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Pediatric Obesity

R Jin, A Krasinskas, N-A Le, J V Konomi, J Holzberg, R Romero, M B Vos
BACKGROUND: Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the primary inhibitor of the endogenous fibrinolytic system and is known to be increased in obesity, insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We previously demonstrated that PAI-1 levels were closely related to the amount of hepatic steatosis in children. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to characterize plasma PAI-1 in relationship to severity of inflammation and fibrosis, as well as to plasma lipids in children with NAFLD...
October 20, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
K McCloskey, A-L Ponsonby, F Collier, K Allen, M L K Tang, J B Carlin, R Saffery, M R Skilton, M Cheung, S Ranganathan, T Dwyer, D Burgner, P Vuillermin
BACKGROUND: Excess adiposity and adiposity-related inflammation are known risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adults; however, little is known regarding the determinants of adiposity-related inflammation at birth. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and newborn adiposity and inflammation. METHODS: Paired maternal (28-week gestation) and infant (umbilical cord) blood samples were collected from a population-derived birth cohort (Barwon Infant Study, n = 1074)...
October 9, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
O A Galescu, M K Crocker, A M Altschul, S E Marwitz, S M Brady, J A Yanovski
CONTEXT: Children with obesity have low spontaneous growth hormone (GH) secretion. High circulating free fatty acid (FFA) concentration is believed to inhibit GH secretion in those with obesity. In adults, lipolytic inhibition with niacin lowers FFA and increases GH, but there are no prior studies in children with obesity. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to determine the dose and frequency of niacin administration required to lower FFA and stimulate GH in children with obesity...
September 21, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
Jonathan Lockwood, Allison Jeffery, Alexander Schwartz, Cedric Manlhiot, Jane E Schneiderman, Brian W McCrindle, Jill Hamilton
This study aimed to determine the validity of the Habitual Activity Estimation Scale (HAES) for assessing physical activity (PA) in children and adolescents with severe obesity. Data were obtained from participants (n = 17) in the High Impact Strategies Toward Overweight Reduction in Youth study at the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto. Objective measurement of PA was recorded with accelerometers and interpreted using counts-per-minute (CPM) cut-points developed for children and adolescents. Self-report measurement of PA was collected using the HAES questionnaire...
September 21, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
S E Ramel, L Zhang, S Misra, C G Anderson, E W Demerath
BACKGROUND: Recent literature suggests that neonatal adiposity is predictive of later metabolic health, while neonatal lean mass is predictive of later cognitive function amongst preterm infants. Anthropometric indices that accurately reflect neonatal body composition could improve clinical care and aid future research, but their validity has not been systematically tested in preterm infants. OBJECTIVE: To determine the weight/length indices that best reflect neonatal body composition in preterm infants...
September 16, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
D R Young, C Koebnick, J-W Y Hsu
BACKGROUND: Emerging adulthood is a critical time for excess weight gain. Risk can be masked if recommended overweight and obesity cut-points for Asians are not employed. OBJECTIVES: To determine the associations among sociodemographic factors and occurrence of overweight and obesity among normal weight 18-year olds. METHODS: Normal weight (body mass index < 25 kg m(-2) ; <23 kg m(-2) for Asians) 18-year-old (9037 boys, 13 786 girls, 36% Hispanic, 34% non-Hispanic Whites, 10% Black, 5% Asian) members of a healthcare organization in 2008 were followed through 2012 to identify incidence of overweight and obesity...
August 25, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
E T Rhodes, L Vernacchio, A A Mitchell, C Fischer, P Giacalone, D S Ludwig, C B Ebbeling
BACKGROUND: Telehealth offers opportunities to extend clinical and research interventions for paediatric obesity. OBJECTIVES: To assess utility of a telephone intervention, implemented through a national primary care paediatric research network, for promoting differentiation in dietary intake, consistent with either a low-glycemic load (Low GL) or Low Fat prescription, among overweight/obese school-age children. METHODS: Five-week telephone dietary counselling intervention for parents of overweight/obese school-age children recruited through the Slone Center Office-based Research Network...
