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Brain and Behavior

Xuemin Feng, Hui Zhu, Teng Zhao, Yanbo Hou, Jingyao Liu
OBJECTIVES: In this study, we report a case of Finnish gelsolin amyloidosis (FGA) in a Chinese family. METHODS: The proband presented with a range of clinical symptoms that included epileptic seizures and multiple lesions in the brain. Whole exome sequencing of the Gelsolin (GSN) gene was performed, and the GSN mutation was identified through comparison with the known human genome sequences using Genetic Testing Intelligent Execution System. RESULTS: The GSN gene sequencing revealed that a heterozygous G duplicate in exon1 (c...
November 12, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Christoph Berger, Juliane Müller-Godeffroy, Ivo Marx, Olaf Reis, Johannes Buchmann, Alexander Dück
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated simultaneously the impact of methylphenidate (MPH) on the interaction of inhibitory and facilitative pathways in regions processing motor and cognitive functions. METHOD: Neural markers of attention and response control (event-related potentials) and motor cortical excitability (transcranial magnetic stimulation) and their pharmacological modulation by MPH were measured simultaneously in a sample of healthy adults (n = 31) performing a cued choice reaction test...
November 12, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Illa Mihejeva, Anita Vētra, Guna Bērziņa
AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate how pre-stroke risk factors, neurological symptoms, and the level of disability shortly after stroke are associated with poststroke mortality during a 7-year period after stroke, for persons treated in a stroke unit. METHODS: The data of 231 patients were included in the study. Patients who were treated in the stroke unit at the Riga East University Hospital between February 1, 2009, and July 20, 2009, were included in this study...
November 12, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Marie A Pezze, Hayley J Marshall, Helen J Cassaday
INTRODUCTION: Trace conditioning is impaired by lesions to dorsal hippocampus, as well as by treatment with the muscarinic acetylcholine antagonist scopolamine. However, the role of muscarinic receptors within hippocampus has received little attention. METHODS: The present study examined the effects of intra-hippocampal infusion of scopolamine (30 µg/side) in an appetitive (2 vs. 10 s) trace conditioning procedure using sucrose pellets as the unconditioned stimulus (US)...
October 31, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Yanyan Liu, Min Zhang, Hanmo Bao, Zhixiang Zhang, Yuqing Mei, Wenwei Yun, Xianju Zhou
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate effects of deep white matter hyperintensity (DWMH) and periventricular hyperintensity (PVH) on the efficacy of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). METHODS: A total of 113 AIS patients with WMH were categorized into the PVH group and the DWMH group according to the lesion location, with the division of two subgroups based on whether or not they received IVT treatment: the thrombolysis group and the control group...
October 31, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Dinka Smajlagić, Kaya Kvarme Jacobsen, Craig Myrum, Jan Haavik, Stefan Johansson, Tetyana Zayats
INTRODUCTION: Intelligence is a core construct of individual differences in cognitive abilities and a strong predictor of important life outcomes. Within recent years, rates of cesarean section have substantially increased globally, though little is known about its effect on neurodevelopmental trajectories. Thus, we aimed to investigate the influence of delivery by cesarean section on the genetics of intelligence in children. METHODS: Participants were recruited through the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)...
October 31, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Viviane Brito Nogueira, Danilo Oliveira Imparato, Sandro José de Souza, Maria Bernardete Cordeiro de Sousa
INTRODUCTION: The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a small New World monkey, has been widely used as a biological model in neuroscience to elucidate neural circuits involved in cognition and to understand brain dysfunction in neuropsychiatric disorders. In this regard, the availability of gene expression data derived from next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies represents an opportunity for a molecular contextualization. Sexual dimorphism account for differences in diseases prevalence and prognosis...
