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Environmental Sciences Europe

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780681/the-swiss-ecotox-centre-bridging-the-gap-between-research-and-application
#1
REVIEW
Inge Werner
The Swiss Centre for Applied Ecotoxicology (Ecotox Centre) was created in recognition of the urgent societal need to provide expertise, education and tools for assessing the risks and effects of anthropogenic chemicals in the environment. Founded in 2008, the Ecotox Centre conducts applied, practice-oriented research in the areas of aquatic (water and sediment) and terrestrial (with focus on soil) ecotoxicology, and provides further education and consulting services to its stakeholders. To date, its most important activities focus on (1) the validation and standardization of bioassays for use in monitoring of water, sediment or soil quality and (2) the development of tools for retrospective risk assessment, including approaches to assess mixture risk...
2018: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780680/evaluation-of-the-impact-of-construction-products-on-the-environment-by-leaching-of-possibly-hazardous-substances
#2
REVIEW
Nicole Bandow, Stefan Gartiser, Outi Ilvonen, Ute Schoknecht
Construction products are in contact with water (e.g., rain, seepage water) during their service lifetime and may release potentially harmful compounds by leaching processes. Monitoring studies showed that compounds attributed to construction products are found in storm water and the receiving bodies of water and that the release of biocides in urban areas can be comparable to the input of pesticides from agricultural uses. Therefore, a prospective risk assessment of such products is necessary. Laboratory leaching tests have been developed by the Technical Committee CEN/TC 351 and are ready to use...
2018: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721401/marine-litter-plastics-and-microplastics-and-their-toxic-chemicals-components-the-need-for-urgent-preventive-measures
#3
Frederic Gallo, Cristina Fossi, Roland Weber, David Santillo, Joao Sousa, Imogen Ingram, Angel Nadal, Dolores Romano
Persistent plastics, with an estimated lifetime for degradation of hundreds of years in marine conditions, can break up into micro- and nanoplastics over shorter timescales, thus facilitating their uptake by marine biota throughout the food chain. These polymers may contain chemical additives and contaminants, including some known endocrine disruptors that may be harmful at extremely low concentrations for marine biota, thus posing potential risks to marine ecosystems, biodiversity and food availability. Although there is still need to carry out focused scientific research to fill the knowledge gaps about the impacts of plastic litter in the marine environment (Wagner et al...
2018: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629251/abundance-of-adverse-environmental-conditions-during-critical-stages-of-crop-production-in-northern-germany
#4
Maximilian Strer, Nikolai Svoboda, Antje Herrmann
Background: Understanding the abundance of adverse environmental conditions e.g. frost, drought, and heat during critical crop growth stages, which are assumed to be altered by climate change, is crucial for an accurate risk assessment for cropping systems. While a lengthening of the vegetation period may be beneficial, higher frequencies of heat or frost events and drought spells are generally regarded as harmful. The objective of the present study was to quantify shifts in maize and wheat phenology and the occurrence of adverse environmental conditions during critical growth stages for four regions located in the North German Plain...
2018: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576997/5-point-programme-for-sustainable-plant-protection
#5
Tobias Frische, Sina Egerer, Steffen Matezki, Christina Pickl, Jörn Wogram
This position paper intends to stimulate a profound rethinking of contemporary agricultural practice. We criticise the current intensity of chemical plant protection in Germany as ecologically unsustainable and thus threatening the achievement of key targets of environmental protection and nature conservation policies. In the first part of the paper, we provide background information on the use of plant protection products (PPP) in German agriculture, the role of agricultural policy, European pesticide legislation, the principles of and framework for environmental risk assessment and risk management of PPP, as well as environmental effects of PPP...
