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Pharmacognosy Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27041876/a-review-on-hepatoprotective-and-immunomodulatory-herbal-plants
#1
Uorakkottil Ilyas, Deepshikha P Katare, Vidhu Aeri, Punnooth Poonguzi Naseef
The liver is the most important organ that plays an important role in maintaining various physiological processes in the body. Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver and is characterized by the presence of inflammatory cells in the tissue of the organ. There are five main viruses, referred to as types A, B, C, D, and E. These five types are of the greatest concern because of the burden of illness and death. Liver injury or liver dysfunction is a major health problem that challenges not only health care professionals but also the drug regulatory agencies and the pharmaceutical industry...
January 2016: Pharmacognosy Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27041875/biological-and-phytopharmacological-descriptions-of-litchi-chinensis
#2
Eswar Kumar Kilari, Swathi Putta
Plants remain a vital source of drugs and at present, much emphasis is given to nutraceuticals. Herbal medicines have been the basis of treatment and cure for various diseases and physiological conditions in the traditional methods practiced such as ayurveda and homeopathy. Litchi chinensis belongs to the Sapindaceae family and is well-known in the Indian traditional system for its traditional uses. The parts of the plant used are leaves, flowers, fruits, seed, pulp, and pericarp. All parts of the plant are rich sources of phytochemicals--epicatechin; procyanidin A2 and procyanidin B2; leucocyanidin; cyanidin glycoside, malvidin glycoside, and saponins; butylated hydroxytoluene; isolariciresinol; kaempferol; rutin; and stigmasterol...
January 2016: Pharmacognosy Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27041874/review-of-the-phytochemical-and-pharmacological-studies-of-the-genus-markhamia
#3
Mutiat Bolanle Ibrahim, Nutan Kaushik, Abimbola Adepeju Sowemimo, Olukemi A Odukoya
Natural product compounds obtained from medicinal plants have been great contributions in the discovery of numerous clinically useful drugs. Markhamia species have been reportedly used by many cultures in human and veterinary traditional medicines. The five identified species of Markhamia, that is, Markhamia lutea, Markhamia obtusifolia, Markhamia stipulata, Markhamia tomentosa, and Markhamia zanzibarica have been the subject of chemical investigations that have led to the characterization of their secondary metabolites...
January 2016: Pharmacognosy Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27041873/therapeutic-potential-of-pterocarpus-santalinus-l-an-update
#4
REVIEW
Saradamma Bulle, Hymavathi Reddyvari, Varadacharyulu Nallanchakravarthula, Damodara Reddy Vaddi
Recently there has been increasing interest in plants and plant-derived compounds as raw food and medicinal agents. In Ayurveda, an Indian system of traditional medicine, a wide spectrum of medicinal properties of Pterocarpus santalinus is described. Many important bioactive phytocompounds have been extracted and identified from the heartwood of P. santalinus. Bioactive compounds typically occur in small amounts and have more subtle effects than nutrients. These bioactive compounds influence cellular activities that modify the risk of disease rather than prevent deficiency diseases...
January 2016: Pharmacognosy Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27041872/chitosan-a-promising-marine-polysaccharide-for-biomedical-research
#5
REVIEW
Mercy Halleluyah Periayah, Ahmad Sukari Halim, Arman Zaharil Mat Saad
Biomaterials created 50 years ago are still receiving considerable attention for their potential to support development in the biomedical field. Diverse naturally obtained polysaccharides supply a broad range of resources applicable in the biomedical field. Lately, chitosan, a marine polysaccharide derived from chitins-which are extracted from the shells of arthropods such as crab, shrimp, and lobster-is becoming the most wanted biopolymer for use toward therapeutic interventions. This is a general short review of chitosan, highlighting the history, properties, chemical structure, processing method, and factors influencing the usage of chitosan derivatives in the biomedical field...
January 2016: Pharmacognosy Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27041871/review-of-scientific-evidence-of-medicinal-convoy-plants-in-traditional-persian-medicine
#6
REVIEW
Seyede Nargess Sadati, Mohammad Reza Shams Ardekani, Nastaran Ebadi, Maryam Yakhchali, Azadeh Raees Dana, Fatemeh Masoomi, Mahnaz Khanavi, Farid Ramezany
One concept used in traditional Persian medicine (TPM) for multidrug therapy is that of the convoy drug (Mobadregh). According to TPM texts, convoy drugs are substances (or drugs), which facilitate the access of drugs or foods to the whole body or to specific organs. This study reviewed some convoy drugs presented in TPM, their biological effects, and their probable interactions with main drugs, considering the increased absorption through inhibition of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux function, bioavailability-enhancing effects, and decreased metabolism of the main drug using electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar in November and December, 2013...
