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Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289249/control-of-cellular-aging-tissue-function-and-cancer-by-p53-downstream-of-telomeres
#1
Caitlin M Roake, Steven E Artandi
Telomeres, the nucleoprotein complex at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, perform an essential cellular role in part by preventing the chromosomal end from initiating a DNA-damage response. This function of telomeres can be compromised as telomeres erode either as a consequence of cell division in culture or as a normal part of cellular ageing in proliferative tissues. Telomere dysfunction in this context leads to DNA-damage signaling and activation of the tumor-suppressor protein p53, which then can prompt either cellular senescence or apoptosis...
March 13, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289248/antimalarial-drug-resistance-a-threat-to-malaria-elimination
#2
Didier Menard, Arjen Dondorp
Increasing antimalarial drug resistance once again threatens effective antimalarial drug treatment, malaria control, and elimination. Artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) are first-line treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria in all endemic countries, yet partial resistance to artemisinins has emerged in the Greater Mekong Subregion. Concomitant emergence of partner drug resistance is now causing high ACT treatment failure rates in several areas. Genetic markers for artemisinin resistance and several of the partner drugs have been established, greatly facilitating surveillance...
March 13, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289247/three-dimensional-bioprinting-strategies-for-tissue-engineering
#3
Yu Shrike Zhang, Rahmi Oklu, Mehmet Remzi Dokmeci, Ali Khademhosseini
Over the past decades, many approaches have been developed to fabricate biomimetic extracellular matrices of desired properties for engineering functional tissues. However, the inability of these techniques to precisely control the spatial architecture has posed a significant challenge in producing complex tissues. 3D bioprinting technology has emerged as a potential solution by bringing unprecedented freedom and versatility in depositing biological materials and cells in a well-controlled manner in the 3D volumes, therefore achieving precision engineering of functional tissues...
March 13, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289246/the-heart-and-great-vessels
#4
Ekene Onwuka, Nakesha King, Eric Heuer, Christopher Breuer
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. We have made large strides over the past few decades in management, but definitive therapeutic options to address this health-care burden are still limited. Given the ever-increasing need, much effort has been spent creating engineered tissue to replaced diseased tissue. This article gives a general overview of this work as it pertains to the development of great vessels, myocardium, and heart valves. In each area, we focus on currently studied methods, limitations, and areas for future study...
March 13, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289245/treatment-induced-mutagenesis-and-selective-pressures-sculpt-cancer-evolution
#5
Subramanian Venkatesan, Charles Swanton, Barry S Taylor, Joseph F Costello
Despite the great progress in our understanding of the molecular basis of human cancer, the heterogeneity of individual tumors and the evolutionary pressures imposed by therapy have hampered our ability to effectively eradicate and control this disease. How, therefore, do cancers evolve under the selective pressures of cancer therapy? Recent studies have linked both primary (or de novo) and acquired treatment resistance to intratumor heterogeneity and clonal evolution. Resistance to targeted therapies often includes mutation of the drug target itself and aberrations of pathways upstream of, downstream from, or parallel to the drug target...
March 13, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289244/homeostasis-back-and-forth-an-ecoevolutionary-perspective-of-cancer
#6
David Basanta, Alexander R A Anderson
The role of genetic mutations in cancer is indisputable: They are a key source of tumor heterogeneity and drive its evolution to malignancy. But, the success of these new mutant cells relies on their ability to disrupt the homeostasis that characterizes healthy tissues. Mutated clones unable to break free from intrinsic and extrinsic homeostatic controls will fail to establish a tumor. Here, we will discuss, through the lens of mathematical and computational modeling, why an evolutionary view of cancer needs to be complemented by an ecological perspective to understand why cancer cells invade and subsequently transform their environment during progression...
March 13, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270533/genetics-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#7
Mehdi Ghasemi, Robert H Brown
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating, uniformly lethal degenerative disorder of motor neurons that overlaps clinically with frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Investigations of the 10% of ALS cases that are transmitted as dominant traits have revealed numerous gene mutations and variants that either cause these disorders or influence their clinical phenotype. The evolving understanding of the genetic architecture of ALS has illuminated broad themes in the molecular pathophysiology of both familial and sporadic ALS and FTD...
