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Brain and Behavior

Andrej Netland Khanevski, Anna Therese Bjerkreim, Vojtech Novotny, Halvor Naess, Lars Thomassen, Nicola Logallo, Christopher E Kvistad
BACKGROUND: Incidence of recurrent stroke is highest within 30 days after the initial ischemic stroke (IS) or TIA, but knowledge about early recurrence is lacking. We aimed to identify etiological groups with highest risk of early recurrence and assess how the TOAST classification identified index stroke etiology. METHODS: Medical records of 1874 IS and TIA patients in the Bergen NORSTROKE registry were retrospectively reviewed for identification of recurrent IS or TIA within 30 days after index IS or TIA...
September 17, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Axel Sandvig, Kai Arnell, Jan Malm, Anders Eklund, Lars-Owe D Koskinen
INTRODUCTION: Ventriculo-peritoneal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt is the most common method of treating pediatric hydrocephalus. The Codman microadjustable valve (CMAV) is a CSF shunt constructed for children. The objective of the study was (a) to analyze complications after insertion of a CMAV shunt in hydrocephalic children, (b) to analyze complications after replacing a CMAV by an adult-type Codman Hakim adjustable valve shunt (CHAV), and to (c) analyze the in vitro characteristics of the CMAV shunt and correlate the findings with the clinical performance of the shunt...
September 11, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Satoru Hiwa, Tomoka Katayama, Tomoyuki Hiroyasu
INTRODUCTION: Many people spend a considerable amount of time performing intellectual activities within auditory environments that affect work efficiency. To investigate auditory environments that improve working efficiency, we investigated the relationship between brain activity and performance of the number memory task in environments with and without white noise using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). METHODS: Twenty-nine healthy subjects (aged 21...
September 5, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Huihua Qiu, Yuntao Liu, Hongfei He, Yuemin Wu, Weilei He, Guiqian Huang, Jincai He
OBJECTIVE: High levels of mean platelet volume (MPV) had been found in depression subjects. We sought to examine the relationship between MPV and poststroke depression (PSD). METHODS: One hundred and eighty-five patients with acute ischemic stroke were enrolled in our study. Peripheral venous blood samples were drawn at admission and MPV levels were measured by the automated hematology analyzer. Patients with a HAMD-17 score >7 were diagnosed as having PSD. RESULTS: We found that 60 patients (32...
September 3, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Peng Liu, Xiaoyi Wang, Gai Cao, Jia Li, Jing Zhang, Rong Cao
INTRODUCTION: This study aims to investigate whether processing a prepared response toward a dangerous object in a previous trial influences subsequent trial processing. METHODS: The design manipulated the Go/NoGo factor of the current trial, the target dangerousness of the previous trial and that of the current trial. RESULTS: In current Go trials, the behavioral results revealed a classical motor interference effect in trials that were preceded by a safe trial (a longer reaction time (RT) and a larger error rate for the previous safe and current dangerous (sD) condition than for the previous safe and current safe (sS) condition)...
September 3, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Francesca Assogna, Clelia Pellicano, Luca Cravello, Cinzia Savini, Mariangela Pierantozzi, Bruno Mercuri, Carlo Caltagirone, Francesco E Pontieri, Gianfranco Spalletta, Alessandro Stefani
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder. It is well established that different motor subtypes of PD evolve with different clinical courses and prognoses. The complete psychiatric profile underlying these different phenotypes since the very early stage of the disease is debated. AIMS OF THE STUDY: We aimed at investigating the psychiatric profile of the three motor subtypes of PD (akinetic-rigid, tremor-dominant, and mixed) in de novo drug-naïve patients with PD...
August 30, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Luyue Chen, Yi Lyu, Xiaoning Lin, Minghui Sun, Wei Feng, Xinhua Tian
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of Human Urinary Kallidinogenase (HUK) on the outcome of patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysm. METHODS: This was a prospective, open-label study. At the Department of Neurosurgery in our hospital, 127 patients were treated and operated due to ruptured intracranial aneurysm in the period 2015-2016. After surgery, all the patients received basic treatment and 70 patients received additional HUK treatment (HUK group) according to their willing...
