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Pediatric Obesity

P S Gibson, A Quaglia, A Dhawan, H Wu, S Lanham-New, K H Hart, E Fitzpatrick, J B Moore
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the role of polymorphisms determining vitamin D status remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine in UK children with biopsy-proven NAFLD (i) their vitamin D status throughout a 12-month period and (ii) interactions between key vitamin D-related genetic variants (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide synthase-1/dehydrocholesterol reductase-7, vitamin D receptor, group-specific component, CYP2R1) and disease severity...
May 14, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
R Somerville, H Khalil, R Segurado, J Mehegan, K Viljoen, M Heinen, C Murrin, C C Kelleher
BACKGROUND: The importance of a life course approach to childhood obesity has been emphasized; however, few studies can prospectively investigate relationships in three-generation families. OBJECTIVE: To prospectively investigate the relationship between grandparental and grandchild waist circumference (WC) at ages 5 and 9 down maternal and paternal lines. METHODS: At baseline in the Lifeways Cross-Generation Cohort, 1094 children were born to 1082 mothers; 585 were examined at age 5 and 298 at age 9...
May 9, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
N K Hyde, S L Brennan-Olsen, J D Wark, S M Hosking, K L Holloway-Kew, J A Pasco
BACKGROUND: Evidence regarding the association between gestational vitamin D status and offspring body composition during childhood is inconsistent. Therefore, we aimed to determine the association between maternal vitamin D and offspring lean and fat mass in the Vitamin D in Pregnancy birth cohort. METHODS: Subjects were mother-child pairs recruited from the Australian-based Vitamin D in Pregnancy cohort study. Mothers were recruited before 16 weeks' gestation and provided a blood sample at both recruitment and at 28-32 weeks' gestation...
April 27, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
J S Charsley, S C Collins, A J Hill
BACKGROUND: Negative obesity stereotypes and anti-fat attitudes have been observed in children from age three. It is uncertain whether this is specific to fatness or generalizable to other visible differences. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether young children base decisions about qualities in others and friendship choices more on fatness than other visible differences between people. METHODS: Using a personal construct theory approach, 85 children (mean age 5...
April 27, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
M M Broadney, F Shareef, S E Marwitz, S M Brady, S Z Yanovski, J P DeLany, J A Yanovski
BACKGROUND: Resting energy expenditure (REE), adjusted for total lean mass (LM), is lower in African American (AA) than Caucasian American (CA) children. Some adult studies suggest that AA-CA differences in lean mass compartments explain this REE difference. Similar data are limited in children. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate differences in compartment-specific lean mass between AA and CA children and examine the individual contributions of high-metabolic rate-at-rest trunk lean mass (TrLM) and low-metabolic-rate-at-rest appendicular lean mass (AppLM) for AA-CA differences in REE...
April 26, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
R J Noonan, S J Fairclough
OBJECTIVE: The primary aim was to examine associations between individual-level and area-level measures of socioeconomic status (SES) and different measures of overweight/obesity in 7-year-old English children. A secondary aim was to examine associations between individual-level and area-level measures of SES and moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA). METHODS: Data were from wave four of the Millennium Cohort Study. Children were classified as normal weight, overweight/obese and centrally obese...
April 26, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
T C Yang, K E Peterson, J D Meeker, B N Sánchez, Z Zhang, A Cantoral, M Solano, M M Tellez-Rojo
BACKGROUND: Bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates metabolites are linked to a variety of adverse health consequences but studies have not explored their association with growth trajectories. OBJECTIVE: Explore body mass index (BMI) trajectories for tertile exposures to BPA and phthalates metabolites in the third trimester of pregnancy. METHODS: We constructed BMI (kg/m2 ) trajectories from birth to 14 years in a birth cohort of 249 children from Mexico City using tertiles of third trimester maternal urinary concentrations of BPA and phthalates metabolites...
April 26, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
D G Ingram, L A Irish, E J Tomayko, R J Prince, K A Cronin, T Parker, K Kim, L Carmichael, V M Grant, J N Sheche, A K Adams
BACKGROUND: Sleep has emerged as a potentially modifiable risk factor for obesity in children. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the association between overnight sleep duration and obesity among American Indian (AI) children ages 2-5 years. METHODS: Data were examined from the baseline assessment of children enrolling in the Healthy Children, Strong Families study, which is a randomized lifestyle intervention trial in five diverse rural and urban AI communities nationally among children ages 2-5 years...
April 26, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
C Ochoa Sangrador, J Ochoa-Brezmes
BACKGROUND: Individuals with abdominal obesity have a higher cardiovascular risk, regardless of the degree of global overweight. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the accuracy of the Waist/height ratio (WtHR) as a risk marker for metabolic syndrome (MS) in children or adolescents. METHODS: Published cohort or cross-sectional studies (Pubmed, Embase-SCOPUS and CINAHL) were searched, with no limits of time. Studies providing Waist/height ratio and clustered criteria of metabolic syndrome were included...
April 26, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
O Sirkka, T Vrijkotte, J Halberstadt, M Abrahamse-Berkeveld, T Hoekstra, J Seidell, M Olthof
BACKGROUND: Children with overweight or obesity are at risk for developing obesity in adulthood. Certain maternal characteristics, such as ethnicity, education, body mass index (BMI) or neighbourhood, are determinants for childhood overweight risk. There are large variations in how mothers differing in these characteristics feed their infants. Therefore, associations of age at complementary feeding, exclusive breast feeding duration with childhood overweight may differ in these groups...
