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Pediatric Obesity

H Vaidya, S K Cheema
BACKGROUND: An imbalance of omega (n)-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) during critical periods of development may have adverse effects on the health of the newborn in later life. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that breastmilk with higher n-6 to n-3 PUFA ratio will have higher inflammatory cytokines and initiate cellular events similar to insulin resistance and obesity. METHODS: Breastmilk was collected from healthy women who gave natural birth at full term...
March 23, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
C Liu, C Chu, J Zhang, D Wu, D Xu, P Li, Y Chen, B Liu, L Pei, L Zhang, S Liu, T Qi, X-Y Lou, L Li
OBJECTIVE: IRX3 expression has been functionally associated in obesity-associated long-distance susceptibility loci, but the effect of the IRX3 genetic variants on human obesity and obesity-related metabolism remains uncertain. METHODS: To determine the genetic role of IRX3, we conducted a molecular epidemiological analysis using three haplotype tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs8053360, rs3751723 and rs12445085) and one nonsynonymous SNP (rs1126960) at the IRX3 locus in 333 junior and senior high school students from a northeast Chinese population...
March 19, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
M Reyes, R Burrows, E Blanco, B Lozoff, S Gahagan
BACKGROUND: Early life factors can programme future risk for cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVES: We explored associations between adolescent adiponectin levels and concomitant metabolic alteration and also looked at the association between early life factors and adolescent adiponectin levels. METHODS: We studied a longitudinal cohort of low-income to middle-income Chilean adolescents who were enroled in an infancy iron-deficiency anaemia preventive trial and follow-up studies at the Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile...
March 16, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
S C Armstrong, R Puhl, A C Skinner, A Kratka
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
S E Benjamin Neelon, C Schmidt Morgen, M Kamper-Jørgensen, E Oken, M W Gillman, J A Gallis, T I A Sørensen
BACKGROUND: Previous studies show inconsistent associations between childcare and obesity. AIMS: Our prior work demonstrated that childcare in infancy was associated with higher weight in a cohort of Danish children. Here, we extend this work and examine childcare through 6 years and body mass index (BMI) at age 7 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined 24 714 children in the Danish National Birth Cohort who were also in the Childcare Database...
March 15, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
A Betoko, S Lioret, B Heude, R Hankard, S Carles, A Forhan, N Regnault, J Botton, M A Charles, B de Lauzon-Guillain
OBJECTIVES: As early-life feeding experiences may influence later health, we aimed to examine relations between feeding patterns over the first year of life and child's growth in the first 5 years of life. METHODS: Our analysis included 1022 children from the EDEN mother-child cohort. Three feeding patterns were previously identified, i.e. 'Later dairy products introduction and use of ready-prepared baby foods' (pattern-1), 'Long breastfeeding, later main meal food introduction and use of home-made foods' (pattern-2) and 'Use of ready-prepared adult foods' (pattern-3)...
March 15, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
C M Johnson, M S Henderson, G Tripicchio, P Rozin, M Heo, A Pietrobelli, R I Berkowitz, K L Keller, M S Faith
BACKGROUND: Restrictive feeding is associated with child overweight; however, the majority of studies used parent-report questionnaires. OBJECTIVES: The relationship between child adiposity measures and directly observed parent and child behaviours were tested using a novel behavioural coding system (BCS). METHODS: Data from 109 children, participants in a twin study and their mothers, were analyzed. Parent-child dyads were video-recorded twice in the laboratory, while children ate ad libitum from a buffet lunch...
March 10, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
A J Perez, G D C Ball
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 16, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
D A Fields, B George, M Williams, K Whitaker, D B Allison, A Teague, E W Demerath
BACKGROUND: Much is to be learnt about human breast milk (HBM). OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to extend our knowledge of HBM by investigating the role of maternal body mass index (BMI), sex and stage of lactation (month 1 vs. 6) on HBM insulin, glucose, leptin, IL-6 and TNF-α and their associations with infant body composition. METHODS: Thirty-seven exclusively breastfeeding infants (n = 37; 16♀, 21♂), and their mothers (19-47 kg m(-2) ) were studied at 1 and 6 months of lactation...
February 3, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
L Chatzi, S L Rifas-Shiman, V Georgiou, K E Joung, S Koinaki, G Chalkiadaki, A Margioris, K Sarri, M Vassilaki, M Vafeiadi, M Kogevinas, C Mantzoros, M W Gillman, E Oken
BACKGROUND: In adults, adherence to the Mediterranean diet has been inversely associated with cardiovascular risk, but the extent to which diet in pregnancy is associated with offspring adiposity is unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between adherence to Mediterranean diet in pregnancy and offspring cardiometabolic traits in two pregnancy cohorts. METHODS: We studied 997 mother-child pairs from Project Viva in Massachusetts, USA, and 569 pairs from the Rhea study in Crete, Greece...
February 3, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
P Seferidi, C Millett, A A Laverty
BACKGROUND: Artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs) are promoted as healthy alternatives to sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) in order to reduce sugar intake, but their effects on weight control and glycaemia have been debated. This study examines associations of SSBs and ASBs with energy and sugar intake and cardiometabolic measures. METHODS: One thousand six hundred eighty-seven children aged 4-18 participated in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Programme (2008/9-2011/12) in the UK...
