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Pediatric Obesity

C M Wright, L Marryat, J McColl, U Harjunmaa, T J Cole
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether high weight in infancy predicts obesity in childhood. METHOD: Data from two UK cohorts (Newcastle Growth and Development N = 795, Gateshead Millennium N = 393) and one Finnish (Tampere N = 1262) were combined. Z scores of weight at 3 and 12 months and body mass index (BMI) at 5 and 8 years were categorized as raised/overweight (1 to <2 SD) or high/obese (≥2 SD). RESULTS: The majority of infants with raised or high weight at birth tended to revert to normal by 3 months and to track in the same category from 3 to 12 months...
July 11, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
L D Ritchie, G Woodward-Lopez, L E Au, C M Loria, V Collie-Akers, D K Wilson, E A Frongillo, W J Strauss, A J Landgraf, J Nagaraja, R D F Sagatov, H L Nicastro, L C Nebeling, K L Webb
BACKGROUND: The impact of community-based obesity prevention efforts on child nutrition has not been adequately studied. OBJECTIVE: Examine relationships between number, type and intensity of community programs and policies (CPPs) and child nutrition. METHODS: An observational study of 5138 children (grades K-8) in 130 U.S. communities was conducted in 2013-2015. CPPs were identified by 10-14 key informant interviews per community. CPPs were characterized based on: count, intensity, number of different strategies used and number of different behaviours targeted...
July 10, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
G Woodward-Lopez, W Gosliner, L E Au, J Kao, K L Webb, R D Sagatov, W J Strauss, A J Landgraf, J Nagaraja, D K Wilson, H L Nicastro, L C Nebeling, J A Schultz, L D Ritchie
BACKGROUND: The influence of community characteristics on the effectiveness of childhood obesity prevention efforts is not well understood. OBJECTIVE: Examine the interaction of community characteristics with the relationship between community programmes and policies (CPPs) and dietary intake. METHODS: An observational study of 5138 children in grades K-8 in 130 US communities was conducted in 2013-2015. Key informant interviews identified and characterized CPPs...
July 10, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
M Herle, A Fildes, C H Llewellyn
BACKGROUND: Emotional over-eating (EOE) and emotional under-eating (EUE) are common behaviours that develop in early childhood and are hypothesised to play a role in weight status. Data from a British twin cohort demonstrated that environmental, rather than genetic, factors shape individual differences in both behaviours in early childhood. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this current study was to replicate this finding in a subsample (n = 398) of 4-year-old twins selected for high or low risk of obesity from another population-based cohort of British twins (the Twins Early Development Study)...
June 21, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
K L Webb, S C Hewawitharana, L E Au, V Collie-Akers, W J Strauss, A J Landgraf, J Nagaraja, D K Wilson, R Sagatov, J Kao, C M Loria, S B Fawcett, L D Ritchie
BACKGROUND: Rational planning of community policies and programs (CPPs) to prevent obesity requires an understanding of CPP objectives associated with dietary behaviours. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to identify objectives of CPPs associated with healthful dietary behaviours. METHODS: An observational study identified 4026 nutrition CPPs occurring in 130 communities in the prior 6 years. Dietary intakes of fruits and vegetables, added sugar and sugar-sweetened beverages, among others, were reported among 5138 children 4-15 years of age from the communities, using a Dietary Screener Questionnaire with children age 9 years and older (parent assisted) or parent proxies for younger children...
June 19, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
J A Schultz, V L Collie-Akers, S B Fawcett, W J Strauss, J Nagaraja, A J Landgraf, K L McIver, S A Weber, S S Arteaga, L C Nebeling, S M Rauzon
BACKGROUND: Little is known about whether characteristics of communities are associated with differential implementation of community programmes and policies to promote physical activity and healthy eating. This study examines associations between community characteristics (e.g. region and race/ethnicity) and the intensity of community programmes and policies implemented to prevent childhood obesity. It explores whether community characteristics moderate the intensity of community efforts to prevent childhood obesity...
