistant cancers, and current therapies targeting cancer-associated molecular pathways have not given satisfactory results, owing in part to rapid upregulation of alternative compensatory pathways. Most of the available treatments are palliative, focussing on improving the quality of life. At present, available options are surgery, embolization, radiation, chemotherapy, immunotherapy and use of other more targeted drugs. In this review, we describe the cellular and molecular effects of current chemotherapy drugs such as gemcitabine, FOLFIRINOX (5-fluorouracil [5-FU], oxaliplatin, irinotecan, and leucovorin) and ABRAXANE (nab-Paclitaxel), which have shown a survival benefit, although modest, for pancreatic cancer patients...
May 2018: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217255/forms-and-functions-of-store-operated-calcium-entry-mediators-stim-and-orai
#16
REVIEW
James W Putney
Calcium signals arise by multiple mechanisms, including mechanisms of release of intracellular stored Ca2+ , and the influx of Ca2+ through channels in the plasma membrane. One mechanism that links these two sources of Ca2+ is store-operated Ca2+ entry, the most commonly encountered version of which involves the extensively studied calcium-release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channel. The minimal and essential molecular components of the CRAC channel are the STIM proteins that function as Ca2+ sensors in the endoplasmic reticulum, and the Orai proteins that comprise the pore forming subunits of the CRAC channel...
May 2018: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964725/how-mirs-and-mrna-deadenylases-could-post-transcriptionally-regulate-expression-of-tumor-promoting-protein-pld
#17
REVIEW
Julian Gomez-Cambronero, Kristen Fite, Taylor E Miller
Phospholipase D (PLD) plays a key role in both cell membrane lipid reorganization and architecture, as well as a cell signaling protein via the product of its enzymatic reaction, phosphatidic acid (PA). PLD is involved in promoting breast cancer cell growth, proliferation, and metastasis and both gene and protein expression are upregulated in breast carcinoma human samples. In spite of all this, the ultimate reason as to why PLD expression is high in cancer cells vs. their normal counterparts remains largely unknown...
May 2018: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942351/sphingosine-1-phosphate-and-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Nigel J Pyne, Ashref El Buri, David R Adams, Susan Pyne
The bioactive lipid, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is produced by phosphorylation of sphingosine and this is catalysed by two sphingosine kinase isoforms (SK1 and SK2). Here we discuss structural functional aspects of SK1 (which is a dimeric quaternary enzyme) that relate to coordinated coupling of membrane association with phosphorylation of Ser225 in the 'so-called' R-loop, catalytic activity and protein-protein interactions (e.g. TRAF2, PP2A and Gq ). S1P formed by SK1 at the plasma-membrane is released from cells via S1P transporters to act on S1P receptors to promote tumorigenesis...
May 2018: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425611/foreword
#19
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248300/review-of-four-major-distinct-types-of-human-phospholipase-a-2
#20
REVIEW
Alexis M Vasquez, Varnavas D Mouchlis, Edward A Dennis
The phospholipase A2 superfamily of enzymes plays a significant role in the development and progression of numerous inflammatory diseases. Through their catalytic action on membrane phospholipids, phospholipases are the upstream regulators of the eicosanoid pathway releasing free fatty acids for cyclooxygenases, lipoxygenases, and cytochrome P450 enzymes which produce various well-known inflammatory mediators including leukotrienes, thromboxanes and prostaglandins. Elucidating the association of phospholipases A2 with the membrane, the extraction and binding of phospholipid substrates, and their interactions with small-molecule inhibitors is crucial for the development of new anti-inflammatory therapeutics...
January 2018: Advances in Biological Regulation
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