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Pediatric Obesity

J A Welsh, Y Wang, J Figueroa, C Brumme
BACKGROUND: Sugars and their primary dietary sources (milk, fruits, sweetened foods and beverages) are associated, in different ways, with a range of health outcomes, including obesity. The contribution made to total sugar intake and how the different types and forms of sugar associate with body weight is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To describe sugar consumption and examine its association with weight status among U.S. children by sugar type [added {AS} vs. naturally occurring {NOS}] and form (solid vs...
January 9, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
S Brandt, J Roos, E Inzaghi, P Kotnik, J Kovac, T Battelino, S Cianfarani, V Nobili, M Colajacomo, W Kratzer, C Denzer, P Fischer-Posovszky, M Wabitsch
OBJECTIVES: The liver-specific miR-122 was proposed as biomarker for NAFLD in adults. Here, we investigated the relationship between miR-122 levels, parameters of liver metabolism and NAFLD in pre-pubertal obese children. METHODS: Parameters of liver metabolism (ALT, AST and GGT) of three European cohorts were included (German cohort [n = 71; age: 11.53 ± 1.29 years; BMI z-score: 2.96 ± 0.64], Italian cohort [n = 45; age: 9.60 ± 2.11 years; BMI z-score: 3...
December 22, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
N Shackleton, B J Milne, R Audas, J G B Derraik, T Zhu, R W Taylor, S M B Morton, M Glover, W S Cutfield, B Taylor
BACKGROUND: Prevalence of childhood obesity is high in developed countries, and there is a growing concern regarding increasing socio-economic disparities. OBJECTIVES: To assess trends in the prevalence of overweight, obesity and extreme obesity among New Zealand 4-year olds, and whether these differ by socio-economic and ethnic groupings. METHODS: A national screening programme, the B4 School Check, collected height and weight data for 75-92% of New Zealand 4-year-old children (n = 317 298) between July 2010 and June 2016...
December 22, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
L J Akinbami, L M Rossen, T H I Fakhouri, C D Fryar
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a risk factor for asthma. However, it is unclear if increased obesity prevalence contributed to rising childhood asthma prevalence. OBJECTIVE: To assess if population-level changes in weight status impacted asthma prevalence over time. METHODS: Using nationally representative 1988-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data for 40 644 children aged 2-19 years, we analyzed asthma trends by weight status (body mass index age-specific percentiles determined using measured weight and height)...
November 12, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
B T Nezami, D S Ward, L A Lytle, S T Ennett, D F Tate
BACKGROUND: Sugar-sweetened beverages and maternal weight are strong drivers of child obesity, but few studies have targeted these risk factors as an obesity prevention strategy in children. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to test the efficacy of a smartphone-delivered intervention to reduce parent-provided sugar-sweetened beverage and juice (SSB/juice) consumption among children ages 3-5 and maternal weight. METHODS: Mothers with overweight or obesity, who had a child ages 3-5 that consumed at least 12 fl...
November 8, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
T L Alderete, A Y Song, T Bastain, R Habre, C M Toledo-Corral, M T Salam, F Lurmann, F D Gilliland, C V Breton
OBJECTIVE: Studies suggest that prenatal exposure to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) may contribute to childhood obesity. While exact mechanisms for this association are unknown, circulating adipokines are hypothesized to contribute to early-life weight gain. METHODS: The Maternal and Child Health Study birth cohort included 136 women from the Los Angeles County + University of Southern California Medical Center. This study estimated prenatal residential TRAP exposure and used linear regression analysis to examine associations between adipokines with TRAP exposure and infant weight change (birth to 6 months)...
November 3, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
J L Harris, K S Haraghey, M Lodolce, N L Semenza
BACKGROUND: Food companies often use healthy lifestyle messages in child-directed advertising, raising public health concerns about health halo effects for nutrient-poor food/drinks. OBJECTIVE: Examine effects of health messages promoting nutrient-poor foods in child-directed advertising. METHODS: Randomized controlled experiment (N = 138). Children (7-11 years) viewed three child-friendly commercials in one of three conditions: (1) health halo (unfamiliar nutrient-poor food/drink ads with healthy messages); (2) nutrient-poor food/drink ads with other messages and (3) healthy food/drink ads...
