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Brain and Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075579/expression-of-bdnf-and-trkb-in-the-hippocampus-of-a-rat-genetic-model-of-vulnerability-roman-low-avoidance-and-resistance-roman-high-avoidance-to-stress-induced-depression
#1
M Pina Serra, Laura Poddighe, Marianna Boi, Francesco Sanna, M Antonietta Piludu, M Giuseppa Corda, Osvaldo Giorgi, Marina Quartu
INTRODUCTION: The selective breeding of Roman High- (RHA) and Low-Avoidance (RLA) rats for, respectively, rapid versus poor acquisition of the active avoidance response has generated two distinct phenotypes differing in many behavioral traits, including coping strategies to aversive conditions. Thus, RLA rats are considered as a genetic model of vulnerability to stress-induced depression whereas RHA rats are a model of resilience to that trait. Besides the monoamine hypothesis of depression, there is evidence that alterations in neuronal plasticity in the hippocampus and other brain areas are critically involved in the pathophysiology of mood disorders...
October 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075578/factors-associated-with-motor-complications-in-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Liis Kadastik-Eerme, Nele Taba, Toomas Asser, Pille Taba
OBJECTIVES: Levodopa is the most effective therapy for treating Parkinson's disease (PD); however, side effects such as dyskinesias and motor fluctuations may occur after some years of its usage. The aims of this study were to assess the frequency of and factors associated with motor complications among PD patients on levodopa treatment. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study carried out in 2010-2013, clinical data and treatment details were collected. Logistic regression expressed by odd ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) was conducted to examine the effects of several independent variables on the occurrence of motor complications...
October 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075577/effects-of-hint1-deficiency-on-emotional-like-behaviors-in-mice-under-chronic-immobilization-stress
#3
Liankang Sun, Peng Liu, Fei Liu, Yuan Zhou, Zheng Chu, Yuqi Li, Guang Chu, Ying Zhang, Jiabei Wang, Yong-Hui Dang
BACKGROUND: Histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) is regarded as a haplo-insufficient tumor suppressor and is closely associated with diverse neuropsychiatric diseases. Moreover, HINT1 is related to gender-specific acute behavior changes in schizophrenia and in response to nicotine. Stress has a range of molecular effects in emotional disorders, which can cause a reduction in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the hippocampus, resulting in hippocampal atrophy and neuronal cell loss...
October 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075576/cost-benefits-of-rapid-recanalization-using-intraarterial-thrombectomy
#4
Hye Seon Jeong, Jong Wook Shin, Hyon-Jo Kwon, Hyeon-Song Koh, Hae-Sung Nam, Hee Seon Yu, Na Young Yoon, Jei Kim
OBJECTIVES: Thrombolytic therapy is associated with favorable clinical outcomes after successful and rapid recanalization in patients with acute ischemic stroke. This study aimed to evaluate the cost benefits and clinical outcomes at 1 year after intraarterial thrombectomy (IAT) by the rapidity of the successful recanalization. MATERIALS & METHODS: Clinical outcomes of and medical costs incurred by 230 patients with acute ischemic stroke who underwent IAT were compared by the rapidity from symptom onset to successful recanalization (2b/3 thrombolysis in cerebral infarction grade): ≤6-hr (n = 143), >6-hr (n = 31), and no-recanalization (n = 56)...
October 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075575/neural-correlates-of-korean-proverb-processing-a-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#5
You Gyoung Yi, Dae Yul Kim, Woo Hyun Shim, Joo Young Oh, Sung Hyun Kim, Ho Sung Kim
INTRODUCTION: The Korean language is based on a syntactic system that is different from other languages. This study investigated the processing area of the Korean proverb in comparison with the literal sentence using functional magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, the effect of opacity and transparency of proverbs on the activation pattern, when familiarity is set to the same condition, was also examined. METHODS: The experimental stimuli included 36 proverbs and 18 literal sentences...
October 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075574/perinatal-western-type-diet-and-associated-gestational-weight-gain-alter-postpartum-maternal-mood
#6
Jessica L Bolton, Melanie G Wiley, Bailey Ryan, Samantha Truong, Melva Strait, Dana Creighton Baker, Nancy Y Yang, Olga Ilkayeva, Thomas M O'Connell, Shelley W Wroth, Cristina L Sánchez, Geeta Swamy, Christopher Newgard, Cynthia Kuhn, Staci D Bilbo, Leigh Ann Simmons
INTRODUCTION: The role of perinatal diet in postpartum maternal mood disorders, including depression and anxiety, remains unclear. We investigated whether perinatal consumption of a Western-type diet (high in fat and branched-chain amino acids [BCAA]) and associated gestational weight gain (GWG) cause serotonin dysregulation in the central nervous system (CNS), resulting in postpartum depression and anxiety (PPD/A). METHODS: Mouse dams were fed one of four diets (high-fat/high BCAA, low-fat/high BCAA, high-fat, and low-fat) prior to mating and throughout gestation and lactation...
