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Pediatric Obesity

N Kapral, S E Miller, R J Scharf, M J Gurka, M D DeBoer
BACKGROUND: Relationships between birthweight and future obesity risk remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To assess associations between birthweight and later obesity in a nationally representative cohort of early school-aged children. METHODS: We used linear and logistic regression to evaluate 10 186 term- or preterm children in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort 2011 for relationships between birthweight and later obesity and change in BMI z-score from kindergarten-to-second grade...
July 6, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
K A Sauder, D Dabelea, R Bailey-Callahan, S Kanott Lambert, J Powell, R James, C Percy, B F Jenks, L Testaverde, J M Thomas, R Barber, J Smiley, C W Hockett, V W Zhong, L Letourneau, K Moore, A M Delamater, E Mayer-Davis
BACKGROUND: American Indian (AI) youth are at high risk for type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVES: To partner with Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians and Navajo Nation to develop a culturally sensitive behavioural intervention for youth (Tribal Turning Point; TTP) and assess feasibility in an 8-month randomized pilot study. METHODS: We enrolled 62 overweight/obese AI children (7-10 years) who participated with ≥1 parent/primary caregiver. Intervention participants (n = 29) attended 12 group classes and five individual sessions...
June 21, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
M Samblas, F I Milagro, M L Mansego, A Marti, J A Martinez
BACKGROUND: The global prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has increased in the last years. Epigenetic dysregulation affecting gene expression could be a determinant in early-life obesity onset and accompanying complications. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present investigation was to analyse the putative association between DNA methylation and childhood obesity. METHODS: DNA was isolated from white blood cells of 24 children obtained from the GENOI study and was hybridized in a 450K methylation array...
June 14, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
L Smith, D Aggio, M Hamer
BACKGROUND: Children of South Asian decent born in the UK display lower levels of physical activity than British Caucasians although no longitudinal data are available. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate change in activity levels over 1 year in a diverse ethnic sample of children residing in London, UK. METHODS: Children were categorized into ethnic groups (Caucasian/mixed, Black, South Asian). At baseline and 1-year follow-up, children's objective physical activity was monitored (Actigraph accelerometer) for at least 1 day...
May 22, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
E K Dunford, B M Popkin
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have indicated that snacking is contributing to increased calorie intake of American children and that the energy density of snacks in US diets has increased in recent decades. OBJECTIVE: Examine short-term and long-term trends in the energy density and food sources of snacks for US children from 1977 to 2014, and examine whether trends differ between socio-demographic groups. METHODS: We used data collected from eight nationally representative surveys of food intake in 49,952 US children age 2-18 years, between 1977 and 2014...
May 15, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
S Sen, S L Rifas-Shiman, N Shivappa, M D Wirth, J R Hebert, D R Gold, M W Gillman, E Oken
BACKGROUND: Limited information exists regarding the association between early-life diet and cardiometabolic risk. OBJECTIVES: Examine associations of dietary inflammatory index (DII) in pregnancy and early childhood (3-5 years) with adiposity, blood pressure and metabolic markers in mid-childhood (6-10 years). METHODS: Among 992 mother-child pairs from Project Viva, a pre-birth cohort, we examined associations of DII scores with outcomes using multivariable linear regression adjusted for child age and sex and maternal age, BMI, education, parity, smoking, race and income...
May 10, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
R W Walker, J C Clemente, I Peter, R J F Loos
The colonization of the gut with microbes in early life is critical to the developing newborn immune system, metabolic function and potentially future health. Maternal microbes are transmitted to offspring during childbirth, representing a key step in the colonization of the infant gut. Studies of infant meconium suggest that bacteria are present in the foetal gut prior to birth, meaning that colonization could occur prenatally. Animal studies have shown that prenatal transmission of microbes to the foetus is possible, and physiological changes observed in pregnant mothers indicate that in utero transfer is likely in humans as well...
April 26, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
M D Marcus, D E Wilfley, L El Ghormli, P Zeitler, B Linder, K Hirst, C E Ievers-Landis, D J van Buren, N Walders-Abramson
BACKGROUND: The Treatment Options for type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) clinical trial documented that metformin plus rosiglitazone, but not metformin plus lifestyle intervention, provided superior durability of glycemic control relative to metformin monotherapy. OBJECTIVES: We examined weight changes among TODAY participants that completed at least 6 months of treatment, evaluated predictors of lifestyle outcome, and examined whether weight changes were related to cardiometabolic outcomes across treatment arms...
August 2017: Pediatric Obesity
S Modrek, S Basu, M Harding, J S White, M C Bartick, E Rodriguez, K D Rosenberg
BACKGROUND: Many studies have documented that breastfeeding is associated with a significant reduction in child obesity risk. However, a persistent problem in this literature is that unobservable confounders may drive the correlations between breastfeeding behaviors and child weight outcomes. OBJECTIVE: This study examines the effect of breastfeeding practices on child weight outcomes at age 2. METHODS: This study relied on population-based data for all births in Oregon in 2009 followed for two years...
August 2017: Pediatric Obesity
P Salehi, I Hsu, C G Azen, S D Mittelman, M E Geffner, D Jeandron
BACKGROUND: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is associated with hyperphagia and hyperghrelinemia with major morbidity because of obesity without effective medical treatment targeting hyperphagia. Exenatide (Byetta [synthetic Exendin-4]; AstraZeneca, Wilmington DE) is a GLP-1 receptor agonist which reduces appetite and weight and may be an effective treatment in PWS. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to determine the effect of a 6-month trial of exenatide on appetite, weight and gut hormones in youth with PWS...
