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Journal of Pathogens

Obiora Shedrach Ejiofor, Onyinye Mercy Ajunwa, Chijioke Elias Ezeudu, George Ogonna Emechebe, Kenneth Nchekwube Okeke, Christian Chukwuemeka Ifezulike, Ifeoma Mercy Ekejindu, Jude Nnaemeka Okoyeh, Eunice Ogonna Osuala, Angus Nnamdi Oli
Background: Neonatal infection refers to the infection of the newborn during the first twenty-eight days of life. It is one of the causes of infant morbidity and mortality worldwide. The aim of the study is to determine the relative contribution of the different pathogens to the overall disease burden. It will also determine the mechanisms of virulence of these pathogens that cause neonatal infections at Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University Teaching Hospital (COOUTH), Awka. Methods: Biological samples were collected from 30 neonates admitted at the special care baby unit (SCBU) of COOUTH and cultured using selective media and nutrient agar...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Tuhina Banerjee, Anwita Mishra, Arghya Das, Swati Sharma, Hiranmay Barman, Ghanshyam Yadav
The increasing emergence of Acinetobacter spp. with healthcare associated infections (HCAI) in intensive care units (ICU) is alarming. This study was a laboratory-based audit to determine the prevalence of Acinetobacter spp. associated with HCAI in the adult ICU of a tertiary care hospital in Varanasi, north India, with special reference to antimicrobial resistance and resistance determinants over a period of 5 years. A total of 993 cases of HCAI were analyzed. Isolates were characterized as multidrug resistance and extended drug resistance (MDR/XDR) based on antimicrobial susceptibility records...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Pooja Sharma, Digvijay Singh, Kusum Sharma, Santwana Verma, Sanjay Mahajan, Anil Kanga
Objectives: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) incidences are on the rise worldwide, including the tuberculosis endemic areas. They should be identified rapidly to the species level and should be carefully differentiated as contamination, colonization, or disease. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence and clinicoepidemiological profile of mycobacteriosis cases. Materials and Methods: Cultures were made on liquid and solid media. NTM were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) restriction analysis (PRA) and gene sequencing...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Babatunde Olanrewaju Motayo, Johnson Adekunle Adeniji, Adedayo Omotayo Faneye
Rotavirus has been identified as a major cause of gastroenteritis in Nigeria. There is limited information on the intragenotype diversity of Nigerian rotavirus isolates. We therefore investigated the molecular characteristics of some rotavirus gene sequences detected in sewage from Nigeria. Seven sewage samples, out of a total of 68, tested positive for rotavirus RNA (10.3%). Genotype G1P[4] was the most common genotype (5 isolates) and one isolate for genotypes G1P[8] and G3P[6]. Phylogenetic analysis of the partial VP7 gene of 3 G1P[4] isolates analyzed identified them as genotype G1 Lineage 2 along with Chinese strains with 99...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Rahul Pal, Saif Hameed, Varatharajan Sabareesh, Parveen Kumar, Sarman Singh, Zeeshan Fatima
Many of the earlier studies involving the effect of isoniazid (INH) treatment have solely focused on the fatty acyl (FA) category of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) lipids. This motivated us with the major interest to examine the impact of INH on various other categories of MTB lipids. Towards this, we chose to interpret our mass spectral data (LC-ESI-MS) by a standalone software, MS-LAMP, in which "Mtb LipidDB" was integrated. Analysis by MS-LAMP revealed that INH treatment can alter the composition of "glycerolipids (GLs)" and "glycerophospholipids (GPLs)" categories of MTB lipids, in addition to the variations to FA category...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Jackie K Obey, Moses M Ngeiywa, Paul Kiprono, Sabah Omar, Atte von Wright, Jussi Kauhanen, Carina Tikkanen-Kaukanen
There is an increasing need for innovative drug and prophylaxis discovery against malaria. The aim of the present study was to test in vivo antiplasmodial activity of Croton macrostachyus H. (Euphorbiaceae) stem bark extracts from Kenyan folkloric medicine. Inbred Balb/c mice were inoculated with erythrocytes parasitized with Plasmodium berghei (ANKA). Different doses (500, 250, and 100 mg/kg) of C. macrostachyus ethyl acetate, methanol, aqueous, and isobutanol extracts were administrated either after inoculation (Peters' 4-day suppressive test) or before inoculation (chemoprotective test) of the parasitized erythrocytes...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Noel Jacques Awi, Sin-Yeang Teow