August 5, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
T Lobstein, R Jackson-Leach
BACKGROUND: Member states of the World Health Organization have adopted resolutions aiming to achieve 'no increase on obesity levels' by 2025 (based on 2010 levels) for infants, adolescents and adults. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the scale of the problem facing health planners and service providers. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using data prepared by the Global Burden of Disease collaborative for 2000 and 2013, we have estimated that by 2025 some 268 million children aged 5-17 years may be overweight, including 91 million obese, assuming no policy interventions have proven effective at changing current trends...
October 2016: Pediatric Obesity
S A Blondin, S Anzman-Frasca, H C Djang, C D Economos
BACKGROUND: Breakfast consumption has been associated with reduced risk of overweight and obesity among children, but previous evidence reviews fail to confirm a causal relationship. OBJECTIVES: To review recent literature on breakfast consumption and adiposity among children and discuss potential underlying mechanisms. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search of studies published since the 2010 US National Evidence Library review (January 2010-January 2015) was conducted...
October 2016: Pediatric Obesity
K A Sauder, A P Starling, A L Shapiro, J L Kaar, B M Ringham, D H Glueck, D Dabelea
BACKGROUND: Prenatal multivitamin supplementation is recommended to improve offspring outcomes, but effects on early infant growth are unknown. OBJECTIVES: We examined whether multivitamin supplementation in the year before delivery predicts offspring mass, body composition and early infant growth. METHODS: Multivitamin use was assessed longitudinally in 626 women from the Healthy Start Study. Offspring body size and composition was measured with air displacement plethysmography at birth (<3 days) and postnatally (median 5...
October 2016: Pediatric Obesity
S Heinzle, G D C Ball, J L Kuk
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a heterogeneous condition, which includes a subset of individuals that can be classified as having metabolically healthy obesity (MHO), but there is no consensus on what constitutes MHO. Thus, the objective of the study is to examine the prevalence and predictors of prevalent MHO in adolescents using various definitions of MHO. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the 1999-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were used. Participants included 316 male and 316 female adolescents aged 12-19 years with a BMI ≥ 95th percentile...
October 2016: Pediatric Obesity
C Cadenas-Sanchez, C Nyström, G Sanchez-Delgado, B Martinez-Tellez, J Mora-Gonzalez, A S Risinger, J R Ruiz, F B Ortega, M Löf
BACKGROUND: North-south differences in the prevalence of obesity and fitness levels have been found in European adolescents, yet it is unknown if such differences already exist in very young children. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to compare the prevalence of overweight/obesity and fitness levels in preschool children aged 4 years from Sweden (north of Europe) and Spain (south of Europe). METHODS: The sample consisted of 315 Swedish and 128 Spanish preschoolers...
October 2016: Pediatric Obesity
C Paley, H Hull, Y Ji, T Toro-Ramos, J Thornton, J Bauer, P Matthews, A Yu, K Navder, K Dorsey, D Gallagher
BACKGROUND: Ethnic differences in total body fat (fat mass [FM]) have been reported in adults and children, but the timing of when these differences manifest and whether they are present at birth are unknown. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess whether ethnic differences in body fat are present at birth in healthy infants born at term, where body fat is measured using air displacement plethysmography and fat distribution by skin-fold thickness. METHODS: Data were from a multiracial cross-sectional convenience sample of 332 term infants from four racial or ethnic groups based on maternal self-report (A, Asian; AA, non-Hispanic Black [African-American]; C, non-Hispanic White; and H, Hispanic)...
