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Brain and Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843706/u-curve-relation-between-cholesterol-and-prior-ischemic-stroke
#1
Gerd Haga Bringeland, Aliona Nacu, Ulrike Waje-Andreassen, Lars Thomassen, Halvor Naess
OBJECTIVES: Previous prospective studies on ischemic stroke patients have shown conflicting results concerning the association between cholesterol level and patient outcome. We aimed to investigate the relation between cholesterol level and prior ischemic stroke. We hypothesized that acute ischemic stroke patients with increased cholesterol on admission more frequently had experienced prior ischemic stroke. METHODS: All consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke (the index stroke) admitted to the Stroke Unit, Department of Neurology, Haukeland University Hospital between February 2006 and October 2013 were prospectively registered in The Bergen NORSTROKE Registry...
November 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843705/altered-local-spontaneous-activity-in-frontal-lobe-epilepsy-a-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#2
Li Dong, Hechun Li, Zhongqiong He, Sisi Jiang, Benjamin Klugah-Brown, Lin Chen, Pu Wang, Song Tan, Cheng Luo, Dezhong Yao
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the local spatiotemporal consistency of spontaneous brain activity in patients with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE). METHOD: Eyes closed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were collected from 19 FLE patients and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. A novel measure, named FOur-dimensional (spatiotemporal) Consistency of local neural Activities (FOCA) was used to assess the spatiotemporal consistency of local spontaneous activity (emphasizing both local temporal homogeneity and regional stability of brain activity states)...
November 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843704/association-between-antiepileptic-drugs-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-patients-with-epilepsy-a-population-based-case-control-study
#3
Dong-Zong Hung, Cheng-Li Lin, Yi-Wen Li, Yen-Ning Lin, Ying-Ray Lee, Charles-C N Wang, Jih-Jung Chen, Yun-Ping Lim
BACKGROUND: This study explored whether antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) use increases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: We conducted a case-control study using data from the National Health Insurance system of Taiwan. The case group comprised 1,454 epilepsy patients with newly diagnosed HCC, and the control group comprised 1,448 epilepsy patients without HCC. Both groups had similar distributions of sex and age, and follow-up duration. Possible associations with the AEDs in Taiwan were examined...
November 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843703/poor-sleep-quality-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-gender-differences
#4
Marianna Vitkova, Jaroslav Rosenberger, Zuzana Gdovinova, Jarmila Szilasiova, Pavol Mikula, Johan W Groothoff, Sijmen A Reijneveld, Jitse P van Dijk
OBJECTIVES: Most of the psychological and physical factors associated with poor sleep quality in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have a different prevalence in women and men, but whether or not these factors contribute differently to sleep quality in women and men with MS remains unclear. The aim of this study was to identify possible gender differences in factors related to poor sleep quality in MS patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We collected data from 153 patients with MS...
November 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843702/to-see-or-not-to-see-the-ability-of-the-magno-and-parvocellular-response-to-manifest-itself-in-the-vep-determines-its-appearance-to-a-pattern-reversing-and-pattern-onset-stimulus
#5
Valentine L Marcar, Lutz Jäncke
INTRODUCTION: The relationship between stimulus property, brain activity, and the VEP is still a matter of uncertainty. METHOD: We recorded the VEP of 43 volunteers when viewing a series of dartboard images presented as both a pattern reversing and pattern onset/offset stimulus. Across the dartboard images, the total stimulus area undergoing a luminance contrast change was varied in a graded manner. RESULTS: We confirmed the presence of two independent neural processing stages...
November 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843701/dissociable-roles-of-medial-and-lateral-pfc-in-rule-learning
#6
Bihua Cao, Wei Li, Fuhong Li, Hong Li
INTRODUCTION: Although the neural basis of rule learning is of great interest to cognitive neuroscientists, the pattern of transient brain activation during rule discovery remains to be investigated. METHOD: In this study, we measured event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during distinct phases of rule learning. Twenty-one healthy human volunteers were presented with a series of cards, each containing a clock-like display of 12 circles numbered sequentially...
November 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843700/activity-in-primary-motor-cortex-during-action-observation-covaries-with-subsequent-behavioral-changes-in-execution
#7
Nadav Aridan, Roy Mukamel
INTRODUCTION: Observing someone else perform a movement facilitates motor planning, execution, and motor memory formation. Rate, an important feature in the execution of repeated movements, has been shown to vary following movement observation although the underlying neural mechanisms are unclear. In the current study, we examined how the rate of self-paced index finger pressing is implicitly modified following passive observation of a similar action performed at a different rate. METHODS: Fifty subjects performed a finger pressing sequence with their right hand at their own pace before and after passive observation of either a 1-min video depicting the task performed at 3 Hz by someone else or a black screen...
