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Brain and Behavior

Isabell Prager, Ina Patties, Katrin Himmelbach, Eva Kendzia, Felicitas Merz, Klaus Müller, Rolf-Dieter Kortmann, Annegret Glasow
INTRODUCTION: Radiation therapy plays an essential role in the treatment of brain tumors, but neurocognitive deficits remain a significant risk, especially in pediatric patients. In recent trials, hippocampal sparing techniques are applied to reduce these adverse effects. Here, we investigate dose-dependent effects of ionizing radiation (IR) on juvenile hippocampal neurogenesis. Additionally, we evaluate the radioprotective potential of resveratrol, a plant polyphenol recognized for its bifunctional tumor-preventive and anticancer effects...
October 2016: Brain and Behavior
Catherine Lebel, Frank P MacMaster, Deborah Dewey
INTRODUCTION: Language acquisition occurs rapidly during early childhood and lays the foundation for future reading success. However, little is known about the brain-language relationships in young children. The goal of this study was to investigate relationships between brain metabolites and prereading language abilities in healthy preschool-aged children. METHODS: Participants were 67 healthy children aged 3.0-5.4 years scanned on a 3T GE MR750w MRI scanner using short echo proton spectroscopy with a voxel placed in the anterior cingulate gyrus (n = 56) and/or near the left angular gyrus (n = 45)...
October 2016: Brain and Behavior
Hua Liu, Yong Liu, Jinbing Zhao, Hongyi Liu, Shengxue He
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory responses are correlated with secondary brain injury after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a novel biomarker reflecting inflammation status, and its elevated circulating levels are associated with poor prognosis of some inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between Gal-3 plasma levels and prognosis in a group of aSAH patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We assessed plasma Gal-3 levels in 120 patients and 120 healthy individuals...
October 2016: Brain and Behavior
Laura M Pidgeon, Madeleine Grealy, Alex H B Duffy, Laura Hay, Chris McTeague, Tijana Vuletic, Damien Coyle, Sam J Gilbert
INTRODUCTION: The generation of creative visual imagery contributes to technological and scientific innovation and production of visual art. The underlying cognitive and neural processes are, however, poorly understood. METHODS: This review synthesizes functional neuroimaging studies of visual creativity. Seven functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and 19 electroencephalography (EEG) studies were included, comprising 27 experiments and around 800 participants...
October 2016: Brain and Behavior
Sarah Hoffmann, Johanna Ramm, Ulrike Grittner, Siegfried Kohler, Jana Siedler, Andreas Meisel
OBJECTIVES: Emerging evidence suggests that fatigue in myasthenia gravis (MG) is a relevant problem that negatively impacts activities of daily living (ADL). The relationship between fatigue and quality of life (QoL) has never been systematically explored in MG patients. The study aimed to assess the prevalence of fatigue and its relation to ADL and QoL as well as to identify factors associated with fatigue in MG. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional observational study in patients with confirmed diagnosis of MG independent of disease severity...
October 2016: Brain and Behavior
Justyna Kubiszewska, Beata Szyluk, Piotr Szczudlik, Zbigniew Bartoszewicz, Małgorzata Dutkiewicz, Maksymilian Bielecki, Tomasz Bednarczuk, Anna Kostera-Pruszczyk
OBJECTIVES: Autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATDs) frequently accompany myasthenia gravis (MG) and may influence its course. We aimed to determine the association and impact of ATD with early- (<50 years), late-onset MG, or thymoma-MG. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prevalence of ATD was measured in a cross-sectional study of 343 consecutive patients with MG (236 F, 107 M) aged 4-89 years; 83.8% were seropositive, in 2.9%, anti-MuSK antibodies were detected. Concentrations of antithyroid peroxidase antibodies, antithyroglobulin antibodies, antithyrotropin receptor antibodies, and TSH level were measured in all patients...
October 2016: Brain and Behavior
Kei Sasaki, Norihide Maikusa, Etsuko Imabayashi, Tetsuya Yuasa, Hiroshi Matsuda
INTRODUCTION: Amyloid positron-emission tomography (PET) imaging with (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) is an effective tool for assessing brain amyloid deposits. PET imaging, however, can suffer from the partial volume effect (PVE). PVE has been corrected using MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) image data. However, correction of the PVE of PET using MRI usually requires two separate procedures, imposing a burden on patients and leading to low throughput and inefficient diagnoses. The advent of PET/computed tomography (PET/CT) may potentially overcome these problems and offer higher throughput and reliable quantification of amyloid plaques and assessment of Alzheimer disease (AD)...
