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Pediatric Obesity

A J Perez, G D C Ball
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 16, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
D A Fields, B George, M Williams, K Whitaker, D B Allison, A Teague, E W Demerath
BACKGROUND: Much is to be learnt about human breast milk (HBM). OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to extend our knowledge of HBM by investigating the role of maternal body mass index (BMI), sex and stage of lactation (month 1 vs. 6) on HBM insulin, glucose, leptin, IL-6 and TNF-α and their associations with infant body composition. METHODS: Thirty-seven exclusively breastfeeding infants (n = 37; 16♀, 21♂), and their mothers (19-47 kg m(-2) ) were studied at 1 and 6 months of lactation...
February 3, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
L Chatzi, S L Rifas-Shiman, V Georgiou, K E Joung, S Koinaki, G Chalkiadaki, A Margioris, K Sarri, M Vassilaki, M Vafeiadi, M Kogevinas, C Mantzoros, M W Gillman, E Oken
BACKGROUND: In adults, adherence to the Mediterranean diet has been inversely associated with cardiovascular risk, but the extent to which diet in pregnancy is associated with offspring adiposity is unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between adherence to Mediterranean diet in pregnancy and offspring cardiometabolic traits in two pregnancy cohorts. METHODS: We studied 997 mother-child pairs from Project Viva in Massachusetts, USA, and 569 pairs from the Rhea study in Crete, Greece...
February 3, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
P Seferidi, C Millett, A A Laverty
BACKGROUND: Artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs) are promoted as healthy alternatives to sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) in order to reduce sugar intake, but their effects on weight control and glycaemia have been debated. This study examines associations of SSBs and ASBs with energy and sugar intake and cardiometabolic measures. METHODS: One thousand six hundred eighty-seven children aged 4-18 participated in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Programme (2008/9-2011/12) in the UK...
January 23, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
Dorothea Dumuid, T Olds, L K Lewis, J A Martin-Fernández, T Barreira, S Broyles, J-P Chaput, M Fogelholm, G Hu, R Kuriyan, A Kurpad, E V Lambert, J Maia, V Matsudo, V O Onywera, O L Sarmiento, M Standage, M S Tremblay, C Tudor-Locke, P Zhao, P Katzmarzyk, F Gillison, C Maher
BACKGROUND: The relationship between children's adiposity and lifestyle behaviour patterns is an area of growing interest. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study are to identify clusters of children based on lifestyle behaviours and compare children's adiposity among clusters. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment were used. PARTICIPANTS: the participants were children (9-11 years) from 12 nations (n = 5710)...
December 27, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
A Li, S Robiou-du-Pont, S S Anand, K M Morrison, S D McDonald, S A Atkinson, K K Teo, D Meyre
BACKGROUND: The genetic influence on child obesity has not been fully elucidated. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the parental and child contributions of 83 adult body mass index (BMI)-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to obesity-related traits in children from birth to 5 years old. METHODS: A total of 1402 individuals were genotyped for 83 SNPs. An unweighted genetic risk score (GRS) was generated by the sum of BMI-increasing alleles...
December 23, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
F Fleming-Milici, J L Harris
BACKGROUND: Public health experts raise concerns about adolescents' and black youth's greater exposure to TV advertising for unhealthy foods and beverages compared with children and white youth. OBJECTIVES: Examine how television-viewing patterns and rates of advertising during targeted programming contribute to this greater exposure. METHODS: Nielsen panel data provided viewing times and amount of food advertising viewed on U.S. television in 2008 and 2012...
December 15, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
R Kadakia, Y Zheng, Z Zhang, W Zhang, L Hou, J L Josefson
BACKGROUND: Neonatal adiposity has many determinants and may be a risk factor for future obesity. Epigenetic regulation of metabolically important genes is a potential contributor. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study is to determine whether methylation changes in the LEP gene in cord blood DNA are impacted by the maternal environment or affect neonatal adiposity measures. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 114 full-term neonates born to healthy mothers with normal glucose tolerance was performed...
December 8, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
P Vijayakumar, K M Wheelock, S Kobes, R G Nelson, R L Hanson, W C Knowler, M Sinha
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Most studies describing childhood obesity in the United States are based on cross-sectional surveys and do not include substantial numbers of American Indians (AI). Secular trends in height and weight reflect general health status. This study describes weight trends and transitions among AI children over a 43-year period. METHODS: Anthropometric data were obtained from a prospective study conducted in a southwestern US AI population (1965 through 2007)...
December 6, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
C M Toledo-Corral, T L Alderete, R Habre, K Berhane, F W Lurmann, M J Weigensberg, M I Goran, F D Gilliland
OBJECTIVES: Growing evidence indicates that ambient (AAP: NO2 , PM2.5 and O3 ) and traffic-related air pollutants (TRAP) contribute to metabolic disease risk in adults; however, few studies have examined these relationships in children. METHODS: Metabolic profiling was performed in 429 overweight and obese African-American and Latino youth living in urban Los Angeles, California. This cross-sectional study estimated individual residential air pollution exposure and used linear regression to examine relationships between air pollution and metabolic outcomes...
December 6, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
L G Smithers, B W Mol, L Jamieson, J W Lynch
Cesarean birth leads to a markedly different microbiome compared to vaginal birth, and the microbiome has been implicated in childhood obesity. Among mothers who had a previous cesarean, we compared anthropometry of 3- to 6-year-old children who were subsequently born by cesarean section versus vaginal birth. This large population-based study involved linking de-identified administrative perinatal and anthropometric data. Children's weight and height were collected at community-based clinics and converted to age- and sex-adjusted z-scores of height-for-age (HFAz), weight-for-age (WFAz) and BMI-for-age (BMIz)...
