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Pediatric Obesity

L J Akinbami, L M Rossen, T H I Fakhouri, C D Fryar
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a risk factor for asthma. However, it is unclear if increased obesity prevalence contributed to rising childhood asthma prevalence. OBJECTIVE: To assess if population-level changes in weight status impacted asthma prevalence over time. METHODS: Using nationally representative 1988-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data for 40 644 children aged 2-19 years, we analyzed asthma trends by weight status (body mass index age-specific percentiles determined using measured weight and height)...
November 12, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
B T Nezami, D S Ward, L A Lytle, S T Ennett, D F Tate
BACKGROUND: Sugar-sweetened beverages and maternal weight are strong drivers of child obesity, but few studies have targeted these risk factors as an obesity prevention strategy in children. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to test the efficacy of a smartphone-delivered intervention to reduce parent-provided sugar-sweetened beverage and juice (SSB/juice) consumption among children ages 3-5 and maternal weight. METHODS: Mothers with overweight or obesity, who had a child ages 3-5 that consumed at least 12 fl...
November 8, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
T L Alderete, A Y Song, T Bastain, R Habre, C M Toledo-Corral, M T Salam, F Lurmann, F D Gilliland, C V Breton
OBJECTIVE: Studies suggest that prenatal exposure to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) may contribute to childhood obesity. While exact mechanisms for this association are unknown, circulating adipokines are hypothesized to contribute to early-life weight gain. METHODS: The Maternal and Child Health Study birth cohort included 136 women from the Los Angeles County + University of Southern California Medical Center. This study estimated prenatal residential TRAP exposure and used linear regression analysis to examine associations between adipokines with TRAP exposure and infant weight change (birth to 6 months)...
November 3, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
J L Harris, K S Haraghey, M Lodolce, N L Semenza
BACKGROUND: Food companies often use healthy lifestyle messages in child-directed advertising, raising public health concerns about health halo effects for nutrient-poor food/drinks. OBJECTIVE: Examine effects of health messages promoting nutrient-poor foods in child-directed advertising. METHODS: Randomized controlled experiment (N = 138). Children (7-11 years) viewed three child-friendly commercials in one of three conditions: (1) health halo (unfamiliar nutrient-poor food/drink ads with healthy messages); (2) nutrient-poor food/drink ads with other messages and (3) healthy food/drink ads...
October 27, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
S Kumar, M J Hossain, A Javed, I J Kullo, P B Balagopal
PURPOSE: Spexin, a novel peptide, has potential implications in obesity, satiety and energy homeostasis. The current study examined the relationship of spexin with various biomarkers of cardiovascular disease and endothelial function in adolescents with obesity. METHODS: Nineteen adolescents with obesity (age, 15.8 ± 1.7 years) were studied. Spexin, leptin and various cardiovascular disease biomarkers were measured. Endothelial function was assessed by high-resolution Doppler ultrasonography of the right brachial artery...
October 18, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
A Méndez-Mancilla, V Lima-Rogel, J C Toro-Ortíz, F Escalante-Padrón, A E Monsiváis-Urenda, D E Noyola, M Salgado-Bustamante
BACKGROUND: The perinatal environment has a role in the establishment of altered metabolic and inflammatory responses, and could be modulated by microRNAs regulating immune and metabolic processes. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the expression profile of four circulating microRNAs and cytokine serum concentrations in neonates born to overweight and obese women. METHODS: Pregnant women were included and grouped by pregestational body mass index (21 with normal weight, 10 overweight and 10 obese women)...
October 17, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
L-W Chen, M-T Tint, M V Fortier, I M Aris, L P-C Shek, K H Tan, V S Rajadurai, P D Gluckman, Y-S Chong, K M Godfrey, M S Kramer, C J Henry, F Yap, Y S Lee
BACKGROUND: Quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR) has been increasingly used to measure human body composition, but its use and validation in children is limited. OBJECTIVE: We compared body composition measurement by QMR and air displacement plethysmography (ADP) in preschool children from Singapore's multi-ethnic Asian population (n = 152; mean ± SD age: 5.0 ± 0.1 years). METHODS: Agreements between QMR-based and ADP-based fat mass and fat mass index (FMI) were assessed using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), reduced major axis regression and Bland-Altman plot analyses...