October 2016: Brain and Behavior
Alexandra Ursache, Kimberly G Noble
BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence links socioeconomic status (SES) to children's brain structure. Few studies, however, have specifically investigated relations of SES to white matter structure. Further, although several studies have demonstrated that family SES is related to development of brain areas that support executive functions (EF), less is known about the role that white matter structure plays in the relation of SES to EF. One possibility is that white matter differences may partially explain SES disparities in EF (i...
October 2016: Brain and Behavior
Fuqing Zhou, Suhua Huang, Lei Gao, Ying Zhuang, Shan Ding, Honghan Gong
INTRODUCTION: Several neuroimaging studies have suggested that patients with chronic primary insomnia (CPI) exhibit anatomical and functional alterations of the brain, but the temporal regularity in spontaneous neuronal activity remains unknown. Here, brain entropy (BEN), a data-driven method used to measure the signal regularity of a time series, was applied for the first time to investigate changes in the entire brain at the voxel level. METHODS: Resting-state functional MRI data were used to investigate insomnia-related BEN alterations and the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) pattern in seed regions with altered BEN in 29 patients with identified and untreated CPI and 29 matched healthy controls...
October 2016: Brain and Behavior
Inge P Kleggetveit, Roland Schmidt, Barbara Namer, Hugh Salter, Tormod Helås, Martin Schmelz, Ellen Jørum
INTRODUCTION: The sodium channel Nav 1.9 is expressed in peripheral nociceptors and has recently been linked to human pain conditions, but the exact role of Nav 1.9 for human nociceptor excitability is still unclear. METHODS: C-nociceptors from two patients with late onset of erythromelalgia-like pain, signs of small fiber neuropathy, and rare genetic variants of Nav 1.9 (N1169S, I1293V) were assessed by microneurography. RESULTS: Compared with patients with comparable pain phenotypes (erythromelalgia-like pain without Nav-mutations and painful polyneuropathy), there was a tendency toward more activity-dependent slowing of conduction velocity in mechanoinsensitive C-nociceptors...
October 2016: Brain and Behavior
Kelly Allott, Caroline A Fisher, Gunther Paul Amminger, Joanne Goodall, Sarah Hetrick
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) affects a quarter of adolescents and young adults and is associated with the greatest global burden of disease in this population. There is a growing literature, mostly in adults, showing that significant neurocognitive impairments are common in MDD. It remains unclear whether these impairments are pre-existing trait markers of MDD, state-related impairments that fluctuate with depressive symptoms, or 'scar' impairments that worsen with illness progression...
October 2016: Brain and Behavior
Yogi Chang-Yo Hsuan, Cheng-Hsien Lin, Ching-Ping Chang, Mao-Tsun Lin
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation has been reported to improve neurological function following neural injury. Many physiological and molecular mechanisms involving MSC therapy-related neuroprotection have been identified. METHODS: A review is presented of articles that pertain to MSC therapy and diverse brain injuries including stroke, neural trauma, and heat stroke, which were identified using an electronic search (e.g., PubMed), emphasize mechanisms of MSC therapy-related neuroprotection...
October 2016: Brain and Behavior
He Ci, Andre van Graan, Gloria Gonzálvez, Pamela Thompson, Andrea Hill, John S Duncan
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to implement convenient, fast, and accurate Mandarin task paradigms for functional MRI, and to locate the Chinese language functional areas in frontal and temporal lobes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nineteen healthy Chinese volunteers participated in this study, which utilized a block design with four language tasks: auditory naming (AN), picture naming (PN), verbal fluency-character (VFC), and verbal fluency-letter (VFL). All functional images were preprocessed by SPM 8, followed by first- and second-level analyses and lateralization index calculation...
