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Pharmacognosy Reviews

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[This retracts the article on p. 131 in vol. 7, PMID: 24347921.].
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Reviews
Maria Paparoupa, Adrian Gillissen
GeloMyrtol(®) and GeloMyrtol(®) forte, also known as Myrtol(®) standardized, is an herbal medical product (phytomedicine) obtained by a multistep distillation procedure from essential oils. The major biological marker of in vivo and ex vivo activity of Myrtol(®) standardized is the monoterpenes, d-limonene, 1,8-cineole, and alpha-pinene. Myrtol(®) standardized is estimated to have antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial potential while many studies confirmed its secretolytic and bronchospasmolytic effects...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Reviews
Thasanee Khanijo, Wannee Jiraungkoorskul
Eurycoma longifolia (family: Simaroubaceae) is commonly distributed in the Southeast Asia and Indo-China. In particular, the aqueous extract and decoction of its root are a well-known folk medicine which enhances sexuality, fertility, and antiaging. Furthermore, it has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, antimalarial, antimicrobial, and antioxidant properties. Its common phytochemical components include alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics, saponins, tannins, and triterpenes. This plant is rich in various quassinoids including eurycolactone, eurycomalactone, eurycomanol, eurycomanone, and eurycomaoside all of which has been reported to contribute to its remedial properties including increased muscle strength, endurance in cycling time, and reduced anxiety and stress...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Reviews
Sumanta Mondal, Debjit Ghosh, K Ramakrishna
Traditional system of medicine consists of large number of plants with various medicinal and pharmacological importances. This article provides a comprehensive review of the complete profile of an important mangrove plant Excoecaria agallocha L. (Euphorbiaceae) and elaborately describing the ethnobotany, phytochemistry, and pharmacological properties. It is used traditionally in the treatment of various diseases such as epilepsy, ulcers, leprosy, rheumatism, and paralysis. The latex obtained from the bark is poisonous in nature and may cause temporary blindness, thus it is also known as the blind-your-eye mangrove plant...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Reviews
Nithithep Narang, Wannee Jiraungkoorskul
Citrus aurantifolia (family: Rutaceae) is mainly used in daily consumption, in many cultural cuisines, and in juice production. It is widely used because of its antibacterial, anticancer, antidiabetic, antifungal, anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammation, anti-lipidemia, and antioxidant properties; moreover, it can protect heart, liver, bone, and prevent urinary diseases. Its secondary metabolites are alkaloids, carotenoids, coumarins, essential oils, flavonoids, phenolic acids, and triterpenoids. The other important constituents are apigenin, hesperetin, kaempferol, limonoids, quercetin, naringenin, nobiletin, and rutin, all of these contribute to its remedial properties...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Reviews
Rattawat Subsongsang, Wannee Jiraungkoorskul
Duranta erecta (family: Verbenaceae) commonly referred to golden dewdrop, pigeon berry, angel whisper, or skyflower is one of the traditional medicinal plants. It has been shown to possess antimicrobial, antioxidant, and insecticide properties. Its phytoconstituents such as alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, phenolics, saponins, steroids, tannins, and terpenoids are reported as the basis of its efficacious therapeutic properties. The other important constituents which contribute to the remedial properties are durantol, pectolinaringenin, repennoside, repenins, and scutellarein...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Reviews
Priya Singh Kushwaha, Ashok K Singh, Amit K Keshari, Siddhartha Maity, Sudipta Saha
Salacia oblonga (S. oblonga), a perennial herb, has been used for thousands of years in ayurvedic medicine and is closely associated with prevention, treatment, and cure of various human ailments such as obesity and diabetes. A vast and wide range of chemical compounds such as polyphenols, friedelane-type triterpenes, norfriedelane-type triterpenes, eudesmane-type sesquiterpenes including various glycosides had been isolated from this plant. This review is aimed to survey the literature covering the phytochemistry and pharmacology of S...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Reviews
Wannee Jiraungkoorskul