October 2016: Pediatric Obesity
S L Baxter, S C Collins, A J Hill
BACKGROUND: While research has investigated negative stereotyping of fat body shapes, little has focused on young children's understanding of the mechanisms, motivations and consequences of weight change. OBJECTIVES: To investigate children's understanding of how weight change is achieved, people's motivation for weight change, and the consequences of weight loss or weight gain. METHODS: One hundred children (mean age 5.2, 38 girls) read a book in which one of the main characters (male/female according to the child's sex) was either healthy weight or overweight...
October 2016: Pediatric Obesity
J Bassols, J M Martínez-Calcerrada, A Prats-Puig, G Carreras-Badosa, F Díaz-Roldán, I Osiniri, E Riera-Pérez, F de Zegher, L Ibáñez, A López-Bermejo
BACKGROUND: Increased uric acid is an independent biomarker for cardiovascular disease in obese adolescents and adults. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether uric acid relates to carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in prepubertal children, and whether body mass index (BMI) and preperitoneal fat modulate this association. METHODS: 359 asymptomatic prepubertal Caucasian children were stratified according to BMI categories (171 with BMI-SDS < 0; 188 with BMI-SDS ≥ 0) and according to preperitoneal fat levels (180 with preperitoneal fat <50th centile; 179 with preperitoneal fat >50th centile)...
October 2016: Pediatric Obesity
R Cataldo, J Huang, R Calixte, A T Wong, J Bianchi-Hayes, S Pati
BACKGROUND: A consequence of childhood obesity may be poor developmental outcomes. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the relationship between weight and developmental delays in young children. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Birth Cohort data. Logistic regression models quantified the association between different weight statuses (normal weight <85th, overweight ≥90th, obese ≥95th percentile for weight) and delays in motor and mental development...
October 2016: Pediatric Obesity
S Novak, D Divkovic, I Drenjancevic, A Cosic, K Selthofer-Relatic
BACKGROUND: The biological role of visfatin in humans, especially in eutrophic and healthy children, is not understood yet, except for its link to obesity-related disorders in adolescents and adults. OBJECTIVES: To determine the physiological values of serum visfatin concentrations, and visfatin mRNA expression in subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and to correlate them with anthropometric/metabolic data in prepubertal healthy boys. METHODS: The study included 59 healthy boys, age 1-10 years, hospitalized for elective surgery, divided according to age into group I (1-3 years old), group II (3-7 years old) and group III (7-10 years old)...
October 2016: Pediatric Obesity
L Pan, L M Grummer-Strawn, L C McGuire, S Park, H M Blanck
BACKGROUND: Understanding state/territorial trends in obesity by race/ethnicity helps focus resources on populations at risk. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine trends in obesity prevalence among low-income, preschool-aged children from 2008 through 2011 in U.S. states and territories by race/ethnicity. METHODS: We used measured weight and height records of 11.1 million children aged 2-4 years who participated in federally funded health and nutrition programmes in 40 states, the District of Columbia and two U...
October 2016: Pediatric Obesity
B Haliloglu, Z Atay, T Guran, S Abalı, S Bas, S Turan, A Bereket
BACKGROUND: Hypothalamic obesity (HyOb) is a common complication of childhood hypothalamic tumours. Patients with HyOb probably have a higher mortality rate than those with other types of obesity due in many cases to obstructive sleep apnoea/hypoventilation. OBJECTIVES: To identify predictive factors for mortality caused by HyOb in children. METHODS: Twenty children with HyOb secondary to hypothalamic tumours that were followed-up for ≥3 years and aged <15 years at diagnosis, and received supraphysiological glucocorticoid treatment for ≤1 month...
October 2016: Pediatric Obesity
R Arun, P Pina, D Rubin, D Erichsen
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is a growing health challenge. Recent studies show that children with late bedtime and late awakening are more obese independent of total sleep time. In adolescents and adults, a delayed sleep phase has been associated with higher caloric intake. Furthermore, an adult study showed a positive correlation between REM sleep and energy balance. This relationship has not been demonstrated in children. However, it may be important as a delayed sleep phase would increase the proportion of REM sleep...
October 2016: Pediatric Obesity
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