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Journal of Pathogens

Laura A Onyango, Mousa M Alreshidi
Staphylococci are highly successful at colonizing a variety of dynamic environments, both nonpathogenic and those of clinical importance, and comprise the list of pathogens of global public health significance. Their remarkable survival and persistence can be attributed to a host of strategies, one of which is metabolic versatility-their ability to rapidly alter their metabolism in the presence of transient or long-term bacteriostatic and bactericidal conditions and facilitate cellular homeostasis. These attributes contribute to their widespread dissemination and challenging eradication particularly from clinical settings...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Amit Karmakar, Debarati Jana, Kunal Dutta, Parimal Dua, Chandradipa Ghosh
Panton-Valentine leukocidin ( luk-pv ) is a cytotoxin that causes leukocyte destruction and tissue necrosis. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of the pv1 , mecA , and nuc genes in Staphylococcus aureus isolates obtained from anterior nares and superficial infection sites of skin in a slum population of West Bengal, India. Expression level of pv1 gene was also analysed. Twenty-two S. aureus strains were isolated, and phenotype and genotype specific examinations for S. aureus isolates were carried out...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Nafi'u Lawal, Mohd Hair-Bejo, Siti Suri Arshad, Abdul Rahman Omar, Aini Ideris
Two Malaysian very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) strains UPM0081 (also known as B00/81) and UPM190 (also known as UPM04/190) isolated from local IBD outbreaks in 2000 and 2004, respectively, were separately passaged for 12 consecutive times in 11-day-old specific pathogen free (SPF) chicken embryonated eggs (CEE) via the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) route. The CEE passage 8 (EP8) isolates were passaged once in BGM-70 cell line yielding UPM0081EP8BGMP1 and UPM190EP8BGMP1, while the EP12 isolates were passaged 15 times in BGM-70 cell line yielding UPM0081EP12BGMP15 and UPM190EP12BGMP15 using T25 tissue culture flask...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Jamilu Abubakar Bala, Krishnan Nair Balakrishnan, Ashwaq Ahmed Abdullah, Tay Kimmy, Yusuf Abba, Ramlan Bin Mohamed, Faez Firdaus Abdullah Jesse, Abd Wahid Haron, Mustapha Mohamed Noordin, Asinamai Athliamai Bitrus, Idris Umar Hambali, Mohd Azmi Mohd Lila
Orf is a clinical manifestation of parapoxvirus infection often fatal in goats and sheep especially when they are under stress or influenced by unfavorable environment. This study investigated the pathogenicity of two Orf virus isolates (ORFV UPM1/14 and UPM2/14) and host response in mouse model by using different inoculation sites with/without prior exposure to dexamethasone. Treatments with dexamethasone served as an immunosuppressant that may mimic stress situation in affected animals. Groups of five mice were given intradermal injection of 0...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Benjamin Kwame Senya, Nketiah Bernard Anim, Bright Segu Kobena Domson, Patrick Adu
Background: Charcoal production is a significant economic activity in Ghana. However, there is scarcity of data on the risk of acquiring Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection among charcoal producers in Ghana, even though persistent smoke exposure is a known predisposition factor. Methods: This cross-sectional study recruited 40 charcoal producers: 6 males and 34 females. Two sets of early morning sputum samples were collected from each participant and examined for the presence of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) using fluorescent microscopy...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Carol E Muenks, Patrick G Hogan, Carey-Ann D Burnham, Stephanie A Fritz
Given the lack of standardization of methodologies for microbial recovery from built environments, we sought to compare the yield of Staphylococcus aureus with a broth enrichment method when incubated in agitated versus static conditions. Five unique strains of S. aureus at five different concentrations were cultured to compare direct plating, agitated broth enrichment, and static broth enrichment culture methods. All samples were incubated at 35° in ambient air. The lowest concentration recovered across three replicates and five strains did not differ between culture methods (Fisher's exact test, p=0...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Obiora Shedrach Ejiofor, Onyinye Mercy Ajunwa, Chijioke Elias Ezeudu, George Ogonna Emechebe, Kenneth Nchekwube Okeke, Christian Chukwuemeka Ifezulike, Ifeoma Mercy Ekejindu, Jude Nnaemeka Okoyeh, Eunice Ogonna Osuala, Angus Nnamdi Oli