March 7, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270532/autophagy-dependent-beneficial-effects-of-exercise
#8
Jens Frey Halling, Henriette Pilegaard
Exercise has long been recognized as a powerful physiological stimulus for a wide variety of metabolic adaptations with implications for health and performance. The metabolic effects of exercise occur during and after each exercise bout and manifest as cumulative adaptive responses to successive exercise bouts. Studies on the beneficial effects of exercise have traditionally focused on the biosynthesis of metabolic proteins and organelles. However, the recycling of cellular components by autophagy has recently emerged as an important process involved in the adaptive responses to exercise...
March 7, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270531/principles-of-reconstructing-the-subclonal-architecture-of-cancers
#9
Stefan C Dentro, David C Wedge, Peter Van Loo
Most cancers evolve from a single founder cell through a series of clonal expansions that are driven by somatic mutations. These clonal expansions can lead to several coexisting subclones sharing subsets of mutations. Analysis of massively parallel sequencing data can infer a tumor's subclonal composition through the identification of populations of cells with shared mutations. We describe the principles that underlie subclonal reconstruction through single nucleotide variants (SNVs) or copy number alterations (CNAs) from bulk or single-cell sequencing...
March 7, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270530/targeting-the-mdm2-p53-protein-protein-interaction-for-new-cancer-therapy-progress-and-challenges
#10
Shaomeng Wang, Yujun Zhao, Angelo Aguilar, Denzil Bernard, Chao-Yie Yang
MDM2 is a primary cellular inhibitor of p53. It inhibits p53 function by multiple mechanisms, each of which, however, is mediated by their direct interaction. It has been proposed that small-molecule inhibitors designed to block the MDM2-p53 interaction may be effective in the treatment of human cancer retaining wild-type p53 by reactivating the p53 tumor suppressor function. Through nearly two decades of intense efforts, a number of structurally distinct, highly potent, nonpeptide, small-molecule inhibitors of the MDM2-p53 interaction (MDM2 inhibitors) have been successfully designed and developed, and at least seven such compounds have now been advanced into human clinical trials as new anticancer drugs...
March 7, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270529/inherited-tp53-mutations-and-the-li-fraumeni-syndrome
#11
Tanya Guha, David Malkin
Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is a complex hereditary cancer predisposition disorder associated with early-onset cancers in diverse tissues of origin. Germline TP53 mutations are identified in 75% of patients with classic LFS. The lifetime likelihood of a TP53 mutation carrier developing cancer approaches 75% in males and almost 100% in females. Several genetic modifiers have been implicated to account for the phenotypic variability within and across LFS families; however, efforts to develop predictive algorithms of age of onset and type of cancers in individual patients have not yet found clinical use...
March 7, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242787/tet2-in-normal-and-malignant-hematopoiesis
#12
Robert L Bowman, Ross L Levine
The ten-eleven translocation (TET) family of enzymes were originally cloned from the translocation breakpoint of t(10;11) in infant acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with subsequent genomic analyses revealing somatic mutations and suppressed expression of TET family members across a range of malignancies, particularly enriched in hematological neoplasms. The TET family of enzymes is responsible for the hydroxylation of 5-methylcytosines (5-mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC), followed by active and passive mechanisms leading to DNA demethylation...
February 27, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242786/determinants-of-malaria-transmission-at-the-population-level
#13
Teun Bousema, Chris Drakeley
Transmission of malaria from man to mosquito defines the human infectious reservoir of malaria. At the population level this is influenced by a variety of human, parasite, and mosquito vector factors some or all of which may vary depending on the epidemiological setting. Here, we review our current state of knowledge related to human infectiousness to mosquitoes and how current malaria control strategies might be adapted to focus on reducing this. While much progress has been made in malaria control, we argue that an improved understanding of human infectivity will allow more effective use of current control tools and make elimination a more feasible goal...
February 27, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242785/malaria-parasite-liver-infection-and-exoerythrocytic-biology
#14
Ashley M Vaughan, Stefan H I Kappe
In their infection cycle, malaria parasites undergo replication and population expansions within the vertebrate host and the mosquito vector. Host infection initiates with sporozoite invasion of hepatocytes, followed by a dramatic parasite amplification event during liver stage parasite growth and replication within hepatocytes. Each liver stage forms up to 90,000 exoerythrocytic merozoites, which are in turn capable of initiating a blood stage infection. Liver stages not only exploit host hepatocyte resources for nutritional needs but also endeavor to prevent hepatocyte cell death and detection by the host's immune system...