October 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075573/clinimetrics-of-the-upright-motor-control-test-in-chronic-stroke
#7
Frances Rom M Lunar, Edward James R Gorgon, Rolando T Lazaro
INTRODUCTION: Insufficient literature exists regarding the clinimetric properties of the Upright Motor Control Test Knee Extension and Flexion subtests (UMCT-KE and UMCT-KF, respectively). This study examined the interrater and test-retest reliability of these subtests, and determined the relationship between the UMCT-KE and a clinical measure of muscle function in a sample of adults with chronic stroke. METHODS: Three raters independently administered the UMCT-KE and UMCT-KF on adults with chronic stroke with spasticity/abnormal movement patterns...
October 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075572/reflex-based-grasping-skilled-forelimb-reaching-and-electrodiagnostic-evaluation-for-comprehensive-analysis-of-functional-recovery-the-7-mm-rat-median-nerve-gap-repair-model-revisited
#8
Maria Stößel, Lena Rehra, Kirsten Haastert-Talini
INTRODUCTION: The rat median nerve injury and repair model gets increasingly important for research on novel bioartificial nerve grafts. It allows follow-up evaluation of the recovery of the forepaw functional ability with several sensitive techniques. The reflex-based grasping test, the skilled forelimb reaching staircase test, as well as electrodiagnostic recordings have been described useful in this context. Currently, no standard values exist, however, for comparison or comprehensive correlation of results obtained in each of the three methods after nerve gap repair in adult rats...
October 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075571/quantitative-muscle-ultrasound-is-useful-for-evaluating-secondary-axonal-degeneration-in-chronic-inflammatory-demyelinating-polyneuropathy
#9
Keiichi Hokkoku, Kiyoshi Matsukura, Yudai Uchida, Midori Kuwabara, Yuichi Furukawa, Hiroshi Tsukamoto, Yuki Hatanaka, Masahiro Sonoo
INTRODUCTION: In chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), exclusion of secondary axonal degeneration is challenging with conventional methods such as nerve conduction study (NCS), needle electromyography, and nerve biopsy. Increased echo intensity (EI) and decreased muscle thickness (MT) identified on muscle ultrasound (MUS) examination represent muscle denervation due to axonal degeneration in neurogenic disorders, suggesting MUS as a new tool to detect secondary axonal degeneration in patients with CIDP...
October 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075570/effect-of-a-transactional-model-education-program-on-coping-effectiveness-in-women-with-multiple-sclerosis
#10
Hormoz Sanaeinasab, Mohsen Saffari, Mahrokh Hashempour, Ali-Akbar Karimi Zarchi, Waleed A Alghamdi, Harold G Koenig
OBJECTIVES: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic and progressive disease that causes stress due to its unpredictability and lack of definitive treatments. This study examined the effects of an educational program using a transactional model to help women with MS cope with their disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a randomized clinical trial, 80 female patients from the MS Society of Iran were randomized to the intervention (n = 40) or a control group (n = 40)...
October 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075569/the-effect-of-preprocessing-in-dynamic-functional-network-connectivity-used-to-classify-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#11
Victor M Vergara, Andrew R Mayer, Eswar Damaraju, Vince D Calhoun
INTRODUCTION: Dynamic functional network connectivity (dFNC), derived from magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), is an important technique in the search for biomarkers of brain diseases such as mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). At the individual level, mTBI can affect cognitive functions and change personality traits. Previous research aimed at detecting significant changes in the dFNC of mTBI subjects. However, one of the main concerns in dFNC analysis is the appropriateness of methods used to correct for subject movement...
October 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075568/divergent-anomaly-in-mesocorticolimbic-dopaminergic-circuits-might-be-associated-with-different-depressive-behaviors-an-animal-study
#12
Mei Bai, Xiongzhao Zhu, Li Zhang, Yi Zhang, Liang Xue, Yuting Wang, Mingtian Zhong, Xiuwu Zhang
BACKGROUND: The mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, which originates from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and projects primarily to the prefrontal cortex (PFC), olfactory tubercle (OT), nucleus accumbens (NAc), dorsal striatum (ST), and the amygdala (AMy), plays a pivotal role in determining individual motivation and sensitivity to rewards, namely, anhedonia. Not all depressive individuals exhibited anhedonia, thus, it is natural to speculate that the heterogenous manifestations of depression might be related to the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system...
October 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075567/prosocial-deficits-in-behavioral-variant-frontotemporal-dementia-relate-to-reward-network-atrophy
#13
Virginia E Sturm, David C Perry, Kristie Wood, Alice Y Hua, Oscar Alcantar, Samir Datta, Katherine P Rankin, Howard J Rosen, Bruce L Miller, Joel H Kramer
INTRODUCTION: Empathy and shared feelings of reward motivate individuals to share resources with others when material gain is not at stake. Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is a neurodegenerative disease that affects emotion- and reward-relevant neural systems. Although there is diminished empathy and altered reward processing in bvFTD, how the disease impacts prosocial behavior is less well understood. METHODS: A total of 74 participants (20 bvFTD, 15 Alzheimer's disease [AD], and 39 healthy controls) participated in this study...