Neuro-nutrition is the nutrition needed to achieve health brain and neurocognitive function. Diets rich in antioxidants, vitamins, flavonoids, and polyphenolic compounds will help suppress the onset of Alzheimer's disease. Spinacia oleracea (Family: Amaranthaceae) commonly known as spinach or Buai Leng (in Thai), one of the traditional medicinal plants with high in those mention nutrients. The micronutrients in spinach include a range of vitamins and minerals, which can prevent deficiency diseases and are essential for normal physiological function...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Reviews
J Avinash, S Vinay, Kunal Jha, Diptajit Das, B S Goutham, Gunjan Kumar
Keeping an eye the escalating costs of dental services, the treatment cost of the consequences of dental caries can be reduced to manageable proportions by preventive measures aimed at decreasing the prevalence. One such measure is by increasing the consumption of caries preventive foods. Recently, there has been an upsurge of interest in mushrooms not only as a healthy food but also as a caries preventive food. The most common type of mushroom, Lentinula edodes also called as shiitake, is studied in-depth for its oral health benefits...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Reviews
Tasiu Isah
Trees have made an enormous phytochemical contribution in anticancer drugs' development more than any other life form. The contributions include alkaloids that are biosynthesized in various ways and yield. Lead alkaloids isolated from the trees are taxol and camptothecins that currently have annual sales in billion dollars. Other important alkaloids isolated from these life forms include rohitukine, harringtonine, acronycine, thalicarpine, usambarensine, ellipticine, and matrines. Studies on their mechanism of action and target on the DNA and protein of cancerous cells aided the development of potent hemisynthesized congeners...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Reviews
Alexander Victor Anand David, Radhakrishnan Arulmoli, Subramani Parasuraman
Antioxidants are substances that may protect cells from the damage caused by unstable molecules such as free radicals. Flavonoids are phenolic substances widely found in fruits and vegetables. The previous studies showed that the ingestion of flavonoids reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases, metabolic disorders, and certain types of cancer. These effects are due to the physiological activity of flavonoids in the reduction of oxidative stress, inhibiting low-density lipoproteins oxidation and platelet aggregation, and acting as vasodilators in blood vessels...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Reviews
Alka Dwevedi, Raman Dwivedi, Yogesh K Sharma
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infects cells of the immune system and destroys their function. Approximately, 2 million people die every year from HIV as reported by the World Health Organization. HIV/AIDS is difficult to treat as the virus continuously develops resistance to drugs being developed. Approach is now turning toward natural products for the development of anti-HIV drugs. Although HIV/AIDS is not a new disease, but research based on plant-derived products is still under clinical trials. Experimentally, it has been proven that plants have the potential for HIV treatment...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Reviews
Uorakkottil Ilyas, Deepshikha P Katare, Vidhu Aeri, Punnooth Poonguzi Naseef
The liver is the most important organ that plays an important role in maintaining various physiological processes in the body. Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver and is characterized by the presence of inflammatory cells in the tissue of the organ. There are five main viruses, referred to as types A, B, C, D, and E. These five types are of the greatest concern because of the burden of illness and death. Liver injury or liver dysfunction is a major health problem that challenges not only health care professionals but also the drug regulatory agencies and the pharmaceutical industry...
January 2016: Pharmacognosy Reviews
Eswar Kumar Kilari, Swathi Putta
Plants remain a vital source of drugs and at present, much emphasis is given to nutraceuticals. Herbal medicines have been the basis of treatment and cure for various diseases and physiological conditions in the traditional methods practiced such as ayurveda and homeopathy. Litchi chinensis belongs to the Sapindaceae family and is well-known in the Indian traditional system for its traditional uses. The parts of the plant used are leaves, flowers, fruits, seed, pulp, and pericarp. All parts of the plant are rich sources of phytochemicals--epicatechin; procyanidin A2 and procyanidin B2; leucocyanidin; cyanidin glycoside, malvidin glycoside, and saponins; butylated hydroxytoluene; isolariciresinol; kaempferol; rutin; and stigmasterol...