October 12, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
M C Afeiche, B N S Koyratty, D Wang, E F Jacquier, K-A Lê
BACKGROUND: Intakes of dietary sugars is a global concern, and many national and international organizations have set targets to limit consumption. However, it is unclear to what extent intakes of total and added sugars vary between geographies. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the differences in intakes of total and added sugars in 4 to 13-year-old children in China, Mexico and the United States. The secondary aim was to identify main sources of total and added sugars in the diets of these children...
September 27, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
A Kalenda, K Landgraf, D Löffler, P Kovacs, W Kiess, A Körner
BACKGROUND: The amino acid-changing exonic variant rs6265 (Val66Met polymorphism) in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been linked to obesity in several genotype-phenotype association studies. OBJECTIVE: To identify metabolic factors by which this effect might be conveyed, we aimed to investigate its correlation with (i) obesity, (ii) metabolic parameters, (iii) serum levels of BDNF and (iv) measures of energy intake in children and adolescents. METHODS: We genotyped the variant in 2131 subjects (age 6-18 years) and checked for an association with obesity...
September 27, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
R An, H Xue, L Wang, Y Wang
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to project the societal cost and benefit of an expansion of a water access intervention that promotes lunchtime plain water consumption by placing water dispensers in New York school cafeterias to all schools nationwide. METHODS: A decision model was constructed to simulate two events under Markov chain processes - placing water dispensers at lunchtimes in school cafeterias nationwide vs. no action. The incremental cost pertained to water dispenser purchase and maintenance, whereas the incremental benefit was resulted from cases of childhood overweight/obesity prevented and corresponding lifetime direct (medical) and indirect costs saved...
September 22, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
D A Kornet-van der Aa, C H van Randeraad-van der Zee, J Mayer, J M Borys, M J M Chinapaw
The present study aimed to enrich the scientific evidence on obesity prevention programmes for adolescents from socio-economically disadvantaged backgrounds with practice-based experiences from both scientific and professional experts in the field of youth obesity prevention. We used the participatory method of concept mapping. Two concept mapping sessions were conducted: one with programme coordinators of national/regional obesity prevention programmes across Europe (n = 8) and one with scientists participating in European obesity prevention projects (n = 5)...
September 18, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
M I Goran, S L Riemer, T L Alderete
Excess sugar intake increases risk for obesity and related comorbidities among children. The World Health Organization (WHO), American Heart Association (AHA) and the 2015 USDA dietary recommendations have proposed guidelines for added sugar intake to reduce risk for disease. WHO and USDA recommendations are presented as a percentage of daily calories from added sugar. This approach is not easily understood or translated to children, where energy needs increase with age. The AHA recommendation is based on a fixed value of 25 g of added sugar for all children 2-19 years of age...
September 18, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
C Westgarth, L M Boddy, G Stratton, A J German, R M Gaskell, K P Coyne, P Bundred, S McCune, S Dawson
BACKGROUND: Health benefits of dog walking are established in adults: dog owners are on average more physically active, and those walking their dogs regularly have lower weight status than those who do not. However, there has been little research on children. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the association between dog ownership or dog walking and childhood fitness or weight status. METHODS: A survey of pet ownership and involvement in dog walking was combined with fitness and weight status measurements of 1021 9 to 10-year-old children in the Liverpool SportsLinx study...
December 2017: Pediatric Obesity
R Dorajoo, R T-H Ong, X Sim, L Wang, W Liu, E S Tai, J Liu, S-M Saw
INTRODUCTION: Recent genome-wide association studies have identified 103 adult obesity risk loci; however, it is unclear if these findings are relevant to East-Asian childhood body mass index (BMI) levels. METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated for paediatric obesity associations at these risk loci utilizing genome-wide data from Chinese childhood subjects in the Singapore Cohort study Of the Risk factors for Myopia study (N = 1006). A weighted gene-risk score of all adult obesity risk loci in the Singapore Cohort study Of the Risk factors for Myopia study showed strong associations with BMI at age 9 (p-value = 3...
