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Brain and Behavior

Jaesub Park, Ji-Won Chun, Hae-Jeong Park, Eosu Kim, Jae-Jin Kim
INTRODUCTION: Patients with schizophrenia often have impaired cognition and abnormal conflict control. Conflict control is influenced by the emotional values of stimuli. This study investigated the neural basis of negative emotion interference with conflict control in schizophrenia. METHODS: Seventeen patients with schizophrenia and 20 healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing the emotional Simon task, in which positive or negative emotional pictures were located in congruent or incongruent positions...
July 13, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Xiaochuan Wang, Xuqing Huang, Zhongming Gao, Haibo Jiang, Xiaodong Lu
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to explore whether patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) develop vasogenic cerebral edema, and whether this edema contributes to the COPD-related disability. METHODS: Eighteen stable patients with COPD and 17 matched healthy volunteers were enrolled. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were calculated by voxel-based analysis using DTI-Studio software based on diffusion tensor imaging. COPD-related disability was calculated using activities of daily living (ADL) scale...
July 13, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Claire Howard, Fiona J Rowe
AIM: To provide a systematic overview of the factors that influence how a person adapts to visual field loss following stroke. METHOD: A systematic review was undertaken (data search period 1861-2016) inclusive of systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, controlled trials, cohort studies, observational studies, and case controlled studies. Studies including adult subjects with hemifield visual field loss, which occured as a direct consequence of stroke, were included...
July 13, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Tetsufumi Ito, Takafumi Furuyama, Kazuma Hase, Kohta I Kobayasi, Shizuko Hiryu
OBJECTIVES: Echolocating bats show remarkable specialization which is related to analysis of echoes of biosonars in subcortical auditory brainstem pathways. The inferior colliculus (IC) receives inputs from all lower brainstem auditory nuclei, i.e., cochlear nuclei, nuclei of the lateral lemniscus, and superior olivary complex, and create de novo responses to sound, which is considered crucial for echolocation. Inside the central nucleus of the IC (ICC), small domains which receive specific combination of extrinsic inputs are the basis of integration of sound information...
July 12, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Omar Ramos-Lopez, Jose I Riezu-Boj, Fermin I Milagro, J Alfredo Martinez
INTRODUCTION: Dopamine (DA) is a neurotransmitter that regulates the rewarding and motivational processes underlying food intake and eating behaviors. This study hypothesized associations of DNA methylation signatures at genes modulating DA signaling with obesity features, metabolic profiles, and dietary intake. METHODS: An adult population within the Methyl Epigenome Network Association project was included (n = 473). DNA methylation levels in white blood cells were measured by microarray (450K)...
July 11, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Moon Kyu Lee, Yang-Je Cho, Seung-Koo Lee, Sang Ku Jung, Kyoung Heo
OBJECTIVE: The effect of blood pressure (BP) on the lesion distribution of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is controversial. The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between brain lesion distribution patterns and BP. METHODS: Sixty-five patients with PRES were selected from the database. Data regarding brain MRI findings, clinical symptoms, medical conditions, and BP at the presymptomatic period (24 hr before the symptom onset) and at the symptom onset were collected...
July 11, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Makoto Takahashi, Akiko Shinya, Naohito Ito, Junya Ebina, Keisuke Abe, Akira Inaba, Satoshi Orimo
INTRODUCTION: Acute Wallenberg's syndrome (WS) is sometimes misdiagnosed as a nonstroke disease including auditory vertigo, and careful neurological examination is required for a precise diagnosis. Lateral difference of body surface temperature (BST) had been reported as a symptom of WS, although further details of this symptom are currently lacking. Our aim was to investigate the laterality of BST of patients with acute WS using thermography and the usefulness of thermography to detect acute WS...
July 11, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Paulina Valuskova, Sandor T Forczek, Vladimir Farar, Jaromir Myslivecek
OBJECTIVES: M4 muscarinic receptors (MR) presumably play a role in motor coordination. Previous studies have shown different results depending on genetic background and number of backcrosses. However, no attention has been given to biorhythms. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We therefore analyzed biorhythms under a light/dark cycle obtained telemetrically in intact animals (activity, body temperature) in M4 KO mice growth on the C57Bl6 background using ChronosFit software...
July 6, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Alexander E Gaydukov, Olga P Balezina
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism responsible for an increase in miniature endplate potentials (MEPPs) amplitude, induced by ryanodine as an agonist of ryanodine receptors in mouse motor nerve terminals. METHODS: Using intracellular microelectrode recordings of MEPPs and evoked endplate potentials (EPPs), the changes in spontaneous and evoked acetylcholine release in motor synapses of mouse diaphragm neuromuscular preparations were studied...
July 6, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Igor Nestrasil, Alena Svatkova, Kyle D Rudser, Ravishankar Chityala, Amy Wakumoto, Bryon A Mueller, Petr Bednařík, Paul Tuite, Xiang Wu, Khalaf Bushara
BACKGROUND: An evolving pathophysiological concept of essential tremor (ET) points to diffuse brain network involvement, which emphasizes the need to investigate white matter (WM) changes associated with motor symptoms of ET. OBJECTIVES: To investigate ET-related WM changes and WM correlates of tremor severity using tremor clinical rating scales and accelerometry. METHODS: Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) approach was utilized to compare 3 Tesla diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data from 12 ET patients and 10 age- and gender-matched healthy individuals...
July 2, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Carolyn D Langen, Ryan Muetzel, Laura Blanken, Aad van der Lugt, Henning Tiemeier, Frank Verhulst, Wiro J Niessen, Tonya White
INTRODUCTION: Typical brain development is characterized by specific patterns of maturation of functional networks. Cortico-cortical connectivity generally increases, whereas subcortico-cortical connections often decrease. Little is known about connectivity changes amongst different subcortical regions in typical development. METHODS: This study examined age- and gender-related differences in functional connectivity between and within cortical and subcortical regions using two different approaches...