February 27, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242784/mixed-lineage-leukemia-fusions-and-chromatin-in-leukemia
#15
Andrei V Krivtsov, Takayuki Hoshii, Scott A Armstrong
Recent studies have shown the importance of chromatin-modifying complexes in the maintenance of developmental gene expression and human disease. The mixed lineage leukemia gene (MLL1) encodes a chromatin-modifying protein and was discovered as a result of the cloning of translocations involved in human leukemias. MLL1 is a histone lysine 4 (H3K4) methyltransferase that supports transcription of genes that are important for normal development including homeotic (Hox) genes. MLL1 rearrangements result in expression of fusion proteins without H3K4 methylation activity but may gain the ability to recruit other chromatin-associated complexes such as the H3K79 methyltransferase DOT1L and the super elongation complex...
February 27, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242783/role-of-nuclear-receptors-in-exercise-induced-muscle-adaptations
#16
Barbara Kupr, Svenia Schnyder, Christoph Handschin
Skeletal muscle is not only one of the largest, but also one of the most dynamic organs. For example, plasticity elicited by endurance or resistance exercise entails complex transcriptional programs that are still poorly understood. Various signaling pathways are engaged in the contracting muscle fiber and collectively culminate in the modulation of the activity of numerous transcription factors (TFs) and coregulators. Because exercise confers many benefits for the prevention and treatment of a wide variety of pathologies, pharmacological activation of signaling pathways and TFs is an attractive avenue to elicit therapeutic effects...
February 27, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213438/tumor-microenvironment-and-differential-responses-to-therapy
#17
Eishu Hirata, Erik Sahai
Cancer evolution plays a key role in both the development of tumors and their response to therapy. Like all evolutionary processes, tumor evolution is shaped by the environment. In tumors, this consists of a complex mixture of nontransformed cell types and extracellular matrix. Chemotherapy or radiotherapy imposes further strong selective pressures on cancer cells during cancer treatment. Here, we review how different components of the tumor microenvironment can modulate the response to chemo- and radiotherapy...
February 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213437/%C3%AE-synuclein-multiple-system-atrophy-prions
#18
Amanda L Woerman, Joel C Watts, Atsushi Aoyagi, Kurt Giles, Lefkos T Middleton, Stanley B Prusiner
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disease arising from the misfolding and accumulation of the protein α-synuclein in oligodendrocytes, where it forms glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs). Several years of studying synthetic α-synuclein fibrils has provided critical insight into the ability of α-synuclein to template endogenous protein misfolding, giving rise to fibrillar structures capable of propagating from cell to cell. However, more recent studies with MSA-derived α-synuclein aggregates have shown that they have a similar ability to undergo template-directed propagation, like PrP prions...
February 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213436/host-cell-tropism-and-adaptation-of-blood-stage-malaria-parasites-challenges-for-malaria-elimination
#19
Caeul Lim, Selasi Dankwa, Aditya S Paul, Manoj T Duraisingh
Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax account for most of the mortality and morbidity associated with malaria in humans. Research and control efforts have focused on infections caused by P. falciparum and P. vivax, but have neglected other malaria parasite species that infect humans. Additionally, many related malaria parasite species infect nonhuman primates (NHPs), and have the potential for transmission to humans. For malaria elimination, the varied and specific challenges of all of these Plasmodium species will need to be considered...
February 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213435/genetics-of-synucleinopathies
#20
Robert L Nussbaum
Parkinson's disease (PD), diffuse Lewy body disease (DLBD), and multiple system atrophy (MSA) constitute the three major neurodegenerative disorders referred to as synucleinopathies because both genetic and pathological results implicate the α-synuclein protein in their pathogenesis. PD and DLBD are recognized as closely related diseases with substantial clinical and pathological overlap. MSA, on the other hand, has a distinctive clinical presentation and neuropathological profile. In this review, we will summarize the evidence linking α-synuclein to these three disorders...
February 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
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