December 6, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
C Curtin, A Must, S Phillips, L Bandini
The Healthy Weight Research Network (HWRN) for children with autism and developmental disabilities is an interdisciplinary network with national representation. This paper discusses the modified Delphi procedure that was used to develop the HWRN's research agenda to address the problem of obesity in children with autism and developmental disabilities. The five research areas identified for priority included: (i) family practices around food/mealtimes; (ii) physical activity and sedentary behaviours in relation to weight; (iii) relationship between food patterns, behaviour and weight gain; (iv) programme-adaption and delivery; and (v) influence of school and community-based organizations on food intake and physical activity...
February 2017: Pediatric Obesity
N M Gatto, L C Martinez, D Spruijt-Metz, J N Davis
BACKGROUND: Many programmes for children that involve gardening and nutrition components exist; however, none include experimental designs allowing more rigorous evaluation of their impact on obesity. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to explore the effects of a novel 12-week gardening, nutrition and cooking intervention {'LA Sprouts'} on dietary intake, obesity parameters and metabolic disease risk among low-income, primarily Hispanic/Latino youth in Los Angeles...
February 2017: Pediatric Obesity
T E-M Kaltenbach, T Graeter, S Oeztuerk, D Holzner, W Kratzer, M Wabitsch, C Denzer
BACKGROUND: Overt or subclinical hypothyroidism is a common finding in adult populations affected by non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Currently, there are only sparse data available on the association of thyroid dysfunction and NAFLD in obese children and adolescents. OBJECTIVE: The study aims to investigate the association of thyroid function test values with NAFLD and metabolic risk factors in a population of obese children and adolescents. METHODS: A total of 332 overweight and obese children and adolescents (170 girls) aged between 10 and 19 years were analysed...
February 2017: Pediatric Obesity
P M Shah, N Sudharsanan, S A Cunningham
BACKGROUND: In the USA, half of children are regularly cared for before or after school by someone other than a parent. OBJECTIVE: Describe the relationship between childcare arrangements and obesity among school-aged children. METHODS: Data are from the fifth-grade wave of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Kindergarten Cohort 1998-1999, a nationally representative study of US children who were in kindergarten in 1998-1999 or first grade in 1999, collected in spring 2004 (analytic sample = 9617)...
February 2017: Pediatric Obesity
D A Loh, F M Moy, N L Zaharan, M Y Jalaludin, Z Mohamed
BACKGROUND: Investigations on sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake and cardiometabolic risks among Asians are scant. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine associations between SSB intake and cardiometabolic risks among Malaysian adolescents. METHODS: Anthropometric data, blood pressure (BP), fasting blood glucose (FBG), lipid profiles and insulin levels measured involved 873 adolescents (aged 13 years). SSB intake, dietary patterns and physical activity level (PAL) were self-reported...
February 2017: Pediatric Obesity
A F Fleisch, H Luttmann-Gibson, W Perng, S L Rifas-Shiman, B A Coull, I Kloog, P Koutrakis, J D Schwartz, A Zanobetti, C S Mantzoros, M W Gillman, D R Gold, E Oken
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to traffic pollution has been associated with faster infant weight gain, but implications for cardiometabolic health in later childhood are unknown. METHODS: Among 1418 children in Project Viva, a Boston-area pre-birth cohort, we assessed anthropometric and biochemical parameters of cardiometabolic health in early (median age 3.3 years) and mid- (median age 7.7 years) childhood. We used spatiotemporal models to estimate prenatal and early life residential PM2...
February 2017: Pediatric Obesity
T J Hazell, S Gallo, C A Vanstone, S Agellon, C Rodd, H A Weiler
BACKGROUND: The impact of vitamin D status on body composition is not well understood. OBJECTIVES: Evaluate how vitamin D supplementation in infancy affects body composition at 3 years of age. METHODS: Double-blind randomized trial of 132, 1-month-old healthy, breastfed infants randomly assigned to receive oral vitamin D3 supplements of 400, 800, 1200 or 1600 IU d(-1) for 11 months. In the present analysis, 87 (66%) returned at 3 years of age...
February 2017: Pediatric Obesity
M L Mansego, M Garcia-Lacarte, F I Milagro, A Marti, J A Martinez
BACKGROUND: Epigenetic mechanisms may be involved in obesity onset and its consequences. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether DNA methylation status in microRNA (miRNA) coding regions is associated with childhood obesity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: DNA isolated from white blood cells of 24 children (identification sample: 12 obese and 12 non-obese) from the Grupo Navarro de Obesidad Infantil study was hybridized in a 450 K methylation microarray. Several CpGs whose DNA methylation levels were statistically different between obese and non-obese were validated by MassArray® in 95 children (validation sample) from the same study...
February 2017: Pediatric Obesity
W Johnson, A C Choh, M Lee, B Towne, S A Czerwinski, E W Demerath
BACKGROUND: Infant body mass index (BMI) is increasingly used as a marker of obesity risk based on its association with young-adulthood BMI. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to test the association of infant BMI with young-adulthood fat mass and fat-free mass, and how this association changes during advancing adulthood. METHODS: Body mass index Z-score at age 9 months was measured in 350 White, non-Hispanic Fels Longitudinal Study participants...
February 2017: Pediatric Obesity
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