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Pediatric Obesity

A J Fuglestad, E W Demerath, M C Finsaas, C J Moore, M K Georgieff, S M Carlson
BACKGROUND: There is limited research in young infants, particularly <3 months of age, on maternal feeding practices in spite of increasing evidence that early weight gain velocity is a determinant of later obesity risk. OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between maternal executive function (cognitive control over one's own behaviour), maternal feeding decisions and infant weight and adiposity gains. METHODS: We used a checklist to assess cues mothers use to decide when to initiate and terminate infant feedings at 2 weeks and 3 months of age (N = 69)...
July 28, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
J A Roelants, M J Vermeulen, I V Koning, I A L Groenenberg, S P Willemsen, A C S Hokken-Koelega, K F M Joosten, I K M Reiss, R P M Steegers-Theunissen
BACKGROUND: The predisposition for obesity is suggested to originate in the prenatal period. Prenatal markers are needed to identify foetuses at risk for neonatal adiposity, as early marker of childhood obesity. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to assess the association between foetal fractional thigh volume (TVol) and neonatal percentage fat mass from mid-gestation onward. METHODS: In this perinatal cohort study, singleton pregnancies with term born infants were included...
July 28, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
S Frayon, S Cherrier, Y Cavaloc, G Wattelez, Y Lerrant, O Galy
BACKGROUND: Body mass index is the most often used indicator of obesity but does not distinguish between lean and fat mass. Adiposity at the same body mass index differs across ethnic groups. OBJECTIVES: The twofold aim of this study was to determine whether body mass index (BMI)-based references are correlated with body fat percentage (%BF) in a pluri-ethnic population of Pacific Islanders and to assess the diagnostic accuracy of these references by using the percentage of body fat as the gold standard...
July 28, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
O R Whitt, S B Jilcott Pitts, A P Rafferty, C R Payne, S W Ng
This study's purpose was to examine changes in healthy and unhealthy items purchased following the implementation of traffic light and cartoon labelling in a small retail food venue (Café Bay) in a children's hospital in eastern North Carolina. Between October 2015 and March 2016, daily food and beverage sales from Café Bay were obtained during baseline, traffic light labelling, a washout period, cartoon labelling (on healthy foods only) and a final washout period. Pearson chi-squared tests and multiple linear regressions were used to examine effects of labelling strategies, controlling for the holidays...
July 28, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
S Hsieh, B P Leaderer, A E Feldstein, N Santoro, L A McKay, S Caprio, R McConnell
INTRODUCTION: Traffic-related air pollution causes fatty liver, inflammation and fibrosis in animal models, but there have been few studies in humans. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that traffic-related air pollution causes non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and increased markers for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH); and that NAFLD increases liver susceptibility to increased NASH risk. METHODS: Data collected prospectively from 74 overweight or obese children were obtained from the Yale Pediatric Obesity Clinic...
July 20, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
N Kapral, S E Miller, R J Scharf, M J Gurka, M D DeBoer
BACKGROUND: Relationships between birthweight and future obesity risk remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To assess associations between birthweight and later obesity in a nationally representative cohort of early school-aged children. METHODS: We used linear and logistic regression to evaluate 10 186 term- or preterm children in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort 2011 for relationships between birthweight and later obesity and change in BMI z-score from kindergarten-to-second grade...
July 6, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
K A Sauder, D Dabelea, R Bailey-Callahan, S Kanott Lambert, J Powell, R James, C Percy, B F Jenks, L Testaverde, J M Thomas, R Barber, J Smiley, C W Hockett, V W Zhong, L Letourneau, K Moore, A M Delamater, E Mayer-Davis
BACKGROUND: American Indian (AI) youth are at high risk for type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVES: To partner with Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians and Navajo Nation to develop a culturally sensitive behavioural intervention for youth (Tribal Turning Point; TTP) and assess feasibility in an 8-month randomized pilot study. METHODS: We enrolled 62 overweight/obese AI children (7-10 years) who participated with ≥1 parent/primary caregiver. Intervention participants (n = 29) attended 12 group classes and five individual sessions...
