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Brain and Behavior

Thomas Krøigård, Martin Wirenfeldt, Toke K Svendsen, Søren H Sindrup
Background: Cold-induced peripheral neuropathy has been described in individuals exposed to severe cold resulting in pain, hypersensitivity to cold, hyperhidrosis, numbness, and skin changes. Nerve conduction studies and thermal detection thresholds are abnormal in symptomatic patients, and intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) in skin biopsies is reduced. Case presentation: A 41-year-old male was included as a healthy subject in a study of the spontaneous variability of quantitative sensory testing (QST), nerve conduction studies (NCS), and IENFD...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Jin-Mei Chen, Qing-Wei Li, Guo-Xin Jiang, Shu-Jun Zeng, Jun Shen, Ji Sun, Dan-Hong Wu, Qi Cheng
Objectives: To investigate the association between neck circumference (NC) and cognitive impairment and interactions between relevant variables to the risk of cognitive impairment. Methods: A population-based survey was conducted among elderly inhabitants aged 60 years and over from a community in Shanghai suburb. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate associations and log likelihood ratio tests to examine interactions. Results: Cognitive impairment was identified in 269 (10...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Shinji Ouma, Midori Suenaga, Funda F Bölükbaşı Hatip, Izzettin Hatip-Al-Khatib, Yoshio Tsuboi, Yoichi Matsunaga
Objectives: To determine the relevance of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D3), and 1,25(OH)2D3 concentrations to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and various stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Materials and Methods: The study included 230 participants (>74 years) allocated to three main groups: 1-healthy subjects (HS, n  = 61), 2-patients with MCI ( n  = 61), and 3- patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) subdivided into three stages: mild ( n  = 41), moderate ( n  = 35), and severe AD ( n  = 32)...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Anna Therese Bjerkreim, Andrej Netland Khanevski, Solveig Bergliot Glad, Lars Thomassen, Halvor Naess, Nicola Logallo
Background: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is the most severe form of stroke, but data on readmission after ICH are sparse. We aimed to determine frequency, causes, and predictors of 30-day readmission after ICH. Materials and Methods: This retrospective cohort study includes all spontaneous ICH survivors admitted to the stroke unit at Haukeland University Hospital in Bergen in Norway from July 2007 to December 2013. Patients were followed by review of electronic medical charts, and the first unplanned readmission within 30 days after discharge was used as final outcome...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Futoshi Matsushita, Hirotaka Kida, Ken-Ichi Tabei, Chizuru Nakano, Keita Matsuura, Yuichiro Ii, Ryogen Sasaki, Akira Taniguchi, Yugo Narita, Masayuki Maeda, Masayuki Satoh, Hidekazu Tomimoto
Introduction: This study aims to investigate the association between the presence and frequency of cortical lesions (CLs), and the clinical and psychological features of multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: A total of 19 patients with MS were examined using double inversion recovery (DIR) sequences with 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and classified into two groups: CL and non-CL. In-house software was used to quantitatively determine the atrophy of each brain region...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Jeffrey A Allen, Kenneth C Gorson, Deborah Gelinas
Introduction: We explored adherence to the European Federation of Neurological Societies/Peripheral Nerve Society (EFNS/PNS) guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) by reviewing data from a specialty pharmacy database. Materials and Methods: Clinical and electrophysiologic data were reviewed for 65 consecutive patients treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) for CIDP. Three neuromuscular neurologists independently classified cases according to EFNS/PNS criteria as (1) fulfilling CIDP criteria; (2) non-CIDP (neither clinical nor electrophysiologic criteria met); or (3) unknown (insufficient information)...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Ruwei Ou, Qianqian Wei, Bei Cao, Wei Song, Yanbing Hou, Hui Liu, Xiaoqin Yuan, Bi Zhao, Ying Wu, Huifang Shang
