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Pediatric Obesity

J Bai, Y Hu, D W Bruner
BACKGROUND: The association between the gut microbiota and obesity in young children and adolescents is not fully studied. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the associations between the gut microbiota and body mass index (BMI) level (underweight, normal, overweight, obese) and lifestyles (diet type and exercise frequency), controlling for demographic and clinical factors among children aged 7-18 years. METHODS: A cohort study was conducted on 267 children aged 7-18 years from the American Gut Project...
November 11, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
S L Yoong, A Grady, F Stacey, M Polimeni, O Clayton, J Jones, N Nathan, R Wyse, L Wolfenden
BACKGROUND: Given evidence suggesting that sleep impacts on metabolic processes, interventions targeting sleep may improve child physical activity (PA). OBJECTIVES: To describe the potential effect of an intervention to increase sleep on young children's (3-6 years) moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) and total PA. To determine adherence to the intervention, impact on sleep duration as well as feasibility, uptake and acceptability was also assessed. METHODS: Pilot randomized controlled trial with 76 parent-child dyads randomly allocated to an intervention (n = 38) or control group (n = 38)...
November 11, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
J F Hayes, K N Balantekin, R P K Conlon, M L Brown, R I Stein, R R Welch, M G Perri, K B Schechtman, L H Epstein, D E Wilfley, B E Saelens
BACKGROUND: Family-based behavioural weight loss treatment (FBT) for childhood obesity helps families develop strategies to facilitate healthy choices in their home and other environments (e.g. home neighbourhood). The current study examines how the home food environment, both pre-FBT and post-FBT, and the neighbourhoods in which families live are associated with child weight and weight-related outcomes in FBT. METHODS: Parent-child dyads (n = 181) completed a 16-session FBT programme and completed home environment, anthropometric and child dietary/activity assessments at pre-FBT and post-FBT...
October 31, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
G Sebastiani, C García-Beltran, S Pie, A Guerra, A López-Bermejo, J S de Toledo, F de Zegher, F Rosés, L Ibáñez
BACKGROUND: The sequence of prenatal growth restraint and postnatal catch-up growth leads to a thicker intima-media and more pre-peritoneal fat by age 3-6 years. OBJECTIVES: To study whether carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and pre-peritoneal fat differ already between catch-up small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants and appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) controls in late infancy (ages 1 and 2 years) and whether such differences - if any - are accompanied by differences in cardiac morphology and function...
October 25, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
P Rivera, G Á Martos-Moreno, V Barrios, J Suárez, F J Pavón, J A Chowen, F Rodríguez de Fonseca, J Argente
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance (IR) in children with obesity constitutes a risk factor that should be precisely diagnosed to prevent further comorbidities. OBJECTIVE: Chemokines were evaluated to identify novel predictors of IR with clinical application. METHODS: We analysed the levels of cytokines (tumour necrosis factor [TNF] α and interleukins [ILs] 1β, 4, 6 and 10), chemokines (stromal cell derived factor 1α, monocyte chemoattract protein [MCP] 1, eotaxin and fractalkine) and growth factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, pro-fibrotic platelet-derived growth factor [PDGF-BB] and insulin-like growth factor 1) in serum of prepubertal children with obesity (61 girls/59 boys, 50% IR and 50% non-IR) and 32 controls...
October 22, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
M H Pesch, G B Viechnicki, D P Appugliese, N Kaciroti, K L Rosenblum, A L Miller, J C Lumeng
BACKGROUND: Little is known about how mothers respond to their child eating palatable foods. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study are to examine maternal behaviours when children are presented with a large portion of energy-dense palatable food in an experimental setting and to examine differences by child weight status. METHODS: Mother-child dyads (N = 37) (mean child age 70.8 months) participated in a videotaped eating protocol with cupcakes...
