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Environmental Sciences Europe

Stephan Brendel, Éva Fetter, Claudia Staude, Lena Vierke, Annegret Biegel-Engler
Background: Short-chain PFASs (per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances) are widely used as alternatives to long-chain PFASs. Long-chain PFASs become gradually regulated under REACH (EC No. 1907/2006) and other international regulations, due to having persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic properties and/or being toxic for reproduction. The increasingly used short-chain PFASs are assumed to have a lower bioaccumulation potential. Nonetheless, they have other properties of concern and are already widely distributed in the environment, also in remote regions...
2018: Environmental Sciences Europe
Naicheng Wu, Claas Faber, Uta Ulrich, Nicola Fohrer
Background: The separation of runoff components within a model simulation is of great importance for a successful implementation of management measures. Diatoms could be a promising indicator for tile drainage flow due to their diverse preferences to different aquatic habitats. In this study, we collected diatom samples of 9 sites (4 tile drainage, TD, and 5 river sites, Ri) in a German lowland catchment at a weekly or biweekly time step from March to July 2013 with the aim of testing the suitability of diatoms for tile drainage flow, which is typical for lowland catchment...
2018: Environmental Sciences Europe
Sebastian Kühr, Stefanie Schneider, Boris Meisterjahn, Karsten Schlich, Kerstin Hund-Rinke, Christian Schlechtriem
Background: Increasing amounts of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in wastewater can reach the aquatic environment by passing through the sewage treatment plant (STP). NPs can induce ecotoxicological effects due to their specific chemical properties. However, their bioavailability and toxicity are potentially influenced by transformation processes caused by substances present in the STP, e.g., humic acids or sulfides. Due to the lack of a test system allowing to test NPs under realistic environmental conditions, we coupled two existing test systems, the activated sludge simulation test (OECD TG 303A 2001) and the chronic exposure test with the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca (Environment Canada 2013), to gain a test scenario that allows to consider the altered behavior and fate of NPs induced by the STP process...
2018: Environmental Sciences Europe
Mirco Bundschuh, Juliane Filser, Simon Lüderwald, Moira S McKee, George Metreveli, Gabriele E Schaumann, Ralf Schulz, Stephan Wagner
Nanoparticles serve various industrial and domestic purposes which is reflected in their steadily increasing production volume. This economic success comes along with their presence in the environment and the risk of potentially adverse effects in natural systems. Over the last decade, substantial progress regarding the understanding of sources, fate, and effects of nanoparticles has been made. Predictions of environmental concentrations based on modelling approaches could recently be confirmed by measured concentrations in the field...
2018: Environmental Sciences Europe
Anja Coors, Pia Vollmar, Jennifer Heim, Frank Sacher, Anja Kehrer
Background: Biocidal products are mixtures of one or more active substances (a.s.) and a broad range of formulation additives. There is regulatory guidance currently under development that will specify how the combined effects of the a.s. and any relevant formulation additives shall be considered in the environmental risk assessment of biocidal products. The default option is a component-based approach (CBA) by which the toxicity of the product is predicted from the toxicity of 'relevant' components using concentration addition...
2018: Environmental Sciences Europe
Daisy A Martinez, Ulrich E Loening, Margaret C Graham
Based on experimental data from laboratory and field, numerous authors have raised concern that exposure to glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) may pre-dispose crops to damage by microbial pathogens. In this review, we distinguish and evaluate two principal pathways by which GBHs may affect the susceptibility of crops to disease: pathway 1-via disruptions to rhizosphere microbial ecology, and pathway 2-via restriction of nutrients to crops. We conclude that GBHs have the potential to undermine crop health in a number of ways, including: (i) impairment of the innate physiological defences of glyphosate-sensitive (GS) cultivars by interruption of the shikimic acid pathway; (ii) impairment of physiological disease defences has also been shown to occur in some glyphosate-resistant (GR) cultivars, despite their engineered resistance to glyphosate's primary mode of action; (iii) interference with rhizosphere microbial ecology (in particular, GBHs have the potential to enhance the population and/or virulence of some phytopathogenic microbial species in the crop rhizosphere); and finally, (iv) the as yet incompletely elucidated reduction in the uptake and utilisation of nutrient metals by crops...