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) cases are on the rise globally. To date, there is still no effective measure to eradicate the causative agent, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is being used in HIV/AIDS management, but it results in long-term medication and has major drawbacks such as multiple side effects, high cost, and increasing the generation rate of escape mutants. In addition, HAART does not control HIV-related complications, and hence more medications and further management are required...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Amin Talebi Bezmin Abadi
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) as gram-negative and spiral microorganism is responsible for colonization in the gastric microniche for more than 50% of world population. Recent studies have shown a critical role of H. pylori in the development of peptic ulcers, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, and gastric cancer. Over the past decade, there has been a sharp interest to use noninvasive tests in diagnosis of the H. pylori infection. During the years after discovery by Marshall and Warren, it has been frequently declared that the rapid urease test (RUT) is one of the cheapest and rapid diagnostic approaches used in detecting the infection...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
William R Schwan, Michael T Beck, Chia S Hung, Scott J Hultgren
Regulation of the uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) fimB and fimE genes was examined following type 1 pili binding to mannose-coated Sepharose beads. Within 25 min after mannose attachment, fimE expression dropped eightfold, whereas fimB transcription increased about two- to fourfold. Because both fim genes encode site-specific recombinases that affect the position of the fimS element containing the fimA promoter, the positioning of fimS was also examined. The fimS element changed to slightly more Phase-OFF in bacteria mixed with plain beads, whereas UPEC cells interacting with mannose-coated beads had significantly less Phase-OFF orientation of fimS under pH 7 conditions...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Yusuf Yakubu, Abdulmalik Bello Shuaibu, Aliyu Musawa Ibrahim, Ummukulthum Lawal Hassan, Raymond Junior Nwachukwu
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an enteric foodborne pathogen associated with life threatening disease conditions. The enterobacteria are frequently found in cattle gastrointestinal tract with high potential of contaminating animal products such as meat, milk, and cheese. A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the presence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 in milk products sold within Sokoto metropolis. Two hundred and sixty (260) samples (comprising 160 raw and 100 fermented milk samples) were collected from different sources within the study area...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Shola Elijah Adeniji, Sani Uba, Adamu Uzairu
A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study was performed to develop a model that relates the structures of 50 compounds to their activities against M. tuberculosis . The compounds were optimized by employing density functional theory (DFT) with B3LYP/6-31G⁎ . The Genetic Function Algorithm (GFA) was used to select the descriptors and to generate the correlation model that relates the structural features of the compounds to their biological activities. The optimum model has squared correlation coefficient ( R 2 ) of 0...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Solomon Weldegebreal Asgedom, Mebrahtu Teweldemedhin, Hailay Gebreyesus
Background: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has continued to be a challenge for tuberculosis (TB) control globally. Ethiopia is one of the countries with high MDR-TB burden. Objective: The main purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of MDR-TB and associated factors in Ethiopia. Methods: A systematic review of the literatures on prevalence of MDR-TB and associated factors was conducted in the country. Results: In our electronic search, 546 citations were depicted...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Khadigeh Sirghani, Tayebeh Zeinali, Abdollah Jamshidi
Poultry meat is one of the most important sources of infection of Yersinia spp. for humans. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the incidence of Yersinia enterocolitica in chicken meat by using culture method on selective medium and confirmation by PCR assay. Also, biochemical methods were used for biotyping. A total of 100 chicken thigh meat samples were collected randomly from retail outlets in Mashhad, Iran. Samples were enriched in Peptone-Sorbitol-Bile (PSB) broth and then cultured on Cefsulodin-Irgasan-Novobiocin (CIN) agar containing antibiotics supplement...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Rahul Pal, Moiz A Ansari, Venkata Saibabu, Shrayanee Das, Zeeshan Fatima, Saif Hameed