October 30, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Holly Barker, James Munro, Natasza Orlov, Elenor Morgenroth, Jason Moser, Michael W Eysenck, Paul Allen
INTRODUCTION: Anxiety is known to impair attentional control particularly when Task demands are high. Neuroimaging studies generally support these behavioral findings, reporting that anxiety is associated with increased (inefficient) activity in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) during attentional control Tasks. However, less is known about the relationship between worry (part of the cognitive dimension of trait anxiety) and DLPFC/ACC function and connectivity during attentional control...
October 30, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Juan-Juan Du, Tian Wang, Pei Huang, Shishuang Cui, Chao Gao, Yiqi Lin, Rao Fu, Haiyan Zhou, Shengdi Chen
OBJECTIVES: Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that causes early sustained disability and poor health-related quality of life (HrQoL). The clinical features and their effects on the HrQoL of patients in China have received little attention in the research literature. We evaluated the clinical characteristics and HrQoL of Chinese patients with MSA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 143 patients with MSA from the Department of Neurology, Shanghai Ruijin Hospital, were enrolled in the study from March 2014 to May 2017...
October 30, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Mari Takala, Juha Puustinen, Esa Rauhala, Anu Holm
OBJECTIVES: Sleep-Disordered Breathing (SDB) is frequent in stroke patients. Polysomnography (PSG) and cardiorespiratory polygraphy are used to confirm SDB, but the need for PSG exceeds the available resources for systematic testing. Therefore, a simple and robust pre-screening instrument is necessary to identify the patients with an urgent need for a targeted PSG. The aim of this systematic review was to identify and evaluate the available methods to pre-screen stroke patients possibly suffering from SDB...
October 29, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Hirofumi Matsuyama, Keita Matsuura, Hidehiro Ishikawa, Yoshinori Hirata, Natsuko Kato, Atsushi Niwa, Yugo Narita, Hidekazu Tomimoto
OBJECTIVES: Levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG) infusion is a useful therapy for the wearing-off phenomenon of advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Recently, we found three PD patients that may have had a zinc deficiency after the LCIG infusion, possibly due to the zinc-chelating action of levodopa. This study aims to evaluate changes in serum zinc levels in three patients that received LCIG treatment and to determine possible remedies for zinc deficiency during treatment...
October 25, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Yoko Shigemoto, Daichi Sone, Norihide Maikusa, Nobuyuki Okamura, Shozo Furumoto, Yukitsuka Kudo, Masayo Ogawa, Harumasa Takano, Yuma Yokoi, Masuhiro Sakata, Tadashi Tsukamoto, Koichi Kato, Noriko Sato, Hiroshi Matsuda
INTRODUCTION: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by accumulation of extracellular amyloid-β and intracellular tau neurofibrillary tangles. The recent advent of tau positron emission tomography (PET) has enabled in vivo assessment of tau pathology. The aim of this study was to explore whether tau deposition influences the structural connectivity in amyloid-negative and amyloid-positive groups, and further explore the difference between the groups. METHODS: We investigated 18 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment/mild AD (AD-spectrum group) and 35 cognitively normal older adults (CN group) using diffusion MRI, amyloid, and tau PET imaging...
October 24, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Joanne L Griggs, Michael L Mathai, Puspha Sinnayah
INTRODUCTION: In Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), nonprotein coding small nucleolar (sno) RNAs are involved in the paternally deleted region of chromosome 15q11.2-q13, which is believed to cause the hyperphagic phenotype of PWS. Central to this is SnoRNA116. The supplement Caralluma fimbriata extract (CFE) has been shown to decrease appetite behavior in some individuals with PWS. We therefore investigated the mechanism underpinning the effect of CFE on food intake in the Snord116del mouse...
October 23, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Keri J Woods, Kevin G F Thomas, Christopher D Molteno, Joseph L Jacobson, Sandra W Jacobson, Ernesta M Meintjes
INTRODUCTION: Although performance deficits in place learning have been reported in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), neural correlates of these deficits have not been investigated. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study of 57 children (41 alcohol-exposed; 16 controls; mean age = 9.4 years; 29 boys) examined effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) on place learning in a virtual environment, the computer-generated (CG) arena. METHODS: Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired while children passively viewed a recording of an experimenter completing the task...
