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Pediatric Obesity

S Frayon, S Cherrier, Y Cavaloc, G Wattelez, Y Lerrant, O Galy
BACKGROUND: Body mass index is the most often used indicator of obesity but does not distinguish between lean and fat mass. Adiposity at the same body mass index differs across ethnic groups. OBJECTIVES: The twofold aim of this study was to determine whether body mass index (BMI)-based references are correlated with body fat percentage (%BF) in a pluri-ethnic population of Pacific Islanders and to assess the diagnostic accuracy of these references by using the percentage of body fat as the gold standard...
July 28, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
O R Whitt, S B Jilcott Pitts, A P Rafferty, C R Payne, S W Ng
This study's purpose was to examine changes in healthy and unhealthy items purchased following the implementation of traffic light and cartoon labelling in a small retail food venue (Café Bay) in a children's hospital in eastern North Carolina. Between October 2015 and March 2016, daily food and beverage sales from Café Bay were obtained during baseline, traffic light labelling, a washout period, cartoon labelling (on healthy foods only) and a final washout period. Pearson chi-squared tests and multiple linear regressions were used to examine effects of labelling strategies, controlling for the holidays...
July 28, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
S Hsieh, B P Leaderer, A E Feldstein, N Santoro, L A McKay, S Caprio, R McConnell
INTRODUCTION: Traffic-related air pollution causes fatty liver, inflammation and fibrosis in animal models, but there have been few studies in humans. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that traffic-related air pollution causes non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and increased markers for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH); and that NAFLD increases liver susceptibility to increased NASH risk. METHODS: Data collected prospectively from 74 overweight or obese children were obtained from the Yale Pediatric Obesity Clinic...
July 20, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
N Kapral, S E Miller, R J Scharf, M J Gurka, M D DeBoer
BACKGROUND: Relationships between birthweight and future obesity risk remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To assess associations between birthweight and later obesity in a nationally representative cohort of early school-aged children. METHODS: We used linear and logistic regression to evaluate 10 186 term- or preterm children in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort 2011 for relationships between birthweight and later obesity and change in BMI z-score from kindergarten-to-second grade...
July 6, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
J Falbe, W C Willett, B Rosner, A E Field
BACKGROUND: Recent technologies have changed screen time. TV can be viewed anywhere, anytime. Content can be collected via digital recorders and online streaming and viewed on smartphones. Video games are no longer strictly sedentary. OBJECTIVES: We sought to assess the unknown relations between new modes of TV viewing - recorded, online, downloaded and on hand-held devices - and active video games with body mass index (BMI). METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of the 2011 wave of the Growing Up Today Study 2 cohort...
October 2017: Pediatric Obesity
Roch A Nianogo, May C Wang, Aolin Wang, Tabashir Z Nobari, Catherine M Crespi, Shannon E Whaley, Onyebuchi A Arah
It is difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing early childhood obesity using randomized trials. Objective To illustrate how observational data can be analysed using causal inference methods to estimate the potential impact of behavioural 'interventions' on early childhood adiposity. Methods We used longitudinal data from 1054 children 1-5 years old enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children and followed (WIC) from 2008 to 2010 for a mean duration of 23 months...
October 2017: Pediatric Obesity
F Dong, A G Howard, A H Herring, L S Adair, A L Thompson, B M Popkin, A E Aiello, B Zhang, P Gordon-Larsen
BACKGROUND: China has the world's highest diabetes prevalence, which along with hypertension and inflammation continues to grow particularly among children. Little is known about the strength of the association of these cardiometabolic risk factors between parents and their children; thus, the potential of household-based strategies to reduce risk is unknown. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study is to examine the parent-child association for haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), blood pressure (BP) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in a large, geographically diverse Chinese sample...