October 22, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
V L Collie-Akers, J A Schultz, S B Fawcett, S M Obermeier, R R Pate, L V John, S A Weber, A Logan, S S Sonia Arteaga, C M Loria, K Webb
INTRODUCTION: This manuscript describes the prevalence and attributes of community programmes and policies (CPPs) to address childhood obesity documented as occurring in 130 diverse US communities. METHODS: Key informant interviews (N = 1420) and document abstraction were used to identify and characterize CPPs to promote physical activity and healthy nutrition occurring during a 10-year retrospective study period. Data were collected in 2013-2015 and analysed in 2016...
October 1, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
N A Al-Theyab, T J Donovan, Y A Eiby, P B Colditz, B E Lingwood
BACKGROUND: Infants born very preterm experience poor postnatal growth relative to intrauterine growth, but at term equivalent age, they have increased percentage body fat compared with infants born at term. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess body composition in very preterm infants born before 32 weeks postmenstrual age and to compare this with infants born at 32-36 weeks of gestation. METHODS: Percentage fat, fat mass and fat-free mass were measured in 87 very preterm infants born <32 weeks of gestation and studied at 32-36 weeks and in 88 control infants born at 32-36 weeks of gestation and measured on days 2-5 postnatally...
September 26, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
V Shakhnovich, S Abdel-Rahman, C A Friesen, J Weigel, R E Pearce, A Gaedigk, J S Leeder, G L Kearns
BACKGROUND: Children with obesity are more likely to suffer gastroesophageal reflux disease, requiring acid-suppression therapy with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and no guidelines regarding dosing. OBJECTIVE: To prospectively evaluate lean-body-weight-based (LBW) dosing of the PPI pantoprazole for children with and without obesity. METHODS: Methods: Sixty-two children (6-17 years) received a one-time oral dose of liquid pantoprazole (1.2 mg kg-1 LBW)...
September 26, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
M I Cardel, D J Lemas, A M Lee, D R Miller, T Huo, Y C Klimentidis, J R Fernandez
BACKGROUND: In adults, the Taq1a polymorphism (rs1800497) near the D2 receptor (DRD2) gene is associated with body mass index and binge eating and is more prevalent among non-Hispanic Blacks (NHB) and Hispanic-Americans (HA) relative to non-Hispanic Whites (NHW). We hypothesize Taq1a polymorphism (rs1800497) risk alleles contribute to paediatric racial/ethnic differences in obesity phenotypes. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to characterize the relationship between the Taq1a polymorphism (rs1800497), diet and adiposity in a multi-ethnic cohort of 286 children (98 NHB, 76 HA and 112 NHW), ages 7-12...
September 25, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
P Sorrow, R Maguire, S K Murphy, S M Belcher, C Hoyo
BACKGROUND: High-throughput metabolomics has been used cross-sectionally to evaluate differential metabolic profiles associated with human obesity. OBJECTIVES: This study longitudinally assessed the cord blood metabolome to explore if metabolic signatures of obesity at age 3-5 are apparent at birth. METHODS: In a nested case-control design, metabolomics analysis was performed on umbilical cord blood of 25 children who developed obesity by age 3-5 years, compared with 25 sex-matched non-obese children enrolled as part of an ongoing birth cohort...
September 25, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
M F Rolland-Cachera, T J Cole
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 25, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
M S Himmelstein, R M Puhl
BACKGROUND: Youth with overweight and obesity commonly experience weight-based victimization. The ways that these youth cope with victimization can adversely impact their health. Despite considerable evidence that family members and friends are common perpetrators of weight-based victimization, the relationships among different sources of victimization and coping responses of youth are unknown. OBJECTIVES: The present study examined the relationships between weight-based victimization from four sources (friends, peers, family members and teachers) and stigma-specific coping responses in adolescents using linear regression...
September 21, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
S Adise, C F Geier, N J Roberts, C N White, K L Keller
BACKGROUND: Brain responses to both food and monetary rewards have been linked to weight gain and obesity in adults, suggesting that general sensitivity to reward contributes to overeating. However, the relationship between brain reward response and body weight in children is unclear. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the brain's response to multiple rewards and the relationship to body weight in children. METHODS: We tested this by performing functional magnetic resonance imaging while children (7- to 11-years-old; healthy weight [n = 31], overweight/obese [n = 30]) played a modified card-guessing task to assess blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) response to anticipating and winning food and money rewards...
