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Pediatric Obesity

W J Strauss, J Nagaraja, A J Landgraf, S S Arteaga, S B Fawcett, L D Ritchie, L V John, M Gregoriou, E A Frongillo, C M Loria, S A Weber, V L Collie-Akers, K L McIver, J Schultz, R D F Sagatov, E S Leifer, K Webb, R R Pate
BACKGROUND: Although a national epidemic of childhood obesity is apparent, how community-based programmes and policies (CPPs) affect this outcome is not well understood. OBJECTIVES: This study examined the longitudinal relationship between the intensity of CPPs in 130 communities over 10 years and body mass index (BMI) of resident children. We also examined whether these relationships differ by key family or community characteristics. METHODS: Five thousand one hundred thirty-eight children in grades K-8 were recruited through 436 schools located within 130 diverse US communities...
February 28, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
K Lucas, P James, A C Choh, M Lee, S A Czerwinski, E W Demerath, W Johnson
BACKGROUND: Infant weight gain is positively related to adulthood body mass index (BMI), but it is unknown whether or not this association is stronger for individuals born during (compared with before) the obesity epidemic. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to examine how the infant weight gain-adulthood BMI association might have changed across successive birth year cohorts spanning most of the 20th century. METHODS: The sample comprised 346 participants in the Fels Longitudinal Study...
February 28, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
R B Jones, T L Alderete, A A Martin, B A Geary, D H Hwang, S L Palmer, M I Goran
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have shown that there are links between obesity, liver fat and the gut microbiome. However, there are mixed results on whether probiotics could impact the gut microbiome and/or help to decrease liver fat and obesity outcomes. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine whether a probiotic supplement (VSL#3® ) intervention altered gut microbiota and/or gut hormones associated with appetite regulation. The secondary aim of this study was to determine whether VSL#3® altered body composition and liver fat and fibrosis...
February 28, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
D Berglind, R Ljung, P Tynelius, H L Brooke
BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies report that meeting the newly developed 24-h movement guidelines (≥60 min moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), ≤120 min screen time and 9-11 h sleep duration) are associated with lower adiposity indicators in children. However, prospective data are absent. METHODS: The study sample consisted of 830 children from the PRIMROSE study with GT3X+ accelerometer measured physical activity and parent reported screen time and sleep duration at age 4 years and objectively measured anthropometrics at age 4 and 5 years...
January 31, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
V Daraki, T Roumeliotaki, G Chalkiadaki, M Katrinaki, M Karachaliou, V Leventakou, M Vafeiadi, K Sarri, M Vassilaki, S Papavasiliou, M Kogevinas, L Chatzi
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D may modulate adipogenesis. However, limited studies have investigated the effect of maternal vitamin D during pregnancy on offspring adiposity or cardiometabolic parameters with inconclusive results. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to examine the association of maternal 25(OH)-vitamin D [25(OH)D] status with offspring obesity and cardiometabolic characteristics in 532 mother-child pairs from the prospective pregnancy cohort Rhea in Crete, Greece...
January 28, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
H Farhadnejad, G Asghari, P Mirmiran, F Azizi
BACKGROUND: Current evidence available on the association between Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet and cardiovascular risk in adolescents is controversial. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to assess the association between DASH diet and cardiovascular risk factors after 3 years of follow-up among Tehranian adolescents. METHODS: A population-based cohort study was conducted on 628 subjects, aged 10-18 years, selected from among participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study...
January 23, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
M Yackobovitch-Gavan, D Wolf Linhard, N Nagelberg, I Poraz, S Shalitin, M Phillip, J Meyerovitch
OBJECTIVES: The study aims to assess the effects of family-based interventions targeted to parents only or to parents-and-child for the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity. METHOD: An open-label randomized study was conducted in 247 children (166 girls, 5-11 years) with body mass index (BMI) in the 85-98th percentile. Participants were allocated to three groups: parents-only (n = 89), parents-and-child (n = 84) and follow-up alone (n = 74). The intervention consisted of 12 once-weekly meetings with a dietician and psychologist...
January 17, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
J A Welsh, Y Wang, J Figueroa, C Brumme
BACKGROUND: Sugars and their primary dietary sources (milk, fruits, sweetened foods and beverages) are associated, in different ways, with a range of health outcomes, including obesity. The contribution made to total sugar intake and how the different types and forms of sugar associate with body weight is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To describe sugar consumption and examine its association with weight status among U.S. children by sugar type [added {AS} vs. naturally occurring {NOS}] and form (solid vs...
January 9, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
V Nobili, C Della Corte, D Liccardo, A Mosca, R Caccamo, G S Morino, A Alterio, F De Peppo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Pediatric Obesity
A Kalenda, K Landgraf, D Löffler, P Kovacs, W Kiess, A Körner
BACKGROUND: The amino acid-changing exonic variant rs6265 (Val66Met polymorphism) in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been linked to obesity in several genotype-phenotype association studies. OBJECTIVE: To identify metabolic factors by which this effect might be conveyed, we aimed to investigate its correlation with (i) obesity, (ii) metabolic parameters, (iii) serum levels of BDNF and (iv) measures of energy intake in children and adolescents. METHODS: We genotyped the variant in 2131 subjects (age 6-18 years) and checked for an association with obesity...
March 2018: Pediatric Obesity
C M Toledo-Corral, T L Alderete, R Habre, K Berhane, F W Lurmann, M J Weigensberg, M I Goran, F D Gilliland
OBJECTIVES: Growing evidence indicates that ambient (AAP: NO2 , PM2.5 and O3 ) and traffic-related air pollutants (TRAP) contribute to metabolic disease risk in adults; however, few studies have examined these relationships in children. METHODS: Metabolic profiling was performed in 429 overweight and obese African-American and Latino youth living in urban Los Angeles, California. This cross-sectional study estimated individual residential air pollution exposure and used linear regression to examine relationships between air pollution and metabolic outcomes...