October 23, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Valentina Pergher, Benjamin Wittevrongel, Jos Tournoy, Birgitte Schoenmakers, Marc M Van Hulle
INTRODUCTION: Cognitive function performance decreases in older individuals compared to young adults. To curb this decline, cognitive training is applied, but it is not clear whether it improves only the trained task or also other cognitive functions. To investigate this, we considered an N-back working memory (WM) training task and verified whether it improves both trained WM and untrained cognitive functions. METHODS: As EEG studies have noted task difficulty and age-related changes in time-locked EEG responses, called event-related potentials (ERPs), we focused on the relation between the P300 ERP component, task difficulty level, and behavior response accuracy and reaction time (RT) in young and older healthy adults...
October 23, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Shenghan Zhou, Yuliang Zhou, Silin Qian, Wenbing Chang, Liping Wang, Dongsheng Fan
OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in Beijing from 2010 to 2015 and to address the issue of prognosis. METHODS: The number of patients diagnosed with ALS was generated from two aspects, namely, diagnostic hospitals and assisted care institutions. By examining the consistency of the overlapping data in terms of age and gender distributions, the number of ALS patients in Beijing was estimated to analyze the incidence. Finally, a prognosis study was carried out by sorting the clinical data of deceased patients to associate time to death with the demographic characteristics, including gender, age at diagnosis, site of onset, body mass index, and lag from onset to diagnosis...
October 19, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Marta Maschio, Alessia Zarabla, Andrea Maialetti, Francesca Sperati, Loredana Dinapoli, Sabrina Dispenza, Gianluca Petreri, Tonino Cantelmi
OBJECTIVE: Therapeutic doses of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) may alter EEG background activity, which is considered an index of the functional state of the brain. Quantitative analysis (qEEG) of EEG background activity is a valid instrument to assess the effects of many centrally active drugs on the central nervous system, including AEDs. Lacosamide (LCM) is a new AED that could be a valid therapeutic choice in patients with brain tumor-related epilepsy (BTRE). METHODS: We used qEEG to analyze the possible effect of LCM as an add-on, on background EEG activity after 4 months in patients with BTRE...
October 17, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Beatrice Paradiso, Stefano Ferrero, Gaetano Thiene, Anna Maria Lavezzi
INTRODUCTION: The arcuate nucleus is a component of the ventral medullary surface involved in chemoreception and breathing control. The hypoplasia of this nucleus is a very frequent finding in victims of sudden unexplained fetal and infant death (from the last weeks of pregnancy to the first year of life). On the contrary, this developmental alteration is rarely present in age-matched controls who died of defined causes. These observations lead to hypothesize that a well-developed and functional arcuate nucleus is generally required to sustain life...
October 17, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Mirjana Babić Leko, Nanet Willumsen, Matea Nikolac Perković, Nataša Klepac, Fran Borovečki, Patrick R Hof, Zdenko Sonicki, Nela Pivac, Rohan de Silva, Goran Šimić
INTRODUCTION: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the world leading cause of dementia. Early detection of AD is essential for faster and more efficacious usage of therapeutics and preventive measures. Even though it is well known that one ε4 allele of apolipoprotein E gene increases the risk for sporadic AD five times, and that two ε4 alleles increase the risk 20 times, reliable genetic markers for AD are not yet available. Previous studies have shown that microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) gene polymorphisms could be associated with increased risk for AD...
October 17, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Samuel W Hulbert, Alexandra L Bey, Yong-Hui Jiang
INTRODUCTION: Several studies have supported the use of enriched environments to prevent the manifestation of ASD-like phenotypes in laboratory rodents. While the translational value of such experiments is unknown, the findings have been relatively consistent across many different models. METHODS: In the current study, we tested the effects of early environmental enrichment on a mouse model of ASD with high construct validity, the Shank3 ∆e4-22 mice our laboratory previously generated and characterized...
October 13, 2018: Brain and Behavior
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