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Brain and Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413716/data-driven-regions-of-interest-for-longitudinal-change-in-three-variants-of-frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration
#1
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Richard J Binney, Aleksandr Pankov, Gabriel Marx, Xuanzie He, Faye McKenna, Adam M Staffaroni, John Kornak, Suneth Attygalle, Adam L Boxer, Norbert Schuff, Maria-Luisa Gorno-Tempini, Michael W Weiner, Joel H Kramer, Bruce L Miller, Howard J Rosen
INTRODUCTION: Longitudinal imaging of neurodegenerative disorders is a potentially powerful biomarker for use in clinical trials. In Alzheimer's disease, studies have demonstrated that empirically derived regions of interest (ROIs) can provide more reliable measurement of disease progression compared with anatomically defined ROIs. METHODS: We set out to derive ROIs with optimal effect size for quantifying longitudinal change in a hypothetical clinical trial by comparing atrophy rates in 44 patients with behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), 30 with the semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), and 26 with the nonfluent variant PPA (nfvPPA) to atrophy in 97 cognitively healthy controls...
April 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413715/brain-serotonin-4-receptor-binding-is-inversely-associated-with%C3%A2-verbal-memory-recall
#2
Dea S Stenbæk, Patrick M Fisher, Brice Ozenne, Emil Andersen, Liv V Hjordt, Brenda McMahon, Steen G Hasselbalch, Vibe G Frokjaer, Gitte M Knudsen
BACKGROUND: We have previously identified an inverse relationship between cerebral serotonin 4 receptor (5-HT 4R) binding and nonaffective episodic memory in healthy individuals. Here, we investigate in a novel sample if the association is related to affective components of memory, by examining the association between cerebral 5-HT 4R binding and affective verbal memory recall. METHODS: Twenty-four healthy volunteers were scanned with the 5-HT 4R radioligand [(11)C]SB207145 and positron emission tomography, and were tested with the Verbal Affective Memory Test-24...
April 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413714/cerebrospinal-fluid-and-plasma-%C3%AE-endorphin-levels-in-children-with-cerebral-malaria
#3
Oluwatosin Eunice Olorunmoteni, Oluwagbemiga Oyewole Adeodu, Saheed B A Oseni, Efere M Obuotor
OBJECTIVES: Cerebral malaria (CM) is the most lethal form of malaria, yet its pathogenesis is not fully understood. Cytoadherence, sequestration, alterations in cytokine expression, inflammation, and microvascular obstruction are all hypothesized to be important in the aetio-pathogenesis of coma which characterizes cerebral malaria and the death which sometimes result. Beta (β)-endorphin has been postulated to be involved in the pathogenetic processes of inflammation and cytokine expression, although the exact role is unknown...
April 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413713/catastrophic-outcome-of-patients-with-a-rebound-after-natalizumab-treatment-discontinuation
#4
Inés González-Suarez, Luis Rodríguez de Antonio, Aida Orviz, Sara Moreno-García, María D Valle-Arcos, Jordi A Matias-Guiu, Cristina Valencia, Manuela Jorquera Moya, Celia Oreja-Guevara
INTRODUCTION: Natalizumab (NTZ) is an effective drug for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. In some patients discontinuation is mandatory due to the risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. However, severe clinical and radiological worsening has been described after drug cessation. Our aim was to describe the clinical and radiological features of the rebound phenomenon. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients switched from NTZ to Fingolimod (FTY) who had presented a rebound after discontinuation were selected...
April 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413712/variation-within-mbp-gene-predicts-disease-course-in-multiple-sclerosis
#5
Yuan Zhou, Steve Simpson, Jac C Charlesworth, Ingrid van der Mei, Robyn M Lucas, Anne-Louise Ponsonby, Bruce V Taylor
OBJECTIVE: Prognosis following a first demyelinating event is difficult to predict, with no genetic markers of MS progression currently identified. Myelin basic protein (MBP) is a major component of the myelin sheath of CNS neurons and may play a central role in demyelinating diseases such as MS. However, genetic variation in MBP has not been implicated in MS onset risk in large genome-wide association studies. We hypothesized that genetic variations in MBP may be a determinant of MS clinical course...
April 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413711/high-throughput-sequencing-revealed-a-novel-setx-mutation-in-a-hungarian-patient-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#6
Kornélia Tripolszki, Dóra Török, David Goudenège, Katalin Farkas, Adrienn Sulák, Nóra Török, József I Engelhardt, Péter Klivényi, Vincent Procaccio, Nikoletta Nagy, Márta Széll
BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the degeneration of the motor neurons. To date, 126 genes have been implicated in ALS. Therefore, the heterogenous genetic background of ALS requires comprehensive genetic investigative approaches. METHODS: In this study, DNA from 28 Hungarian ALS patients was subjected to targeted high-throughput sequencing of the coding regions of three Mendelian ALS genes: FUS, SETX, and C9ORF72...
