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Pediatric Obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447406/the-prenatal-gut-microbiome-are-we-colonized-with-bacteria-in-utero
#1
REVIEW
R W Walker, J C Clemente, I Peter, R J F Loos
The colonization of the gut with microbes in early life is critical to the developing newborn immune system, metabolic function and potentially future health. Maternal microbes are transmitted to offspring during childbirth, representing a key step in the colonization of the infant gut. Studies of infant meconium suggest that bacteria are present in the foetal gut prior to birth, meaning that colonization could occur prenatally. Animal studies have shown that prenatal transmission of microbes to the foetus is possible, and physiological changes observed in pregnant mothers indicate that in utero transfer is likely in humans as well...
April 26, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429405/child-body-mass-index-genotype-and-parenting-in-the-prediction-of-restrictive-feeding
#2
K K Bost, M Teran-Garcia, S M Donovan, B H Fiese
BACKGROUND: Restrictive feeding is implicated in pediatric obesity, and caregivers increase controlling feeding practices on the basis of higher child weight status. However, few studies have examined how child genetic and parenting characteristics together impact restrictive feeding. OBJECTIVES: We examined whether child body mass index (BMI) status predicts caregiver use of restrictive feeding and if this association is moderated by (i) caregiver strategies to manage their children's distress and (ii) child variations in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene (Val(158) Met, rs4680)...
April 21, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429404/air-pollution-weight-loss-and-metabolic-benefits-of-bariatric-surgery-a-potential-model-for-study-of-metabolic-effects-of-environmental-exposures
#3
R Ghosh, W J Gauderman, H Minor, H A Youn, F Lurmann, K R Cromar, L Chatzi, B Belcher, C R Fielding, R McConnell
BACKGROUND: Emerging experimental evidence suggests that air pollution may contribute to development of obesity and diabetes, but studies of children are limited. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that pollution effects would be magnified after bariatric surgery for treatment of obesity, reducing benefits of surgery. METHODS: In 75 obese adolescents, excess weight loss (EWL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c ) were measured prospectively at baseline and following laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB)...
April 21, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374550/parental-beliefs-about-portion-size-not-children-s-own-beliefs-predict-child-bmi
#4
C Potter, D Ferriday, R L Griggs, J P Hamilton-Shield, P J Rogers, J M Brunstrom
BACKGROUND: Increases in portion size are thought by many to promote obesity in children. However, this relationship remains unclear. Here, we explore the extent to which a child's BMI is predicted both by parental beliefs about their child's ideal and maximum portion size and/or by the child's own beliefs. METHODS: Parent-child (5-11 years) dyads (N = 217) were recruited from a randomized controlled trial (n = 69) and an interactive science centre (n = 148)...
April 4, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371539/internet-use-patterns-and-internet-addiction-in-children-and-adolescents-with-obesity
#5
H Bozkurt, S Özer, S Şahin, E Sönmezgöz
BACKGROUND: There are no data regarding the Internet addiction (IA) rates and patterns in youth with obesity. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the prevalence and patterns of IA in children and adolescents with obesity. The relationship between IA and body mass index (BMI) was also investigated. METHODS: Study includes 437 children and adolescents with age ranging from 8 to 17 years: 268 with obesity and 169 with healthy controls. The Internet addiction scale (IAS) form was administered to all participants...
March 28, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335075/breastmilk-with-a-high-omega-6-to-omega-3-fatty-acid-ratio-induced-cellular-events-similar-to-insulin-resistance-and-obesity-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#6
H Vaidya, S K Cheema
BACKGROUND: An imbalance of omega (n)-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) during critical periods of development may have adverse effects on the health of the newborn in later life. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that breastmilk with higher n-6 to n-3 PUFA ratio will have higher inflammatory cytokines and initiate cellular events similar to insulin resistance and obesity. METHODS: Breastmilk was collected from healthy women who gave natural birth at full term...
March 23, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316138/irx3-is-a-genetic-modifier-for-birth-weight-adolescent-obesity-and-transaminase-metabolism
#7
C Liu, C Chu, J Zhang, D Wu, D Xu, P Li, Y Chen, B Liu, L Pei, L Zhang, S Liu, T Qi, X-Y Lou, L Li
OBJECTIVE: IRX3 expression has been functionally associated in obesity-associated long-distance susceptibility loci, but the effect of the IRX3 genetic variants on human obesity and obesity-related metabolism remains uncertain. METHODS: To determine the genetic role of IRX3, we conducted a molecular epidemiological analysis using three haplotype tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs8053360, rs3751723 and rs12445085) and one nonsynonymous SNP (rs1126960) at the IRX3 locus in 333 junior and senior high school students from a northeast Chinese population...
