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Journal of Pathogens

Yusuf Yakubu, Abdulmalik Bello Shuaibu, Aliyu Musawa Ibrahim, Ummukulthum Lawal Hassan, Raymond Junior Nwachukwu
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an enteric foodborne pathogen associated with life threatening disease conditions. The enterobacteria are frequently found in cattle gastrointestinal tract with high potential of contaminating animal products such as meat, milk, and cheese. A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the presence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 in milk products sold within Sokoto metropolis. Two hundred and sixty (260) samples (comprising 160 raw and 100 fermented milk samples) were collected from different sources within the study area...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Shola Elijah Adeniji, Sani Uba, Adamu Uzairu
A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study was performed to develop a model that relates the structures of 50 compounds to their activities against M. tuberculosis . The compounds were optimized by employing density functional theory (DFT) with B3LYP/6-31G⁎ . The Genetic Function Algorithm (GFA) was used to select the descriptors and to generate the correlation model that relates the structural features of the compounds to their biological activities. The optimum model has squared correlation coefficient ( R 2 ) of 0...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Solomon Weldegebreal Asgedom, Mebrahtu Teweldemedhin, Hailay Gebreyesus
Background: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has continued to be a challenge for tuberculosis (TB) control globally. Ethiopia is one of the countries with high MDR-TB burden. Objective: The main purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of MDR-TB and associated factors in Ethiopia. Methods: A systematic review of the literatures on prevalence of MDR-TB and associated factors was conducted in the country. Results: In our electronic search, 546 citations were depicted...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Khadigeh Sirghani, Tayebeh Zeinali, Abdollah Jamshidi
Poultry meat is one of the most important sources of infection of Yersinia spp. for humans. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the incidence of Yersinia enterocolitica in chicken meat by using culture method on selective medium and confirmation by PCR assay. Also, biochemical methods were used for biotyping. A total of 100 chicken thigh meat samples were collected randomly from retail outlets in Mashhad, Iran. Samples were enriched in Peptone-Sorbitol-Bile (PSB) broth and then cultured on Cefsulodin-Irgasan-Novobiocin (CIN) agar containing antibiotics supplement...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Rahul Pal, Moiz A Ansari, Venkata Saibabu, Shrayanee Das, Zeeshan Fatima, Saif Hameed
Significance of methylene blue (MB) in photodynamic therapy against microbes is well established. Previously, we have reported the antifungal potential of MB against Candida albicans . The present study attempts to identify additional antimicrobial effect of MB against another prevalent human pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). We explored that MB is efficiently inhibiting the growth of Mycobacterium at 15.62  μ g/ml albeit in bacteriostatic manner similar to its fungistatic nature. We uncovered additional cell surface phenotypes (colony morphology and cell sedimentation rate) which were impaired only in Mycobacterium ...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Sheila Adams-Sapper, Adam Gayoso, Lee W Riley
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) organisms have emerged to become a major global public health threat among antimicrobial resistant bacterial human pathogens. Little is known about how CREs emerge. One characteristic phenotype of CREs is heteroresistance, which is clinically associated with treatment failure in patients given a carbapenem. Through in vitro whole-transcriptome analysis we tracked gene expression over time in two different strains (BR7, BR21) of heteroresistant KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, first exposed to a bactericidal concentration of imipenem followed by growth in drug-free medium...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Sombat Leelasupasri, Wichai Santimaleeworagun, Tossawan Jitwasinkul
This in vitro study aimed to determine the activity of colistin plus sulbactam and colistin plus fosfomycin against carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB). Fifteen clinical isolates were obtained from patients admitted to Phyathai II International Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand, from August 2014 to April 2015. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of colistin, sulbactam, and fosfomycin were evaluated using the E-test or broth microdilution and the synergistic activity of the antibacterial combinations (colistin plus sulbactam or fosfomycin) was determined using the chequerboard method...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Mubarak Alfaresi, Garwin Kim Sing, Abiola Senok