Background: Neonatal infection refers to the infection of the newborn during the first twenty-eight days of life. It is one of the causes of infant morbidity and mortality worldwide. The aim of the study is to determine the relative contribution of the different pathogens to the overall disease burden. It will also determine the mechanisms of virulence of these pathogens that cause neonatal infections at Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University Teaching Hospital (COOUTH), Awka. Methods: Biological samples were collected from 30 neonates admitted at the special care baby unit (SCBU) of COOUTH and cultured using selective media and nutrient agar...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Tuhina Banerjee, Anwita Mishra, Arghya Das, Swati Sharma, Hiranmay Barman, Ghanshyam Yadav
The increasing emergence of Acinetobacter spp. with healthcare associated infections (HCAI) in intensive care units (ICU) is alarming. This study was a laboratory-based audit to determine the prevalence of Acinetobacter spp. associated with HCAI in the adult ICU of a tertiary care hospital in Varanasi, north India, with special reference to antimicrobial resistance and resistance determinants over a period of 5 years. A total of 993 cases of HCAI were analyzed. Isolates were characterized as multidrug resistance and extended drug resistance (MDR/XDR) based on antimicrobial susceptibility records...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Pooja Sharma, Digvijay Singh, Kusum Sharma, Santwana Verma, Sanjay Mahajan, Anil Kanga
Objectives: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) incidences are on the rise worldwide, including the tuberculosis endemic areas. They should be identified rapidly to the species level and should be carefully differentiated as contamination, colonization, or disease. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence and clinicoepidemiological profile of mycobacteriosis cases. Materials and Methods: Cultures were made on liquid and solid media. NTM were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) restriction analysis (PRA) and gene sequencing...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Babatunde Olanrewaju Motayo, Johnson Adekunle Adeniji, Adedayo Omotayo Faneye
Rotavirus has been identified as a major cause of gastroenteritis in Nigeria. There is limited information on the intragenotype diversity of Nigerian rotavirus isolates. We therefore investigated the molecular characteristics of some rotavirus gene sequences detected in sewage from Nigeria. Seven sewage samples, out of a total of 68, tested positive for rotavirus RNA (10.3%). Genotype G1P[4] was the most common genotype (5 isolates) and one isolate for genotypes G1P[8] and G3P[6]. Phylogenetic analysis of the partial VP7 gene of 3 G1P[4] isolates analyzed identified them as genotype G1 Lineage 2 along with Chinese strains with 99...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Rahul Pal, Saif Hameed, Varatharajan Sabareesh, Parveen Kumar, Sarman Singh, Zeeshan Fatima
Many of the earlier studies involving the effect of isoniazid (INH) treatment have solely focused on the fatty acyl (FA) category of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) lipids. This motivated us with the major interest to examine the impact of INH on various other categories of MTB lipids. Towards this, we chose to interpret our mass spectral data (LC-ESI-MS) by a standalone software, MS-LAMP, in which "Mtb LipidDB" was integrated. Analysis by MS-LAMP revealed that INH treatment can alter the composition of "glycerolipids (GLs)" and "glycerophospholipids (GPLs)" categories of MTB lipids, in addition to the variations to FA category...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Jackie K Obey, Moses M Ngeiywa, Paul Kiprono, Sabah Omar, Atte von Wright, Jussi Kauhanen, Carina Tikkanen-Kaukanen
There is an increasing need for innovative drug and prophylaxis discovery against malaria. The aim of the present study was to test in vivo antiplasmodial activity of Croton macrostachyus H. (Euphorbiaceae) stem bark extracts from Kenyan folkloric medicine. Inbred Balb/c mice were inoculated with erythrocytes parasitized with Plasmodium berghei (ANKA). Different doses (500, 250, and 100 mg/kg) of C. macrostachyus ethyl acetate, methanol, aqueous, and isobutanol extracts were administrated either after inoculation (Peters' 4-day suppressive test) or before inoculation (chemoprotective test) of the parasitized erythrocytes...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Noel Jacques Awi, Sin-Yeang Teow
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) cases are on the rise globally. To date, there is still no effective measure to eradicate the causative agent, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is being used in HIV/AIDS management, but it results in long-term medication and has major drawbacks such as multiple side effects, high cost, and increasing the generation rate of escape mutants. In addition, HAART does not control HIV-related complications, and hence more medications and further management are required...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Amin Talebi Bezmin Abadi