April 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413710/combination-of-standard-axial-and-thin-section-coronal-diffusion-weighted-imaging-facilitates-the-diagnosis-of-brainstem-infarction
#7
Philippe Felfeli, Holger Wenz, Mansour Al-Zghloul, Christoph Groden, Alex Förster
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a very sensitive technique for the detection of small ischemic lesions in the human brain, in particular in the brainstem it may fail to demonstrate acute ischemic infarction. In this study, we sought to evaluate the value of additional thin-section coronal DWI for the detection of brainstem infarction. METHODS: In 155 consecutive patients (median age 69 [interquartile range, IQR 57-78] years, 95 [61...
April 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413709/awareness-apathy-and-depression-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-mild-cognitive-impairment
#8
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Jean-Pierre Jacus
INTRODUCTION: Results from studies on awareness disorders in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are controversial because the methodologies, the "objects" of awareness, and the patients' pathologic stage all vary. Our study aimed to compare scores and correlates of awareness according to the stage of the disease and the assessment method. METHODS: We compared 20 mild AD patients to 20 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients, using the Patient Competency Rating Scale (PCRS; patient vs...
April 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413708/neural-evidence-for-phonologically-based-language-production-deficits-in-older-adults-an-fmri-investigation-of-age-related-differences-in-picture-word-interference
#9
Avery A Rizio, Karlee J Moyer, Michele T Diaz
INTRODUCTION: Older adults often show declines in phonological aspects of language production, particularly for low-frequency words, but maintain strong semantic systems. However, there are different theories about the mechanism that may underlie such age-related differences in language (e.g., age-related declines in transmission of activation or inhibition). METHODS: This study used fMRI to investigate whether age-related differences in language production are associated with transmission deficits or inhibition deficits...
April 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413707/disrupting-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-by-rtms-reduces-the-p300-based-marker-of-deception
#10
Inga Karton, Talis Bachmann
OBJECTIVE: Quite many studies have revealed certain brain-process signatures indicative of subject's deceptive behavior. These signatures are neural correlates of deception. However, much less is known about whether these signatures can be modified by noninvasive brain stimulation techniques representing methods of causal intervention of brain processes and the corresponding behavior. Our purpose was to explore whether such methods have an effect on these signatures. METHODS: It is well known that electroencephalographic event-related potential component, P300, is sensitive to perception of critical items in a concealed information test, one of the central methods in deception studies...
April 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413706/basic-taste-processing-recruits-bilateral-anteroventral-and-middle-dorsal-insulae-an-activation-likelihood-estimation-meta-analysis-of-fmri-studies
#11
Andy Wai Kan Yeung, Tazuko K Goto, Wai Keung Leung
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Numerous task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have reported the locations of basic taste representations in the human brain, but they usually employed a limited number of subjects (<20) with different methodologies and stimuli. Moreover, the reported brain regions were sometimes inconsistent. Thus, we aimed at performing a meta-analysis of the published data to identify locations consistently activated across studies, and performed a connectivity analysis to reveal how these taste processing regions connect with other brain regions...
April 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413705/acute-stroke-alert-activation-emergency-service-use-and-reperfusion-therapy-in-sweden
#12
Marie Eriksson, Eva-Lotta Glader, Bo Norrving, Birgitta Stegmayr, Kjell Asplund
OBJECTIVES: Ambulance services and stroke alerts reduce the time from stroke onset to acute stroke diagnosis. We describe the use of stroke alerts and ambulance services in different hospitals and patient groups and their relationship with reperfusion therapy. METHODS: This nationwide study included 49,907 patients admitted with acute stroke who were registered in The Swedish Stroke Register (Riksstroke) in 2011-2012. RESULTS: The proportions of patients admitted as stroke alerts out of all acute stroke admissions varied from 12...
April 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413704/diversity-in-mental-fatigue-and-social-profile-of-patients-with-myasthenia-gravis-in-two-different-northern-european-countries
#13
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Liis Sabre, Elisabet Westerberg, Maarika Liik, Anna R Punga
Self-estimated health can be used for comparison of different diseases between countries. It is important to elaborate on whether disparities in self-estimated health are due to disease-specific parameters or socioeconomic differences. In this study, we aimed at evaluating clinical and social similarities and differences in myasthenia gravis (MG) patients between comparable regions in two Baltic Sea countries, Estonia and Sweden. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included southern counties in Sweden and Estonia of comparable size...
April 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413703/lifelong-neurogenesis-in-the-cerebral-ganglion-of-the-chinese-mud-snail-cipangopaludina-chinensis
#14
Charles C Swart, Amelia Wattenberger, Amy Hackett, Danielle Isaman
INTRODUCTION: A small group of Gastropods possessing giant neurons have long been used to study a wide variety of fundamental neurophysiological phenomena. However, the majority of gastropods do not have large neurons but instead have large numbers of small neurons and remain largely unstudied. We explored neuron size and rate of increase in neuron numbers in the Chinese mud snail, Cipangopaludina chinensis. METHODS: Using histological sections and whole mounts of the cerebral ganglia, we collected cross-sectional data on neuron number and size across the lifespan of this animal...
