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Brain and Behavior

Xuefeng Li, Xiangling Ma, Jing Lin, Xiangqin He, Feng Tian, Dongmei Kong
BACKGROUND: Acute ischemic stroke has been recognized as one key cause of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between carotid artery stenosis and post VCI in acute ischemic stroke patients. METHODS: In this study, B-mode ultrasound was applied to measure the degree of carotid artery stenosis. After 1 year, the stroke patients' cognitive function was assessed by the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) score...
January 2017: Brain and Behavior
Jonas C Lindstrøm, Nora G Wyller, Marianne M Halvorsen, Silje Hartberg, Christofer Lundqvist
OBJECTIVE: To assess the psychometric properties of a Norwegian translation of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) for use in populations of headache, Parkinson's disease (PD), and healthy controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The BIS-11 was forward and backward translated by native speakers of both Norwegian and English to give Norwegian BIS-11 (Nor-BIS-11). A convenience sample (110 subjects) of healthy controls (47), PD patients (43), and chronic headache patients (20) (the latter two recruited from a Neurology outpatient clinic), were asked to complete the scale (a subset twice for test-retest)...
January 2017: Brain and Behavior
Kat Christiansen, Claudia Metzler-Baddeley, Greg D Parker, Nils Muhlert, Derek K Jones, John P Aggleton, Seralynne D Vann
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Evidence from rat and nonhuman primate studies indicates that axons comprising the fornix have a characteristic topographical organization: projections from the temporal/anterior hippocampus mainly occupy the lateral fornix, whereas the more medial fornix contains fibers from the septal/posterior hippocampus. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the same topographical organization exists in the human brain. METHODS: Using high angular resolution diffusion MRI-based tractography at 3T, subdivisions of the fornix were reconstructed in 40 healthy adults by selecting fiber pathways from either the anterior or the posterior hippocampus...
January 2017: Brain and Behavior
Sven-Erik Eriksson
OBJECTIVES: To assess long-term prognosis after transient ischemic attack (TIA)/subtypes of stroke relative to secondary prophylactic treatment(s) given. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retro/prospective follow-up of patients hospitalized in the Stroke Unit or in the Department of Neurology, Linköping, in 1986 and followed up to Feb. 2011. RESULTS: A total of 288 men were followed up for 2254 years (mean 7.8 years) and 261 women for 1984 years (mean 7...
January 2017: Brain and Behavior
Jooyoung Oh, Ji-Won Chun, Eunseong Kim, Hae-Jeong Park, Boreom Lee, Jae-Jin Kim
INTRODUCTION: Patients with schizophrenia exhibit several cognitive deficits, including memory impairment. Problems with recognition memory can hinder socially adaptive behavior. Previous investigations have suggested that altered activation of the frontotemporal area plays an important role in recognition memory impairment. However, the cerebral networks related to these deficits are not known. The aim of this study was to elucidate the brain networks required for recognizing socially relevant information in patients with schizophrenia performing an old-new recognition task...
January 2017: Brain and Behavior
Quanquan Gu, Hengyi Cao, Min Xuan, Wei Luo, Xiaojun Guan, Jingjing Xu, Peiyu Huang, Minming Zhang, Xiaojun Xu
INTRODUCTION: Evidence has indicated a strong association between hyperactivity in the cerebello-thalamo-motor cortical loop and resting tremor in Parkinson's disease (PD). Within this loop, the thalamus serves as a central hub based on its structural centrality in the generation of resting tremor. To study whether this thalamic abnormality leads to an alteration at the whole-brain level, our study investigated the role of the thalamus in patients with parkinsonian resting tremor in a large-scale brain network context...
January 2017: Brain and Behavior
Sergej Nadalin, Alena Buretić-Tomljanović, Polona Lavtar, Nada Starčević Čizmarević, Alenka Hodžić, Juraj Sepčić, Miljenko Kapović, Borut Peterlin, Smiljana Ristić
OBJECTIVE: Blood-borne angiotensin II is generated from angiotensinogen via cleavage by renin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), an enzymatic cascade known as the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Several lines of evidence indicate that ACE, beyond its classical role of mediating blood pressure regulation, might contribute to the etiology of substance addictions by influencing dopaminergic signaling. A functional insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the ACE gene was associated with risk for being a smoker among individuals with depression and with smoking severity in studies comprising patients with depression and healthy controls...