2018: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568720/emerging-pollutants-in-the-eu-10-years-of-norman-in-support-of-environmental-policies-and-regulations
#6
Valeria Dulio, Bert van Bavel, Eva Brorström-Lundén, Joop Harmsen, Juliane Hollender, Martin Schlabach, Jaroslav Slobodnik, Kevin Thomas, Jan Koschorreck
In 2005, the European Commission funded the NORMAN project to promote a permanent network of reference laboratories and research centers, including academia, industry, standardization bodies, and NGOs. Since then, NORMAN has (i) facilitated a more rapid and wide-scope exchange of data on the occurrence and effects of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), (ii) improved data quality and comparability via validation and harmonization of common sampling and measurement methods (chemical and biological), (iii) provided more transparent information and monitoring data on CECs, and (iv) established an independent and competent forum for the technical/scientific debate on issues related to emerging substances...
2018: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527446/short-chain-perfluoroalkyl-acids-environmental-concerns-and-a-regulatory-strategy-under-reach
#7
Stephan Brendel, Éva Fetter, Claudia Staude, Lena Vierke, Annegret Biegel-Engler
Background: Short-chain PFASs (per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances) are widely used as alternatives to long-chain PFASs. Long-chain PFASs become gradually regulated under REACH (EC No. 1907/2006) and other international regulations, due to having persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic properties and/or being toxic for reproduction. The increasingly used short-chain PFASs are assumed to have a lower bioaccumulation potential. Nonetheless, they have other properties of concern and are already widely distributed in the environment, also in remote regions...
2018: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492370/diatoms-as-an-indicator-for-tile-drainage-flow-in-a-german-lowland-catchment
#8
Naicheng Wu, Claas Faber, Uta Ulrich, Nicola Fohrer
Background: The separation of runoff components within a model simulation is of great importance for a successful implementation of management measures. Diatoms could be a promising indicator for tile drainage flow due to their diverse preferences to different aquatic habitats. In this study, we collected diatom samples of 9 sites (4 tile drainage, TD, and 5 river sites, Ri) in a German lowland catchment at a weekly or biweekly time step from March to July 2013 with the aim of testing the suitability of diatoms for tile drainage flow, which is typical for lowland catchment...
2018: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479507/silver-nanoparticles-in-sewage-treatment-plant-effluents-chronic-effects-and-accumulation-of-silver-in-the-freshwater-amphipod-hyalella-azteca
#9
Sebastian Kühr, Stefanie Schneider, Boris Meisterjahn, Karsten Schlich, Kerstin Hund-Rinke, Christian Schlechtriem
Background: Increasing amounts of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in wastewater can reach the aquatic environment by passing through the sewage treatment plant (STP). NPs can induce ecotoxicological effects due to their specific chemical properties. However, their bioavailability and toxicity are potentially influenced by transformation processes caused by substances present in the STP, e.g., humic acids or sulfides. Due to the lack of a test system allowing to test NPs under realistic environmental conditions, we coupled two existing test systems, the activated sludge simulation test (OECD TG 303A 2001) and the chronic exposure test with the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca (Environment Canada 2013), to gain a test scenario that allows to consider the altered behavior and fate of NPs induced by the STP process...
2018: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456907/nanoparticles-in-the-environment-where-do-we-come-from-where-do-we-go-to
#10
REVIEW
Mirco Bundschuh, Juliane Filser, Simon Lüderwald, Moira S McKee, George Metreveli, Gabriele E Schaumann, Ralf Schulz, Stephan Wagner
Nanoparticles serve various industrial and domestic purposes which is reflected in their steadily increasing production volume. This economic success comes along with their presence in the environment and the risk of potentially adverse effects in natural systems. Over the last decade, substantial progress regarding the understanding of sources, fate, and effects of nanoparticles has been made. Predictions of environmental concentrations based on modelling approaches could recently be confirmed by measured concentrations in the field...