January 2016: Pharmacognosy Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27041870/flavonoids-from-the-genus-astragalus-phytochemistry-and-biological-activity
#7
REVIEW
Viktor M Bratkov, Aleksandar M Shkondrov, Petranka K Zdraveva, Ilina N Krasteva
Flavonoids, the most common plant polyphenols are widely distributed in every species and possess a broad range of pharmacological activities. The genus Astragalus is the largest in the Fabaceae family with more than 2,500 species spread. They are known to contain different metabolites such as flavonoids, saponins, and polysaccharides. Plants from the genus have been used in the traditional medicine of many countries for centuries. This paper is focused on the large group of flavonoid compounds. Details on structure as well as information about the pharmacological properties of flavonoids, isolated from Astragalus species have been discussed...
January 2016: Pharmacognosy Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27041869/himatanthus-willd-ex-schult-apocynaceae-review
#8
REVIEW
Fabiana P Soares, Larissa F Cavalcante, Nirla Rodrigues Romero, Mary A M Bandeira
The genus Himatanthus Wild. ex Schult. (Apocynaceae) includes about 13 species and five subspecies widely distributed in South America, especially Brazil. The phytochemical reports on this genus have revealed mainly triterpenes and iridoids. The plants are traditionally used as anthelmintic, antitumor, and antiinflammatory agents. The most used parts of the plant are its bark, leaves, and latex. This review emphasizes the phytochemical constituents and medicinal properties, which may help in future research...
January 2016: Pharmacognosy Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27041868/review-of-naturopathy-of-medical-mushroom-ophiocordyceps-sinensis-in-sexual-dysfunction
#9
REVIEW
Kanitta Jiraungkoorskul, Wannee Jiraungkoorskul
Sexual dysfunctions including desire, arousal, orgasm, and pain disorders are increasing worldwide due to etiological factors and aging. Several types of treatment are claimed in modern medicine, but they have serious side effects and higher costs. In fact, alternative approaches, such as the intake of plants, fungi, and insects, or their extracts, have also been practiced to enhance sexuality and ameliorate illness with notable successes. However, the scientific evidence related to the mechanisms and efficacy of these alternative medicines is both scarce and all too often unconvincing...
January 2016: Pharmacognosy Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26392714/veterinary-herbal-medicines-in-india
#10
Shruti Rastogi, Manoj Kumar Pandey, Jai Prakash, Alok Sharma, Gyanendra Nath Singh
India has a rich and diversified flora. It is seen that synthetic drugs could pose serious problems, are toxic and costly. In contrast to this, herbal medicines are relatively nontoxic, cheaper and are eco-friendly. Moreover, the people have used them for generations. They have also been used in day-to-day problems of healthcare in animals. 25% of the drugs prescribed worldwide come from plants. Almost 75% of the medicinal plants grow naturally in different states of India. These plants are known to cure many ailments in animals like poisoning, cough, constipation, foot and mouth disease, dermatitis, cataract, burning, pneumonia, bone fractures, snake bites, abdominal pains, skin diseases etc...
July 2015: Pharmacognosy Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26392713/ethnomedicinal-review-of-usnakantaka-echinops-echinatus-roxb
#11
REVIEW
Santosh Kumar Maurya, Ashwini Kumar Kushwaha, Ankit Seth
Echinops echinatus Roxb. (E. echinatus), commonly known as "Usnakantaka," is a xerophytic herbaceous plant traditionally used as a stimulant to treat use the term Sexual debility in Indian traditional systems of medicine. The roots, leaves, fruit, and bark are extensively used in folk medicine as well as in Ayurveda. Also, the plant shows a wide range of pharmacological activities such as antifungal, analgesic, diuretic, reproductive, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, wound-healing, antipyretic, and antibacterial properties...
July 2015: Pharmacognosy Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26392712/rethinking-ginkgo-biloba-l-medicinal-uses-and-conservation
#12
REVIEW
Tasiu Isah
Ginkgo biloba (G. biloba) is an ancient medicinal tree species that has been in existence for millennia without undergoing modifications due to its resistance to environmental stresses. Palaeobotanical history showed a wide distribution of the species across the globe but declined over geological time, becoming restricted to narrow geographical range with few surviving individuals in the modern day. The tree is slow growing, adapted to many ecological conditions and shows numerous adaptation in developmental patterns...
July 2015: Pharmacognosy Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26392711/the-aphrodisiac-herb-carpolobia-a-biopharmacological-and-phytochemical-review
#13
REVIEW
Lucky Lebgosi Nwidu, Paul Alozie Nwafor, Wagner Vilegas
Any agent with the ability to provoke sexual desire in an individual is referred to as an aphrodisiac. Aphrodisiac plants are used in the management of erectile dysfunction (ED) in men. One such plant popular in West and Central Africa among the Pygmies of Cameroon, Ipassa of Garbon, and the Yoruba, Ibo, Efik and Ijaw peoples of Nigeria is Carpolobia. It is an accepted and commonly utilized herbal booster of libido. It is used to cure male infertility and to boosts libido thereby augmenting male sexual functions or it is used to induce penile erection, and enhance male virility...