January 2017: Brain and Behavior
Theresa Mehl, Berit Jordan, Stephan Zierz
INTRODUCTION: Physicians experienced in the treatment of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) occasionally describe these patients as "nice" persons. METHODS: ALS experienced physicians (n = 36) were asked to assess the personality characteristics of ALS patients using a multidimensional personality questionnaire based on the five-factor model of personality. Control groups consisted of physicians experienced in Myasthenia gravis (MG) (n = 21) and lung cancer (LC) (n = 36)...
January 2017: Brain and Behavior
Hideki Sakuta, Keisuke Suzuki, Tomoyuki Miyamoto, Masayuki Miyamoto, Ayaka Numao, Hiroaki Fujita, Yuji Watanabe, Koichi Hirata
OBJECTIVE: Serum uric acid (UA) levels are reported to be decreased in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA). However, clinical correlates of serum UA levels are still unclear in PD-related disorders. We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the associations between serum UA levels and disease duration, disease severity, and motor function among PD, MSA, and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) patients. METHODS: A total of 100 patients with PD, 42 patients with MSA, 30 patients with PSP, and 100 controls were included in this study...
January 2017: Brain and Behavior
Enzo Ballotta, Antonio Toniato, Filippo Farina, Claudio Baracchini
OBJECTIVES: Several studies have shown the beneficial role of statins in reducing the risk of major perioperative complications and death associated with noncardiac vascular surgery, but few have focused on their effects in the event of carotid endarterectomy (CEA). This study analyzes the effects of preoperative statin use on perioperative outcomes in patients undergoing CEA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from all consecutive patients who underwent primary CEA for symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid disease between 2002 and 2014 at a single institution were prospectively stored in a vascular surgery registry, recording risk factors, medication, and indication for surgery...
January 2017: Brain and Behavior
Maria Del C Valdés Hernández, Xinyi Qiu, Xin Wang, Stewart Wiseman, Eleni Sakka, Lucy C Maconick, Fergus Doubal, Cathie L M Sudlow, Joanna M Wardlaw
BACKGROUND: In structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of patients with a recent small subcortical infarct (RSSI) and small vessel disease (SVD) imaging markers coexist. However, their spatial distribution and prevalence with respect to the hemisphere of the RSSI remain unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From brain MRI in 187 patients with an acute lacunar ischemic stroke clinical syndrome and a relevant diffusion weighted imaging (DWI)-positive lesion, we semiautomatically extracted the RSSI, microbleeds, lacunes, old cortical infarcts, and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) using optimized thresholding in the relevant sequences, and rated the load of perivascular spaces...
January 2017: Brain and Behavior
Stephanos Ioannou, Adrian L Williams
OBJECTIVE: This functional magnetic resonance imaging study was designed to observe how physiological brain states can alter food preferences. A primary goal was to observe food-sensitive regions and moreover examine whether 5-HTP intake would activate areas which have been associated with appetite suppression, anorexia, satiety, and weight loss. METHODS AND PROCEDURE: Fourteen healthy male and female participants took part in the study, of which half of them received the supplement 5-HTP and the rest vitamin C (control) on an empty stomach...
January 2017: Brain and Behavior
Edward J Modestino, Chioma Amenechi, AnnaMarie Reinhofer, Patrick O'Toole
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) usually emerges with a unilateral side-of-onset (left-onset: LOPD; right-onset: ROPD; Marinus & van Hilten, 2015) due to an asymmetrical degeneration of striatal dopaminergic neurons (Donnemiller et al., Brain, 135, 2012, 3348). This has led to a body of research exploring the cognitive, neuropsychological, and clinical differences between LOPD and ROPD (e.g., Verreyt et al., Neuropsychology Review, 21, 2011, 405). METHODS: Thirty ROPD and 14 LOPD cases were drawn from a Boston clinic specializing in PD...