2018: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392106/environmental-risk-assessment-of-biocidal-products-identification-of-relevant-components-and-reliability-of-a-component-based-mixture-assessment
#11
Anja Coors, Pia Vollmar, Jennifer Heim, Frank Sacher, Anja Kehrer
Background: Biocidal products are mixtures of one or more active substances (a.s.) and a broad range of formulation additives. There is regulatory guidance currently under development that will specify how the combined effects of the a.s. and any relevant formulation additives shall be considered in the environmental risk assessment of biocidal products. The default option is a component-based approach (CBA) by which the toxicity of the product is predicted from the toxicity of 'relevant' components using concentration addition...
2018: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387519/impacts-of-glyphosate-based-herbicides-on-disease-resistance-and-health-of-crops-a-review
#12
REVIEW
Daisy A Martinez, Ulrich E Loening, Margaret C Graham
Based on experimental data from laboratory and field, numerous authors have raised concern that exposure to glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) may pre-dispose crops to damage by microbial pathogens. In this review, we distinguish and evaluate two principal pathways by which GBHs may affect the susceptibility of crops to disease: pathway 1-via disruptions to rhizosphere microbial ecology, and pathway 2-via restriction of nutrients to crops. We conclude that GBHs have the potential to undermine crop health in a number of ways, including: (i) impairment of the innate physiological defences of glyphosate-sensitive (GS) cultivars by interruption of the shikimic acid pathway; (ii) impairment of physiological disease defences has also been shown to occur in some glyphosate-resistant (GR) cultivars, despite their engineered resistance to glyphosate's primary mode of action; (iii) interference with rhizosphere microbial ecology (in particular, GBHs have the potential to enhance the population and/or virulence of some phytopathogenic microbial species in the crop rhizosphere); and finally, (iv) the as yet incompletely elucidated reduction in the uptake and utilisation of nutrient metals by crops...
2018: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29375955/adsorption-of-aliphatic-polyhydroxy-carboxylic-acids-on-gibbsite-ph-dependency-and-importance-of-adsorbate-structure
#13
Tatjana Schneckenburger, Jens Riefstahl, Klaus Fischer
Background: Aliphatic (poly)hydroxy carboxylic acids [(P)HCA] occur in natural, e.g. soils, and in technical (waste disposal sites, nuclear waste repositories) compartments . Their distribution, mobility and chemical reactivity, e.g. complex formation with metal ions and radionuclides, depend, among others, on their adsorption onto mineral surfaces. Aluminium hydroxides, e.g. gibbsite [α-Al(OH)3 ], are common constituents of related solid materials and mimic the molecular surface properties of clay minerals...
2018: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214119/interested-consumers-awareness-of-harmful-chemicals-in-everyday-products
#14
Sabrina Hartmann, Ursula Klaschka
Background: Everyday products can contain a multitude of harmful substances unnoticed by most consumers, because established risk communication channels reach only part of the society. The question is, whether at least interested and informed consumers are able to use risk communication tools and assess harmful chemicals in products. Results: An online survey investigated the awareness of 1030 consumers on harmful substances in everyday items. Participating consumers' education level, knowledge in chemistry, and motivation were above society's average...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170723/homologue-distribution-patterns-of-2-3-7-8-chloro-substituted-pcdd-f-in-bavarian-soils
#15
Raimund Prinz
Background: Soil-background values of PCDD/F concentrations are usually conveniently displayed as toxic equivalent (TEq), being a bulk parameter of all relevant 7 PCDD- and 10 PCDF-congeneres, chloro-subsidized at the 2nd, 3rd, 7th and 8th carbon atom. Data here are ample, not so survey on congenere/homologue patterns occurring in soils. The sufficient number of samples taken within this analysis allowed first a well-grounded evaluation. Results: OCDD proved to be the dominant congenere in all samples (forest and agriculture), however, in considerably different concentrations...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104845/life-cycle-assessment-and-sustainable-engineering-in-the-context-of-near-net-shape-grown-components-striving-towards-a-sustainable-way-of-future-production