January 23, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
R M Puhl, Y Suh, X Li
BACKGROUND: Weight-based bullying is a prevalent problem among youth with overweight and obesity, but remains neglected in existing policy-level strategies to address youth bullying. Parental support is an influential catalyst motivating political will for policy decisions affecting youth, but has received limited research attention. OBJECTIVES: To assess levels of, and predictors of, parental support for school-based policies and state/federal legal measures to address weight-based bullying in 2014 and 2015...
April 2017: Pediatric Obesity
C N Ford, J M Poti, S W Ng, B M Popkin
BACKGROUND: Taxing sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has been proposed as a strategy to combat child obesity. Yet it is unclear how a tax on SSBs might influence the overall quality of diet in preschool children. Thus, we use simulated price increases and the 2010 Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2010) to explore the relationship between SSB taxes and diet quality in preschool children. METHODS: Price and purchase data from the 2009-2012 Nielsen Homescan Panel and a two-part marginal effects model were used to estimate relative changes in purchases with a 20% increase in the price of SSBs...
April 2017: Pediatric Obesity
Z Bider-Canfield, M P Martinez, X Wang, W Yu, M P Bautista, J Brookey, K A Page, T A Buchanan, A H Xiang
BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity, excessive gestational weight gain (EGWG), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and breastfeeding are four important factors associated with childhood obesity. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to assess the interplay among these four factors and their independent contributions to childhood overweight in a cohort with standard clinical care. METHODS: The cohort included 15 710 mother-offspring pairs delivered in 2011...
April 2017: Pediatric Obesity
N T Mueller, S L Rifas-Shiman, M J Blaser, M W Gillman, M-F Hivert
BACKGROUND: Early postnatal antibiotic use has been shown to promote excess weight gain, but it is unclear whether intrauterine exposure to antibiotics is associated with foetal growth and adiposity. The objective of this study was to examine associations of antibiotic prescription in each trimester of pregnancy with foetal size and adipokine levels at birth. METHODS: In 2128 pregnant women from the pre-birth Project Viva cohort, from electronic medical records, we estimated antibiotic prescribing by timing during pregnancy...
April 2017: Pediatric Obesity
A Prats-Puig, M Gispert-Saüch, G Carreras-Badosa, I Osiniri, P Soriano-Rodríguez, M Planella-Colomer, F de Zegher, L Ibánez, J Bassols, A López-Bermejo
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this paper is to test whether α-defensins and bacterial/permeability-increasing protein were related to obesity and cardiovascular risk factors in prepubertal children. METHODS: Plasma α-defensins and bacterial/permeability-increasing protein, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, systolic blood pressure (SBP), carotid intima media thickness (cIMT), HOMA-IR and HMW-adiponectin were assessed. RESULTS: In a cross-sectional study (N = 250), higher α-defensins concentrations were positively associated with BMI, waist, SBP, cIMT, HOMA-IR and negative correlated with HMW-adiponectin (all between r = 0...
April 2017: Pediatric Obesity
Jennifer S Savage, Leann L Birch
BACKGROUND: Maternal symptoms of depression are related to suboptimal parenting practices and child well-being; women with elevated symptoms tend to be less responsive to their children. OBJECTIVE: The objective is to explore how maternal depressive symptomatology is related to childhood obesity-promoting parenting behaviours, and whether depressive symptomatology moderates the association between perceived child negativity and the use of food to soothe among low-income mothers...
April 2017: Pediatric Obesity
A E Staiano, A M Marker, R A Beyl, D S Hsia, P T Katzmarzyk, R L Newton
BACKGROUND: Structured exergaming with prescribed moderate intensity physical activity has reduced adiposity among adolescents. The extent to which adolescents reduce adiposity when allowed to self-select intensity level is not known. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to examine the influence of exergaming on adolescent girls' body composition and cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial assigned 41 overweight and obese girls aged 14 to 18 years to group-based dance exergaming (36 h over 3 months) or to a self-directed care control condition...
April 2017: Pediatric Obesity
L Graversen, L D Howe, T I A Sørensen, U Sovio, L Hohwü, K Tilling, J Laitinen, A Taanila, A Pouta, M-R Järvelin, C Obel
BACKGROUND: In recent decades, there has been an increase in the prevalence of childhood overweight in most high-income countries. Within northern Europe, prevalence tends to be higher in the UK compared with the Scandinavian countries. We aimed to study differences in body mass index (BMI) trajectories between large cohorts of children from UK and Scandinavian populations. METHODS: We compared BMI trajectories in participants from the English Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children born in 1991-1993 (ALSPAC) (N = 6517), the Northern Finland Birth Cohorts born in 1966 (NFBC1966) (N = 3321) and 1986 (NFBC1986) (N = 4764), and the Danish Aarhus Birth Cohort born in 1990-1992 (ABC) (N = 1920)...
April 2017: Pediatric Obesity
Greg D Wells, Laura Banks, Jessica E Caterini, Sara Thompson, Michael D Noseworthy, Tammy Rayner, Catriona Syme, Brian W McCrindle, Jill Hamilton
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with cardiometabolic disturbances, which may have significant implications for musculoskeletal health and exercise tolerance. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the association between muscle structure, function, and metabolism in adolescents across the weight spectrum. METHODS: This cross-sectional case-control study included overweight and obese participants (n = 24) 8-18 years of age with a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 85th percentile for age and gender, and non-obese participants (n = 24) with a BMI < 85(th) percentile...
April 2017: Pediatric Obesity
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