November 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843699/tonic-immobility-differentiates-stress-responses-in-ptsd
#8
Iro Fragkaki, John Stins, Karin Roelofs, Ruud A Jongedijk, Muriel A Hagenaars
BACKGROUND: Tonic immobility (TI) is a state of physical immobility associated with extreme stress and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, it is unknown whether TI is associated with a distinct actual stress response, i.e., objective immobility measured by a stabilometric platform. This study made a first step in exploring this as well as differences in body sway responses between PTSD patients and healthy controls. We hypothesized that PTSD would be related to increased body sway under stress, whereas TI would be related to decreased body sway under stress...
November 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843698/procalcitonin-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-meningitis-a-prospective-diagnostic-study
#9
Imanda M E Alons, Rolf J Verheul, Irma Kuipers, Korné Jellema, Marieke J H Wermer, Ale Algra, Gabriëlle Ponjee
OBJECTIVES: Bacterial meningitis is a severe but treatable condition. Clinical symptoms may be ambiguous and current diagnostics lack sensitivity and specificity, complicating diagnosis. Procalcitonin (PCT) is a protein that is elevated in serum in bacterial infection. We aimed to assess the value of PCT in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. METHODS: We included patients with bacterial meningitis, both community acquired and post neurosurgery...
November 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843697/filtering-and-storage-working-memory-networks-in-younger-and-older-age
#10
Anne-Katrin Vellage, Andreas Becke, Hendrik Strumpf, Bernhard Baier, Mircea Ariel Schönfeld, Jens-Max Hopf, Notger G Müller
INTRODUCTION: Working memory (WM) is a multi-component model that among others involves the two processes of filtering and storage. The first reflects the necessity to inhibit irrelevant information from entering memory, whereas the latter refers to the active maintenance of object representations in memory. In this study, we aimed at a) redefining the neuronal networks sustaining filtering and storage within visual working memory by avoiding shortcomings of prior studies, and b) assessing age-related changes in these networks...
November 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843696/position-selectivity-in-face-sensitive-visual-cortex-to-facial-and-nonfacial-stimuli-an-fmri-study
#11
David F Nichols, Lisa R Betts, Hugh R Wilson
BACKGROUND: Evidence for position sensitivity in object-selective visual areas has been building. On one hand, most of the relevant studies have utilized stimuli for which the areas are optimally selective and examine small sections of cortex. On the other hand, visual field maps established with nonspecific stimuli have been found in increasingly large areas of visual cortex, though generally not in areas primarily responsive to faces. METHODS: fMRI was used to study the position sensitivity of the occipital face area (OFA) and the fusiform face area (FFA) to both standard rotating wedge retinotopic mapping stimuli and quadrant presentations of synthetic facial stimuli...
November 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843695/a-machine-learning-approach-to-identify-functional-biomarkers-in-human-prefrontal-cortex-for-individuals-with-traumatic-brain-injury-using-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#12
Nader Karamzadeh, Franck Amyot, Kimbra Kenney, Afrouz Anderson, Fatima Chowdhry, Hadis Dashtestani, Eric M Wassermann, Victor Chernomordik, Claude Boccara, Edward Wegman, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Amir H Gandjbakhche
BACKGROUND: We have explored the potential prefrontal hemodynamic biomarkers to characterize subjects with Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) by employing the multivariate machine learning approach and introducing a novel task-related hemodynamic response detection followed by a heuristic search for optimum set of hemodynamic features. To achieve this goal, the hemodynamic response from a group of 31 healthy controls and 30 chronic TBI subjects were recorded as they performed a complexity task...
November 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843694/grey-matter-abnormalities-in-methcathinone-abusers-with-a-parkinsonian-syndrome
#13
Julius Juurmaa, Ricarda A L Menke, Pierre Vila, Andreas Müürsepp, Tiiu Tomberg, Pilvi Ilves, Mait Nigul, Heidi Johansen-Berg, Michael Donaghy, Charlotte J Stagg, Ainārs Stepens, Pille Taba
BACKGROUND: A permanent Parkinsonian syndrome occurs in intravenous abusers of the designer psychostimulant methcathinone (ephedrone). It is attributed to deposition of contaminant manganese, as reflected by characteristic globus pallidus hyperintensity on T1-weighted MRI. METHODS: We have investigated brain structure and function in methcathinone abusers (n = 12) compared to matched control subjects (n = 12) using T1-weighted structural and resting-state functional MRI...