2018: Environmental Sciences Europe
Tatjana Schneckenburger, Jens Riefstahl, Klaus Fischer
Background: Aliphatic (poly)hydroxy carboxylic acids [(P)HCA] occur in natural, e.g. soils, and in technical (waste disposal sites, nuclear waste repositories) compartments . Their distribution, mobility and chemical reactivity, e.g. complex formation with metal ions and radionuclides, depend, among others, on their adsorption onto mineral surfaces. Aluminium hydroxides, e.g. gibbsite [α-Al(OH)3], are common constituents of related solid materials and mimic the molecular surface properties of clay minerals...
2018: Environmental Sciences Europe
Sabrina Hartmann, Ursula Klaschka
Background: Everyday products can contain a multitude of harmful substances unnoticed by most consumers, because established risk communication channels reach only part of the society. The question is, whether at least interested and informed consumers are able to use risk communication tools and assess harmful chemicals in products. Results: An online survey investigated the awareness of 1030 consumers on harmful substances in everyday items. Participating consumers' education level, knowledge in chemistry, and motivation were above society's average...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
Raimund Prinz
Background: Soil-background values of PCDD/F concentrations are usually conveniently displayed as toxic equivalent (TEq), being a bulk parameter of all relevant 7 PCDD- and 10 PCDF-congeneres, chloro-subsidized at the 2nd, 3rd, 7th and 8th carbon atom. Data here are ample, not so survey on congenere/homologue patterns occurring in soils. The sufficient number of samples taken within this analysis allowed first a well-grounded evaluation. Results: OCDD proved to be the dominant congenere in all samples (forest and agriculture), however, in considerably different concentrations...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
Christoph Kämpfer, Thomas-Benjamin Seiler, Anna-Lena Beger, Georg Jacobs, Manuel Löwer, Franziska Moser, Julia Reimer, Martin Trautz, Björn Usadel, Alexandra Wormit, Henner Hollert
Technical product harvesting (TEPHA) is a newly developing interdisciplinary approach in which bio-based production is investigated from a technical and ecological perspective. Society's demand for ecologically produced and sustainably operable goods is a key driver for the substitution of conventional materials like metals or plastics through bio-based alternatives. Technical product harvesting of near net shape grown components describes the use of suitable biomass for the production of technical products through influencing the natural shape of plants during their growth period...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
Elżbieta Skiba, Wojciech M Wolf
BACKGROUND: Impact of two widely used commercial herbicides, i.e. Aminopielik D 450 SL and Chwastox 300 SL, on the uptake and translocation of selected heavy metals in wheat plants Triticum aestivum L. cultivated in the laboratory pot experiments was investigated. Mineral-humus, loamy sand soil representative for the central part of Poland was applied. Bioavailable, exchangeable and total forms of Cd, Co, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Mn were determined. Transfer coefficients, translocation, and bioaccumulation factors illustrating metal migration in the plant were investigated...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
Pol Karier, Georges Kraus, Isabelle Kolber
This discussion is centralized around an incident that took place in the Belgian village Witry the 17th of September 2014. A tractor accident led to the discharge of an aqueous solution of the herbicide metazachlor into the creek Moyémont that further merges into the river Sûre. About 20 km downstream, these waters supply the lake of the Upper-Sûre in Luxembourg, the biggest artificial lake and the main drinking water reservoir in the country. The evolution of the concentration of metazachlor and its metabolite 479M08 was partially tracked down from the river Sûre to the dam situated in the east...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
Ursula Klaschka
BACKGROUND: The European chemicals regulation REACH includes the legal duty for suppliers to inform consumers on request about the presence of substances of very high concern (SVHCs) in articles. Since this requirement has been in force now for 10 years, the intention of this study was to find out whether information on SVHCs is adequately communicated to the consumer today. Data on the presence of SVHCs in articles were collected as a prerequisite for the subsequent requests for a targeted choice of articles to examine the operability of the 'right to know...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
Sarah E Crawford, Catrina Brüll Nee Cofalla, Benedikt Aumeier, Markus Brinkmann, Elisa Classen, Verena Esser, Caroline Ganal, Elena Kaip, Roger Häussling, Frank Lehmkuhl, Peter Letmathe, Anne-Katrin Müller, Ilja Rabinovitch, Klaus Reicherter, Jan Schwarzbauer, Marco Schmitt, Georg Stauch, Matthias Wessling, Süleyman Yüce, Markus Hecker, Karen A Kidd, Rolf Altenburger, Werner Brack, Holger Schüttrumpf, Henner Hollert
