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Pediatric Obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900852/association-of-ultrasound-based-measures-of-fetal-body-composition-with-newborn-adiposity
#1
S Ikenoue, F Waffarn, K Sumiyoshi, M Ohashi, C Ikenoue, C Buss, D L Gillen, H N Simhan, S Entringer, P D Wadhwa
BACKGROUND: Newborns exhibit substantial variation in gestational age-adjusted and sex-adjusted fat mass proportion. The antecedent characteristics of fetal body composition that are associated with newborn fat mass proportion are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether a composite measure of fetal fat mass is prospectively associated with newborn adiposity. METHODS: In a longitudinal study of 109 low-risk pregnancies, fetal ultrasonography was performed at approximately 12, 20 and 30 weeks gestation...
November 29, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900849/combined-use-of-a-wristband-and-a-smartphone-to-reduce-body-weight-in-obese-children-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
C Mameli, D Brunetti, V Colombo, G Bedogni, L Schneider, F Penagini, B Borsani, G V Zuccotti
BACKGROUND: Technological instruments may help control paediatric obesity. OBJECTIVE: We tested whether a personalized programme based on the energy expenditure obtained from a wristband (WB) and the energy intake obtained from a smartphone application (APP) is superior to a standard approach at promoting weight loss. METHODS: We performed a randomized controlled trial in obese children aged 10-17 years. The experimental (EXP) and control (CTR) groups were given a low-energy diet and a prescription for physical activity...
November 29, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900848/shapecoder-a-new-method-for-visual-quantification-of-body-mass-index-in-young-children
#3
B-K Daniel Park, M P Reed, N Kaciroti, M Love, A L Miller, D P Appugliese, J C Lumeng
BACKGROUND: Few tools exist to quantify body mass index visually. OBJECTIVE: To examine the inter-rater reliability and validity (sensitivity and specificity for overweight/obesity and obesity) of a three-dimensional visual rating system to quantify body mass index (BMI) in young children. METHODS: Children (n = 242, mean age 5.9 years, 50.0% male; 40.5% overweight/ obese) participated in a videotaped protocol and weight and height were measured...
November 29, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884050/taking-the-sweetness-out-of-the-share-a-coke-marketing-campaign-the-influence-of-personalized-labelling-on-elementary-school-children-s-bottled-drink-choices
#4
F McDarby, D O'Hora, D O'Shea, M Byrne
BACKGROUND: Drink personalization (featuring names on bottle labels) has been used by soft drink companies to make their drinks attractive to children, potentially increasing consumption. To date, no publically available research has evaluated the influence of personalization on children's drink choices. OBJECTIVES: To determine (i) whether personalizing bottled drinks influences children's drink choices; (ii) whether it is comparably effective in promoting healthy and unhealthy drinks and (iii) whether drink choices are affected by self-esteem, body mass index and parental factors...
November 24, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884047/childhood-obesity-prevention-cluster-randomized-trial-for-hispanic-families-outcomes-of-the-healthy-families-study
#5
P C Hull, M Buchowski, J R Canedo, B M Beech, L Du, T Koyama, R Zoorob
BACKGROUND: Obesity prevalence is disproportionately high among Hispanic children. OBJECTIVES: The Healthy Families Study assessed the efficacy of a culturally targeted, family-based weight gain prevention intervention for Hispanic immigrant families with children ages 5-7 years. METHODS: The study used a two-group, cluster randomized trial design, assigning 136 families (clusters) to the active intervention (weight gain prevention) and 136 families to attention control (oral health)...
November 24, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860465/relationship-of-pressure-to-be-thin-with-gains-in-body-weight-and-fat-mass-in-adolescents
#6
C S Suelter, N Schvey, N R Kelly, M Shanks, K A Thompson, R Mehari, S Brady, S Z Yanovski, C L Melby, M Tanofsky-Kraff, J A Yanovski, L B Shomaker
BACKGROUND: Sociocultural pressure to be thin is commonly reported by adolescents; yet, to what extent such pressure is associated with weight gain has not been evaluated longitudinally. OBJECTIVE: Examine whether pressure to be thin was positively associated with weight and fat gain in adolescents. METHODS: Participants were 196 healthy adolescent (age 15 ± 1 years old) girls (65%) and boys of varying weights (BMI 25 ± 7 kg/m(2) ) studied at baseline and 1-year follow-up...
November 16, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863167/influence-of-maternal-physical-activity-on-infant-s-body-composition
#7
M Bisson, F Tremblay, O St-Onge, J Robitaille, E Pronovost, D Simonyan, I Marc
BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) during pregnancy might contribute to reduce neonatal adiposity, a predictor of metabolic disturbances. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to evaluate the association between maternal PA intensity and neonatal body composition. METHODS: Maternal PA measured by accelerometry and nutrition were documented during pregnancy, as well as neonatal body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry following delivery...