#16
Christoph Kämpfer, Thomas-Benjamin Seiler, Anna-Lena Beger, Georg Jacobs, Manuel Löwer, Franziska Moser, Julia Reimer, Martin Trautz, Björn Usadel, Alexandra Wormit, Henner Hollert
Technical product harvesting (TEPHA) is a newly developing interdisciplinary approach in which bio-based production is investigated from a technical and ecological perspective. Society's demand for ecologically produced and sustainably operable goods is a key driver for the substitution of conventional materials like metals or plastics through bio-based alternatives. Technical product harvesting of near net shape grown components describes the use of suitable biomass for the production of technical products through influencing the natural shape of plants during their growth period...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034141/commercial-phenoxyacetic-herbicides-control-heavy-metal-uptake-by-wheat-in-a-divergent-way-than-pure-active-substances-alone
#17
Elżbieta Skiba, Wojciech M Wolf
BACKGROUND: Impact of two widely used commercial herbicides, i.e. Aminopielik D 450 SL and Chwastox 300 SL, on the uptake and translocation of selected heavy metals in wheat plants Triticum aestivum L. cultivated in the laboratory pot experiments was investigated. Mineral-humus, loamy sand soil representative for the central part of Poland was applied. Bioavailable, exchangeable and total forms of Cd, Co, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Mn were determined. Transfer coefficients, translocation, and bioaccumulation factors illustrating metal migration in the plant were investigated...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983450/metazachlor-traces-in-the-main-drinking-water-reservoir-in-luxembourg-a-scientific-and-political-discussion
#18
Pol Karier, Georges Kraus, Isabelle Kolber
This discussion is centralized around an incident that took place in the Belgian village Witry the 17th of September 2014. A tractor accident led to the discharge of an aqueous solution of the herbicide metazachlor into the creek Moyémont that further merges into the river Sûre. About 20 km downstream, these waters supply the lake of the Upper-Sûre in Luxembourg, the biggest artificial lake and the main drinking water reservoir in the country. The evolution of the concentration of metazachlor and its metabolite 479M08 was partially tracked down from the river Sûre to the dam situated in the east...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794919/where-are-the-svhcs-10%C3%A2-years-consumer-s-right-to-know-about-substances-of-very-high-concern
#19
Ursula Klaschka
BACKGROUND: The European chemicals regulation REACH includes the legal duty for suppliers to inform consumers on request about the presence of substances of very high concern (SVHCs) in articles. Since this requirement has been in force now for 10 years, the intention of this study was to find out whether information on SVHCs is adequately communicated to the consumer today. Data on the presence of SVHCs in articles were collected as a prerequisite for the subsequent requests for a targeted choice of articles to examine the operability of the 'right to know...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752018/project-house-water-a-novel-interdisciplinary-framework-to-assess-the-environmental-and-socioeconomic-consequences-of-flood-related-impacts
#20
Sarah E Crawford, Catrina Brüll Nee Cofalla, Benedikt Aumeier, Markus Brinkmann, Elisa Classen, Verena Esser, Caroline Ganal, Elena Kaip, Roger Häussling, Frank Lehmkuhl, Peter Letmathe, Anne-Katrin Müller, Ilja Rabinovitch, Klaus Reicherter, Jan Schwarzbauer, Marco Schmitt, Georg Stauch, Matthias Wessling, Süleyman Yüce, Markus Hecker, Karen A Kidd, Rolf Altenburger, Werner Brack, Holger Schüttrumpf, Henner Hollert
Protecting our water resources in terms of quality and quantity is considered one of the big challenges of the twenty-first century, which requires global and multidisciplinary solutions. A specific threat to water resources, in particular, is the increased occurrence and frequency of flood events due to climate change which has significant environmental and socioeconomic impacts. In addition to climate change, flooding (or subsequent erosion and run-off) may be exacerbated by, or result from, land use activities, obstruction of waterways, or urbanization of floodplains, as well as mining and other anthropogenic activities that alter natural flow regimes...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
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