April 25, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
E P Gunderson, L C Greenspan, M S Faith, S R Hurston, C P Quesenberry
BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding (BF) may protect against obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus in children exposed to maternal diabetes in utero, but its effects on infant growth among this high-risk group have rarely been evaluated. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate BF intensity and duration in relation to infant growth from birth through 12 months among offspring of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS: Prospective cohort of 464 GDM mother-infant dyads (28% White, 36% Hispanic, 26% Asian, 8% Black, 2% other)...
April 24, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
S Bhutani, L P Hanrahan, J Vanwormer, D A Schoeller
BACKGROUND: Summer weight gain in children has been reported; however, this is usually based on two time points. Our objective was to investigate monthly variation in weight status. METHODS: Cross-sectional, de-identified health records including height, weight and demographics, collected between 2007 and 2012 from South Central Wisconsin in 70 531 children age 5-16 years were analysed. The monthly averages in body mass index (BMI) z-score were analysed cross-sectionally followed by a paired analysis for a subset with one visit each during school and summer months...
April 17, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
A K Macintyre, L Marryat, S Chambers
BACKGROUND: A significant gap exists in longitudinal evidence on early exposure to artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs) and weight outcomes for paediatric populations. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between ASB/sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption at 4-5 years and risk of overweight and obesity at 7-8 years. METHODS: Data from a nationally representative cohort (n = 2986) in Scotland were analysed using logistic regression to evaluate the association between exposure to ASBs/SSBs at 4-5 years and risk of overweight and obesity at 7-8 years...
April 6, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
C R Schneider, P M Catalano, J R Biggio, B A Gower, P C Chandler-Laney
BACKGROUND: Cord blood adiponectin and leptin concentrations are associated with birth weight and adiposity. Birth size and rate of infant weight gain are associated with future obesity risk. However, it is unclear whether biomarkers reflecting the intrauterine environment are predictive of infant prospective body composition change. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether cord blood adiponectin and leptin are predictive of neonatal adiposity and fat mass (FM) accrual to 3 months of age...
March 24, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
J-P Chaput, J D Barnes, M S Tremblay, M Fogelholm, G Hu, E V Lambert, C Maher, J Maia, T Olds, V Onywera, O L Sarmiento, M Standage, C Tudor-Locke, P T Katzmarzyk
BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) thresholds for obesity should be adapted depending on level of sedentary behaviour in children. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to determine the MVPA thresholds that best discriminate between obese and non-obese children, by level of screen time and total sedentary time in 12 countries. METHODS: This multinational, cross-sectional study included 6522 children 9-11 years of age...
March 24, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
R M Puhl, M S Himmelstein
BACKGROUND: In light of high rates of obesity and weight stigma in youth, the American Academy of Paediatrics recommends that paediatric health care professionals use appropriate, sensitive and non-stigmatizing language in communication about weight with youth. For these efforts to be effective, there is a need to identify weight-based language preferences among youth with overweight and obesity, as research in this area is scarce. OBJECTIVES: The present study provides a systematic assessment of youth perspectives of weight-based language used by providers...
March 24, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
A Kulkarni, T Gulesserian, J M M D Lorenzo, Y Haroonian, M Ngyuyen, Y Lo, D Wang, D Hsu, F Kaskel, J Mahgerefteh
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of obesity on myocardial mechanics and ventriculo-arterial coupling (V-A) in children. METHODS: Strain parameters, stroke volume, arterial elastance, left ventricular (LV) elastance and V-A were compared after adjusting for age and hypertension and after multivariate sub-group analysis between patients with and without obesity. RESULTS: Among 123 retrospectively enrolled subjects, 6-21 years age, 79...
March 22, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
W J Strauss, J Nagaraja, A J Landgraf, S S Arteaga, S B Fawcett, L D Ritchie, L V John, M Gregoriou, E A Frongillo, C M Loria, S A Weber, V L Collie-Akers, K L McIver, J Schultz, R D F Sagatov, E S Leifer, K Webb, R R Pate
BACKGROUND: Although a national epidemic of childhood obesity is apparent, how community-based programmes and policies (CPPs) affect this outcome is not well understood. OBJECTIVES: This study examined the longitudinal relationship between the intensity of CPPs in 130 communities over 10 years and body mass index (BMI) of resident children. We also examined whether these relationships differ by key family or community characteristics. METHODS: Five thousand one hundred thirty-eight children in grades K-8 were recruited through 436 schools located within 130 diverse US communities...
February 28, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
K Lucas, P James, A C Choh, M Lee, S A Czerwinski, E W Demerath, W Johnson
BACKGROUND: Infant weight gain is positively related to adulthood body mass index (BMI), but it is unknown whether or not this association is stronger for individuals born during (compared with before) the obesity epidemic. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to examine how the infant weight gain-adulthood BMI association might have changed across successive birth year cohorts spanning most of the 20th century. METHODS: The sample comprised 346 participants in the Fels Longitudinal Study...
February 28, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
R B Jones, T L Alderete, A A Martin, B A Geary, D H Hwang, S L Palmer, M I Goran
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have shown that there are links between obesity, liver fat and the gut microbiome. However, there are mixed results on whether probiotics could impact the gut microbiome and/or help to decrease liver fat and obesity outcomes. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine whether a probiotic supplement (VSL#3® ) intervention altered gut microbiota and/or gut hormones associated with appetite regulation. The secondary aim of this study was to determine whether VSL#3® altered body composition and liver fat and fibrosis...
February 28, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
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