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Journal of Pathogens

Sin-Yeang Teow, Hooi-Yeen Yap, Suat-Cheng Peh
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a pathogen that infects more than 90% of global human population. EBV primarily targets B-lymphocytes and epithelial cells while some of them infect monocyte/macrophage, T-lymphocytes, and dendritic cells (DCs). EBV infection does not cause death by itself but the infection has been persistently associated with certain type of cancers such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), Burkitt's lymphoma (BL), and Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). Recent findings have shown promise on targeting EBV proteins for cancer therapy by immunotherapeutic approach...
2017: Journal of Pathogens
J A Adeniji, F A Ayeni, A Ibrahim, K A Tijani, T O C Faleye, M O Adewumi
This study was designed to compare both the cell culture dependent and independent enterovirus detection algorithms recommended by the WHO and assess how either might impact our perception of the diversity of enterovirus types present in a sample. Sixteen paired samples (16 isolates from RD cell culture and their corresponding stool suspension, i.e., 32 samples) from AFP cases in Nigeria were analyzed in this study. All the samples were subjected to RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis, the WHO recommended RT-snPCR, and its modification...
2017: Journal of Pathogens
William R Schwan, Hua Ding
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) adhere to cells in the human urinary tract via type 1 pili that undergo phase variation where a 314-bp fimS DNA element flips between Phase-ON and Phase-OFF orientations through two site-specific recombinases, FimB and FimE. Three fim-lux operon transcriptional fusions were created and moved into the clinical UPEC isolate NU149 to determine their temporal regulation in UPEC growing in the urinary tract. Within murine urinary tracts, the UPEC strains demonstrated elevated transcription of fimA and fimB early in the infection, but lower transcription by the fifth day in murine kidneys...
2017: Journal of Pathogens
Vishal Shete, Naveen Grover, Mahadevan Kumar
Enzymatic modification results in high-level resistance to aminoglycoside (HLAR), which eliminates the synergistic bactericidal effect of combined exposure to a cell wall-active agent and an aminoglycoside. So aim of the study was to determine prevalence of HLAR enterococcal isolate and to study distribution of aminoglycoside modifying enzyme genes in them. A total of 100 nonrepeat isolates of enterococci from various clinical samples were analyzed. As per Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines enterococci were screened for HLAR by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method...
2017: Journal of Pathogens
Jack Bee Chook, Yun Fong Ngeow, Kok Keng Tee, Suat Cheng Peh, Rosmawati Mohamed
Fulminant hepatitis (FH) is a life-threatening liver disease characterised by intense immune attack and massive liver cell death. The common precore stop codon mutation of hepatitis B virus (HBV), A1896, is frequently associated with FH, but lacks specificity. This study attempts to uncover all possible viral nucleotides that are specifically associated with FH through a compiled sequence analysis of FH and non-FH cases from acute infection. We retrieved 67 FH and 280 acute non-FH cases of hepatitis B from GenBank and applied support vector machine (SVM) model to seek candidate nucleotides highly predictive of FH...
2017: Journal of Pathogens
I M Ifeorah, T O C Faleye, A S Bakarey, M O Adewumi, A Akere, E C Omoruyi, A O Ogunwale, J A Adeniji
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) remains a major public health concern in resource limited regions of the world. Yet data reporting is suboptimal and surveillance system is inadequate. In Nigeria, there is dearth of information on prevalence of acute HEV infection. This study was therefore designed to describe acute HEV infection among antenatal clinic attendees and community dwellers from two geographical regions in Nigeria. Seven hundred and fifty plasma samples were tested for HEV IgM by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) technique...
2017: Journal of Pathogens
Keyvan Pakshir, Mahboubeh Bordbar, Kamiar Zomorodian, Hasti Nouraei, Hossein Khodadadi
Candida africana as a species recovered from female genital specimens is highly close to C. albicans. The present study was conducted to discriminate C. africana from presumptive vaginal C. albicans strains by molecular assay and evaluate their hemolysin activity, biofilm formation, and cohemolytic effect (CAMP) with vaginal bacterial flora. A total of 110 stock vaginal C. albicans isolates were examined by HWP1 gene amplification. Hemolysin activity and the ability of biofilm formation were evaluated by blood plate assay and visual detection methods, respectively...
