journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630229/observing-clonal-dynamics-across-spatiotemporal-axes-a-prelude-to-quantitative-fitness-models-for-cancer
#1
Andrew W McPherson, Fong Chun Chan, Sohrab P Shah
The ability to accurately model evolutionary dynamics in cancer would allow for prediction of progression and response to therapy. As a prelude to quantitative understanding of evolutionary dynamics, researchers must gather observations of in vivo tumor evolution. High-throughput genome sequencing now provides the means to profile the mutational content of evolving tumor clones from patient biopsies. Together with the development of models of tumor evolution, reconstructing evolutionary histories of individual tumors generates hypotheses about the dynamics of evolution that produced the observed clones...
June 19, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630228/the-achilles-heel-of-cancer-and-its-implications-for-the-development-of-novel-immunotherapeutic-strategies
#2
Kroopa Joshi, Benjamin M Chain, Karl S Peggs, Sergio A Quezada
Over the last century, scientists have embraced the idea of mobilizing antitumor immune responses in patients with cancer. In the last decade, we have seen the rebirth of cancer immunotherapy and its validation in a series of high profile clinical trials following the discovery of several immune-regulatory receptors. Recent studies point toward the tumor mutational load and resulting neoantigen burden as being crucial to tumor cell recognition by the immune system, highlighting a potentially targetable Achilles heel in cancer...
June 19, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533315/malaria-pathogenesis
#3
Danny A Milner
In the mosquito-human life cycle, the six species of malaria parasites infecting humans (Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale wallickeri, Plasmodium ovale curtisi, Plasmodium malariae, and Plasmodium knowlesi) undergo 10 or more morphological states, replicate from single to 10,000+ cells, and vary in total population from one to many more than 10(6) organisms. In the human host, only a small number of these morphological stages lead to clinical disease and the vast majority of all malaria-infected patients in the world produce few (if any) symptoms in the human...
May 22, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533314/exercise-metabolism-fuels-for-the-fire
#4
Mark Hargreaves, Lawrence L Spriet
During exercise, the supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is essential for the energy-dependent processes that underpin ongoing contractile activity. These pathways involve both substrate-level phosphorylation, without any need for oxygen, and oxidative phosphorylation that is critically dependent on oxygen delivery to contracting skeletal muscle by the respiratory and cardiovascular systems and on the supply of reducing equivalents from the degradation of carbohydrate, fat, and, to a limited extent, protein fuel stores...
May 22, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507198/modern-vector-control
#5
Neil F Lobo, Nicole L Achee, John Greico, Frank H Collins
The rapid spread of mosquito resistance to currently available insecticides, and the current lack of an efficacious malaria vaccine are among many challenges that affect large-scale efforts for malaria control. As goals of malaria elimination and eradication are put forth, new vector-control paradigms and tools and/or further optimization of current vector-control products are required to meet public health demands. Vector control remains the most effective measure to prevent malaria transmission and present gains against malaria mortality and morbidity may be maintained as long as vector-intervention strategies are sustained and adapted to underlying vector-related transmission dynamics...
May 15, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507197/muscle-adipose-tissue-cross-talk
#6
Kristin I Stanford, Laurie J Goodyear
Exercise training results in adaptations to both skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue (WAT) and protects against metabolic disorders including obesity and type 2 diabetes. Exercise-induced adaptations include an altered profile of secreted proteins, both myokines (from skeletal muscle) and adipokines (from adipose tissue). These secreted proteins may act in an endocrine manner to facilitate tissue-to-tissue communication and "cross talk," likely working together to improve overall metabolic health. Some studies suggest that contracting skeletal muscles release myokines that may function to alter the phenotype of WAT, including WAT "beiging," in which there is increased expression of beige marker genes and increased presence of multilocular cells within the WAT...
May 15, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507196/health-benefits-of-exercise
#7
Gregory N Ruegsegger, Frank W Booth
Overwhelming evidence exists that lifelong exercise is associated with a longer health span, delaying the onset of 40 chronic conditions/diseases. What is beginning to be learned is the molecular mechanisms by which exercise sustains and improves quality of life. The current review begins with two short considerations. The first short presentation concerns the effects of endurance exercise training on cardiovascular fitness, and how it relates to improved health outcomes. The second short section contemplates emerging molecular connections from endurance training to mental health...