October 2017: Pediatric Obesity
J R Fernández, M Bohan Brown, M López-Alarcón, J A Dawson, F Guo, D T Redden, D B Allison
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a global health concern but the United States has reported a leveling in obesity rates in the pediatric population. OBJECTIVE: To provide updated waist circumference (WC) percentile values, identify differences across time and discuss differences within the context of reported weight stabilization in a nationally representative sample of American children. METHODS: Percentiles for WC in self-identified African Americans (AA), European Americans (EA) and Mexican Americans (MA) were obtained from 2009-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data (NHANES2014)...
October 2017: Pediatric Obesity
A M Gadomski, M B Scribani, N Krupa, P Jenkins
BACKGROUND: Dog ownership has been associated with increased physical activity in children which in turn may mitigate childhood obesity. OBJECTIVE: To measure the association between child-dog attachment and child physical activity and screen time. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including 370 children (ages 4-10) who had pet dogs in the home. Parents completed the DartScreen, a web-based screener, before a well-child visit. Screener domains included child body mass index (BMI), physical activity, screen time and dog-related questions...
October 2017: Pediatric Obesity
Hua Zhao, Anna Wilkinson, Jie Shen, Xifeng Wu, Wong-Ho Chow
OBJECTIVES: Obesity is associated with multiple health problems and often originates in childhood. The purpose is to investigate the associations of genetic polymorphisms in genes related to risk-taking behaviours with body mass index (BMI) trajectory over adolescence among Mexican Americans. METHODS: This study included 1229 Mexican American adolescents who participated in a large population-based cohort study in Houston, Texas. BMI data were obtained at baseline and two follow-ups...
October 2017: Pediatric Obesity
B F Moore, K A Sauder, A P Starling, B M Ringham, D H Glueck, D Dabelea
BACKGROUND: Infant adiposity may be influenced by several environmental risk factors, but few studies have explored these interactions. OBJECTIVE: To examine the interaction between exposure to secondhand smoke and breastfeeding exclusivity on adiposity at age 5 months. METHODS: We studied 813 mother-offspring pairs from the longitudinal Healthy Start study. Fat mass and fat-free mass were measured by air displacement plethysmography. Linear regression analyses were used to estimate the association between household smokers (none, any) with fat mass, fat-free mass, percent fat mass, weight-for-age z-score, weight-for-length z-score and BMI-for-age z-score as separate outcomes...
August 2017: Pediatric Obesity
A J Fuglestad, E W Demerath, M C Finsaas, C J Moore, M K Georgieff, S M Carlson
BACKGROUND: There is limited research in young infants, particularly <3 months of age, on maternal feeding practices in spite of increasing evidence that early weight gain velocity is a determinant of later obesity risk. OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between maternal executive function (cognitive control over one's own behaviour), maternal feeding decisions and infant weight and adiposity gains. METHODS: We used a checklist to assess cues mothers use to decide when to initiate and terminate infant feedings at 2 weeks and 3 months of age (N = 69)...
August 2017: Pediatric Obesity
J A Roelants, M J Vermeulen, I V Koning, I A L Groenenberg, S P Willemsen, A C S Hokken-Koelega, K F M Joosten, I K M Reiss, R P M Steegers-Theunissen
BACKGROUND: The predisposition for obesity is suggested to originate in the prenatal period. Prenatal markers are needed to identify foetuses at risk for neonatal adiposity, as early marker of childhood obesity. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to assess the association between foetal fractional thigh volume (TVol) and neonatal percentage fat mass from mid-gestation onward. METHODS: In this perinatal cohort study, singleton pregnancies with term born infants were included...
August 2017: Pediatric Obesity
R W Walker, J C Clemente, I Peter, R J F Loos
The colonization of the gut with microbes in early life is critical to the developing newborn immune system, metabolic function and potentially future health. Maternal microbes are transmitted to offspring during childbirth, representing a key step in the colonization of the infant gut. Studies of infant meconium suggest that bacteria are present in the foetal gut prior to birth, meaning that colonization could occur prenatally. Animal studies have shown that prenatal transmission of microbes to the foetus is possible, and physiological changes observed in pregnant mothers indicate that in utero transfer is likely in humans as well...