2017: Journal of Pathogens
Serkan Ortucu, Omer Faruk Algur
This study was conducted to assess highly pathogenic Beauveria bassiana isolates to be used in biocontrol and to determine their potentials as mycopesticide. For this purpose, two B. bassiana isolates, which were locally isolated from T. urticae, were chosen. Firstly, three suspensions were investigated at the degree of humidity of 65 ± 5% and 100% RH. Secondly, these strains were selected according to their tendency to mass production, tolerance to UV radiation, and capability of producing spore at the different temperatures...
2017: Journal of Pathogens
Raghuprakash Reddy, Gerardo Alvarez-Uria
The Xpert MTB/RIF assay can detect mutations in rpoB gene that confer rifampicin resistance (RR) using five overlapping probes (A, B, C, D, and E). In this study, we described our experience with the Xpert assay in a rural setting in India. During the study period, 3250 samples were processed. The result was unsuccessful in 5.7% of cases. For extrapulmonary specimens, the risk of unsuccessful result was higher in tissue biopsy and stool samples. Among samples positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, rifampicin resistance was indeterminate in 1...
2017: Journal of Pathogens
Basista Prasad Rijal, Deepa Satyal, Narayan Prasad Parajuli
Pyogenic wound infections are one of the most common clinical entities caused and aggravated by the invasion of pathogenic organisms. Prompt and aggressive antimicrobial therapy is needed to reduce the burden and complications associated with these infections. In this study, we intended to investigate the common pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns from the pyogenic wound infections at a tertiary care hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal. A laboratory based cross-sectional study was carried out among the pyogenic clinical specimens of the patients visiting Manmohan Memorial Teaching Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal...
2017: Journal of Pathogens
Tchin Darré, Bayaki Saka, Abas Mouhari-Touré, Améyo Monique Dorkenoo, Koffi Amégbor, Vincent Palokinam Pitche, Gado Napo-Koura
Our study aimed to describe the epidemiological, clinical, and diagnostic aspects of African histoplasmosis in Togo through a descriptive and cross-sectional study on histological diagnosed African histoplasmosis in Pathology Department of Lomé from 2002 to 2016 (15 years). A total of 17 cases of African histoplasmosis were diagnosed. The sex ratio (M/F) was 1.8. The annual incidence was 1.1 cases. The mean age of the patients was 27.2 ± 0.4 years. All our patients were of social categories with a low socioeconomic level...
2017: Journal of Pathogens
Lucas Atehmengo Ngongeh, Amaechi Onyeabor, Emeka Nzenwata, Gurama Kansalem Samson
Response of Nigerian indigenous (local) and broiler chickens to experimental Eimeria infections was investigated by measures of clinical signs, packed cell volume (PCV), body weights (BW), feed consumption, faecal oocyst counts (oocyst per gram), and microscopic intestinal lesions. Three-week-old chickens of each breed received single pulse infections with 2500, 5000, and 100.000 sporulated Eimeria oocysts. Infected birds were dull and passed bloody diarrhoea. OPG showed a dose related response but no significant difference between groups (P > 0...
2017: Journal of Pathogens
Manou Irmina Saramba, Dongchi Zhao
Tuberculosis continues to be a prevalent disease in the world and a global public health issue in many countries. The disease is more complicated in pregnant women because it imperils unborn offspring and results in congenital tuberculosis later if undiagnosed and untreated. Congenital tuberculosis is rare entity and an uncommon disease along with a high mortality rate. Congenital tuberculosis, a severe clinical type of tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is a serious and fatal disease if left untreated...
2016: Journal of Pathogens
Sunčanica Ljubin-Sternak, Tatjana Marijan, Irena Ivković-Jureković, Jasna Čepin-Bogović, Alenka Gagro, Jasmina Vraneš
The aim of this study was to determine the causative agent of acute respiratory infection (ARI) in hospitalized children, as well as investigate the characteristics of ARIs with single and multiple virus detection in two respiratory seasons. In 2010 and 2015, nasopharyngeal and pharyngeal swabs from a total of 134 children, admitted to the hospital due to ARI, were tested using multiplex PCR. Viral etiology was established in 81.3% of the patients. Coinfection with two viruses was diagnosed in 27.6% of the patients, and concurrent detection of three or more viruses was diagnosed in 12...