October 27, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
C Westgarth, L M Boddy, G Stratton, A J German, R M Gaskell, K P Coyne, P Bundred, S McCune, S Dawson
BACKGROUND: Health benefits of dog walking are established in adults: dog owners are on average more physically active, and those walking their dogs regularly have lower weight status than those who do not. However, there has been little research on children. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the association between dog ownership or dog walking and childhood fitness or weight status. METHODS: A survey of pet ownership and involvement in dog walking was combined with fitness and weight status measurements of 1021 9 to 10-year-old children in the Liverpool SportsLinx study...
December 2017: Pediatric Obesity
R Dorajoo, R T-H Ong, X Sim, L Wang, W Liu, E S Tai, J Liu, S-M Saw
INTRODUCTION: Recent genome-wide association studies have identified 103 adult obesity risk loci; however, it is unclear if these findings are relevant to East-Asian childhood body mass index (BMI) levels. METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated for paediatric obesity associations at these risk loci utilizing genome-wide data from Chinese childhood subjects in the Singapore Cohort study Of the Risk factors for Myopia study (N = 1006). A weighted gene-risk score of all adult obesity risk loci in the Singapore Cohort study Of the Risk factors for Myopia study showed strong associations with BMI at age 9 (p-value = 3...
December 2017: Pediatric Obesity
D R Young, C Koebnick, J-W Y Hsu
BACKGROUND: Emerging adulthood is a critical time for excess weight gain. Risk can be masked if recommended overweight and obesity cut-points for Asians are not employed. OBJECTIVES: To determine the associations among sociodemographic factors and occurrence of overweight and obesity among normal weight 18-year olds. METHODS: Normal weight (body mass index < 25 kg m(-2) ; <23 kg m(-2) for Asians) 18-year-old (9037 boys, 13 786 girls, 36% Hispanic, 34% non-Hispanic Whites, 10% Black, 5% Asian) members of a healthcare organization in 2008 were followed through 2012 to identify incidence of overweight and obesity...
December 2017: Pediatric Obesity
E T Rhodes, L Vernacchio, A A Mitchell, C Fischer, P Giacalone, D S Ludwig, C B Ebbeling
BACKGROUND: Telehealth offers opportunities to extend clinical and research interventions for paediatric obesity. OBJECTIVES: To assess utility of a telephone intervention, implemented through a national primary care paediatric research network, for promoting differentiation in dietary intake, consistent with either a low-glycemic load (Low GL) or Low Fat prescription, among overweight/obese school-age children. METHODS: Five-week telephone dietary counselling intervention for parents of overweight/obese school-age children recruited through the Slone Center Office-based Research Network...
December 2017: Pediatric Obesity
L M Lipsky, B Gee, A Liu, T R Nansel
BACKGROUND: The impact of excess weight on cardiovascular disease risk in type 1 diabetes patients is unclear. OBJECTIVE: This study examined associations of BMI and body composition with cardiovascular risk factors in youth followed prospectively for 18 months. METHODS: The sample includes youth with type 1 diabetes (N = 136, baseline age = 12.3 ± 2.5y, glycated hemoglobin = 8.1 ± 1.1%) participating in an 18-month behavioral nutrition intervention trial...
December 2017: Pediatric Obesity
C N Hart, N Hawley, A Davey, M Carskadon, H Raynor, E Jelalian, J Owens, R Considine, R R Wing
BACKGROUND: Paediatric observational studies demonstrate associations between sleep, television viewing and potential changes in daytime activity levels. OBJECTIVE(S): To determine whether experimental changes in sleep lead to changes in children's sedentary and physical activities. METHODS: Using a within-subject counterbalanced design, 37 children 8-11 years old completed a 3-week study. Children slept their typical amount during a baseline week and were then randomized to increase or decrease mean time in bed by 1...
December 2017: Pediatric Obesity
M Li, H Xue, M Wen, W Wang, Y Wang
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a serious threat to global health. School is a key setting for obesity intervention. Research on school risk factors for child obesity is limited in developing countries. OBJECTIVES: To examine regional variations in obesity and school environments/policies and their associations among students in China. METHODS: Analyses were based on the first nationally representative sample of 8573 9(th) graders in 110 middle schools from 28 regions across China...