November 14, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863185/parental-reactions-to-weight-screening-in-young-children-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
A M Dawson, D A Brown, S M Williams, B J Taylor, J Ross, R W Taylor
BACKGROUND: Parental inability to recognize child overweight and physician reluctance to instigate discussion prevents behaviour change. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate parental acceptance of child overweight status following screening. METHODS: Interviewers used motivational interviewing or best practice care to discuss overweight status of 271 young children (BMI ≥ 85(th) ) with parents using simple traffic-light BMI charts. Follow-up sessions two weeks later (n = 251, 93%) were coded qualitatively to assess parental reactions to the information (overweight diagnosis) and how it was presented (feedback condition)...
November 10, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863165/a-brief-ehealth-tool-delivered-in-primary-care-to-help-parents-prevent-childhood-obesity-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
J L S Byrne, T Cameron Wild, K Maximova, N E Browne, N L Holt, A J Cave, P Martz, C Ellendt, G D C Ball
OBJECTIVES: To determine the feasibility and preliminary impact of an electronic health (eHealth) screening, brief intervention and referral to treatment (SBIRT) delivered in primary care to help parents prevent childhood obesity. METHODS: Parents of children (5-17 years) were recruited from a primary care clinic. Children's measured height and weight were entered into the SBIRT on a study-designated tablet. The SBIRT screened for children's weight status, block randomized parents to one of four brief interventions or an eHealth control and provided parents with a menu of optional obesity prevention resources...
November 10, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863153/the-relationship-between-breast-milk-leptin-and-adiponectin-with-child-body-composition-from-3-to-5%C3%A2-years-a-follow-up-study
#10
D M Meyer, C Brei, L Stecher, D Much, S Brunner, H Hauner
BACKGROUND: Research indicates that breast milk contains bioactive components that influence metabolism in infancy and may play a role in the prevention of obesity in early childhood. In our initial study, 147 breastfeeding mother/child pairs were followed from birth to 2 years of age to examine the relationship between breast milk leptin and total adiponectin (collected at 6 weeks and 4 months postpartum) and infant body composition. Higher breast milk total adiponectin was related to greater fat mass and weight gain in children at 1 and 2 years of age, whereas leptin showed no association...
November 10, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863129/mechanisms-of-obesity-in-prader-willi-syndrome
#11
REVIEW
M J Khan, K Gerasimidis, C A Edwards, M G Shaikh
Obesity is the most common cause of metabolic complications and poor quality of life in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). Hyperphagia and obesity develop after an initial phase of poor feeding and failure to thrive. Several mechanisms for the aetiology of obesity in PWS are proposed, which include disruption in hypothalamic pathways of satiety control resulting in hyperphagia, aberration in hormones regulating food intake, reduced energy expenditure because of hypotonia and altered behaviour with features of autism spectrum disorder...
November 10, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793067/the-association-between-dog-ownership-or-dog-walking-and-fitness-or-weight-status-in-childhood
#12
C Westgarth, L M Boddy, G Stratton, A J German, R M Gaskell, K P Coyne, P Bundred, S McCune, S Dawson
BACKGROUND: Health benefits of dog walking are established in adults: dog owners are on average more physically active, and those walking their dogs regularly have lower weight status than those who do not. However, there has been little research on children. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the association between dog ownership or dog walking and childhood fitness or weight status. METHODS: A survey of pet ownership and involvement in dog walking was combined with fitness and weight status measurements of 1021 9 to 10-year-old children in the Liverpool SportsLinx study...
October 28, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788560/increased-brain-cortical-thickness-associated-with-visceral-fat-in-adolescents
#13
R L Saute, R B Soder, J O Alves Filho, M Baldisserotto, A R Franco
BACKGROUND: There has been a growing amount of evidence indicating that excess visceral fat is associated with alterations in brain structure and function, including brain cortical thinning in adults. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate the relationship between brain cortical thickness with obesity assessments, in adolescents. METHODS: In this study, we measured three different obesity assessments within an adolescent population (aged 15 - 18 years): body mass index (BMI), visceral fat ratio measured with an MRI and hepatorenal gradient measured with an ultrasound...
October 27, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780312/interrelationships-of-child-appetite-weight-and-snacking-among-hispanic-preschoolers
#14
E Rudy, K W Bauer, S O Hughes, T M O'Connor, K Vollrath, A Davey, N E M Correa, T-A Chen, J O Fisher
BACKGROUND: Snacking among US preschoolers has increased in recent decades, raising questions about whether snacking contributes to dietary excess. OBJECTIVES: This research aimed to characterize snacking contributions to dietary excess and to evaluate associations with appetite and weight among preschool-aged children. METHODS: This study is a cross-sectional, observational study of 187 Hispanic low-income preschoolers. Three 24-h dietary recalls were used to assess snacking frequency and parameters of dietary excess including energy, saturated fat, trans fats and added sugars...