Objective: To explore the clinical predictors of freezing of gait (FOG) in Chinese patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods: This study included 225 patients with PD who completed a three-year follow-up visit. The end-point was the presence of FOG (freezers), which was assessed during the follow-up visit. Group comparisons were conducted, followed by a further forward binary logistic regression analysis. Results: Eighty-five patients with PD (38%) had developed FOG at the end of study...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Weizhi Yu, Hong Xu, Ying Xue, Dong An, Huairui Li, Wei Chen, Deqin Yu, Yiping Sun, Jianmei Ma, Yiyuan Tang, Zhaoyang Xiao, Shengming Yin
Introduction: Social isolation enhances the aggressive behavior of animals, but the detailed mechanism remains unclear. Epigenetic studies have suggested that Htr2c RNA editing is closely related to aggressive behavior. This study aims to obtain a fundamental understanding of how social isolation impacts adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1, RNA editing enzyme) and Htr2c RNA editing, leading to aggressive behavior, and explore the effective solutions for the recovery of this behavior...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Guro Jahr, Michele Da Broi, Harald Holte, Klaus Beiske, Torstein R Meling
Objectives: To evaluate the validity of Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) and International Extranodal Lymphoma Study Group (IELSG) prognostic scoring systems for Overall Survival (OS) in intracranial Primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) of all patients diagnosed at a single center. Material and Methods: Pretreatment clinical factors including tumor characteristics and histology, treatment, and survival of PCNSL patients with diagnostic biopsies over a 12-year period (2003-2014) were retrieved from a prospective database at Oslo University Hospital...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Cordell M Baker, Joshua D Burks, Robert G Briggs, Adam D Smitherman, Chad A Glenn, Andrew K Conner, Dee H Wu, Michael E Sughrue
Introduction: Supplementary motor area (SMA) syndrome is a constellation of temporary symptoms that may occur following tumors of the frontal lobe. Affected patients develop akinesia and mutism but often recover within weeks to months. With our own case examples and with correlations to fiber tracking validated by gross anatomical dissection as ground truth, we describe a white matter pathway through which recovery may occur. Methods: Diffusion spectrum imaging from the Human Connectome Project was used for tractography analysis...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Alireza Shahbabaie, Mitra Ebrahimpoor, Ali Hariri, Michael A Nitsche, Javad Hatami, Emad Fatemizadeh, Mohammad Ali Oghabian, Hamed Ekhtiari
Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation tool suited to alter cortical excitability and activity via the application of weak direct electrical currents. An increasing number of studies in the addiction literature suggests that tDCS modulates subjective self-reported craving through stimulation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The major goal of this study was to explore effects of bilateral DLPFC stimulation on resting state networks (RSNs) in association with drug craving modulation...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Yi Wang, Jian-Ning Zhang, Wei Hu, Ji-Jun Li, Jia-Xuan Zhou, Jian-Ping Zhang, Guo-Feng Shi, Ping He, Zai-Wang Li, Ming Li
Introduction: Subjective chronic tinnitus is a common medical syndrome with a high frequency of cognitive impairment; however, the characteristics of cognitive impairment in chronic tinnitus are poorly understood. Investigating the scope of cognitive impairment across the severity spectrum of tinnitus patients may shed light on the issue. Methods: A consecutive series of 207 subjective chronic tinnitus patients were classified into mild tinnitus group ( n  = 95) and severe tinnitus group ( n  = 112) by THI score (the cutoff THI scores were 37/38)...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Po-Chi Chan, Cheng-Yu Wei, Guang-Uei Hung, Pai-Yi Chiu
Objectives: The association of vascular risk factors (VRFs) with incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) has been well studied. However, the association between VRFs and non-AD dementia is seldom investigated. In this study, we aim to compare the concurrence of VRFs of Lewy body dementia (LBD) to AD. Materials & Methods: We consecutively enrolled patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), and AD, and the prevalence of arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, hyperlipidemia, smoking, and obesity was assessed and compared...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Sara Ekmark-Lewén, Veronica Lindström, Astrid Gumucio, Elisabeth Ihse, Anish Behere, Philipp J Kahle, Eva Nordström, Maria Eriksson, Anna Erlandsson, Joakim Bergström, Martin Ingelsson