August 2017: Pediatric Obesity
A Betoko, S Lioret, B Heude, R Hankard, S Carles, A Forhan, N Regnault, J Botton, M A Charles, B de Lauzon-Guillain
OBJECTIVES: As early-life feeding experiences may influence later health, we aimed to examine relations between feeding patterns over the first year of life and child's growth in the first 5 years of life. METHODS: Our analysis included 1022 children from the EDEN mother-child cohort. Three feeding patterns were previously identified, i.e. 'Later dairy products introduction and use of ready-prepared baby foods' (pattern-1), 'Long breastfeeding, later main meal food introduction and use of home-made foods' (pattern-2) and 'Use of ready-prepared adult foods' (pattern-3)...
August 2017: Pediatric Obesity
D A Fields, B George, M Williams, K Whitaker, D B Allison, A Teague, E W Demerath
BACKGROUND: Much is to be learnt about human breast milk (HBM). OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to extend our knowledge of HBM by investigating the role of maternal body mass index (BMI), sex and stage of lactation (month 1 vs. 6) on HBM insulin, glucose, leptin, IL-6 and TNF-α and their associations with infant body composition. METHODS: Thirty-seven exclusively breastfeeding infants (n = 37; 16♀, 21♂), and their mothers (19-47 kg m(-2) ) were studied at 1 and 6 months of lactation...
August 2017: Pediatric Obesity
L Chatzi, S L Rifas-Shiman, V Georgiou, K E Joung, S Koinaki, G Chalkiadaki, A Margioris, K Sarri, M Vassilaki, M Vafeiadi, M Kogevinas, C Mantzoros, M W Gillman, E Oken
BACKGROUND: In adults, adherence to the Mediterranean diet has been inversely associated with cardiovascular risk, but the extent to which diet in pregnancy is associated with offspring adiposity is unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between adherence to Mediterranean diet in pregnancy and offspring cardiometabolic traits in two pregnancy cohorts. METHODS: We studied 997 mother-child pairs from Project Viva in Massachusetts, USA, and 569 pairs from the Rhea study in Crete, Greece...
August 2017: Pediatric Obesity
R Kadakia, Y Zheng, Z Zhang, W Zhang, L Hou, J L Josefson
BACKGROUND: Neonatal adiposity has many determinants and may be a risk factor for future obesity. Epigenetic regulation of metabolically important genes is a potential contributor. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study is to determine whether methylation changes in the LEP gene in cord blood DNA are impacted by the maternal environment or affect neonatal adiposity measures. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 114 full-term neonates born to healthy mothers with normal glucose tolerance was performed...
August 2017: Pediatric Obesity
L G Smithers, B W Mol, L Jamieson, J W Lynch
Cesarean birth leads to a markedly different microbiome compared to vaginal birth, and the microbiome has been implicated in childhood obesity. Among mothers who had a previous cesarean, we compared anthropometry of 3- to 6-year-old children who were subsequently born by cesarean section versus vaginal birth. This large population-based study involved linking de-identified administrative perinatal and anthropometric data. Children's weight and height were collected at community-based clinics and converted to age- and sex-adjusted z-scores of height-for-age (HFAz), weight-for-age (WFAz) and BMI-for-age (BMIz)...
August 2017: Pediatric Obesity
S Ikenoue, F Waffarn, K Sumiyoshi, M Ohashi, C Ikenoue, C Buss, D L Gillen, H N Simhan, S Entringer, P D Wadhwa
BACKGROUND: Newborns exhibit substantial variation in gestational age-adjusted and sex-adjusted fat mass proportion. The antecedent characteristics of fetal body composition that are associated with newborn fat mass proportion are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether a composite measure of fetal fat mass is prospectively associated with newborn adiposity. METHODS: In a longitudinal study of 109 low-risk pregnancies, fetal ultrasonography was performed at approximately 12, 20 and 30 weeks gestation...
August 2017: Pediatric Obesity
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