October 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075566/sleep-disturbances-in-taiwanese-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Yi-Ying Lin, Rou-Shayn Chen, Chin-Song Lu, Ying-Zu Huang, Yi-Hsin Weng, Tu-Hsueh Yeh, Wey-Yil Lin, June Hung
INTRODUCTION: Sleep disturbance is a common nonmotor symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD) and strongly affects patients' quality of life. The relationship between excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and nighttime problems remains uncertain. Arguments persist regarding the risk factors for sleep disturbance among patients with PD. Furthermore, the prevalence of EDS appears to be lower in Asian countries. Herein, we conducted the study to describe the characteristics of sleep problems in a sample of Taiwanese PD patients and delineate the difference with reported sleep disturbances in Caucasian PD patients from the literature...
October 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075565/assisting-the-neurologist-in-diagnosis-of-cns-malignancies-current-possibilities-and-limits-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-cytology-and-immunocytochemistry
#15
Jaroslava Dušková, Ondřej Sobek
OBJECTIVES: In tumorous impairment of CNS, cytological identification of the neoplastic cells in CSF frequently requires the use of ancillary techniques. Our methods are focused on identifying algorithms that increase the probability of identifying CSF malignant cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1.272 CSF samples from patients with tumorous infiltration of CNS of nonhematologic origin along with 721 samples from patients with hematologic malignancies were analyzed in a complex setting including cytological and immunocytochemical investigations...
October 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075564/gender-differences-in-safety-issues-during-fingolimod-therapy-evidence-from-a-real-life-relapsing-multiple-sclerosis-cohort
#16
Alessia Manni, Vita Direnzo, Antonio Iaffaldano, Valentina Di Lecce, Carla Tortorella, Stefano Zoccolella, Pietro Iaffaldano, Maria Trojano, Damiano Paolicelli
OBJECTIVE: Benefits and risks of new therapies in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) must be balanced carefully and tailored to patients. We aimed to describe our experience with Fingolimod (FTY), correlating demographics, clinical and hematological features of the Relapsing MS (RMS) cohort with the occurring Adverse Events (AEs). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Pretreatment screening tests, cardiological observation, and safety follow-up data were analyzed in 225 RMS patients. Changes in continuous data were analyzed post hoc with Wilcoxon ranks test; categorical variables were examined using McNemar test...
October 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075563/increased-prevalence-of-celiac-disease-in-idiopathic-inflammatory-myopathies
#17
Olof Danielsson, Björn Lindvall, Claes Hallert, Magnus Vrethem, Charlotte Dahle
OBJECTIVES: Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) are often associated with other immune-mediated diseases or malignancy. Some studies have reported a high frequency of celiac disease in IIM. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of celiac disease, systemic inflammatory diseases, and malignancy in a cohort of IIM patients, and estimate the incidence of IIM in the county of Östergötland, Sweden. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We reviewed medical records and analyzed sera from 106 patients, fulfilling pathological criteria of inflammatory myopathy, for the presence of IgA antibodies against endomysium and gliadin...
October 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075562/relationship-altered-between-functional-t1%C3%AF-and-bold-signals-in-bipolar-disorder
#18
Joseph J Shaffer, Casey P Johnson, Jeffrey D Long, Jess G Fiedorowicz, Gary E Christensen, John A Wemmie, Vincent A Magnotta
INTRODUCTION: Functional neuroimaging typically relies on the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) contrast, which is sensitive to the influx of oxygenated blood following neuronal activity. A new method, functional T1 relaxation in the rotating frame (fT1ρ) is thought to reflect changes in local brain metabolism, likely pH, and may more directly measure neuronal activity. These two methods were applied to study activation of the visual cortex in participants with bipolar disorder as compared to controls...
October 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075561/using-machine-learning-to-classify-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-based-on-diffusion-mri
#19
John Del Gaizo, Neda Mofrad, Jens H Jensen, David Clark, Russell Glenn, Joseph Helpern, Leonardo Bonilha
BACKGROUND: It is common for patients diagnosed with medial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) to have extrahippocampal damage. However, it is unclear whether microstructural extrahippocampal abnormalities are consistent enough to enable classification using diffusion MRI imaging. Therefore, we implemented a support vector machine (SVM)-based method to predict TLE from three different imaging modalities: mean kurtosis (MK), mean diffusivity (MD), and fractional anisotropy (FA). While MD and FA can be calculated from traditional diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), MK requires diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI)...
October 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075560/deletion-of-fmr1-results-in-sex-specific-changes-in-behavior
#20
Suzanne O Nolan, Conner D Reynolds, Gregory D Smith, Andrew J Holley, Brianna Escobar, Matthew A Chandler, Megan Volquardsen, Taylor Jefferson, Ashvini Pandian, Tileena Smith, Jessica Huebschman, Joaquin N Lugo
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we used a systemic Fmr1 knockout in order to investigate both genotype- and sex-specific differences across multiple measures of sociability, repetitive behaviors, activity levels, anxiety, and fear-related learning and memory. BACKGROUND: Fragile X syndrome is the most common monogenic cause of intellectual disability and autism. Few studies to date have examined sex differences in a mouse model of Fragile X syndrome, though clinical data support the idea of differences in both overall prevalence and phenotype between the sexes...
October 2017: Brain and Behavior
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