May 15, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507195/molecular-signaling-involved-in-entry-and-exit-of-malaria-parasites-from-host-erythrocytes
#8
Shailja Singh, Chetan E Chitnis
During the blood stage, Plasmodium spp. merozoites invade host red blood cells (RBCs), multiply, exit, and reinvade uninfected RBCs in a continuing cycle that is responsible for all the clinical symptoms associated with malaria. Entry into (invasion) and exit from (egress) RBCs are highly regulated processes that are mediated by an array of parasite proteins with specific functional roles. Many of these parasite proteins are stored in specialized apical secretory vesicles, and their timely release is critical for successful invasion and egress...
May 15, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507194/molecular-basis-of-exercise-induced-skeletal-muscle-mitochondrial-biogenesis-historical-advances-current-knowledge-and-future-challenges
#9
Christopher G R Perry, John A Hawley
We provide an overview of groundbreaking studies that laid the foundation for our current understanding of exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis and its contribution to human skeletal muscle fitness. We highlight the mechanisms by which skeletal muscle responds to the acute perturbations in cellular energy homeostasis evoked by a single bout of endurance-based exercise and the adaptations resulting from the repeated demands of exercise training that ultimately promote mitochondrial biogenesis through hormetic feedback loops...
May 15, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507193/current-and-future-prospects-for-preventing-malaria-transmission-via-the-use-of-insecticides
#10
Hilary Ranson
Malaria vectors have developed resistance to all classes of insecticides that are used to target the adult mosquito to prevent parasite transmission. The number of resistant mosquito populations has increased dramatically in recent years, most likely as a result of the scale-up of vector control activities, and the intensity of this resistance is increasing rapidly and compromising the performance of vector control tools. Bednets and indoor residual spray formulations containing alternative active ingredients have shown promise in field trials but are still several years away from implementation...
May 15, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507192/performance-fatigability-mechanisms-and-task-specificity
#11
Sandra K Hunter
Performance fatigability is characterized as an acute decline in motor performance caused by an exercise-induced reduction in force or power of the involved muscles. Multiple mechanisms contribute to performance fatigability and originate from neural and muscular processes, with the task demands dictating the mechanisms. This review highlights that (1) inadequate activation of the motoneuron pool can contribute to performance fatigability, and (2) the demands of the task and the physiological characteristics of the population assessed, dictate fatigability and the involved mechanisms...
May 15, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495803/on-the-run-for-hippocampal-plasticity
#12
C'iana Cooper, Hyo Youl Moon, Henriette van Praag
Accumulating research in rodents and humans indicates that exercise benefits brain function and may prevent or delay onset of neurodegenerative conditions. In particular, exercise modifies the structure and function of the hippocampus, a brain area important for learning and memory. This review addresses the central and peripheral mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of exercise on the hippocampus. We focus on running-induced changes in adult hippocampal neurogenesis, neural circuitry, neurotrophins, synaptic plasticity, neurotransmitters, and vasculature...
May 11, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490543/molecular-regulation-of-exercise-induced-muscle-fiber-hypertrophy
#13
Marcas M Bamman, Brandon M Roberts, Gregory R Adams
Skeletal muscle hypertrophy is a widely sought exercise adaptation to counteract the muscle atrophy of aging and disease, or to improve athletic performance. While this desired muscle enlargement is a well-known adaptation to resistance exercise training (RT), the mechanistic underpinnings are not fully understood. The purpose of this review is thus to provide the reader with a summary of recent advances in molecular mechanisms-based on the most current literature-that are thought to promote RT-induced muscle hypertrophy...