August 29, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Jochen Brich, Marius Steiert, Michel Rijntjes
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether neurologists with long-term experience in the emergency room are in general agreement about the essential components of the neurological examination (NE) used on unconscious patients in whom an obvious cause for coma is lacking. METHODS: We surveyed 31 board-certified practicing neurologists who regularly examine unconscious patients in the emergency room and asked them to list the specific components of the NE that they would normally choose to apply in at least 80% of cases...
August 28, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Allan MacKenzie-Graham, Jenny Brook, Florian Kurth, Yuichiro Itoh, Cassandra Meyer, Michael J Montag, He-Jing Wang, Robert Elashoff, Rhonda R Voskuhl
INTRODUCTION: Progressive gray matter (GM) atrophy is a hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS). Cognitive impairment has been observed in 40%-70% of MS patients and has been linked to GM atrophy. In a phase 2 trial of estriol treatment in women with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), higher estriol levels correlated with greater improvement on the paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT) and imaging revealed sparing of localized GM in estriol-treated compared to placebo-treated patients. To better understand the significance of this GM sparing, the current study explored the relationships between the GM sparing and traditional MRI measures and clinical outcomes...
August 24, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Elena Alvisi, Mariano Serrao, Carmela Conte, Enrico Alfonsi, Cristina Tassorelli, Paolo Prunetti, Silvano Cristina, Armando Perrotta, Francesco Pierelli, Giorgio Sandrini
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to evaluate the pattern of the nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR) of the upper limb at rest and after injection of Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) in poststroke subacute hemiparetic patients. METHODS: Fourteen patients with poststroke subacute hemiparesis underwent clinical and instrumental evaluation and BoNT-A injection. Painful electrical stimulation was applied to induce the NWR. Baseline EMG activity and NWR recordings (EMG and kinematic response) were performed at T0, one month (T1), and three months (T2) after the BoNT-A injection, as were Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scores...
August 23, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Xiang-Yang Bao, Yan-Na Fan, Yi Liu, Qian-Nan Wang, Yong Zhang, Bing Zhu, Bing Liu, Lian Duan
INTRODUCTION: There is no well-recognized biomarker for accurately predicting outcome in the presence of moyamoya disease (MMD), a progressive occlusive cerebrovascular disease of the internal carotid arteries or their branches. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and circulating endothelial cells (CECs) in MMD and correlate the findings with clinical features. METHODS: Patients with MMD (n = 66) were compared with healthy controls (n = 81)...
August 23, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Stephanie Irving, Cauchy Pradhan, Marianne Dieterich, Thomas Brandt, Andreas Zwergal, Florian Schöberl
INTRODUCTION: Topographical disorientation is defined as the inability to recognize familiar or unfamiliar environments. While its slowly progressive development is a common feature of neurodegenerative processes like Alzheimer's dementia, acute presentations are less frequent and mostly caused by strategic lesions within the cerebral navigation network. Depending on the lesion site, topographical disorientation can originate from deficits in landmark recognition and utilization for route planning (egocentric navigation deficit), or disturbance of an overarching cognitive map of the spatial environment (allocentric navigation deficit)...
August 23, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Katharina N Russell, Nadia L Mitchell, Nigel G Anderson, Craig R Bunt, Martin P Wellby, Tracy R Melzer, Graham K Barrell, David N Palmer
INTRODUCTION: The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs; Batten disease) are a group of fatal neurodegenerative lysosomal storage diseases of children caused by various mutations in a range of genes. Forms associated with mutations in two of these, CLN5 and CLN6, are being investigated in well-established sheep models. Brain atrophy leading to psychomotor degeneration is among the defining features, as is regional progressive ossification of the inner cranium. Ongoing viral-mediated gene therapy trials in these sheep are yielding encouraging results...
August 23, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Alle Meije Wink, Betty M Tijms, Mara Ten Kate, Eva Raspor, Jan C de Munck, Ellemarije Altena, Mirian Ecay-Torres, Montserrat Clerigue, Ainara Estanga, Maite Garcia-Sebastian, Andrea Izagirre, Pablo Martinez-Lage Alvarez, Jorge Villanua, Frederik Barkhof, Ernesto Sanz-Arigita
INTRODUCTION: Amyloid plaque deposition in the brain is an early pathological change in Alzheimer's disease (AD), causing disrupted synaptic connections. Brain network disruptions in AD have been demonstrated with eigenvector centrality (EC), a measure that identifies central regions within networks. Carrying an apolipoprotein (APOE)-ε4 allele is a genetic risk for AD, associated with increased amyloid deposition. We studied whether APOE-ε4 carriership is associated with EC disruptions in cognitively normal individuals...