Introduction: Intraneuronal inclusions of alpha-synuclein are commonly found in the brain of patients with Parkinson's disease and other α-synucleinopathies. The correlation between alpha-synuclein pathology and symptoms has been studied in various animal models. In (Thy-1)-h[A30P] alpha-synuclein transgenic mice, behavioral and motor abnormalities were reported from 12 and 15 months, respectively. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these mice also display symptoms at earlier time points...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Laura Bon, Nicolas Franck
Context: cognitive remediation involves either intensive training of impaired functions or implementing strategies to compensate for these impairments. In cases of schizophrenia, both methods have demonstrated benefits in terms of behavior and cerebral activity. However, despite the major differences between these two approaches, their impact has not yet been compared. Method: We searched the PsychInfo, Pubmed, and ScienceDirect databases using the key words "cognitive remediation," "schizophrenia," "cerebral activity," and "magnetic resonance imaging," in order to select studies investigating the effects of cognitive remediation on patients with schizophrenia...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Samuel Carbunaru, Robert S Eisinger, Adolfo Ramirez-Zamora, Dana Bassan, Amin Cervantes-Arriaga, Mayela Rodriguez-Violante, Daniel Martinez-Ramirez
Objectives: Impulse control disorders (ICDs) are common among patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Risk factors identified for developing ICDs include young age, family history, and impulsive personality traits. However, the association of these potentially disabling disorders with nondopaminergic drugs and sleep disorders has been understudied. Our objective was to examine the association between ICDs and nondopaminergic medications and sleep disorders. Methods: We conducted an observational study of 53 patients with PD from the National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Sophie Kobuch, Azharuddin Fazalbhoy, Rachael Brown, Vaughan G Macefield, Luke A Henderson
Introduction: Long-lasting experimental muscle pain elicits divergent muscle sympathetic responses, with some individuals exhibiting a persistent increase in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), and others a decrease. These divergent responses are thought to result from sustained functional changes in specific brain regions that modulate the cardiovascular responses to pain. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate brain regions that are functionally coupled to the generation of an MSNA burst at rest and to determine their behavior during tonic muscle pain...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Valentine L Marcar, Silvana Baselgia, Barbara Lüthi-Eisenegger, Lutz Jäncke
Introduction: Retinal input processing in the human visual system involves a phasic and tonic neural response. We investigated the role of the magno- and parvocellular systems by comparing the influence of the active neural population size and its discharge activity on the amplitude and latency of four VEP components. Method: We recorded the scalp electric potential of 20 human volunteers viewing a series of dartboard images presented as a pattern reversing and pattern on-/offset stimulus...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Yuesong Pan, Yujing Peng, Weiqi Chen, Yongjun Wang, Yi Lin, Yan He, Ning Wang, Yilong Wang
Objectives: Total Health Risks in Vascular Events-calculation score (THRIVE-c) is an easy use and patient-specific outcome predictive score by computing the logistic equation with patients' continuous variables. We validated its performance in Chinese ischemic stroke patients receiving intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) therapy. Materials and Methods: We used data from the Thrombolysis Implementation and Monitor of Acute Ischemic Stroke in China (TIMS-China) registry to validate the THRIVE-c score in patients receiving IVT therapy...
February 2018: Brain and Behavior
Aapo Laiho, Tiina M Laitinen, Päivi Hartikainen, Juha E K Hartikainen, Tomi P Laitinen, Sakari Simula
Background: Fingolimod is a sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulator for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Despite an established effect on heart rate, the effect of fingolimod on cardiac repolarization is not completely known. Methods: Twenty-seven patients with RRMS underwent 24-hr ambulatory ECG before fingolimod (baseline), at the day of fingolimod initiation (1D) and after three-month treatment (3M). The mean values of RR-interval as well as QT-interval corrected by Bazzet's (QTcBaz) and Fridericia's (QTcFri) formula were compared between baseline, 1D, and 3M over 24-hr period as well as at daytime and nighttime...
February 2018: Brain and Behavior
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