May 10, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490542/evolution-of-premalignant-disease
#14
Kit Curtius, Nicholas A Wright, Trevor A Graham
Where does cancer come from? Although the cell-of-origin is difficult to pinpoint, cancer clones harbor information about their clonal ancestries. In an effort to find cells before they evolve into a life-threatening cancer, physicians currently diagnose premalignant diseases at frequencies that substantially exceed those of clinical cancers. Cancer risk prediction relies on our ability to distinguish between which premalignant features will lead to cancer mortality and which are characteristic of inconsequential disease...
May 10, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490541/exosomes-as-mediators-of-the-systemic-adaptations-to-endurance-exercise
#15
Adeel Safdar, Mark A Tarnopolsky
Habitual endurance exercise training is associated with multisystemic metabolic adaptations that lower the risk of inactivity-associated disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Identification of complex systemic signaling networks responsible for these benefits are of great interest because of their therapeutic potential in metabolic diseases; however, specific signals that modulate the multisystemic benefits of exercise in multiple tissues and organs are only recently being discovered...
May 10, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490540/the-biology-of-plasmodium-vivax
#16
John H Adams, Ivo Mueller
Plasmodium vivax is the second most prevalent cause of malaria worldwide and the leading cause of malaria outside of Africa. Although infections are seldom fatal clinical disease can be debilitating and imposes significant health and economic impacts on affected populations. Estimates of transmission and prevalence intensity can be problematic because many episodes of vivax originate from hypnozoite stages in the liver that have remained dormant from previous infections by an unknown mechanism. Lack of treatment options to clear hypnozoites and the ability to infect mosquitoes before disease symptoms present represent major challenges for control and eradication of vivax malaria...
May 10, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490539/physiological-redundancy-and-the-integrative-responses-to-exercise
#17
Michael J Joyner, Jerome A Dempsey
The biological responses to acute and chronic exercise are marked by a high level of physiological redundancy that operates at various levels of integration, including the molecular, cellular, organ-system, and whole-body scale. During acute exercise, this redundancy protects whole-body homeostasis in the face of 10-fold or more increases in whole-body metabolic rate. In some cases, there are "trade-offs" between optimizing the performance of a given organ or system versus whole-body performance. Physiological redundancy also plays a key role in the adaptive responses to exercise training and high levels of habitual physical activity, including the positive effects of regular exercise on health...
May 10, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490538/cellular-constituents-of-the-prostate-stroma-key-contributors-to-prostate-cancer-progression-and-therapy-resistance
#18
Christine Levesque, Peter S Nelson
Reciprocal signaling between prostate stroma and its epithelium are fundamental to organ development and homeostasis. Similarly, interactions between tumor cells and stromal constituents are central to key aspects of carcinogenesis and malignancy growth involving tumor cell invasion, dissemination, and growth in distant sites. The prostate stroma is complex with several distinct resident cell types, infiltrating nonresident cell types and an amalgam of structural matrix factors, matricellular proteins, metabolites, growth factors, and cytokines...
May 10, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490537/adaptations-to-endurance-and-strength-training
#19
David C Hughes, Stian Ellefsen, Keith Baar
The capacity for human exercise performance can be enhanced with prolonged exercise training, whether it is endurance- or strength-based. The ability to adapt through exercise training allows individuals to perform at the height of their sporting event and/or maintain peak physical condition throughout the life span. Our continued drive to understand how to prescribe exercise to maximize health and/or performance outcomes means that our knowledge of the adaptations that occur as a result of exercise continues to evolve...
May 10, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490536/the-bioenergetics-of-exercise
#20
P Darrell Neufer
Animals possess a remarkable ability to perform physical activity over a wide range of workloads and durations, reflecting both the inherent efficiency and large reserve capacity of energy transfer systems. Deciphering how different organ/physiological systems respond to the acute and chronic demands of exercise depends on a foundational understanding of the redox and bioenergetic principles that underlie the flow of electrons in living systems and its coupling to ATP synthesis. The purpose of this review is to set the stage to cover (1) the thermodynamic driving forces responsible for generating and maintaining the energy charge that establishes and sustains life for cells, and (2) how cellular energy transfer systems respond to changes in energy demand to ensure energy charge is preserved...
May 10, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
journal
journal
43793
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"