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Pediatric Obesity

R D F Sagatov, L V John, M Gregoriou, S Sonia Arteaga, S Weber, B Payn, W Strauss, N Weinstein, V Collie-Akers
BACKGROUND: The Healthy Communities Study (HCS) was a national study of community programs and policies that aimed to address childhood obesity; it necessitated recruitment of a large sample of children from communities throughout the United States. OBJECTIVE: The HCS aimed to complete visits with an average of 45 children and 12 key informants from at least 120 communities, diverse with respect to region of the country, urbanicity, socioeconomic status, race, ethnicity and intensity of community programs and policies that aim to address childhood obesity...
September 12, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
C Álvarez, R Ramírez-Campillo, J Cano-Montoya, R Ramírez-Vélez, S D R Harridge, A M Alonso-Martínez, M Izquierdo
BACKGROUND: Exercise training improves cardiometabolic outcomes in 'mean terms', but little information is available in children about the impact of the frequency/week and the wide inter-individual variability to exercise training reported in adults. OBJECTIVES: We compared the effects of resistance training (RT) and high-intensity interval training (HIT), and 'high' and 'low' frequency of training/week, for their effectiveness in decreasing insulin resistance (IR) levels in schoolchildren...
September 11, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
M Yackobovitch-Gavan, D Wolf, N Nagelberg, I Poraz, S Shalitin, M Phillip, J Meyerovitch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 29, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
F Marzano, M F Faienza, M F Caratozzolo, G Brunetti, M Chiara, D S Horner, A Annese, A M D'Erchia, A Consiglio, G Pesole, E Sbisà, E Inzaghi, S Cianfarani, A Tullo
BACKGROUND: Children born small for gestational age (SGA) are at increased risk of metabolic dysfunction. Dysregulation of specific microRNAs (miRNAs) contributes to aberrant gene expression patterns underlying metabolic dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine and compare circulating miRNA (c-miRNA) profile of SGA and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) children with obesity and with normal weight, in order to identify biomarkers for early detection of increased risk of developing metabolic dysfunction in SGA and AGA children with obesity...
August 29, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
M M Cloutier, J F Wiley, C-L Kuo, T Cornelius, Z Wang, A A Gorin
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a major and worldwide health problem in children. OBJECTIVES: The Early Childhood Obesity Prevention Program is a multi-component, randomized, controlled trial of a pilot community-focused obesity prevention program for mother/newborn dyads. METHODS: Underserved, mother/newborn dyads were recruited to receive a standard home visitation program (Nurturing Families Network, NFN) or an enhanced program (NFN+) that incorporated behavioural change strategies (e...
August 28, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
L Yang, P Bovet, C Ma, M Zhao, Y Liang, B Xi
BACKGROUND: The co-existence of underweight and overweight is a great challenge for public health in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study is to report the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity among young adolescents in 58 LMICs. METHODS: Data were from the Global School-based Student Health Survey (2007-2013) in 57 LMICs and from the Chinese National Surveys on Students' Constitution and Health (2010)...
August 28, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
A P Vidmar, R Pretlow, C Borzutzky, C P Wee, D S Fox, C Fink, S D Mittelman
BACKGROUND: Clinical approaches to treating childhood obesity can be expensive and poorly reimbursed, and often produce suboptimal results. It has been theorized that overeating may have addictive qualities, and a sizable number of adolescents with obesity endorse addictive habits. Interestingly, few weight management interventions have tested techniques founded in addiction medicine principles. We therefore performed a pilot study of an addiction model based mHealth weight loss intervention in adolescents...
August 16, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
M Wilkes, J Thornton, M Horlick, A Sopher, J Wang, E M Widen, R Pierson, D Gallagher
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to examine the validity of body mass index z score (zBMI) as a measure of percent body fat in prepubertal children. METHODS: One hundred eleven multiethnic, healthy, Tanner 1 children aged 6-12 years had fat percent and fat mass measured by the four-compartment method as part of the Paediatric Rosetta Body Composition Cohort. Multiple regression models were developed with fat percent as the dependent variable and zBMI, age, sex and ethnicity as independent variables...
August 16, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
N Arias Ramos, M D Calvo Sánchez, T Fernández-Villa, M A Ovalle Perandones, D Fernández García, P Marqués-Sánchez
BACKGROUND: Multiple studies have shown the social consequences of suffering overweight, with social exclusion or isolation as some of the most important. In order to study the social patterns among adolescents, we have set as objectives to analyse the position of the individual within their network from a sociocentric perspective, comparing the relational pattern of the adolescents suffering from overweight with those who are normal weight. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study using logistic regression and social network analysis...
August 15, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
B Armstrong, S Buckingham-Howes, M M Black
OBJECTIVE: Low inhibitory control is linked with weight gain among youth. Inhibitory problems are associated with disruption to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis cortisol response. Increased cortisol predicts appetite and weight gain (though may be gender specific). This study hypothesized that cortisol reactivity explains the association between inhibition and weight gain while considering the moderating factors of early stressors to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (e.g...