June 21, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
M Samblas, F I Milagro, M L Mansego, A Marti, J A Martinez
BACKGROUND: The global prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has increased in the last years. Epigenetic dysregulation affecting gene expression could be a determinant in early-life obesity onset and accompanying complications. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present investigation was to analyse the putative association between DNA methylation and childhood obesity. METHODS: DNA was isolated from white blood cells of 24 children obtained from the GENOI study and was hybridized in a 450K methylation array...
June 14, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
L Smith, D Aggio, M Hamer
BACKGROUND: Children of South Asian decent born in the UK display lower levels of physical activity than British Caucasians although no longitudinal data are available. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate change in activity levels over 1 year in a diverse ethnic sample of children residing in London, UK. METHODS: Children were categorized into ethnic groups (Caucasian/mixed, Black, South Asian). At baseline and 1-year follow-up, children's objective physical activity was monitored (Actigraph accelerometer) for at least 1 day...
May 22, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
M D Marcus, D E Wilfley, L El Ghormli, P Zeitler, B Linder, K Hirst, C E Ievers-Landis, D J van Buren, N Walders-Abramson
BACKGROUND: The Treatment Options for type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) clinical trial documented that metformin plus rosiglitazone, but not metformin plus lifestyle intervention, provided superior durability of glycemic control relative to metformin monotherapy. OBJECTIVES: We examined weight changes among TODAY participants that completed at least 6 months of treatment, evaluated predictors of lifestyle outcome, and examined whether weight changes were related to cardiometabolic outcomes across treatment arms...
August 2017: Pediatric Obesity
S Modrek, S Basu, M Harding, J S White, M C Bartick, E Rodriguez, K D Rosenberg
BACKGROUND: Many studies have documented that breastfeeding is associated with a significant reduction in child obesity risk. However, a persistent problem in this literature is that unobservable confounders may drive the correlations between breastfeeding behaviors and child weight outcomes. OBJECTIVE: This study examines the effect of breastfeeding practices on child weight outcomes at age 2. METHODS: This study relied on population-based data for all births in Oregon in 2009 followed for two years...
August 2017: Pediatric Obesity
Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Elsie M Taveras, Steven L Gortmaker, Katherine H Hohman, Christine M Horan, Ken P Kleinman, Kathleen Mitchell, Sarah Price, Lisa A Prosser, Matthew W Gillman
BACKGROUND: The obesity epidemic has spared no age group, even young infants. Most childhood obesity is incident by the age of 5 years, making prevention in preschool years a priority. OBJECTIVE: To examine 2-year changes in age- and sex-specific BMI z-scores and obesity-related behaviours among 441 of the 475 originally recruited participants in High Five for Kids, a cluster randomized controlled trial in 10 paediatric practices. METHODS: The intervention included a more intensive 1-year intervention period (four in-person visits and two phone calls) followed by a less intensive 1-year maintenance period (two in-person visits) among children who were overweight or obese and age 2-6 years at enrolment...
June 2017: Pediatric Obesity
H-J Chen, H Xue, S Kumanyika, Y Wang
BACKGROUND: Physical activity contributes to children's energy expenditure and prevents excess weight gain, but fluid replacement with sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) may diminish this benefit. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the net energy expenditure (EE) after physical education (PE) class given the competition between water and SSB consumption for rehydration and explore environmental factors that may influence the net EE, e.g. PE duration, affordability of SSB and students' SSB preference...
