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Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine

Jane Cullis, Shipra Das, Dafna Bar-Sagi
With the recent breakthroughs in immunotherapy as curative treatments in certain tumor types, there has been renewed interest in the relationship between immunity and tumor growth. Although we are gaining a greater understanding of the complex interplay of immune modulating components in the tumor microenvironment, the specific role that tumor cells play in shaping the immune milieu is still not well characterized. In this review, we focus on how mutant Kras tumor cells contribute to tumor immunity, with a specific focus on processes induced directly or indirectly by the oncogene...
December 11, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Andrew M Waters, Channing J Der
RAS genes (HRAS, KRAS, and NRAS) comprise the most frequently mutated oncogene family in human cancer. With the highest RAS mutation frequencies seen with the top three causes of cancer deaths in the United States (lung, colorectal, and pancreatic cancer), the development of anti-RAS therapies is a major priority for cancer research. Despite more than three decades of intense effort, no effective RAS inhibitors have yet to reach the cancer patient. With bitter lessons learned from past failures and with new ideas and strategies, there is renewed hope that undruggable RAS may finally be conquered...
December 11, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Silvia Marino, G David Roodman
Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second-most-common hematologic malignancy and the most frequent cancer to involve bone. MM bone disease (MMBD) has devastating consequences for patients, including dramatic bone loss, severe bone pain, and pathological fractures that markedly decrease the quality of life and impact survival of MM patients. MMBD results from excessive osteoclastic bone resorption and persistent suppressed osteoblastic bone formation, causing lytic lesions that do not heal, even when patients are in complete and prolonged remission...
December 11, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Jeffrey C Francis, Amanda Swain
The prostate is a male exocrine gland that secretes components of the seminal fluid. In men, prostate tumors are one of the most prevalent cancers. Studies on the development of the prostate have given a better understanding of the processes and genes that are important in the formation of this organ and have provided insights into the mechanisms of prostate tumorigenesis. These developmental studies have provided evidence that some of the genes and signaling pathways involved in development are reactivated or deregulated during prostate cancer...
December 11, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Timothy R Rebbeck
Prostate cancer (CaP) incidence, morbidity, and mortality rates vary substantially by race and ethnicity, with African American men experiencing among the highest CaP rates in the world. The causes of these disparities are multifactorial and complex, and likely involve differences in access to screening and treatment, exposure to CaP risk factors, variation in genomic susceptibility, and other biological factors. To date, the proportion of CaP that can be explained by environmental exposures is small and differences in the role factors play by race or ethnicity is poorly understood...
December 11, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Yong Zhou, Priyanka Prakash, Alemayehu A Gorfe, John F Hancock
The primary site of Ras signal transduction is the plasma membrane (PM). On the PM, the ubiquitously expressed Ras isoforms, H-, N-, and K-Ras, spatially segregate to nonoverlapping nanometer-sized domains, called nanoclusters, with further lateral segregation into nonoverlapping guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-bound and guanosine diphosphate (GDP)-bound nanoclusters. Effector binding and activation is restricted to GTP nanoclusters, rendering the underlying assembly mechanism essential to Ras signaling. Ras nanoclusters have distinct lipid compositions as a result of lipid-sorting specificity encoded in each Ras carboxy-terminal membrane anchor...
December 11, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Giorgia Zadra, Massimo Loda
Cancer cells hijack metabolic pathways to support bioenergetics and biosynthetic requirements for their uncontrolled growth. Thus, cancer can be considered as a metabolic disease. In this review, we discuss the main metabolic features of prostate cancer with a particular focus on the link between oncogene-directed cancer metabolic regulation, metabolism rewiring, and epigenetic regulation. The potential of using metabolic profiling as a means to predict disease behavior and to identify novel therapeutic targets and new diagnostic markers will be addressed as well as the current challenges in metabolomics analyses...
December 11, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Matthew Holderfield
The high prevalence of KRAS mutations in human cancers and the lack of effective treatments for patients ranks KRAS among the most highly sought-after targets for preclinical oncologists. Pharmaceutical companies and academic laboratories have tried for decades to identify small molecule inhibitors of oncogenic KRAS proteins, but little progress has been made and many have labeled KRAS undruggable. However, recent progress in in silico screening, fragment-based drug design, disulfide tethered screening, and some emerging themes in RAS biology have caused the field to reconsider previously held notions about targeting KRAS...
November 3, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Andrew J Aguirre, William C Hahn
KRAS is the most commonly mutated oncogene in human cancer. Most KRAS-mutant cancers depend on sustained expression and signaling of KRAS, thus making it a high-priority therapeutic target. Unfortunately, development of direct small molecule inhibitors of KRAS function has been challenging. An alternative therapeutic strategy for KRAS-mutant malignancies involves targeting codependent vulnerabilities or synthetic lethal partners that are preferentially essential in the setting of oncogenic KRAS. KRAS activates numerous effector pathways that mediate proliferation and survival signals...
November 3, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Semini Sumanasuriya, Johann De Bono
Despite many recent advances in the therapy for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), the disease remains incurable, although men suffering from this disease are living considerably longer. In this review, we discuss the current treatment options available for this disease, such as taxane-based chemotherapy, the novel hormone therapies abiraterone and enzalutamide, and treatments such as radium-223 and sipuleucel-T. We also highlight the need for ongoing research in this field, because, despite numerous recent advances, the prognosis for mCRPC remains poor...
