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Brain and Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729946/decrease-in-short-latency-afferent-inhibition-during-corticomotor-postexercise-depression-following-repetitive-finger-movement
#1
Shota Miyaguchi, Sho Kojima, Ryoki Sasaki, Shinichi Kotan, Hikari Kirimoto, Hiroyuki Tamaki, Hideaki Onishi
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to clarify cortical circuit mechanisms contributing to corticomotor excitability during postexercise depression (PED) following repetitive nonfatiguing movement. We investigated changes in short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI) and short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) by paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) during PED. METHODS: A total of 16 healthy subjects performed repetitive abduction movements of the right index finger at 2...
July 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729945/validity-and-reliability-of-the-fatigue-severity-scale-in-finnish-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#2
Eija Rosti-Otajärvi, Päivi Hämäläinen, Anna Wiksten, Tanja Hakkarainen, Juhani Ruutiainen
BACKGROUND: Fatigue is one of the most debilitating symptoms in multiple sclerosis (MS) considerably interfering with patients' daily functioning. Both researchers and clinicians need psychometrically robust methods to evaluate fatigue in MS. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was (i) to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Finnish version of the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) and (ii) to describe the results among patients with MS. METHODS: In total, 553 patients with MS (mean age, 53...
July 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729944/the-impact-of-multiple-sclerosis-onset-symptom-on-cardiac-repolarization
#3
Alma Mikkola, Aku Ojanen, Juha E K Hartikainen, Anne M Remes, Sakari Simula
INTRODUCTION: Multiple sclerosis is associated with prolonged cardiac repolarization but the underlying physiology has remained unknown. In this study, we compared cardiac repolarization during the relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) disease course in patients with motor and sensory onset symptom. METHODS: Twenty-five RRMS patients with motor and 33 RRMS patients with sensory onset symptom having 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) recorded at the time of the first demyelinating event (ECG1) as well as at the later disease course (ECG2) were identified from the patient records...
July 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729943/relationship-between-cerebellar-structure-and-emotional-memory-in-depression
#4
Li-Yan Xu, Fang-Cheng Xu, Can Liu, Yi-Fu Ji, Jin-Min Wu, Ying Wang, Hai-Bao Wang, Yong-Qiang Yu
BACKGROUND: A few studies have been conducted on the relationship between cerebellar volume and emotional memory or clinical severity in major depressive disorder (MDD). In this study, we aimed to compare the volume and density of the cerebellar gray matter (GM) in patients with MDD and in healthy controls (HCs) and explore the association between these cerebellar parameters and measurements of emotional memory and clinical severity. METHOD: Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and Individual Brain Atlases using Statistical Parametric Mapping (IBASPM) were used to assess GM density and volume in the cerebellum, respectively, in patients with MDD and the HCs...
July 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729942/problems-related-to-levodopa-carbidopa-intestinal-gel-treatment-in-advanced-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Marianne Udd, Jukka Lyytinen, Johanna Eerola-Rautio, Anu Kenttämies, Outi Lindström, Leena Kylänpää, Eero Pekkonen
BACKGROUND: Continuous levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG) diminishes daily "off" time and dyskinesia in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). Complications are common with percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy with a jejunal extension tube (PEG-J). AIM OF THE STUDY: To report the clinical outcome of LCIG in patients with advanced PD in the years 2006-2014 at Helsinki University Hospital. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel treatment started following PEG-J placement in patients with advanced PD after successful in-hospital LCIG trial with a nasojejunal tube...
July 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729941/hippocampal-slice-preparation-in-rats-acutely-suppresses-immunoreactivity-of-microtubule-associated-protein-map2-%C3%A2-and-glycogen-levels-without-affecting-numbers-of-glia%C3%A2-or-levels-of-the-glutamate-transporter-vglut1
#6
Liana R Stein, Charles F Zorumski, Yukitoshi Izumi
INTRODUCTION: With its preservation of cytoarchitecture and synaptic circuitry, the hippocampal slice preparation has been a critical tool for studying the electrophysiological effects of pharmacological and genetic manipulations. To analyze the maximum number of slices or readouts per dissection, long incubation times postslice preparation are commonly used. We were interested in how slice integrity is affected by incubation postslice preparation. METHODS: Hippocampal slices were prepared by three different methods: a chopper, a vibratome, and a rotary slicer...