December 2017: Pediatric Obesity
D R Young, C Koebnick, J-W Y Hsu
BACKGROUND: Emerging adulthood is a critical time for excess weight gain. Risk can be masked if recommended overweight and obesity cut-points for Asians are not employed. OBJECTIVES: To determine the associations among sociodemographic factors and occurrence of overweight and obesity among normal weight 18-year olds. METHODS: Normal weight (body mass index < 25 kg m(-2) ; <23 kg m(-2) for Asians) 18-year-old (9037 boys, 13 786 girls, 36% Hispanic, 34% non-Hispanic Whites, 10% Black, 5% Asian) members of a healthcare organization in 2008 were followed through 2012 to identify incidence of overweight and obesity...
December 2017: Pediatric Obesity
E T Rhodes, L Vernacchio, A A Mitchell, C Fischer, P Giacalone, D S Ludwig, C B Ebbeling
BACKGROUND: Telehealth offers opportunities to extend clinical and research interventions for paediatric obesity. OBJECTIVES: To assess utility of a telephone intervention, implemented through a national primary care paediatric research network, for promoting differentiation in dietary intake, consistent with either a low-glycemic load (Low GL) or Low Fat prescription, among overweight/obese school-age children. METHODS: Five-week telephone dietary counselling intervention for parents of overweight/obese school-age children recruited through the Slone Center Office-based Research Network...
December 2017: Pediatric Obesity
L M Lipsky, B Gee, A Liu, T R Nansel
BACKGROUND: The impact of excess weight on cardiovascular disease risk in type 1 diabetes patients is unclear. OBJECTIVE: This study examined associations of BMI and body composition with cardiovascular risk factors in youth followed prospectively for 18 months. METHODS: The sample includes youth with type 1 diabetes (N = 136, baseline age = 12.3 ± 2.5y, glycated hemoglobin = 8.1 ± 1.1%) participating in an 18-month behavioral nutrition intervention trial...
December 2017: Pediatric Obesity
C N Hart, N Hawley, A Davey, M Carskadon, H Raynor, E Jelalian, J Owens, R Considine, R R Wing
BACKGROUND: Paediatric observational studies demonstrate associations between sleep, television viewing and potential changes in daytime activity levels. OBJECTIVE(S): To determine whether experimental changes in sleep lead to changes in children's sedentary and physical activities. METHODS: Using a within-subject counterbalanced design, 37 children 8-11 years old completed a 3-week study. Children slept their typical amount during a baseline week and were then randomized to increase or decrease mean time in bed by 1...
December 2017: Pediatric Obesity
M Li, H Xue, M Wen, W Wang, Y Wang
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a serious threat to global health. School is a key setting for obesity intervention. Research on school risk factors for child obesity is limited in developing countries. OBJECTIVES: To examine regional variations in obesity and school environments/policies and their associations among students in China. METHODS: Analyses were based on the first nationally representative sample of 8573 9(th) graders in 110 middle schools from 28 regions across China...
December 2017: Pediatric Obesity
J H Taylor, Y Xu, F Li, M Shaw, J Dziura, S Caprio, W V Tamborlane, P Nowicka, M Savoye
BACKGROUND: An important area of research in childhood obesity is the identification of factors that predict or moderate the responses to obesity intervention programmes, yet few studies have examined the impact of self-esteem and family functioning on obesity treatment outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine whether baseline self-esteem and family functioning predicted or moderated childhood obesity intervention outcomes at 6 months. METHODS: From 2009 to 2011, seventy-five 10-16 year old, racially/ethnically diverse obese youths with abnormal glucose tolerance were randomized to 6 months of an intensive family-based obesity lifestyle intervention (Bright Bodies) or routine outpatient Clinic Care...
December 2017: Pediatric Obesity
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