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) as gram-negative and spiral microorganism is responsible for colonization in the gastric microniche for more than 50% of world population. Recent studies have shown a critical role of H. pylori in the development of peptic ulcers, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, and gastric cancer. Over the past decade, there has been a sharp interest to use noninvasive tests in diagnosis of the H. pylori infection. During the years after discovery by Marshall and Warren, it has been frequently declared that the rapid urease test (RUT) is one of the cheapest and rapid diagnostic approaches used in detecting the infection...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
William R Schwan, Michael T Beck, Chia S Hung, Scott J Hultgren
Regulation of the uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) fimB and fimE genes was examined following type 1 pili binding to mannose-coated Sepharose beads. Within 25 min after mannose attachment, fimE expression dropped eightfold, whereas fimB transcription increased about two- to fourfold. Because both fim genes encode site-specific recombinases that affect the position of the fimS element containing the fimA promoter, the positioning of fimS was also examined. The fimS element changed to slightly more Phase-OFF in bacteria mixed with plain beads, whereas UPEC cells interacting with mannose-coated beads had significantly less Phase-OFF orientation of fimS under pH 7 conditions...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Yusuf Yakubu, Abdulmalik Bello Shuaibu, Aliyu Musawa Ibrahim, Ummukulthum Lawal Hassan, Raymond Junior Nwachukwu
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an enteric foodborne pathogen associated with life threatening disease conditions. The enterobacteria are frequently found in cattle gastrointestinal tract with high potential of contaminating animal products such as meat, milk, and cheese. A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the presence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 in milk products sold within Sokoto metropolis. Two hundred and sixty (260) samples (comprising 160 raw and 100 fermented milk samples) were collected from different sources within the study area...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Shola Elijah Adeniji, Sani Uba, Adamu Uzairu
A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study was performed to develop a model that relates the structures of 50 compounds to their activities against M. tuberculosis . The compounds were optimized by employing density functional theory (DFT) with B3LYP/6-31G⁎ . The Genetic Function Algorithm (GFA) was used to select the descriptors and to generate the correlation model that relates the structural features of the compounds to their biological activities. The optimum model has squared correlation coefficient ( R 2 ) of 0...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Solomon Weldegebreal Asgedom, Mebrahtu Teweldemedhin, Hailay Gebreyesus
Background: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has continued to be a challenge for tuberculosis (TB) control globally. Ethiopia is one of the countries with high MDR-TB burden. Objective: The main purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of MDR-TB and associated factors in Ethiopia. Methods: A systematic review of the literatures on prevalence of MDR-TB and associated factors was conducted in the country. Results: In our electronic search, 546 citations were depicted...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Khadigeh Sirghani, Tayebeh Zeinali, Abdollah Jamshidi
Poultry meat is one of the most important sources of infection of Yersinia spp. for humans. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the incidence of Yersinia enterocolitica in chicken meat by using culture method on selective medium and confirmation by PCR assay. Also, biochemical methods were used for biotyping. A total of 100 chicken thigh meat samples were collected randomly from retail outlets in Mashhad, Iran. Samples were enriched in Peptone-Sorbitol-Bile (PSB) broth and then cultured on Cefsulodin-Irgasan-Novobiocin (CIN) agar containing antibiotics supplement...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Rahul Pal, Moiz A Ansari, Venkata Saibabu, Shrayanee Das, Zeeshan Fatima, Saif Hameed
Significance of methylene blue (MB) in photodynamic therapy against microbes is well established. Previously, we have reported the antifungal potential of MB against Candida albicans . The present study attempts to identify additional antimicrobial effect of MB against another prevalent human pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). We explored that MB is efficiently inhibiting the growth of Mycobacterium at 15.62  μ g/ml albeit in bacteriostatic manner similar to its fungistatic nature. We uncovered additional cell surface phenotypes (colony morphology and cell sedimentation rate) which were impaired only in Mycobacterium ...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
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