June 19, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
R P Saunders, M Dowda, K McIver, R R Pate
BACKGROUND: Physical activity helps prevent excessive weight gain in youth. Few studies have examined regional variations in common activities, walking and bicycling. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim was to examine participation in previous 7-day walking/bicycling for active transport and for fun/exercise by region, gender and age groups. METHODS: Children (n = 2693) from 130 diverse, geographically distributed US communities reported participation in previous 7-day walking/bicycling...
June 14, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
A T Kaczynski, G M Besenyi, S Child, S Morgan Hughey, N Colabianchi, K L McIver, M Dowda, R R Pate
BACKGROUND: Residential environments may significantly influence youth physical activity (PA). However, few studies have examined detailed street quality attributes via observational audits in relation to context-specific PA among youth. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to explore whether the overall quality of street environments, as well as specific attributes, was associated with neighbourhood-based and street-based PA within a national sample of youth in the Healthy Communities Study...
June 14, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
V L Collie-Akers, J A Schultz, S B Fawcett, S Landry, S Obermeier, E A Frongillo, M Forthofer, N Weinstein, S A Weber, A Logan, S S Arteaga, L Nebeling, L E Au
INTRODUCTION: Efforts to address the critical public health problem of childhood obesity are occurring across the USA; however, little is known about how to characterize the intensity of these efforts. OBJECTIVES: The purposes of this study are to describe the intensity of community programs and policies (CPPs) to address childhood obesity in 130 US communities and to examine the extent to which observed CPPs targeted multiple behaviours and employed a comprehensive array of strategies...
June 14, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
R R Pate, E A Frongillo, K L McIver, N Colabianchi, D K Wilson, V L Collie-Akers, J A Schultz, J Reis, K Madsen, G Woodward-Lopez, D Berrigan, A Landgraf, J Nagaraja, W J Strauss
BACKGROUND: Community initiatives to promote physical activity in children are common, but evidence supporting their effectiveness is limited. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to examine the relationships between community programmes and policies and children's physical activity in a large and diverse sample of US communities. METHODS: Programmes and policies to promote children's physical activity were assessed in 130 communities by key informant interviews, and physical activity behaviours were measured by self-report and parental report in samples of children in each community (total n = 5138)...
June 13, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
A B Bowling, H W Tiemeier, V W V Jaddoe, E D Barker, P W Jansen
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is linked to increased risk of overweight/obesity among children and adults. Studies have also implicated obesity as a risk factor for ADHD. However, no studies have evaluated bidirectional, longitudinal associations between childhood fat mass and ADHD symptom severity. OBJECTIVES: We investigate bidirectional associations between ADHD symptoms and measures of body composition between ages 1.5 and 9. We further examine effects of specific eating patterns linked to ADHD on associations between symptom severity and body composition...
June 4, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
S L Bridgman, M B Azad, R R Persaud, R S Chari, A B Becker, M R Sears, P J Mandhane, S E Turvey, P Subbarao, A M Haqq, A L Kozyrskyj
BACKGROUND: Maternal overweight or obesity (OWOB) is linked to gestational diabetes, fetal macrosomia and higher rates of caesarean delivery. OBJECTIVES: The study aims to assess whether maternal pre-pregnancy OWOB is associated with infant overweight in a sex-dependent manner, independent of microbiota-altering variables. METHODS: Weight and length measurements of 955 mother-infant pairs were obtained from the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development cohort...
May 25, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
E H Yeung, R Sundaram, Y Xie, D A Lawrence
BACKGROUND: While adipokines can regulate satiety and energy metabolism, whether they are associated with childhood growth is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether adipokine levels at birth are associated with growth. METHODS: A total of 2264 singletons and 1144 twins from Upstate KIDS (born 2008-2010) had adiponectin, leptin, resistin and complement factor D measured in newborn blood spots. Parents reported anthropometry from paediatric visits via questionnaires every 4-6 months...