March 19, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303690/greater-early-weight-gain-and-shorter-breastfeeding-are-associated-with-low-adolescent-adiponectin-levels
#8
M Reyes, R Burrows, E Blanco, B Lozoff, S Gahagan
BACKGROUND: Early life factors can programme future risk for cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVES: We explored associations between adolescent adiponectin levels and concomitant metabolic alteration and also looked at the association between early life factors and adolescent adiponectin levels. METHODS: We studied a longitudinal cohort of low-income to middle-income Chilean adolescents who were enroled in an infancy iron-deficiency anaemia preventive trial and follow-up studies at the Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile...
March 16, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299909/person-first-language-in-pediatric-obesity-research
#9
LETTER
S C Armstrong, R Puhl, A C Skinner, A Kratka
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299907/childcare-before-age-6-and-body-mass-index-at-age-7%C3%A2-years-in-a-cohort-of-danish-children
#10
S E Benjamin Neelon, C Schmidt Morgen, M Kamper-Jørgensen, E Oken, M W Gillman, J A Gallis, T I A Sørensen
BACKGROUND: Previous studies show inconsistent associations between childcare and obesity. AIMS: Our prior work demonstrated that childcare in infancy was associated with higher weight in a cohort of Danish children. Here, we extend this work and examine childcare through 6 years and body mass index (BMI) at age 7 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined 24 714 children in the Danish National Birth Cohort who were also in the Childcare Database...
March 15, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299906/influence-of-infant-feeding-patterns-over-the-first-year-of-life-on-growth-from-birth-to-5%C3%A2-years
#11
A Betoko, S Lioret, B Heude, R Hankard, S Carles, A Forhan, N Regnault, J Botton, M A Charles, B de Lauzon-Guillain
OBJECTIVES: As early-life feeding experiences may influence later health, we aimed to examine relations between feeding patterns over the first year of life and child's growth in the first 5 years of life. METHODS: Our analysis included 1022 children from the EDEN mother-child cohort. Three feeding patterns were previously identified, i.e. 'Later dairy products introduction and use of ready-prepared baby foods' (pattern-1), 'Long breastfeeding, later main meal food introduction and use of home-made foods' (pattern-2) and 'Use of ready-prepared adult foods' (pattern-3)...
March 15, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296242/observed-parent-child-feeding-dynamics-in-relation-to-child-body-mass-index-and-adiposity
#12
C M Johnson, M S Henderson, G Tripicchio, P Rozin, M Heo, A Pietrobelli, R I Berkowitz, K L Keller, M S Faith
BACKGROUND: Restrictive feeding is associated with child overweight; however, the majority of studies used parent-report questionnaires. OBJECTIVES: The relationship between child adiposity measures and directly observed parent and child behaviours were tested using a novel behavioural coding system (BCS). METHODS: Data from 109 children, participants in a twin study and their mothers, were analyzed. Parent-child dyads were video-recorded twice in the laboratory, while children ate ad libitum from a buffet lunch...
March 10, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207196/paradoxically-speaking-about-engagement-in-pediatric-weight-management
#13
A J Perez, G D C Ball
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 16, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160457/associations-between-human-breast-milk-hormones-and-adipocytokines-and-infant-growth-and-body-composition-in-the-first-6%C3%A2-months-of-life
#14
D A Fields, B George, M Williams, K Whitaker, D B Allison, A Teague, E W Demerath
BACKGROUND: Much is to be learnt about human breast milk (HBM). OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to extend our knowledge of HBM by investigating the role of maternal body mass index (BMI), sex and stage of lactation (month 1 vs. 6) on HBM insulin, glucose, leptin, IL-6 and TNF-α and their associations with infant body composition. METHODS: Thirty-seven exclusively breastfeeding infants (n = 37; 16♀, 21♂), and their mothers (19-47 kg m(-2) ) were studied at 1 and 6 months of lactation...