July 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729940/propofol-induced-downregulation-of-nr2b-membrane-translocation-in-hippocampus-and-spatial-memory-deficits-of-neonatal-mice
#7
Yuzhu Wang, Song Han, Ruquan Han, Yue Su, Junfa Li
BACKGROUND: Thousands of infants and children are undergoing anesthesia around the world every day. But impacts of anesthetics on the developing neural system remain unclear yet. Previous evidence showed that anesthesia might affect the developing neural system. Thus, early-life anesthesia becomes a critical issue in clinical pediatric practice. Hence, propofol, a short-acting and widely applied intravenous anesthetic, has been gaining focus upon neonatal anesthesia. METHODS: Fifty-four male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into following three groups: group D6 intraperitoneally (i...
July 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729939/feature-selective-temporal-prediction-of-alzheimer-s-disease-progression-using-hippocampus-surface-morphometry
#8
Sinchai Tsao, Niharika Gajawelli, Jiayu Zhou, Jie Shi, Jieping Ye, Yalin Wang, Natasha Leporé
INTRODUCTION: Prediction of Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression based on baseline measures allows us to understand disease progression and has implications in decisions concerning treatment strategy. To this end, we combine a predictive multi-task machine learning method (cFSGL) with a novel MR-based multivariate morphometric surface map of the hippocampus (mTBM) to predict future cognitive scores of patients. METHODS: Previous work has shown that a multi-task learning framework that performs prediction of all future time points simultaneously (cFSGL) can be used to encode both sparsity as well as temporal smoothness...
July 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729938/abnormal-resting-state-effective-connectivity-within-the-default-mode-network-in-major-depressive-disorder-a-spectral-dynamic-causal-modeling-study
#9
Liang Li, Baojuan Li, Yuanhan Bai, Wenlei Liu, Huaning Wang, Hoi-Chung Leung, Ping Tian, Linchuan Zhang, Fan Guo, Long-Biao Cui, Hong Yin, Hongbing Lu, Qingrong Tan
INTRODUCTION: Understanding the neural basis underlying major depressive disorder (MDD) is essential for the diagnosis and treatment of this mental disorder. Aberrant activation and functional connectivity of the default mode network (DMN) have been consistently found in patients with MDD. It is not known whether effective connectivity within the DMN is altered in MDD. OBJECTS: The primary object of this study is to investigate the effective connectivity within the DMN during resting state in MDD patients before and after eight weeks of antidepressant treatment...
July 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729937/manganese-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-combined-with-electrophysiology-in-the-evaluation-of-visual-pathway-in-experimental-rat-models-with-monocular-blindness
#10
Zuohua Tang, Jie Wang, Zebin Xiao, Xinghuai Sun, Xiaoyuan Feng, Weijun Tang, Qian Chen, Lingjie Wu, Rong Wang, Yufeng Zhong, Wentao Wang, Jianfeng Luo
PURPOSE: Our study aimed to explore the feasibility of manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) combined with visual evoked potentials (VEP) and auditory evoked visual cortex responses (AVR) in evaluating for the establishment of visual/auditory compensatory pathways after monocular blindness. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 14 healthy neonatal male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups (n = 7 for Groups A and B). Right optic nerve (ON) transection was performed on the 7 rats of Group A to obtain a monocularly blind model, and the 7 rats of Group B were chosen as the control group...
July 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729936/are-there-differences-in-brain-morphology-according-to-handedness
#11
Han Jang, Jae Youn Lee, Kang Il Lee, Kang Min Park
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the differences in brain morphology according to handedness. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-two healthy subjects were enrolled (21 right-handers and 21 nonright-handers). The two groups were classified according to the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory. Measures of cortical morphology, such as thickness, surface area, volume, and curvature, and the volumes of subcortical structures, such as the amygdala, caudate, hippocampus, globus pallidus, putamen, and thalamus, were compared between the groups according to handedness using whole-brain 3D T1-weighted MRI...