Background: The CTX-M family of extended-spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) enzymes is comprised of over 60 bla CTX-M gene variants with the predominance of bla CTX-M-15 in many regions. In this report, we present the first description of bla CTX-M-28 in the United Arab Emirates. Methods: Forty-five non-duplicate ESBL producing isolates identified in a secondary care facility in the United Arab Emirates from June to July 2016 were studied. Gene sequencing was performed and DNA sequences were annotated using the BLAST program to identify the gene subtypes...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Md Sadequl Islam, Md Ariful Islam, Mst Minara Khatun, Sukumar Saha, Md Samiul Basir, Md-Mahmodul Hasan
Brucellosis is endemic in Bangladesh both in humans and in animals. A number of reasons complicate the diagnosis, as bovine brucellosis can be diagnosed by various serological tests. But the tests have a limitation; when the organism remains intracellular, the disease goes into chronic stage and the antibody titres may decline. The present study was conducted for isolation and detection of Brucella spp. by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from seronegative cows. A total of 360 dairy cows from three geographical regions were screened serologically by Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) where 24 samples were serologically positive and the rest of the samples were serologically negative...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Sin-Yeang Teow, Hooi-Yeen Yap, Suat-Cheng Peh
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a pathogen that infects more than 90% of global human population. EBV primarily targets B-lymphocytes and epithelial cells while some of them infect monocyte/macrophage, T-lymphocytes, and dendritic cells (DCs). EBV infection does not cause death by itself but the infection has been persistently associated with certain type of cancers such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), Burkitt's lymphoma (BL), and Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). Recent findings have shown promise on targeting EBV proteins for cancer therapy by immunotherapeutic approach...
2017: Journal of Pathogens
J A Adeniji, F A Ayeni, A Ibrahim, K A Tijani, T O C Faleye, M O Adewumi
This study was designed to compare both the cell culture dependent and independent enterovirus detection algorithms recommended by the WHO and assess how either might impact our perception of the diversity of enterovirus types present in a sample. Sixteen paired samples (16 isolates from RD cell culture and their corresponding stool suspension, i.e., 32 samples) from AFP cases in Nigeria were analyzed in this study. All the samples were subjected to RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis, the WHO recommended RT-snPCR, and its modification...
2017: Journal of Pathogens
William R Schwan, Hua Ding
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) adhere to cells in the human urinary tract via type 1 pili that undergo phase variation where a 314-bp fimS DNA element flips between Phase-ON and Phase-OFF orientations through two site-specific recombinases, FimB and FimE. Three fim-lux operon transcriptional fusions were created and moved into the clinical UPEC isolate NU149 to determine their temporal regulation in UPEC growing in the urinary tract. Within murine urinary tracts, the UPEC strains demonstrated elevated transcription of fimA and fimB early in the infection, but lower transcription by the fifth day in murine kidneys...
2017: Journal of Pathogens
Vishal Shete, Naveen Grover, Mahadevan Kumar
Enzymatic modification results in high-level resistance to aminoglycoside (HLAR), which eliminates the synergistic bactericidal effect of combined exposure to a cell wall-active agent and an aminoglycoside. So aim of the study was to determine prevalence of HLAR enterococcal isolate and to study distribution of aminoglycoside modifying enzyme genes in them. A total of 100 nonrepeat isolates of enterococci from various clinical samples were analyzed. As per Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines enterococci were screened for HLAR by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method...
2017: Journal of Pathogens
Jack Bee Chook, Yun Fong Ngeow, Kok Keng Tee, Suat Cheng Peh, Rosmawati Mohamed
Fulminant hepatitis (FH) is a life-threatening liver disease characterised by intense immune attack and massive liver cell death. The common precore stop codon mutation of hepatitis B virus (HBV), A1896, is frequently associated with FH, but lacks specificity. This study attempts to uncover all possible viral nucleotides that are specifically associated with FH through a compiled sequence analysis of FH and non-FH cases from acute infection. We retrieved 67 FH and 280 acute non-FH cases of hepatitis B from GenBank and applied support vector machine (SVM) model to seek candidate nucleotides highly predictive of FH...