August 22, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Breiffni Leavy, Niklas Löfgren, Maria Nilsson, Erika Franzén
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the relationships between patient-reported and performance-based walking measures in Parkinson's disease (PD) should inform clinical decision-making. The Walk-12G reliably captures perceived walking difficulties but has not been compared to performance-based walking in laboratory or free-living settings or across different groups. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between patient-reported walking difficulties (Walk-12G) and performance-based walking in laboratory and free-living conditions and to determine whether the Walk-12G can distinguish between the subgroups, (i) people with/without PD and (ii) mild/moderate disease stages...
August 22, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Susana Brás, Sandra C Soares, Telmo Cruz, Tiago Magalhães, Bernardo Marques, Cláudia Dantas, Nuno Fernandes, José Maria Fernandes
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have successfully used augmented reality (AR) as an aid to exposure-based treatments for anxiety disorders. However, to the best of our knowledge, none of these studies have measured the physiological correlates of the fear response, relying solely on self-reports and behavioral avoidance tests. METHODS: As the physiological defensive reactivity pattern impacts on the treatment effectiveness, we tested the feasibility of an AR system integrated in a mobile and wearable device for assessing the psychophysiological mechanisms (heart rate) involved in fear responses in real-life contexts...
August 22, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Qing Han, Jing Yang, Hai Xiong, Huifang Shang
OBJECTIVE: To identify the consistent findings from the whole-brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies on spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2). METHODS: The whole-brain VBM studies comparing SCA2 patients and healthy controls (HCs) were systematically searched in PubMed, Embase databases from January 2000 to June 2017. The coordinates with significant differences in gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) between SCA2 patients and HCs were extracted separately from each cluster...
August 20, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Janne Kananen, Timo Tuovinen, Hanna Ansakorpi, Seppo Rytky, Heta Helakari, Niko Huotari, Lauri Raitamaa, Ville Raatikainen, Aleksi Rasila, Viola Borchardt, Vesa Korhonen, Pierre LeVan, Maiken Nedergaard, Vesa Kiviniemi
INTRODUCTION: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) combined with simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG-fMRI) has become a major tool in mapping epilepsy sources. In the absence of detectable epileptiform activity, the resting state fMRI may still detect changes in the blood oxygen level-dependent signal, suggesting intrinsic alterations in the underlying brain physiology. METHODS: In this study, we used coefficient of variation (CV) of critically sampled 10 Hz ultra-fast fMRI (magnetoencephalography, MREG) signal to compare physiological variance between healthy controls (n = 10) and patients (n = 10) with drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE)...
August 15, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Limin Peng, Ling-Li Zeng, Qiang Liu, Lubin Wang, Jian Qin, Huaze Xu, Hui Shen, Hong Li, Dewen Hu
INTRODUCTION: As a major interface between the hippocampus and the neocortex, the entorhinal cortex (EC) is widely known to play a pivotal role in spatial memory and navigation. Previous studies have suggested that the EC can be divided into the anterior-lateral (alEC) and the posterior-medial subregions (pmEC), with the former receiving object-related information from the perirhinal cortex and the latter receiving scene-related information from the parahippocampal cortex. However, the functional connectivity maps of the EC subregions in the context of extensive navigation experience remain elusive...
August 15, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Nor Aqilah Binti Mohd Yusuf Yeo, Sangu Muthuraju, Jia Hui Wong, Faruque Reza Mohammed, Mohd Harizal Senik, Jingli Zhang, Siti Rafidah Yusof, Hasnan Jaafar, Mohd Llham Adenan, Habsah Mohamad, Tengku Sifzizul Tengku Muhammad, Jafri Malin Abdullah
INTRODUCTION: Centella asiatica is an herbal plant that contains phytochemicals that are widely believed to have positive effects on cognitive function. The adolescent stage is a critical development period for the maturation of brain processes that encompass changes in physical and psychological systems. However, the effect of C. asiatica has not been extensively studied in adolescents. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the effects of a C. asiatica extract on the enhancement of learning and memory in adolescent rats...
August 14, 2018: Brain and Behavior
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