May 20, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
R Somerville, H Khalil, R Segurado, J Mehegan, K Viljoen, M Heinen, C Murrin, C C Kelleher
BACKGROUND: The importance of a life course approach to childhood obesity has been emphasized; however, few studies can prospectively investigate relationships in three-generation families. OBJECTIVE: To prospectively investigate the relationship between grandparental and grandchild waist circumference (WC) at ages 5 and 9 down maternal and paternal lines. METHODS: At baseline in the Lifeways Cross-Generation Cohort, 1094 children were born to 1082 mothers; 585 were examined at age 5 and 298 at age 9...
May 9, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
N K Hyde, S L Brennan-Olsen, J D Wark, S M Hosking, K L Holloway-Kew, J A Pasco
BACKGROUND: Evidence regarding the association between gestational vitamin D status and offspring body composition during childhood is inconsistent. Therefore, we aimed to determine the association between maternal vitamin D and offspring lean and fat mass in the Vitamin D in Pregnancy birth cohort. METHODS: Subjects were mother-child pairs recruited from the Australian-based Vitamin D in Pregnancy cohort study. Mothers were recruited before 16 weeks' gestation and provided a blood sample at both recruitment and at 28-32 weeks' gestation...
April 27, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
J S Charsley, S C Collins, A J Hill
BACKGROUND: Negative obesity stereotypes and anti-fat attitudes have been observed in children from age three. It is uncertain whether this is specific to fatness or generalizable to other visible differences. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether young children base decisions about qualities in others and friendship choices more on fatness than other visible differences between people. METHODS: Using a personal construct theory approach, 85 children (mean age 5...
April 27, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
M M Broadney, F Shareef, S E Marwitz, S M Brady, S Z Yanovski, J P DeLany, J A Yanovski
BACKGROUND: Resting energy expenditure (REE), adjusted for total lean mass (LM), is lower in African American (AA) than Caucasian American (CA) children. Some adult studies suggest that AA-CA differences in lean mass compartments explain this REE difference. Similar data are limited in children. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate differences in compartment-specific lean mass between AA and CA children and examine the individual contributions of high-metabolic rate-at-rest trunk lean mass (TrLM) and low-metabolic-rate-at-rest appendicular lean mass (AppLM) for AA-CA differences in REE...
April 26, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
R J Noonan, S J Fairclough
OBJECTIVE: The primary aim was to examine associations between individual-level and area-level measures of socioeconomic status (SES) and different measures of overweight/obesity in 7-year-old English children. A secondary aim was to examine associations between individual-level and area-level measures of SES and moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA). METHODS: Data were from wave four of the Millennium Cohort Study. Children were classified as normal weight, overweight/obese and centrally obese...
April 26, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
T C Yang, K E Peterson, J D Meeker, B N Sánchez, Z Zhang, A Cantoral, M Solano, M M Tellez-Rojo
BACKGROUND: Bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates metabolites are linked to a variety of adverse health consequences but studies have not explored their association with growth trajectories. OBJECTIVE: Explore body mass index (BMI) trajectories for tertile exposures to BPA and phthalates metabolites in the third trimester of pregnancy. METHODS: We constructed BMI (kg/m2 ) trajectories from birth to 14 years in a birth cohort of 249 children from Mexico City using tertiles of third trimester maternal urinary concentrations of BPA and phthalates metabolites...
April 26, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
D G Ingram, L A Irish, E J Tomayko, R J Prince, K A Cronin, T Parker, K Kim, L Carmichael, V M Grant, J N Sheche, A K Adams
BACKGROUND: Sleep has emerged as a potentially modifiable risk factor for obesity in children. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the association between overnight sleep duration and obesity among American Indian (AI) children ages 2-5 years. METHODS: Data were examined from the baseline assessment of children enrolling in the Healthy Children, Strong Families study, which is a randomized lifestyle intervention trial in five diverse rural and urban AI communities nationally among children ages 2-5 years...
April 26, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
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