2016: Journal of Pathogens
Alexander Rodriguez-Palacios, Natalia Aladyshkina, Mauricio Retuerto, Christopher L Hager, Sanja Ilic, Mahmoud A Ghannoum, Fabio Cominelli
We report and investigated a case of inadvertent contamination of 125 mice (housed in two germ-free positive-pressurized isolators) with emerging human and coral pathogen Aspergillus sydowii. The infected mice correspond to genetic line SAMP1/YitFc, which have 100% immune predisposition to develop Crohn's disease-like spontaneous pathologies, namely, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Pathogen update based on a scoping review of the literature and our clinical observations and experimentation are discussed. The unwanted infection of germ-free mice (immunologically prone to suffer chronic inflammation) with human pathogen A...
2016: Journal of Pathogens
Josephine Dogo, Seniyat Larai Afegbua, Edward Christopher Dung
In recent years, the prevalence of tinea capitis, an infection of the scalp by dermatophytes, has increased in children worldwide. This cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and risk factor of tinea capitis among school children in Nok community of Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 100 children were screened and 45% were diagnosed to have tinea capitis after fungal culture and microscopy. The prevalence of tinea capitis among girls was higher (51.4%) than that among boys (41.5%) but not significantly different (p = 0...
2016: Journal of Pathogens
Muhammad Nasir Riaz, Muhammad Faheem, Muhammad Ayaz Anwar, Ummar Raheel, Yasmeen Badshah, Hashaam Akhtar, Kosar Tamanna, Muhammad Tahir, Najam Us Sahar Sadaf Zaidi, Ishtiaq Qadri
Seroprevalence of HCV indicates that HCV is found in more than 10% of HBV- or HDV-infected patients worldwide leading to liver disease. Here we show HBV and HDV coinfection association with HCV infected Pakistani patients, study of disease severity, and possible interpretation of associated risk factors in coinfected patients. A total of 730 liver diseased patients were included, out of which 501 were found positive for HCV infection via PCR. 5.1% of patients were coinfected with HBV while 1% were coinfected with HBV and HDV both...
2016: Journal of Pathogens
Ahmed Abdurhman Ismail, Nasredin Khogali Ahmed, Ahmed Elhag Bashar, Hisham Ismail Seri, El Tigani Ahmed El Tigani-Asil, Adam Dawoud Abakar
Out of 92 donkeys examined for gastrointestinal parasites, 90 animals were found infected by one or more gastrointestinal parasites with an overall prevalence rate of 97.78%. The distributions of the recovered parasites in the different parts of the body were as follows: stomach, 92.4%, small intestine, 19.6%, caecum, 88%, colon, 80.4%, rectum, 73.9%, and cranial mesenteric artery, 64.1%. A significant difference was found between mean parasite counts and seasons. Hot wet season had higher mean parasites count (5411...
2016: Journal of Pathogens
Jackie K Obey, Atte von Wright, Jimmy Orjala, Jussi Kauhanen, Carina Tikkanen-Kaukanen
In Kenya, leaves and roots from Croton macrostachyus are used as a traditional medicine for infectious diseases such as typhoid and measles, but reports on possible antimicrobial activity of stem bark do not exist. In this study, the antibacterial and antifungal effects of methanol, ethyl acetate and butanol extracts, and purified lupeol of C. macrostachyus stem bark were determined against important human gram-negative pathogens Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter aerogenes, gram-positive Listeria monocytogenes, and a fungus Candida albicans...
2016: Journal of Pathogens
Donna M Ferguson, Ginamary Negrón Talavera, Luis A Ríos Hernández, Stephen B Weisberg, Richard F Ambrose, Jennifer A Jay
Most Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium are harmless to humans; however, strains harboring virulence genes, including esp, gelE, cylA, asa1, and hyl, have been associated with human infections. E. faecalis and E. faecium are present in beach waters worldwide, yet little is known about their virulence potential. Here, multiplex PCR was used to compare the distribution of virulence genes among E. faecalis and E. faecium isolated from beaches in Southern California and Puerto Rico to isolates from potential sources including humans, animals, birds, and plants...
2016: Journal of Pathogens
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