February 3, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160450/adherence-to-the-mediterranean-diet-during-pregnancy-and-offspring-adiposity-and-cardiometabolic-traits-in-childhood
#15
L Chatzi, S L Rifas-Shiman, V Georgiou, K E Joung, S Koinaki, G Chalkiadaki, A Margioris, K Sarri, M Vassilaki, M Vafeiadi, M Kogevinas, C Mantzoros, M W Gillman, E Oken
BACKGROUND: In adults, adherence to the Mediterranean diet has been inversely associated with cardiovascular risk, but the extent to which diet in pregnancy is associated with offspring adiposity is unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between adherence to Mediterranean diet in pregnancy and offspring cardiometabolic traits in two pregnancy cohorts. METHODS: We studied 997 mother-child pairs from Project Viva in Massachusetts, USA, and 569 pairs from the Rhea study in Crete, Greece...
February 3, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27113351/improving-anti-bullying-laws-and-policies-to-protect-youth-from-weight-based-victimization-parental-support-for-action
#16
R M Puhl, Y Suh, X Li
BACKGROUND: Weight-based bullying is a prevalent problem among youth with overweight and obesity, but remains neglected in existing policy-level strategies to address youth bullying. Parental support is an influential catalyst motivating political will for policy decisions affecting youth, but has received limited research attention. OBJECTIVES: To assess levels of, and predictors of, parental support for school-based policies and state/federal legal measures to address weight-based bullying in 2014 and 2015...
April 2017: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27059293/ssb-taxes-and-diet-quality-in-us-preschoolers-estimated-changes-in-the-2010-healthy-eating-index
#17
C N Ford, J M Poti, S W Ng, B M Popkin
BACKGROUND: Taxing sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has been proposed as a strategy to combat child obesity. Yet it is unclear how a tax on SSBs might influence the overall quality of diet in preschool children. Thus, we use simulated price increases and the 2010 Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2010) to explore the relationship between SSB taxes and diet quality in preschool children. METHODS: Price and purchase data from the 2009-2012 Nielsen Homescan Panel and a two-part marginal effects model were used to estimate relative changes in purchases with a 20% increase in the price of SSBs...
April 2017: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26956226/maternal-obesity-gestational-diabetes-breastfeeding-and-childhood-overweight-at-age-2-years
#18
Z Bider-Canfield, M P Martinez, X Wang, W Yu, M P Bautista, J Brookey, K A Page, T A Buchanan, A H Xiang
BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity, excessive gestational weight gain (EGWG), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and breastfeeding are four important factors associated with childhood obesity. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to assess the interplay among these four factors and their independent contributions to childhood overweight in a cohort with standard clinical care. METHODS: The cohort included 15 710 mother-offspring pairs delivered in 2011...
April 2017: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26948966/association-of-prenatal-antibiotics-with-foetal-size-and-cord-blood-leptin-and-adiponectin
#19
N T Mueller, S L Rifas-Shiman, M J Blaser, M W Gillman, M-F Hivert
BACKGROUND: Early postnatal antibiotic use has been shown to promote excess weight gain, but it is unclear whether intrauterine exposure to antibiotics is associated with foetal growth and adiposity. The objective of this study was to examine associations of antibiotic prescription in each trimester of pregnancy with foetal size and adipokine levels at birth. METHODS: In 2128 pregnant women from the pre-birth Project Viva cohort, from electronic medical records, we estimated antibiotic prescribing by timing during pregnancy...
April 2017: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26929193/%C3%AE-defensins-and-bacterial-permeability-increasing-protein-as-new-markers-of-childhood-obesity
#20
A Prats-Puig, M Gispert-Saüch, G Carreras-Badosa, I Osiniri, P Soriano-Rodríguez, M Planella-Colomer, F de Zegher, L Ibánez, J Bassols, A López-Bermejo
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this paper is to test whether α-defensins and bacterial/permeability-increasing protein were related to obesity and cardiovascular risk factors in prepubertal children. METHODS: Plasma α-defensins and bacterial/permeability-increasing protein, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, systolic blood pressure (SBP), carotid intima media thickness (cIMT), HOMA-IR and HMW-adiponectin were assessed. RESULTS: In a cross-sectional study (N = 250), higher α-defensins concentrations were positively associated with BMI, waist, SBP, cIMT, HOMA-IR and negative correlated with HMW-adiponectin (all between r = 0...
April 2017: Pediatric Obesity
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