January 2017: Brain and Behavior
Thomas J Re, Jacob Levman, Ashley R Lim, Andrea Righini, Patricia Ellen Grant, Emi Takahashi
INTRODUCTION: Many neurologic and psychiatric disorders are thought to be due to, or result in, developmental errors in neuronal cerebellar connectivity. In this connectivity analysis, we studied the developmental time-course of cerebellar peduncle pathways in pediatric and young adult subjects. METHODS: A cohort of 80 subjects, newborns to young adults, was studied on a 3T MR system with 30 diffusion-weighted measurements with high-angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) tractography...
January 2017: Brain and Behavior
Stefan Sommer, Sebastian Kozerke, Erich Seifritz, Philipp Staempfli
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Diffusion MRI tractography enables to investigate white matter pathways noninvasively by reconstructing estimated fiber pathways. However, such tractograms remain biased and nonquantitative. Several techniques have been proposed to reestablish the link between tractography and tissue microstructure by modeling the diffusion signal or fiber orientation distribution (FOD) with the given tractogram and optimizing each fiber or compartment contribution according to the diffusion signal or FOD...
January 2017: Brain and Behavior
Chien-Cheng Liu, Jiin-Tsuey Cheng, Kuo-Chuan Hung, Yuan-Yi Chia, Ping-Heng Tan
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: RNA polymerase II promoters that drive the expression of rationally designed primary microRNA-based shRNA, for example, shRNAmir, can produce more potent gene knockdown than RNA polymerase III promoters. Antagonists of peripheral N methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors that do not interfere with central glutamate processing would prevent the development of adverse central nervous system effects. Thus, in this study, we examined the effects of gene silencing and antinociception on formalin- and Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced pain in rats by subcutaneously injecting a lentiviral vector encoding a shRNAmir that targets the NR1 subunit of the NMDA receptor...
January 2017: Brain and Behavior
Yaqing Shu, Haiyan Li, Lei Zhang, Yuge Wang, Youming Long, Rui Li, Wei Qiu, Zhengqi Lu, Xueqiang Hu, Fuhua Peng
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have shown that serum uric acid (UA) modulates outcomes of neurological diseases, although little is known about cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) UA levels in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs). METHODS: Cerebrospinal fluid and serum UA levels were measured in samples from 68 patients, including NMOSDs during relapse (n = 38) and controls with noninflammatory and non-neurodegenerative diseases (CTLs, n = 30). Correlation analysis was performed between CSF UA and clinical characteristics, serum UA, and blood-brain barrier integrity in NMOSDs...
January 2017: Brain and Behavior
Melanie Korsen, Rhina Kunz, Ulf Schminke, Uwe Runge, Thomas Kohlmann, Alexander Dressel
OBJECTIVES: Dalfampridine exerts beneficial effects on walking ability in a subgroup of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). These patients are termed "responders". Here, we investigated whether the responder status with respect to mobility measures would determine whether dalfampridine treatment exerts a beneficial effect on other MS symptoms. We therefore assessed walking ability, upper limb function, cognition, fatigue, visual evoked potentials (VEPs), depression, and quality of life in patients before and after dalfampridine treatment...
January 2017: Brain and Behavior
Marta Banach, Judyta K Juranek, Aneta L Zygulska
INTRODUCTION: Chemotherapy-induced neuropathies are one of the most common side effects of cancer treatment, surpassing bone marrow suppression and kidney dysfunction. Chemotherapy effects on the nervous system vary between different classes of drugs and depend on specific chemical and physical properties of the drug used. The three most neurotoxic classes of anti-cancer drugs are: platinum-based drugs, taxanes, and thalidomide and its analogs; other, less neurotoxic but also commonly used drugs are: bortezomib, ixabepilone, and vinca alkaloids...
January 2017: Brain and Behavior
Eric Durand, Laurence Watier, Anne Lécu, Michel Fix, Jean-Jacques Weiss, Mathilde Chevignard, Pascale Pradat-Diehl
AIM: The study was designed to estimate the prevalence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in a French prison population of female offenders, study the variables known to be associated with TBI, and compare our results with those obtained among male offenders as described in a previous paper. PARTICIPANTS: All female offenders (adults and juveniles) consecutively admitted to Fleury-Mérogis prison over a 3-month period were included in the study. METHOD: During the admission procedure, female offenders were interviewed by healthcare staff using a self-reported questionnaire...
January 2017: Brain and Behavior
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