July 2015: Pharmacognosy Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26392710/a-review-on-plant-cordia-obliqua-willd-clammy-cherry
#14
REVIEW
Richa Gupta, Ghanshyam Das Gupta
Cordia obliqua Willd. plant (Common name-Clammy Cherry) belongs to family Boraginaceae. It is a medium-sized deciduous tree and very vigorous in growth. According to traditional system, it possesses anthelmintic, purgative, diuretic, expectorant, antipyretic, hepatoprotective and analgesic action. The fruits are edible and used as pickle. The gum obtained from mucilage is used for pasting sheets of paper and as matrix forming material in tablet formulations. Phytochemical investigations show the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics, tannins and reducing sugar...
July 2015: Pharmacognosy Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26392709/aloe-vera-potential-candidate-in-health-management-via-modulation-of-biological-activities
#15
REVIEW
Arshad H Rahmani, Yousef H Aldebasi, Sauda Srikar, Amjad A Khan, Salah M Aly
Treatment based on natural products is rapidly increasing worldwide due to the affordability and fewer side effects of such treatment. Various plants and the products derived from them are commonly used in primary health treatment, and they play a pivotal role in the treatment of diseases via modulation of biochemical and molecular pathways. Aloe vera, a succulent species, produces gel and latex, plays a therapeutic role in health management through antioxidant, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory activities, and also offers a suitable alternative approach for the treatment of various types of diseases...
July 2015: Pharmacognosy Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26392708/ethnopharmacological-chemical-and-pharmacological-aspects-of-halenia-elliptica-a-comprehensive-review
#16
REVIEW
Zhifeng Zhang, Qilong Bian, Pei Luo, Wenxia Sun
Traditional Tibetan medicine (TTM) is an old traditional medical system, which is an effective and natural method of improving physical and mental health, and has been widely spread in the western part of China for centuries. Halenia elliptica (H. elliptica) D. Don, known as "Jiadiranguo" (Tibetan medicine name) is one of the most important herbal medicine in TTM that is from the genus Halenia (family: Gentianaceae). The whole herb can be used as a medicine to treat hepatobiliary diseases and xeransis, and possesses many biological and pharmacological activities including heat clearing, bile benefiting, liver soothing, digestion promoting, blood nursing, detoxification activities, and so on...
July 2015: Pharmacognosy Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26392707/cadamba-a-miraculous-tree-having-enormous-pharmacological-implications
#17
REVIEW
Alka Dwevedi, Kuldeep Sharma, Yogesh K Sharma
The Cadamba is one of the important medicinal plants belonging to the Rubiaceae family. It is crucially significant as it has the largest number of phytochemicals and secondary metabolites (viz., cadambagenic acid, cadamine, quinovic acid, β-sitosterol, cadambine, etc.) having pharmacological and biological properties. It can be used as an alternative to various synthetic chemical compounds in the prevention as well as the treatment of several incurable diseases. More than 100 years of research has been done to discover various phytochemicals and their implications...
July 2015: Pharmacognosy Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26392706/-ziziphus-jujuba-a-red-fruit-with-promising-anticancer-activities
#18
REVIEW
Zoya Tahergorabi, Mohammad Reza Abedini, Moodi Mitra, Mohammad Hassanpour Fard, Hossein Beydokhti
Ziziphus jujuba Mill. (Z. jujuba) is a traditional herb with a long history of use for nutrition and the treatment of a broad spectrum of diseases. It grows mostly in South and East Asia, as well as in Australia and Europe. Mounting evidence shows the health benefits of Z. jujuba, including anticancer, anti-inflammation, antiobesity, antioxidant, and hepato- and gastrointestinal protective properties, which are due to its bioactive compounds. Chemotherapy, such as with cis-diamminedichloroplatinium (CDDP, cisplatin) and its derivatives, is widely used in cancer treatment...
July 2015: Pharmacognosy Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26392705/an-updated-review-of-terminalia-catappa
#19
REVIEW
Arumugam Vijaya Anand, Natarajan Divya, Pannerselvam Punniya Kotti
Terminalia catappa Linn. is known for its nutritional fruit and possesses medicinal benefits as well. This is a comprehensive review of the phytoconstituents and pharmacological benefits. T. catappa has been recognized for its medicinally essential phytoconstituents, such as phenol, flavonoid, and carotenoid. Numerous pharmacological investigations have confirmed this plant's ability to exhibit antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, and anticancer activities, all of which support its traditional uses...
July 2015: Pharmacognosy Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26392704/herbal-extracts-in-oral-health-care-a-review-of-the-current-scenario-and-its-future-needs
#20
REVIEW
Byalakere Rudraiah Chandra Shekar, Ramesh Nagarajappa, Shankarappa Suma, Rupesh Thakur
BACKGROUND: Oral diseases are among the major public health problems and the commonest of chronic diseases that affect mankind. The application of natural products for the control of oral diseases is considered as an interesting alternative to synthetic antimicrobials due to their lower negative impact, and for the effort to overcome primary or secondary resistance to the drug during therapy. OBJECTIVE: To review the current evidence on the antimicrobial efficacy of 10 plant extracts on dental caries and plaque microorganisms...
July 2015: Pharmacognosy Reviews
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