August 15, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
J Min, H Xue, Y Wang
BACKGROUND: No study has examined how the pattern of income dynamics influences both of children's body mass index (BMI) trajectory and health behaviours. OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between household poverty dynamics and childhood overweight risk in the USA. METHODS: Using the longitudinal data of 16 800 children (from kindergarten to the 8th grade) in the nationally representative US cohort-Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class 1998-1999, we examined the differences in BMI trajectory, weight-related health behaviours and risk of overweight in association with household poverty dynamics during follow-up (never [no experience of poverty], transient [once], recurrent [≥2 times] and persistent poor [remained]) using mixed models with fractional polynomial functions and estimating equation models...
August 15, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
B E Young, C Levek, R M Reynolds, M C Rudolph, P MacLean, T L Hernandez, J E Friedman, N F Krebs
OBJECTIVE: To model breastfed infant growth and body composition patterns over the first 4 months with multiple bioactive components of human milk (HM) and clinical factors (including maternal BMI status), which are related to growth. METHODS: Longitudinal observation of infant growth and body composition from 0 to 4 months among 41 predominantly breastfed infants (25 mothers of Normal-weight and 16 mothers with overweight/obesity). Fasted morning HM samples were collected at 5 time-points...
August 9, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
D Luan, B Mezuk, K W Bauer
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the incidence and natural history of obesity remission among children outside of weight loss programmes. OBJECTIVES: The objectives are to characterize and identify sociodemographic and early life predictors of obesity remission between kindergarten and eighth grade among a nationally representative sample of US children. METHODS: The sample included children with obesity [age-specific and gender-specific body mass index percentile (BMI) ≥95] at the spring kindergarten assessment of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99...
August 3, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
A E Staiano, R A Beyl, W Guan, C A Hendrick, D S Hsia, R L Newton
BACKGROUND: Given children's low levels of physical activity and high prevalence of obesity, there is an urgent need to identify innovative physical activity options. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to test the effectiveness of exergaming (video gaming that involves physical activity) to reduce children's adiposity and improve cardiometabolic health. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial assigned 46 children with overweight/obesity to a 24-week exergaming or control condition...
July 20, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
S Luo, J Alves, K Hardy, X Wang, J Monterosso, A H Xiang, K A Page
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Neuroimaging investigations of brain pathways involved in reward and motivation have primarily focused on adults. This study sought to identify brain responses to visual food cues and explore its relationships with adiposity and sex in pre-pubertal children. METHODS: Brain responses to palatable food vs. non-food cues were measured in 53 children (age: 8.18 ± .66 years; sex: 22 boys, 31 girls) after an overnight fast. Whole-brain analysis (cluster-correction Z > 2...
July 17, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
A Khatiwada, A Shoaibi, B Neelon, J A Emond, S E Benjamin-Neelon
BACKGROUND: Infancy is a critical period for obesity prevention. Emerging evidence links household chaos to poor health outcomes, yet its impact on obesity in infancy is unknown. OBJECTIVES: We examined associations between household chaos when infants were 6 and 12 months and weight-for-length (WFL) z-score at 12 months, exploring potential mediation by infant sleep and screen time. METHODS: We examined 401 predominately Black women and infants in the southeastern United States...
July 17, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
L K English, T D Masterson, S N Fearnbach, M Tanofsky-Kraff, J Fisher, S J Wilson, B J Rolls, K L Keller
BACKGROUND: Portion size influences intake (i.e. the portion size effect [PSE]), yet determinants of susceptibility to the PSE are unclear. OBJECTIVE: We tested whether children who reported an episode of loss of control (LOC) eating over the last 3 months would be more susceptible to the PSE and would show differential brain responses to food cues compared with children with no-LOC. METHODS: Across five sessions, children (n = 47; 7-10 years) consumed four test meals at 100%, 133%, 167% and 200% conditions for portion size and completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan while viewing pictures of foods varied by portion size and energy density (ED)...
July 17, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
C M Wright, L Marryat, J McColl, U Harjunmaa, T J Cole
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether high weight in infancy predicts obesity in childhood. METHOD: Data from two UK cohorts (Newcastle Growth and Development N = 795, Gateshead Millennium N = 393) and one Finnish (Tampere N = 1262) were combined. Z scores of weight at 3 and 12 months and body mass index (BMI) at 5 and 8 years were categorized as raised/overweight (1 to <2 SD) or high/obese (≥2 SD). RESULTS: The majority of infants with raised or high weight at birth tended to revert to normal by 3 months and to track in the same category from 3 to 12 months...
July 11, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
L D Ritchie, G Woodward-Lopez, L E Au, C M Loria, V Collie-Akers, D K Wilson, E A Frongillo, W J Strauss, A J Landgraf, J Nagaraja, R D F Sagatov, H L Nicastro, L C Nebeling, K L Webb
BACKGROUND: The impact of community-based obesity prevention efforts on child nutrition has not been adequately studied. OBJECTIVE: Examine relationships between number, type and intensity of community programs and policies (CPPs) and child nutrition. METHODS: An observational study of 5138 children (grades K-8) in 130 U.S. communities was conducted in 2013-2015. CPPs were identified by 10-14 key informant interviews per community. CPPs were characterized based on: count, intensity, number of different strategies used and number of different behaviours targeted...
July 10, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
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