Protecting our water resources in terms of quality and quantity is considered one of the big challenges of the twenty-first century, which requires global and multidisciplinary solutions. A specific threat to water resources, in particular, is the increased occurrence and frequency of flood events due to climate change which has significant environmental and socioeconomic impacts. In addition to climate change, flooding (or subsequent erosion and run-off) may be exacerbated by, or result from, land use activities, obstruction of waterways, or urbanization of floodplains, as well as mining and other anthropogenic activities that alter natural flow regimes...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
Lilian van Hove, Frøydis Gillund
In current debates on emerging technologies for plant breeding in Europe, much attention has been given to the regulatory status of these techniques and their public acceptance. At present, both genetically modified plants with cisgenic approaches-using genes from crossable species-as well as transgenic approaches-using genes from different species-fall under GMO regulation in the EU and both are mandatorily labelled as GMOs. Researchers involved in the early development of cisgenic GM plants convey the message that the potential use and acceptance of cisgenic approaches will be seriously hindered if GMO regulations are not adjusted...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
Joe N Perry, Paolo Barberi, Detlef Bartsch, A N E Birch, Achim Gathmann, Jozsef Kiss, Barbara Manachini, Marco Nuti, Stefan Rauschen, Joachim Schiemann, Mechthild Schuppener, Jeremy Sweet, Christoph C Tebbe, Fabio Veronesi
We respond to the paper of Kruse-Plass et al. (Environ Sci Eur 29:12, 2017), published in this journal, regarding the risk to non-target lepidopteran larvae exposed to pollen from one or more of three Bt maize events (MON810, Bt11 and 1507). We emphasise that what is important for environmental risk assessment is not the number of pollen grains per se, but the degree of exposure of a NT lepidopteran larva to Bt protein contained in maize pollen. The main text of this response deals with general issues which Kruse-Plass et al...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
Thorsten Stahl, Sandy Falk, Alice Rohrbeck, Sebastian Georgii, Christin Herzog, Alexander Wiegand, Svenja Hotz, Bruce Boschek, Holger Zorn, Hubertus Brunn
BACKGROUND: In spite of the prevalence of aluminum in nature, no organism has been found to date which requires this element for its biological functions. The possible health risks to human beings resulting from uptake of aluminum include detrimental effects to the hemopoietic system, the nervous system and bones. Aluminum is used in many fields and occurs in numerous foodstuffs. Food contact materials containing aluminum represent an anthropogenic source of dietary aluminum. RESULTS: As a result of their frequent use in private households a study was undertaken to detect migration of this metal to foodstuffs from drink containers, coffee pots, grill pans, and camping cookware made of aluminum...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
Thorsten Stahl, Sandy Falk, Alice Rohrbeck, Sebastian Georgii, Christin Herzog, Alexander Wiegand, Svenja Hotz, Bruce Boschek, Holger Zorn, Hubertus Brunn
BACKGROUND: Drinking bottles and stove-top moka pots made of aluminum have become very popular. Storing drinks in bottles and preparing coffee in a moka pot may result in the migration of aluminum to the beverage. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: In a systematic study of aluminum drinking bottles, it has been shown that drinking a mixture of apple juice and mineral water in an aluminum bottle may reach 86.6% of the total weekly intake (TWI) for adults, and drinking tea from an aluminum bottle may exceed the TWI (145%) for a child weighing 15 kg...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
Thorsten Stahl, Sandy Falk, Alice Rohrbeck, Sebastian Georgii, Christin Herzog, Alexander Wiegand, Svenja Hotz, Bruce Boschek, Holger Zorn, Hubertus Brunn
BACKGROUND: When cooking on a barbecue grill, consumers often use aluminum grill pans. For one, the pan catches the fats and oils that would drip into the embers causing the formation of potentially noxious smoke, and the pan also protects the food from being burned by direct heat from the coals. In addition, new aluminum products for use in ovens and grills are becoming increasingly popular. Due to their light weight and excellent heat transfer camping, utensils made of aluminum are, for example, often used by fishermen and mountain climbers...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
Sarah E Crawford, Thomas Hartung, Henner Hollert, Björn Mathes, Bennard van Ravenzwaay, Thomas Steger-Hartmann, Christoph Studer, Harald F Krug
Green Toxicology refers to the application of predictive toxicology in the sustainable development and production of new less harmful materials and chemicals, subsequently reducing waste and exposure. Built upon the foundation of "Green Chemistry" and "Green Engineering", "Green Toxicology" aims to shape future manufacturing processes and safe synthesis of chemicals in terms of environmental and human health impacts. Being an integral part of Green Chemistry, the principles of Green Toxicology amplify the role of health-related aspects for the benefit of consumers and the environment, in addition to being economical for manufacturing companies...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
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