December 2017: Pediatric Obesity
J H Taylor, Y Xu, F Li, M Shaw, J Dziura, S Caprio, W V Tamborlane, P Nowicka, M Savoye
BACKGROUND: An important area of research in childhood obesity is the identification of factors that predict or moderate the responses to obesity intervention programmes, yet few studies have examined the impact of self-esteem and family functioning on obesity treatment outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine whether baseline self-esteem and family functioning predicted or moderated childhood obesity intervention outcomes at 6 months. METHODS: From 2009 to 2011, seventy-five 10-16 year old, racially/ethnically diverse obese youths with abnormal glucose tolerance were randomized to 6 months of an intensive family-based obesity lifestyle intervention (Bright Bodies) or routine outpatient Clinic Care...
December 2017: Pediatric Obesity
M B Jacobs, L A Bazzano, G Pridjian, E W Harville
BACKGROUND: Adult obesity is associated with infertility; however, childhood obesity has received little consideration. OBJECTIVES: The present study sought to evaluate the impact of childhood adiposity on fertility. METHODS: Associations between childhood adiposity and self-reported fertility difficulties were estimated among women participating in a long-term study of cardiovascular risks and reproductive health (n = 1061). RESULTS: Participants with obesity between ages 9 and 12 were more likely to report fertility difficulties (adjusted relative risk [aRR], 1...
December 2017: Pediatric Obesity
S Guercio Nuzio, M Di Stasi, L Pierri, J Troisi, M Poeta, A Bisogno, F Belmonte, M Tripodi, D Di Salvio, G Massa, R Savastano, P Cavallo, M Boffardi, D Ziegenhardt, I Bergheim, C Mandato, P Vajro
BACKGROUND: Gut-liver axis (GLA) dysfunction appears to play a role in obesity and obesity-related hepatic complications. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to concurrently explore several GLA components in a paediatric obese population with/without liver disease. METHODS: Thirty-two children (mean age 11.2 years) were enrolled: nine controls with normal weight and 23 patients with obesity (OB+). Of the 23 patients OB(+), 12 had not steatosis (ST-), and 11 had steatosis (ST+) (associated [n = 8] or not [n = 3] with hypertransaminasaemia [ALT +/-])...
December 2017: Pediatric Obesity
M van den Heuvel, Y Chen, K Abdullah, J L Maguire, P C Parkin, C S Birken
BACKGROUND: Early childhood temperament is increasingly recognized as an important attribute that may impact screen time use, outdoor play and childhood obesity. The relationship between temperament and nutrition in preschool children is less clear. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to investigate if temperament dimensions (negative affectivity, effortful control and surgency) in early childhood are associated with nutritional risk factors. METHODS: Six hundred seventy-eight children were followed (mean age at baseline visit 3...
December 2017: Pediatric Obesity
J-P Chaput, P T Katzmarzyk, J D Barnes, M Fogelholm, G Hu, R Kuriyan, A Kurpad, E V Lambert, C Maher, J Maia, V Matsudo, T Olds, V Onywera, O L Sarmiento, M Standage, C Tudor-Locke, P Zhao, M S Tremblay
BACKGROUND: No studies have examined if mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) can be an alternative screening tool for obesity in an international sample of children differing widely in levels of human development. OBJECTIVE: Our aim is to determine whether MUAC could be used to identify obesity in children from 12 countries in five major geographic regions of the world. METHODS: This observational, multinational cross-sectional study included 7337 children aged 9-11 years...
December 2017: Pediatric Obesity
S Kumar, M J Hossain, A Javed, I J Kullo, P B Balagopal
PURPOSE: Spexin, a novel peptide, has potential implications in obesity, satiety and energy homeostasis. The current study examined the relationship of spexin with various biomarkers of cardiovascular disease and endothelial function in adolescents with obesity. METHODS: Nineteen adolescents with obesity (age, 15.8 ± 1.7 years) were studied. Spexin, leptin and various cardiovascular disease biomarkers were measured. Endothelial function was assessed by high-resolution Doppler ultrasonography of the right brachial artery...
October 18, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
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