September 21, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
E K Do, N L Zucker, Z Y Huang, J C Schechter, S H Kollins, R L Maguire, S K Murphy, C Hoyo, B F Fuemmeler
BACKGROUND: Knowledge regarding genetic influences on eating behaviours is expanding; yet less is known regarding contributions of epigenetic variation to appetitive traits and body mass index (BMI) in children. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore relationships between methylation at differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of imprinted genes (insulin-like growth factor 2/H19 and Delta-like, Drosophila, homolog 1/maternally expressed gene 3) using DNA extracted from umbilical cord blood leucocytes, two genetically influenced appetitive traits (food responsiveness and satiety responsiveness) and BMI...
September 19, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
G Hao, N K Pollock, R A Harris, B Gutin, S Su, X Wang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Investigations in older individuals suggest that adequate nutrition and physical activity are particularly important to skeletal muscle health; however, data in adolescents are scant and equivocal. The objective was to determine the associations among diet, physical activity and skeletal muscle mass in adolescents. METHODS: We assessed diet with four to seven 24-h recalls and physical activity by accelerometry in 640 adolescents. Using total body measures of fat-free soft tissue mass and fat mass assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, the skeletal muscle mass index (SMMI) was derived by adjusting fat-free soft tissue mass for fat mass in addition to height...
September 17, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
S Phelan, T A Hagobian, A Ventura, A Brannen, K Erickson-Hatley, A Schaffner, K Muñoz-Christian, A Mercado, D F Tate
BACKGROUND: Weight loss interventions can have positive 'ripple' effects on untreated partners in the home, but ripple effects on infants are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether a 12-month internet-based weight loss intervention for postpartum mothers had a positive ripple effect on participants' infants. METHODS: A 12-month cluster randomized, assessor-blind, clinical trial enrolling 371 postpartum women at 12 Women, Infants, Children clinics in CA...
September 17, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
R D F Sagatov, L V John, M Gregoriou, S Sonia Arteaga, S Weber, B Payn, W Strauss, N Weinstein, V Collie-Akers
BACKGROUND: The Healthy Communities Study (HCS) was a national study of community programs and policies that aimed to address childhood obesity; it necessitated recruitment of a large sample of children from communities throughout the United States. OBJECTIVE: The HCS aimed to complete visits with an average of 45 children and 12 key informants from at least 120 communities, diverse with respect to region of the country, urbanicity, socioeconomic status, race, ethnicity and intensity of community programs and policies that aim to address childhood obesity...
September 12, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
C Álvarez, R Ramírez-Campillo, J Cano-Montoya, R Ramírez-Vélez, S D R Harridge, A M Alonso-Martínez, M Izquierdo
BACKGROUND: Exercise training improves cardiometabolic outcomes in 'mean terms', but little information is available in children about the impact of the frequency/week and the wide inter-individual variability to exercise training reported in adults. OBJECTIVES: We compared the effects of resistance training (RT) and high-intensity interval training (HIT), and 'high' and 'low' frequency of training/week, for their effectiveness in decreasing insulin resistance (IR) levels in schoolchildren...
September 11, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
S S Frye, J Fernandez-Mendoza, S L Calhoun, J Gaines, A N Vgontzas, D Liao, E O Bixler
BACKGROUND: Obesity has been recognized as a risk factor for childhood sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), yet it remains unclear how obesity and weight change predict the course of childhood SDB. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to investigate the role of body weight, upper airway abnormalities and developmental trajectories on the persistence and remission of childhood SDB in the transition to adolescence. METHODS: The Penn State Child Cohort is a representative population sample of 700 children (5-12 years), of whom 421 were followed up as adolescents (12-23 years)...
September 6, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
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