June 2017: Pediatric Obesity
S García-Calzón, A Moleres, S Gómez-Martinez, L E Diaz, G Bueno, C Campoy, J A Martinez, A Marcos, M C Azcona-Sanjulián, G Zalba, A Marti
BACKGROUND: Shorter telomeres have been associated with elevated risk for age-related diseases. However, little is known about the biomarker role of telomere length (TL) for predicting inflammation and glucose alterations. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this research is to evaluate the association between TL, inflammatory markers and glucose levels after a 2-month weight-loss programme in obese adolescents. METHODS: Telomere length was measured using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 66 obese adolescents aged 12-17 years (51% men) from the EVASYON programme...
June 2017: Pediatric Obesity
B Sadeghi, L L Kaiser, S Schaefer, I E Tseregounis, L Martinez, R Gomez-Camacho, A de la Torre
BACKGROUND: Latino children and youth have some of the highest rates of overweight and obesity. Early intervention is important to prevent future obesity and illness in this population. METHODS: A 3-year, multifaceted intervention was designed to reduce the rate of growth of body mass index (BMI) among Mexican-origin children. Two communities in California's agricultural Central Valley were targeted for intervention and comparison. To assess impact, anthropometric measures of participating children (N = 422) were collected and analysed at baseline and after 1 year of intervention...
June 2017: Pediatric Obesity
A J Beamish, E Gronowitz, T Olbers, C-E Flodmark, C Marcus, J Dahlgren
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) causes changes in body composition and bone metabolism, yet little is known about effects in adolescents. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to report dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measures and serum bone markers, hypothesizing that bone turnover increases after surgery. METHODS: Inclusion criteria included the following: age 13-18 years and body mass index (BMI) >35 kg/m(2) ...
June 2017: Pediatric Obesity
P Salehi, I Hsu, C G Azen, S D Mittelman, M E Geffner, D Jeandron
BACKGROUND: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is associated with hyperphagia and hyperghrelinemia with major morbidity because of obesity without effective medical treatment targeting hyperphagia. Exenatide (Byetta [synthetic Exendin-4]; AstraZeneca, Wilmington DE) is a GLP-1 receptor agonist which reduces appetite and weight and may be an effective treatment in PWS. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to determine the effect of a 6-month trial of exenatide on appetite, weight and gut hormones in youth with PWS...
June 2017: Pediatric Obesity
L J Cheskin, R Frutchey, A Y McDermott, L Esposito, B Y Lee, S Kumanyika
BACKGROUND: Research on the types of interventions needed for population-level prevention of childhood obesity in complex societal systems can benefit from greater use of systems-science concepts and tools. OBJECTIVES: We report outcomes of a funding programme promoting incorporation of systems-science approaches into studies of imminent policy or environmental changes potentially impacting childhood obesity. METHODS: Seven funding cycles over 3 years yielded 172 initial submissions from 29 US states and 25 other countries were analyzed...
June 2017: Pediatric Obesity
A Masotti, A Baldassarre, M Fabrizi, G Olivero, M C Loreti, P Giammaria, P Veronelli, M P Graziani, M Manco
BACKGROUND: Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) may act as biomarkers of metabolic disturbances. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify serum miRNAs signature of early insulin resistance in obese preschoolers. METHODS: Twelve obese children, aged 2-6 years, six insulin resistant (IR) and six controls were selected being age-matched, sex-matched and body mass index-matched. Profiling of 179 circulating miRNAs, known to be widely expressed in the bloodstream, was investigated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction at fasting and 120 min following a standard oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)...
June 2017: Pediatric Obesity
S J Ulijaszek, M Pentecost, C Marcus, F Karpe, G Frühbeck, P Nowicka
Statements on childhood overweight and obesity (COO) have focused on different avenues for prevention and treatment, critical stages of the life cycle, including pregnancy and lactation, individual, family, school and community-based interventions, multidisciplinary family programmes and multicomponent interventions. This commentary is concerned with the less-addressed relationship between COO and inequality. It describes current global patterns of inequality and COO and the ways in which those inequalities are linked to COO at micro-level, meso-level and macro-level...
June 2017: Pediatric Obesity
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