Significance of methylene blue (MB) in photodynamic therapy against microbes is well established. Previously, we have reported the antifungal potential of MB against Candida albicans . The present study attempts to identify additional antimicrobial effect of MB against another prevalent human pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). We explored that MB is efficiently inhibiting the growth of Mycobacterium at 15.62  μ g/ml albeit in bacteriostatic manner similar to its fungistatic nature. We uncovered additional cell surface phenotypes (colony morphology and cell sedimentation rate) which were impaired only in Mycobacterium ...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Sheila Adams-Sapper, Adam Gayoso, Lee W Riley
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) organisms have emerged to become a major global public health threat among antimicrobial resistant bacterial human pathogens. Little is known about how CREs emerge. One characteristic phenotype of CREs is heteroresistance, which is clinically associated with treatment failure in patients given a carbapenem. Through in vitro whole-transcriptome analysis we tracked gene expression over time in two different strains (BR7, BR21) of heteroresistant KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, first exposed to a bactericidal concentration of imipenem followed by growth in drug-free medium...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Sombat Leelasupasri, Wichai Santimaleeworagun, Tossawan Jitwasinkul
This in vitro study aimed to determine the activity of colistin plus sulbactam and colistin plus fosfomycin against carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB). Fifteen clinical isolates were obtained from patients admitted to Phyathai II International Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand, from August 2014 to April 2015. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of colistin, sulbactam, and fosfomycin were evaluated using the E-test or broth microdilution and the synergistic activity of the antibacterial combinations (colistin plus sulbactam or fosfomycin) was determined using the chequerboard method...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Mubarak Alfaresi, Garwin Kim Sing, Abiola Senok
Background: The CTX-M family of extended-spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) enzymes is comprised of over 60 bla CTX-M gene variants with the predominance of bla CTX-M-15 in many regions. In this report, we present the first description of bla CTX-M-28 in the United Arab Emirates. Methods: Forty-five non-duplicate ESBL producing isolates identified in a secondary care facility in the United Arab Emirates from June to July 2016 were studied. Gene sequencing was performed and DNA sequences were annotated using the BLAST program to identify the gene subtypes...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Md Sadequl Islam, Md Ariful Islam, Mst Minara Khatun, Sukumar Saha, Md Samiul Basir, Md-Mahmodul Hasan
Brucellosis is endemic in Bangladesh both in humans and in animals. A number of reasons complicate the diagnosis, as bovine brucellosis can be diagnosed by various serological tests. But the tests have a limitation; when the organism remains intracellular, the disease goes into chronic stage and the antibody titres may decline. The present study was conducted for isolation and detection of Brucella spp. by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from seronegative cows. A total of 360 dairy cows from three geographical regions were screened serologically by Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) where 24 samples were serologically positive and the rest of the samples were serologically negative...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Sin-Yeang Teow, Hooi-Yeen Yap, Suat-Cheng Peh
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a pathogen that infects more than 90% of global human population. EBV primarily targets B-lymphocytes and epithelial cells while some of them infect monocyte/macrophage, T-lymphocytes, and dendritic cells (DCs). EBV infection does not cause death by itself but the infection has been persistently associated with certain type of cancers such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), Burkitt's lymphoma (BL), and Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). Recent findings have shown promise on targeting EBV proteins for cancer therapy by immunotherapeutic approach...
2017: Journal of Pathogens
J A Adeniji, F A Ayeni, A Ibrahim, K A Tijani, T O C Faleye, M O Adewumi
This study was designed to compare both the cell culture dependent and independent enterovirus detection algorithms recommended by the WHO and assess how either might impact our perception of the diversity of enterovirus types present in a sample. Sixteen paired samples (16 isolates from RD cell culture and their corresponding stool suspension, i.e., 32 samples) from AFP cases in Nigeria were analyzed in this study. All the samples were subjected to RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis, the WHO recommended RT-snPCR, and its modification...
2017: Journal of Pathogens
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