November 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843693/treatment-and-imaging-of-intracranial-atherosclerotic-stenosis-current-perspectives-and-future-directions
#14
REVIEW
Ido R van den Wijngaard, Ghislaine Holswilder, Marianne A A van Walderveen, Ale Algra, Marieke J H Wermer, Osama O Zaidat, Jelis Boiten
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intracranial atherosclerosis is a common cause of stroke worldwide. It results in ischemic stroke due to different mechanisms including artery-to-artery embolism, in situ thrombo-occlusion, occlusion of perforating arteries, and hemodynamic failure. In this review, we present an overview of current treatment and imaging modalities in intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis. METHODS: PubMed was searched for relevant articles in English that evaluated the treatment and imaging of intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS)...
November 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843692/age-related-differences-in-brain-network-activation-and-co-activation-during-multiple-object-tracking
#15
Erlend S Dørum, Dag Alnæs, Tobias Kaufmann, Geneviève Richard, Martina J Lund, Siren Tønnesen, Markus H Sneve, Nina C Mathiesen, Øyvind G Rustan, Øivind Gjertsen, Sigurd Vatn, Brynjar Fure, Ole A Andreassen, Jan Egil Nordvik, Lars T Westlye
INTRODUCTION: Multiple object tracking (MOT) is a powerful paradigm for measuring sustained attention. Although previous fMRI studies have delineated the brain activation patterns associated with tracking and documented reduced tracking performance in aging, age-related effects on brain activation during MOT have not been characterized. In particular, it is unclear if the task-related activation of different brain networks is correlated, and also if this coordination between activations within brain networks shows differential effects of age...
November 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781151/dose-dependent-short-and-long-term-effects-of-ionizing-irradiation-on-neural-stem-cells-in-murine-hippocampal-tissue-cultures-neuroprotective-potential-of-resveratrol
#16
Isabell Prager, Ina Patties, Katrin Himmelbach, Eva Kendzia, Felicitas Merz, Klaus Müller, Rolf-Dieter Kortmann, Annegret Glasow
INTRODUCTION: Radiation therapy plays an essential role in the treatment of brain tumors, but neurocognitive deficits remain a significant risk, especially in pediatric patients. In recent trials, hippocampal sparing techniques are applied to reduce these adverse effects. Here, we investigate dose-dependent effects of ionizing radiation (IR) on juvenile hippocampal neurogenesis. Additionally, we evaluate the radioprotective potential of resveratrol, a plant polyphenol recognized for its bifunctional tumor-preventive and anticancer effects...
October 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781150/brain-metabolite-levels-and-language-abilities-in-preschool-children
#17
Catherine Lebel, Frank P MacMaster, Deborah Dewey
INTRODUCTION: Language acquisition occurs rapidly during early childhood and lays the foundation for future reading success. However, little is known about the brain-language relationships in young children. The goal of this study was to investigate relationships between brain metabolites and prereading language abilities in healthy preschool-aged children. METHODS: Participants were 67 healthy children aged 3.0-5.4 years scanned on a 3T GE MR750w MRI scanner using short echo proton spectroscopy with a voxel placed in the anterior cingulate gyrus (n = 56) and/or near the left angular gyrus (n = 45)...
October 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781149/prognostic-value-of-plasma-galectin-3-levels-after-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#18
Hua Liu, Yong Liu, Jinbing Zhao, Hongyi Liu, Shengxue He
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory responses are correlated with secondary brain injury after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a novel biomarker reflecting inflammation status, and its elevated circulating levels are associated with poor prognosis of some inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between Gal-3 plasma levels and prognosis in a group of aSAH patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We assessed plasma Gal-3 levels in 120 patients and 120 healthy individuals...
October 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781148/functional-neuroimaging-of-visual-creativity-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Laura M Pidgeon, Madeleine Grealy, Alex H B Duffy, Laura Hay, Chris McTeague, Tijana Vuletic, Damien Coyle, Sam J Gilbert
INTRODUCTION: The generation of creative visual imagery contributes to technological and scientific innovation and production of visual art. The underlying cognitive and neural processes are, however, poorly understood. METHODS: This review synthesizes functional neuroimaging studies of visual creativity. Seven functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and 19 electroencephalography (EEG) studies were included, comprising 27 experiments and around 800 participants...
October 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781147/fatigue-in-myasthenia-gravis-risk-factors-and-impact-on-quality-of-life
#20
Sarah Hoffmann, Johanna Ramm, Ulrike Grittner, Siegfried Kohler, Jana Siedler, Andreas Meisel
OBJECTIVES: Emerging evidence suggests that fatigue in myasthenia gravis (MG) is a relevant problem that negatively impacts activities of daily living (ADL). The relationship between fatigue and quality of life (QoL) has never been systematically explored in MG patients. The study aimed to assess the prevalence of fatigue and its relation to ADL and QoL as well as to identify factors associated with fatigue in MG. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional observational study in patients with confirmed diagnosis of MG independent of disease severity...
October 2016: Brain and Behavior
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