October 2016: Brain and Behavior
Erika Franzén, David Conradsson, Maria Hagströmer, Maria H Nilsson
BACKGROUND: Concerns about falling, a construct related to fear of falling, is increased in people with Parkinson's disease (PD) and is recognized as a barrier for exercise, negatively affecting health-related quality of life and participation. AIM: To investigate modifiable factors associated with concerns about falling in elderly with mild-to-moderate PD. METHODS: Eighty-nine elderly (39 females, mean age 73 years) with mild-to-moderate PD were recruited...
October 2016: Brain and Behavior
Mathias S Æsøy, Stein-Erik H Solvang, Marit Grønning, Tiina Rekand
OBJECTIVES: Iatrogenic spinal cord injuries (SCIs) caused by invasive procedures or surgical interventions have previously been reported as case studies. The primary objective of this study was to investigate and analyze the incidence, etiology, and prognosis of iatrogenic SCI in Western Norway. METHODS: Medical records of all 183 patients admitted to the SCU between 01.01.2004 and 31.12.2013 were reviewed. Gender, age, diagnosis, iatrogenic medical procedure, symptoms and findings before and after injury, mechanism of injury, level of injury, and ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS) score prior iatrogenic SCI, at admittance and discharge were recorded, as were the length of the period prior to admittance and the length of stay...
October 2016: Brain and Behavior
Qiang Li, Yong Xiao, Yinghui Li, Lei Li, Na Lu, Zhi Xu, Xiaodong Mou, Shenqin Mao, Wei Wang, Yonggui Yuan
INTRODUCTION: Somatic symptom disorder (SSD) is an illness that occurs over a long time and results in significant disruption in daily life. Clinically, SSD patients typically express complaints that involve a variety of organ systems. However, the neural mechanism of SSD remains poorly understood. METHODS: Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the characteristics of the regional basal brain function during resting state in patients with SSD...
October 2016: Brain and Behavior
Lori L Davis, Ai Ota, Pamela Perry, Kana Tsuneyoshi, Emmanuelle Weiller, Ross A Baker
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) with concurrent anxiety symptoms may signal a difficult-to-treat patient. Brexpiprazole is a serotonin-dopamine activity modulator: a partial agonist at 5-HT1A and dopamine D2 receptors at similar potency, and an antagonist at 5-HT2A and noradrenaline alpha1B/2C receptors. The objective of this Phase IIIb study was to explore effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of brexpiprazole adjunctive to antidepressant (ADT) monotherapy in patients with MDD and anxiety symptoms (NCT02013531)...
October 2016: Brain and Behavior
James S M Rusby, Fiona Tasker, Lynn Cherkas
BACKGROUND: Both clinical care and genome-wide studies need to account for levels of severity in the etiology of depression. The purpose of the study is to estimate the genetic and environmental components of female depression as a function of the severity of the disorder. METHODS: A genetic and environmental model analysis of depression incidence was made using the IOP Depression Severity Measure (IDSM). Details of lifetime depression incidence were obtained by questionnaire from twins on the DTR registry...
October 2016: Brain and Behavior
Lakshini H S Mendis, Angus C Grey, Richard L M Faull, Maurice A Curtis
INTRODUCTION: Alzheimer's disease (AD), the leading cause of dementia, is pathologically characterized by β-amyloid plaques and tau tangles. However, there is also evidence of lipid dyshomeostasis-mediated AD pathology. Given the structural diversity of lipids, mass spectrometry is a useful tool for studying lipid changes in AD. Although there have been a few studies investigating lipid changes in the human hippocampus in particular, there are few reports on how lipids change in each hippocampal subfield (e...
October 2016: Brain and Behavior
Wayne B Dyer, Joanne C G Tan, Timothy Day, Lynette Kiers, Matthew C Kiernan, Con Yiannikas, Stephen Reddel, Karl Ng, Phillip Mondy, Peta M Dennington, Melinda M Dean, Halina M Trist, Cristobal Dos Remedios, P Mark Hogarth, Steve Vucic, David O Irving
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to profile leukocyte markers modulated during intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) treatment, and to identify markers and immune pathways associated with clinical efficacy of IVIg for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) with potential for monitoring treatment efficacy. METHODS: Response to IVIg treatment in newly diagnosed IVIg-naïve and established IVIg-experienced patients was assessed by changes in expression of inflammatory leukocyte markers by flow cytometry...
October 2016: Brain and Behavior
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