October 25, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780309/incidental-inflammatory-adenoma-with-%C3%AE-catenin-activation-in-the-setting-of-paediatric-nash
#15
S Oliveira, A K Samba, A J Towbin, A Gupta, J I Geller, J D Nathan, R Kohli
: Hepatocellular adenomas (HCA) are benign tumours with potential for malignant transformation with no recommendations regarding management in the paediatric population. We report a case of an inflammatory adenoma with β-catenin activated pathway in an obese, paediatric patient with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). CASE REPORT: An 11-year-old female presented with a microlobulated liver lesion measuring >5 cm in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with inflammatory adenoma with β-catenin activated pathology arising in a background of NASH, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) activity score 5/8...
October 25, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780307/the-contribution-of-recently-identified-adult-bmi-risk-loci-to-paediatric-obesity-in-a-singaporean-chinese-childhood-dataset
#16
R Dorajoo, R T-H Ong, X Sim, L Wang, W Liu, E S Tai, J Liu, S-M Saw
INTRODUCTION: Recent genome-wide association studies have identified 103 adult obesity risk loci; however, it is unclear if these findings are relevant to East-Asian childhood body mass index (BMI) levels. METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated for paediatric obesity associations at these risk loci utilizing genome-wide data from Chinese childhood subjects in the Singapore Cohort study Of the Risk factors for Myopia study (N = 1006). A weighted gene-risk score of all adult obesity risk loci in the Singapore Cohort study Of the Risk factors for Myopia study showed strong associations with BMI at age 9 (p-value = 3...
October 25, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764892/association-between-plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1-and-severity-of-liver-injury-and-cardiovascular-risk-in-children-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#17
R Jin, A Krasinskas, N-A Le, J V Konomi, J Holzberg, R Romero, M B Vos
BACKGROUND: Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the primary inhibitor of the endogenous fibrinolytic system and is known to be increased in obesity, insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We previously demonstrated that PAI-1 levels were closely related to the amount of hepatic steatosis in children. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to characterize plasma PAI-1 in relationship to severity of inflammation and fibrosis, as well as to plasma lipids in children with NAFLD...
October 20, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723247/the-association-between-higher-maternal-pre-pregnancy-body-mass-index-and-increased-birth-weight-adiposity-and-inflammation-in-the-newborn
#18
K McCloskey, A-L Ponsonby, F Collier, K Allen, M L K Tang, J B Carlin, R Saffery, M R Skilton, M Cheung, S Ranganathan, T Dwyer, D Burgner, P Vuillermin
BACKGROUND: Excess adiposity and adiposity-related inflammation are known risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adults; however, little is known regarding the determinants of adiposity-related inflammation at birth. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and newborn adiposity and inflammation. METHODS: Paired maternal (28-week gestation) and infant (umbilical cord) blood samples were collected from a population-derived birth cohort (Barwon Infant Study, n = 1074)...
October 9, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27654882/a-pilot-study-of-the-effects-of-niacin-administration-on-free-fatty-acid-and-growth-hormone-concentrations-in-children-with-obesity
#19
O A Galescu, M K Crocker, A M Altschul, S E Marwitz, S M Brady, J A Yanovski
CONTEXT: Children with obesity have low spontaneous growth hormone (GH) secretion. High circulating free fatty acid (FFA) concentration is believed to inhibit GH secretion in those with obesity. In adults, lipolytic inhibition with niacin lowers FFA and increases GH, but there are no prior studies in children with obesity. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to determine the dose and frequency of niacin administration required to lower FFA and stimulate GH in children with obesity...
September 21, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27654825/comparison-of-a-physical-activity-recall-questionnaire-with-accelerometry-in-children-and-adolescents-with-obesity-a-pilot-study
#20
Jonathan Lockwood, Allison Jeffery, Alexander Schwartz, Cedric Manlhiot, Jane E Schneiderman, Brian W McCrindle, Jill Hamilton
This study aimed to determine the validity of the Habitual Activity Estimation Scale (HAES) for assessing physical activity (PA) in children and adolescents with severe obesity. Data were obtained from participants (n = 17) in the High Impact Strategies Toward Overweight Reduction in Youth study at the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto. Objective measurement of PA was recorded with accelerometers and interpreted using counts-per-minute (CPM) cut-points developed for children and adolescents. Self-report measurement of PA was collected using the HAES questionnaire...
September 21, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
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