June 30, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Axel Jonasson, Christopher Levin, Marielle Renfors, Sara Strandberg, Birgitta Johansson
OBJECTIVE: Mental fatigue is a common subjective symptom following an acquired brain injury. In many cases, this is long-lasting with a considerable negative impact on work, studies, social activities, and quality of life. No objective test for mental fatigue exists today. The aim of this study was to investigate whether mental fatigue can be objectively measured. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 32 controls with no mental fatigue and 42 well-rehabilitated participants who suffered from long-term mental fatigue following stroke, traumatic brain injury, encephalitis or meningitis, and late effects after brain tumor...
June 29, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Tomoya Kon, Tatsuya Ueno, Rie Haga, Masahiko Tomiyama
INTRODUCTION: Impulse control behaviors (ICBs) are impulsive-compulsive behaviors often associated with dopamine replacement therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD). Although remission can occur in ICB, only four reports on the ratio of remission and the persistence of ICB have been published, and the associated factors with ICB remission or persistence have been little known. Therefore, we conducted a longitudinal assessment of the remission, persistence, and development of ICB and those associated factors in patients with PD...
June 29, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Ryosuke Arauchi, Sadayuki Hashioka, Keiko Tsuchie, Tsuyoshi Miyaoka, Toshiko Tsumori, Erlyn Limoa, Ilhamuddin A Azis, Arata Oh-Nishi, Shoko Miura, Koji Otsuki, Misako Kanayama, Muneto Izuhara, Michiharu Nagahama, Kiminori Kawano, Tomoko Araki, Kristian Liaury, Rostia A Abdullah, Rei Wake, Maiko Hayashida, Ken Inoue, Jun Horiguchi
INTRODUCTION: Recent studies imply that glial activation plays a role in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and major depression. We previously demonstrated that Gunn rats with hyperbilirubinemia show congenital gliosis and schizophrenia-like behavior. METHODS: As it has been suggested that major depression involves glial activation associated with neuroinflammation, we examined whether Gunn rats show depression-like behavior using the forced swimming test (FST) and the tail suspension test (TST)...
June 28, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Tabea Kamp, Bettina Sorger, Caroline Benjamins, Lars Hausfeld, Rainer Goebel
BACKGROUND: Linking individual task performance to preceding, regional brain activation is an ongoing goal of neuroscientific research. Recently, it could be shown that the activation and connectivity within large-scale brain networks prior to task onset influence performance levels. More specifically, prestimulus default mode network (DMN) effects have been linked to performance levels in sensory near-threshold tasks, as well as cognitive tasks. However, it still remains uncertain how the DMN state preceding cognitive tasks affects performance levels when the period between task trials is long and flexible, allowing participants to engage in different cognitive states...
June 22, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Marwa Daghsni, Mohamad Rima, Ziad Fajloun, Michel Ronjat, Juan L Brusés, Ridha M'rad, Michel De Waard
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) comprises a group of neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders characterized by deficits in social interactions, interpersonal communication, repetitive and stereotyped behaviors and may be associated with intellectual disabilities. The description of ASD as a synaptopathology highlights the importance of the synapse and the implication of ion channels in the etiology of these disorders. METHODS: A narrative and critical review of the relevant papers from 1982 to 2017 known by the authors was conducted...
June 22, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Gro Helen Dale, Thor Petersen, Kristina Bacher Svendsen, Tove Christensen, Gunnar Houen, Toke Bek
OBJECTIVES: Steroid treatment can accelerate visual recovery in patients with optic neuritis (ON), but it is unknown whether the timing of the start of treatment influences the outcome. The main purpose of this observational study was to assess the effect of early onset steroid treatment of ON on visual prognosis and retinal morphology. METHODS: Forty-nine patients with acute mild/moderate (n = 21) or severe (n = 28) ON, and an equal number of healthy controls were enrolled...
June 22, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Matthew A J Apps, Ryan McKay, Ruben T Azevedo, Harvey Whitehouse, Manos Tsakiris
OBJECTIVE: People are highly attuned to fairness, with people willingly suffering personal costs to prevent others benefitting from unfair acts. Are fairness judgments influenced by group alignments? A new theory posits that we favor ingroups and denigrate members of rival outgroups when our personal identity is fused to a group. Although the mPFC has been separately implicated in group membership and fairness processing, it is unclear whether group alignments affect medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activity in response to fairness...
June 22, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Iman Beheshti, Norihide Maikusa, Hiroshi Matsuda
INTRODUCTION: We present the Brain-Age Score (BAS) as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based index for Alzheimer's disease (AD). We developed a fully automated framework for estimating the BAS in healthy controls (HCs) and individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or AD, using MRI scans. METHODS: We trained the proposed framework using 385 HCs from the IXI and OASIS datasets and evaluated 146 HCs, 102 stable-MCI (sMCI), 112 progressive-MCI (pMCI), and 147 AD patients from the J-ADNI dataset...
June 22, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Michal Assaf, Liron Rabany, Luis Zertuche, Laura Bragdon, David Tolin, John Goethe, Gretchen Diefenbach
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) might be effective in treating generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Cognitive models of GAD highlight the role of intolerance of uncertainty (IU) in precipitating and maintaining worry, and it has been hypothesized that patients with GAD exhibit decision-making deficits under uncertain conditions. Improving understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive deficits associated with IU may lead to the identification of novel rTMS treatment targets and optimization of treatment parameters...
June 21, 2018: Brain and Behavior
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