June 2017: Pediatric Obesity
K K Bost, M Teran-Garcia, S M Donovan, B H Fiese
BACKGROUND: Restrictive feeding is implicated in pediatric obesity, and caregivers increase controlling feeding practices on the basis of higher child weight status. However, few studies have examined how child genetic and parenting characteristics together impact restrictive feeding. OBJECTIVES: We examined whether child body mass index (BMI) status predicts caregiver use of restrictive feeding and if this association is moderated by (i) caregiver strategies to manage their children's distress and (ii) child variations in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene (Val(158) Met, rs4680)...
April 21, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
R Ghosh, W J Gauderman, H Minor, H A Youn, F Lurmann, K R Cromar, L Chatzi, B Belcher, C R Fielding, R McConnell
BACKGROUND: Emerging experimental evidence suggests that air pollution may contribute to development of obesity and diabetes, but studies of children are limited. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that pollution effects would be magnified after bariatric surgery for treatment of obesity, reducing benefits of surgery. METHODS: In 75 obese adolescents, excess weight loss (EWL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c ) were measured prospectively at baseline and following laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB)...
April 21, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
C Potter, D Ferriday, R L Griggs, J P Hamilton-Shield, P J Rogers, J M Brunstrom
BACKGROUND: Increases in portion size are thought by many to promote obesity in children. However, this relationship remains unclear. Here, we explore the extent to which a child's BMI is predicted both by parental beliefs about their child's ideal and maximum portion size and/or by the child's own beliefs. METHODS: Parent-child (5-11 years) dyads (N = 217) were recruited from a randomized controlled trial (n = 69) and an interactive science centre (n = 148)...
April 4, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
R M Puhl, Y Suh, X Li
BACKGROUND: Weight-based bullying is a prevalent problem among youth with overweight and obesity, but remains neglected in existing policy-level strategies to address youth bullying. Parental support is an influential catalyst motivating political will for policy decisions affecting youth, but has received limited research attention. OBJECTIVES: To assess levels of, and predictors of, parental support for school-based policies and state/federal legal measures to address weight-based bullying in 2014 and 2015...
April 2017: Pediatric Obesity
C N Ford, J M Poti, S W Ng, B M Popkin
BACKGROUND: Taxing sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has been proposed as a strategy to combat child obesity. Yet it is unclear how a tax on SSBs might influence the overall quality of diet in preschool children. Thus, we use simulated price increases and the 2010 Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2010) to explore the relationship between SSB taxes and diet quality in preschool children. METHODS: Price and purchase data from the 2009-2012 Nielsen Homescan Panel and a two-part marginal effects model were used to estimate relative changes in purchases with a 20% increase in the price of SSBs...
April 2017: Pediatric Obesity
Z Bider-Canfield, M P Martinez, X Wang, W Yu, M P Bautista, J Brookey, K A Page, T A Buchanan, A H Xiang
BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity, excessive gestational weight gain (EGWG), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and breastfeeding are four important factors associated with childhood obesity. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to assess the interplay among these four factors and their independent contributions to childhood overweight in a cohort with standard clinical care. METHODS: The cohort included 15 710 mother-offspring pairs delivered in 2011...
April 2017: Pediatric Obesity
N T Mueller, S L Rifas-Shiman, M J Blaser, M W Gillman, M-F Hivert
BACKGROUND: Early postnatal antibiotic use has been shown to promote excess weight gain, but it is unclear whether intrauterine exposure to antibiotics is associated with foetal growth and adiposity. The objective of this study was to examine associations of antibiotic prescription in each trimester of pregnancy with foetal size and adipokine levels at birth. METHODS: In 2128 pregnant women from the pre-birth Project Viva cohort, from electronic medical records, we estimated antibiotic prescribing by timing during pregnancy...
April 2017: Pediatric Obesity
A Prats-Puig, M Gispert-Saüch, G Carreras-Badosa, I Osiniri, P Soriano-Rodríguez, M Planella-Colomer, F de Zegher, L Ibánez, J Bassols, A López-Bermejo
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this paper is to test whether α-defensins and bacterial/permeability-increasing protein were related to obesity and cardiovascular risk factors in prepubertal children. METHODS: Plasma α-defensins and bacterial/permeability-increasing protein, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, systolic blood pressure (SBP), carotid intima media thickness (cIMT), HOMA-IR and HMW-adiponectin were assessed. RESULTS: In a cross-sectional study (N = 250), higher α-defensins concentrations were positively associated with BMI, waist, SBP, cIMT, HOMA-IR and negative correlated with HMW-adiponectin (all between r = 0...
April 2017: Pediatric Obesity
Jennifer S Savage, Leann L Birch
BACKGROUND: Maternal symptoms of depression are related to suboptimal parenting practices and child well-being; women with elevated symptoms tend to be less responsive to their children. OBJECTIVE: The objective is to explore how maternal depressive symptomatology is related to childhood obesity-promoting parenting behaviours, and whether depressive symptomatology moderates the association between perceived child negativity and the use of food to soothe among low-income mothers...
April 2017: Pediatric Obesity
A E Staiano, A M Marker, R A Beyl, D S Hsia, P T Katzmarzyk, R L Newton
BACKGROUND: Structured exergaming with prescribed moderate intensity physical activity has reduced adiposity among adolescents. The extent to which adolescents reduce adiposity when allowed to self-select intensity level is not known. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to examine the influence of exergaming on adolescent girls' body composition and cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial assigned 41 overweight and obese girls aged 14 to 18 years to group-based dance exergaming (36 h over 3 months) or to a self-directed care control condition...
April 2017: Pediatric Obesity
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