January 2018: Pediatric Obesity
F McDarby, D O'Hora, D O'Shea, M Byrne
BACKGROUND: Drink personalization (featuring names on bottle labels) has been used by soft drink companies to make their drinks attractive to children, potentially increasing consumption. To date, no publically available research has evaluated the influence of personalization on children's drink choices. OBJECTIVES: To determine (i) whether personalizing bottled drinks influences children's drink choices; (ii) whether it is comparably effective in promoting healthy and unhealthy drinks and (iii) whether drink choices are affected by self-esteem, body mass index and parental factors...
January 2018: Pediatric Obesity
M J Khan, K Gerasimidis, C A Edwards, M G Shaikh
Obesity is the most common cause of metabolic complications and poor quality of life in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). Hyperphagia and obesity develop after an initial phase of poor feeding and failure to thrive. Several mechanisms for the aetiology of obesity in PWS are proposed, which include disruption in hypothalamic pathways of satiety control resulting in hyperphagia, aberration in hormones regulating food intake, reduced energy expenditure because of hypotonia and altered behaviour with features of autism spectrum disorder...
January 2018: Pediatric Obesity
C S Suelter, N Schvey, N R Kelly, M Shanks, K A Thompson, R Mehari, S Brady, S Z Yanovski, C L Melby, M Tanofsky-Kraff, J A Yanovski, L B Shomaker
BACKGROUND: Sociocultural pressure to be thin is commonly reported by adolescents; yet, to what extent such pressure is associated with weight gain has not been evaluated longitudinally. OBJECTIVE: Examine whether pressure to be thin was positively associated with weight and fat gain in adolescents. METHODS: Participants were 196 healthy adolescent (age 15 ± 1 years old) girls (65%) and boys of varying weights (BMI 25 ± 7 kg/m2 ) studied at baseline and 1-year follow-up...
January 2018: Pediatric Obesity
R L Saute, R B Soder, J O Alves Filho, M Baldisserotto, A R Franco
BACKGROUND: There has been a growing amount of evidence indicating that excess visceral fat is associated with alterations in brain structure and function, including brain cortical thinning in adults. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate the relationship between brain cortical thickness with obesity assessments, in adolescents. METHODS: In this study, we measured three different obesity assessments within an adolescent population (aged 15 - 18 years): body mass index (BMI), visceral fat ratio measured with an MRI and hepatorenal gradient measured with an ultrasound...
January 2018: Pediatric Obesity
E Rudy, K W Bauer, S O Hughes, T M O'Connor, K Vollrath, A Davey, N E M Correa, T-A Chen, J O Fisher
BACKGROUND: Snacking among US preschoolers has increased in recent decades, raising questions about whether snacking contributes to dietary excess. OBJECTIVES: This research aimed to characterize snacking contributions to dietary excess and to evaluate associations with appetite and weight among preschool-aged children. METHODS: This study is a cross-sectional, observational study of 187 Hispanic low-income preschoolers. Three 24-h dietary recalls were used to assess snacking frequency and parameters of dietary excess including energy, saturated fat, trans fats and added sugars...
January 2018: Pediatric Obesity
S Oliveira, A K Samba, A J Towbin, A Gupta, J I Geller, J D Nathan, R Kohli
Hepatocellular adenomas (HCA) are benign tumours with potential for malignant transformation with no recommendations regarding management in the paediatric population. We report a case of an inflammatory adenoma with β-catenin activated pathway in an obese, paediatric patient with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). CASE REPORT: An 11-year-old female presented with a microlobulated liver lesion measuring >5 cm in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with inflammatory adenoma with β-catenin activated pathology arising in a background of NASH, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) activity score 5/8...
January 2018: Pediatric Obesity
R Jin, A Krasinskas, N-A Le, J V Konomi, J Holzberg, R Romero, M B Vos
BACKGROUND: Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the primary inhibitor of the endogenous fibrinolytic system and is known to be increased in obesity, insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We previously demonstrated that PAI-1 levels were closely related to the amount of hepatic steatosis in children. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to characterize plasma PAI-1 in relationship to severity of inflammation and fibrosis, as well as to plasma lipids in children with NAFLD...
January 2018: Pediatric Obesity
K McCloskey, A-L Ponsonby, F Collier, K Allen, M L K Tang, J B Carlin, R Saffery, M R Skilton, M Cheung, S Ranganathan, T Dwyer, D Burgner, P Vuillermin
BACKGROUND: Excess adiposity and adiposity-related inflammation are known risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adults; however, little is known regarding the determinants of adiposity-related inflammation at birth. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and newborn adiposity and inflammation. METHODS: Paired maternal (28-week gestation) and infant (umbilical cord) blood samples were collected from a population-derived birth cohort (Barwon Infant Study, n = 1074)...
January 2018: Pediatric Obesity
O A Galescu, M K Crocker, A M Altschul, S E Marwitz, S M Brady, J A Yanovski
CONTEXT: Children with obesity have low spontaneous growth hormone (GH) secretion. High circulating free fatty acid (FFA) concentration is believed to inhibit GH secretion in those with obesity. In adults, lipolytic inhibition with niacin lowers FFA and increases GH, but there are no prior studies in children with obesity. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to determine the dose and frequency of niacin administration required to lower FFA and stimulate GH in children with obesity...
January 2018: Pediatric Obesity
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