November 3, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Alexander Dias, Zsofia Kote-Jarai, Christos Mikropoulos, Ros Eeles
Prostate cancer (PCa) is a highly heritable disease, and rapid evolution of sequencing technologies has enabled marked progression of our understanding of its genetic inheritance. A complex polygenic model that involves common low-penetrance susceptibility alleles causing individually small but cumulatively significant risk and rarer genetic variants causing greater risk represent the current most accepted model. Through genome-wide association studies, more than 100 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with PCa risk have been identified...
November 3, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Michael Hiltensperger, Thomas Korn
T helper (Th)17 cells are responsible for host defense against fungi and certain extracellular bacteria but have also been reported to play a role in a variety of autoimmune diseases. Th17 cells respond to environmental cues, are very plastic, and might also be involved in tissue homeostasis and regeneration. The imprinting of pathogenic properties in Th17 cells in autoimmunity seems highly dependent on interleukin (IL)-23. Since Th17 cells were first described in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, they have been suggested to also promote tissue damage in multiple sclerosis (MS)...
November 3, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Mark Esposito, Theresa Guise, Yibin Kang
Bone metastasis, or the development of secondary tumors within the bone of cancer patients, is a debilitating and incurable disease. Despite its morbidity, the biology of bone metastasis represents one of the most complex and intriguing of all oncogenic processes. This complexity derives from the intricately organized bone microenvironment in which the various stages of hematopoiesis, osteogenesis, and osteolysis are jointly regulated but spatially restricted. Disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) from various common malignancies such as breast, prostate, lung, and kidney cancers or myeloma are uniquely primed to subvert these endogenous bone stromal elements to grow into pathological osteolytic or osteoblastic lesions...
November 3, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Jillian A Parker, Carla Mattos
Ras controls a multitude of cellular signaling processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Deregulation of Ras cycling often promotes tumorigenesis and various other developmental disorders, termed RASopothies. Although the structure of Ras has been known for many decades, it is still one of the most highly sought-after drug targets today, and is often referred to as "undruggable." At the center of this paradoxical protein is a lack of understanding of fundamental differences in the G domains between the highly similar Ras isoforms and common oncogenic mutations, despite the immense wealth of knowledge accumulated about this protein to date...
October 16, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Ming Chen, Pier Paolo Pandolfi
Men who develop metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) will invariably succumb to their disease. Thus there remains a pressing need for preclinical testing of new drugs and drug combinations for late-stage prostate cancer (PCa). Insights from the mCRPC genomic landscape have revealed that, in addition to sustained androgen receptor (AR) signaling, there are other actionable molecular alterations and distinct molecular subclasses of PCa; however, the rate at which this knowledge translates into patient care via current preclinical testing is painfully slow and inefficient...
October 16, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Michael Ittmann
The human and murine prostate glands have similar functional roles in the generation of seminal fluid to assist in reproduction. There are significant differences in the anatomy and histology of murine and human prostate and knowledge of the normal anatomy and histology of the murine prostate is essential to interpreting changes in genetically engineered mouse models. In this review, the normal anatomy and histology of both human and mouse prostate will be described.
October 16, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Marta Galán-Díez, Álvaro Cuesta-Domínguez, Stavroula Kousteni
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) interact dynamically with an intricate network of cells in the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment or niche. These interactions provide instructive cues that influence the production and lineage determination of different types of blood cells and maintenance of HSC quiescence. They also contribute to hematopoietic deregulation and hematological myeloid malignancies. Alterations in the BM niche are commonly observed in myeloid malignancies and contribute to the aberrant function of myelodysplastic and leukemia-initiating stem cells...
September 29, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Christoph Hoffmann, Cora Weigert
Exercise stimulates the release of proteins with autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine functions produced in skeletal muscle, termed myokines. Based on the current state of knowledge, the major physiological function of myokines is to protect the functionality and to enhance the exercise capacity of skeletal muscle. Myokines control adaptive processes in skeletal muscle by acting as paracrine regulators of fuel oxidation, hypertrophy, angiogenesis, inflammatory processes, and regulation of the extracellular matrix...
November 1, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Joel C Watts, Stanley B Prusiner
The inherited prion protein (PrP) prion disorders, which include familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease, and fatal familial insomnia, constitute ∼10%-15% of all PrP prion disease cases in humans. Attempts to generate animal models of these disorders using transgenic mice expressing mutant PrP have produced variable results. Although many lines of mice develop spontaneous signs of neurological illness with accompanying prion disease-specific neuropathological changes, others do not...
November 1, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Gilbert Gallardo, David M Holtzman
The astonishing findings that active and passive immunization against amyloid-β (Aβ) in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) dramatically decreased amyloid burden led to a rapid initiation of human clinical trials with much enthusiasm. However, methodological issues and adverse effects relating to these clinical trials arose, challenging the effectiveness and safety of these reagents. Efforts are now underway to develop safer immunotherapeutic approaches toward Aβ and the treatment of individuals at risk for AD before or in the earliest stages of cognitive decline with new hopes...
October 3, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
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