April 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413702/targeted-sequencing-identifies-genetic-polymorphisms-of-flavin-containing-monooxygenase-genes-contributing-to-susceptibility-of-nicotine-dependence-in-european-american-and-african-american
#15
Tian-Xiao Zhang, Nancy L Saccone, Laura J Bierut, John P Rice
BACKGROUND: Smoking is a leading cause of preventable death. Early studies based on samples of twins have linked the lifetime smoking practices to genetic predisposition. The flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) protein family consists of a group of enzymes that metabolize drugs and xenobiotics. Both FMO1 and FMO3 were potentially susceptible genes for nicotine metabolism process. METHODS: In this study, we investigated the potential of FMO genes to confer risk of nicotine dependence via deep targeted sequencing in 2,820 study subjects comprising 1,583 nicotine dependents and 1,237 controls from European American and African American...
April 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413701/elevated-c-x-c-motif-ligand-13-and-b-cell-activating-factor-levels-in-neuromyelitis-optica-during-remission
#16
Su Wang, Tao Yang, Jianglong Wan, Yongchao Zhang, Yongping Fan
BACKGROUND: Discovery of specific antibodies against astrocytic water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4), which is produced by plasma cells, in the serum of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) confirmed the pathogenic role of B cells in NMO. C-X-C motif ligand 13 (CXCL13) and B-cell-activating factor (BAFF) are two crucial factors for antibody production. Relevant studies have focused on the acute phase of NMO. However, CXCL13 and BAFF levels during remission, remain to be elucidated. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate serum levels of CXCL13 and BAFF in NMO and multiple sclerosis (MS) patients during remission and explore their correlation with immunosuppressive agents and clinical features in NMO...
April 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413700/endovascular-stroke-treatment-in-a-small-volume-stroke-center
#17
Gry N Behzadi, Lars Fjetland, Rajiv Advani, Martin W Kurz, Kathinka D Kurz
INTRODUCTION: Our purpose was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of endovascular treatment (EVT) of stroke caused by large vessel occlusions (LVO) performed by general interventional radiologists in cooperation with stroke neurologists and neuroradiologists at a center with a limited annual number of procedures. We aimed to compare our results with those previously reported from larger stroke centers. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 108 patients with acute stroke due to LVO treated with EVT were included...
April 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413699/white-matter-connections-of-the-inferior-parietal-lobule-a-study-of-surgical-anatomy
#18
Joshua D Burks, Lillian B Boettcher, Andrew K Conner, Chad A Glenn, Phillip A Bonney, Cordell M Baker, Robert G Briggs, Nathan A Pittman, Daniel L O'Donoghue, Dee H Wu, Michael E Sughrue
INTRODUCTION: Interest in the function of the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) has resulted in increased understanding of its involvement in visuospatial and cognitive functioning, and its role in semantic networks. A basic understanding of the nuanced white-matter anatomy in this region may be useful in improving outcomes when operating in this region of the brain. We sought to derive the surgical relationship between the IPL and underlying major white-matter bundles by characterizing macroscopic connectivity...
April 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413698/simultaneous-bilateral-cochlear-implants-developmental-advances-do-not-yet-achieve-normal-cortical-processing
#19
Vijayalakshmi Easwar, Hiroshi Yamazaki, Michael Deighton, Blake Papsin, Karen Gordon
BACKGROUND: Simultaneous bilateral cochlear implantation promotes symmetric development of bilateral auditory pathways but binaural hearing remains abnormal. To evaluate whether bilateral cortical processing remains impaired in such children, cortical activity to unilateral and bilateral stimuli was assessed in a unique cohort of 16 children who received bilateral cochlear implants (CIs) simultaneously at 1.97 ± 0.86 years of age and had ~4 years of CI experience, providing the first opportunity to assess electrically driven cortical development in the absence of reorganized asymmetries from sequential implantation...
April 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413697/acute-ethanol-exposure-during-late-mouse-neurodevelopment-results-in-long-term-deficits-in-memory-retrieval-but-not-in-social-responsiveness
#20
Katherine Houlé, Myshake Abdi, Erin B D Clabough
OBJECTIVE: Prenatal alcohol exposure can result in neurological changes in affected individuals and may result in the emergence of a broad spectrum of neurobehavioral abnormalities termed fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). The effects of ethanol exposure during development are both time and dose dependent. Although many animal models of FASD use more chronic ethanol exposure, acute developmental alcohol exposure may also cause long-lasting neuronal changes. Our research employed behavioral measures to assess the effects of a single early postnatal ethanol intoxication event in mice...
April 2017: Brain and Behavior
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