January 2016: Pharmacognosy Reviews
Mutiat Bolanle Ibrahim, Nutan Kaushik, Abimbola Adepeju Sowemimo, Olukemi A Odukoya
Natural product compounds obtained from medicinal plants have been great contributions in the discovery of numerous clinically useful drugs. Markhamia species have been reportedly used by many cultures in human and veterinary traditional medicines. The five identified species of Markhamia, that is, Markhamia lutea, Markhamia obtusifolia, Markhamia stipulata, Markhamia tomentosa, and Markhamia zanzibarica have been the subject of chemical investigations that have led to the characterization of their secondary metabolites...
January 2016: Pharmacognosy Reviews
Saradamma Bulle, Hymavathi Reddyvari, Varadacharyulu Nallanchakravarthula, Damodara Reddy Vaddi
Recently there has been increasing interest in plants and plant-derived compounds as raw food and medicinal agents. In Ayurveda, an Indian system of traditional medicine, a wide spectrum of medicinal properties of Pterocarpus santalinus is described. Many important bioactive phytocompounds have been extracted and identified from the heartwood of P. santalinus. Bioactive compounds typically occur in small amounts and have more subtle effects than nutrients. These bioactive compounds influence cellular activities that modify the risk of disease rather than prevent deficiency diseases...
January 2016: Pharmacognosy Reviews
Mercy Halleluyah Periayah, Ahmad Sukari Halim, Arman Zaharil Mat Saad
Biomaterials created 50 years ago are still receiving considerable attention for their potential to support development in the biomedical field. Diverse naturally obtained polysaccharides supply a broad range of resources applicable in the biomedical field. Lately, chitosan, a marine polysaccharide derived from chitins-which are extracted from the shells of arthropods such as crab, shrimp, and lobster-is becoming the most wanted biopolymer for use toward therapeutic interventions. This is a general short review of chitosan, highlighting the history, properties, chemical structure, processing method, and factors influencing the usage of chitosan derivatives in the biomedical field...
January 2016: Pharmacognosy Reviews
Seyede Nargess Sadati, Mohammad Reza Shams Ardekani, Nastaran Ebadi, Maryam Yakhchali, Azadeh Raees Dana, Fatemeh Masoomi, Mahnaz Khanavi, Farid Ramezany
One concept used in traditional Persian medicine (TPM) for multidrug therapy is that of the convoy drug (Mobadregh). According to TPM texts, convoy drugs are substances (or drugs), which facilitate the access of drugs or foods to the whole body or to specific organs. This study reviewed some convoy drugs presented in TPM, their biological effects, and their probable interactions with main drugs, considering the increased absorption through inhibition of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux function, bioavailability-enhancing effects, and decreased metabolism of the main drug using electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar in November and December, 2013...
January 2016: Pharmacognosy Reviews
Viktor M Bratkov, Aleksandar M Shkondrov, Petranka K Zdraveva, Ilina N Krasteva
Flavonoids, the most common plant polyphenols are widely distributed in every species and possess a broad range of pharmacological activities. The genus Astragalus is the largest in the Fabaceae family with more than 2,500 species spread. They are known to contain different metabolites such as flavonoids, saponins, and polysaccharides. Plants from the genus have been used in the traditional medicine of many countries for centuries. This paper is focused on the large group of flavonoid compounds. Details on structure as well as information about the pharmacological properties of flavonoids, isolated from Astragalus species have been discussed...
January 2016: Pharmacognosy Reviews
Fabiana P Soares, Larissa F Cavalcante, Nirla Rodrigues Romero, Mary A M Bandeira
The genus Himatanthus Wild. ex Schult. (Apocynaceae) includes about 13 species and five subspecies widely distributed in South America, especially Brazil. The phytochemical reports on this genus have revealed mainly triterpenes and iridoids. The plants are traditionally used as anthelmintic, antitumor, and antiinflammatory agents. The most used parts of the plant are its bark, leaves, and latex. This review emphasizes the phytochemical constituents and medicinal properties, which may help in future research...
January 2016: Pharmacognosy Reviews
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