2017: Journal of Pathogens
I M Ifeorah, T O C Faleye, A S Bakarey, M O Adewumi, A Akere, E C Omoruyi, A O Ogunwale, J A Adeniji
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) remains a major public health concern in resource limited regions of the world. Yet data reporting is suboptimal and surveillance system is inadequate. In Nigeria, there is dearth of information on prevalence of acute HEV infection. This study was therefore designed to describe acute HEV infection among antenatal clinic attendees and community dwellers from two geographical regions in Nigeria. Seven hundred and fifty plasma samples were tested for HEV IgM by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) technique...
2017: Journal of Pathogens
Keyvan Pakshir, Mahboubeh Bordbar, Kamiar Zomorodian, Hasti Nouraei, Hossein Khodadadi
Candida africana as a species recovered from female genital specimens is highly close to C. albicans . The present study was conducted to discriminate C. africana from presumptive vaginal C. albicans strains by molecular assay and evaluate their hemolysin activity, biofilm formation, and cohemolytic effect (CAMP) with vaginal bacterial flora. A total of 110 stock vaginal C. albicans isolates were examined by HWP1 gene amplification. Hemolysin activity and the ability of biofilm formation were evaluated by blood plate assay and visual detection methods, respectively...
2017: Journal of Pathogens
Serkan Ortucu, Omer Faruk Algur
This study was conducted to assess highly pathogenic Beauveria bassiana isolates to be used in biocontrol and to determine their potentials as mycopesticide. For this purpose, two B. bassiana isolates, which were locally isolated from T. urticae , were chosen. Firstly, three suspensions were investigated at the degree of humidity of 65 ± 5% and 100% RH. Secondly, these strains were selected according to their tendency to mass production, tolerance to UV radiation, and capability of producing spore at the different temperatures...
2017: Journal of Pathogens
Raghuprakash Reddy, Gerardo Alvarez-Uria
The Xpert MTB/RIF assay can detect mutations in rpoB gene that confer rifampicin resistance (RR) using five overlapping probes (A, B, C, D, and E). In this study, we described our experience with the Xpert assay in a rural setting in India. During the study period, 3250 samples were processed. The result was unsuccessful in 5.7% of cases. For extrapulmonary specimens, the risk of unsuccessful result was higher in tissue biopsy and stool samples. Among samples positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis , rifampicin resistance was indeterminate in 1...
2017: Journal of Pathogens
Basista Prasad Rijal, Deepa Satyal, Narayan Prasad Parajuli
Pyogenic wound infections are one of the most common clinical entities caused and aggravated by the invasion of pathogenic organisms. Prompt and aggressive antimicrobial therapy is needed to reduce the burden and complications associated with these infections. In this study, we intended to investigate the common pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns from the pyogenic wound infections at a tertiary care hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal. A laboratory based cross-sectional study was carried out among the pyogenic clinical specimens of the patients visiting Manmohan Memorial Teaching Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal...
2017: Journal of Pathogens
Tchin Darré, Bayaki Saka, Abas Mouhari-Touré, Améyo Monique Dorkenoo, Koffi Amégbor, Vincent Palokinam Pitche, Gado Napo-Koura
Our study aimed to describe the epidemiological, clinical, and diagnostic aspects of African histoplasmosis in Togo through a descriptive and cross-sectional study on histological diagnosed African histoplasmosis in Pathology Department of Lomé from 2002 to 2016 (15 years). A total of 17 cases of African histoplasmosis were diagnosed. The sex ratio (M/F) was 1.8. The annual incidence was 1.1 cases. The mean age of the patients was 27.2 ± 0.4 years. All our patients were of social categories with a low socioeconomic level...
2017: Journal of Pathogens
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