July 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729935/single-trial-eeg-informed-fmri-analysis-of-emotional-decision-problems-in-hot-executive-function
#12
Qian Guo, Tiantong Zhou, Wenjie Li, Li Dong, Suhong Wang, Ling Zou
BACKGROUND: Executive function refers to conscious control in psychological process which relates to thinking and action. Emotional decision is a part of hot executive function and contains emotion and logic elements. As a kind of important social adaptation ability, more and more attention has been paid in recent years. OBJECTIVE: Gambling task can be well performed in the study of emotional decision. As fMRI researches focused on gambling task show not completely consistent brain activation regions, this study adopted EEG-fMRI fusion technology to reveal brain neural activity related with feedback stimuli...
July 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729934/effect-of-lamotrigine-on-seizure-development-in-a-rat-pentylenetetrazole-kindling-model
#13
Yishu Chen, Xiaokuo He, Qianqian Sun, Ziyan Fang, Liemin Zhou
INTRODUCTION: Epileptogenesis is a process of seizure development. Lamotrigine is a novel antiepileptic drug which is also used for antiepileptogenic research. Kindling models are recommended as potentially useful tools for antiepileptogenic treatment discovery. However, previous studies demonstrated that the antiepileptogenic effect of lamotrigine is controversial in the electrical kindling model. Chemical kindling such as with pentylenetetrazole is another kindling model. The aims of this study were to examine whether lamotrigine could prevent the development of seizure in pentylenetetrazole kindling rats...
July 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729933/unprovoked-seizures-in-multiple-sclerosis-why-are-they-rare
#14
Anamarija Kavčič, Werner E Hofmann
INTRODUCTION: The frequency of seizures in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) ranges from 1.5% to 7.8% and is considerably more common than chance events. The etiopathogenesis of seizures in MS is still poorly understood. METHOD: A review of the literature on seizures and MS using PubMed. RESULTS: Cortical gray matter involvement appears to be an all-too-common pathological finding in MS to play a primary role in the pathogenesis of seizures in MS patients...
July 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729932/validity-and-reliability-of-the-finnish-version-of-the-multiple-sclerosis-impact-scale-29
#15
Eija Rosti-Otajärvi, Päivi Hämäläinen, Anna Wiksten, Tanja Hakkarainen, Juhani Ruutiainen
BACKGROUND: The Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale-29 (MSIS-29) has been increasingly used to evaluate the self-perceived impact of multiple sclerosis (MS) on a patient. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Finnish version of MSIS-29 in patients with MS. METHODS: A total of 553 patients with MS completed the MSIS-29 and self-administered questionnaires capturing information on demographics, disease characteristics and severity, perceived quality of life (EuroQol 5D-3L instrument), and fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale)...
July 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729931/validity-and-reliability-of-the-catwalk-system-as-a-static-and-dynamic-gait-analysis-tool-for-the-assessment-of-functional-nerve-recovery-in-small-animal-models
#16
Elisabeth A Kappos, Patricia K Sieber, Patricia E Engels, Alessio V Mariolo, Salvatore D'Arpa, Dirk J Schaefer, Daniel F Kalbermatten
INTRODUCTION: A range of behavioral testing paradigms have been developed for the research of central and peripheral nerve injuries with the help of small animal models. Following any nerve repair strategy, improved functional outcome may be the most important evidence of axon regeneration. A novel automated gait analysis system, the CatWalk(™), can measure dynamic as well as static gait patterns of small animals. Of most interest in detecting functional recovery are in particular dynamic gait parameters, coordination measures, and the intensity of the animals paw prints...
July 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729930/structural-differences-in-impaired-verbal-fluency-in-essential-tremor-patients-compared-to-healthy-controls
#17
Esther A Pelzer, Christian Nelles, David J Pedrosa, Carsten Eggers, Lothar Burghaus, Corina Melzer, Marc Tittgemeyer, Lars Timmermann
OBJECTIVE: We wanted to identify differences in grey and white matter in essential tremor patients compared to controls in the non-motor domain, using the example of impaired verbal fluency. BACKGROUND: A disturbance of verbal fluency in essential tremor patients compared to healthy controls is behaviorally well described. METHODS: Voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistics were used to analyze structural differences in grey and white matter in 19 essential tremor patients compared to 23 age- and gender-matched controls...
July 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729929/picture-free-recall-performance-linked-to-the-brain-s-structural-connectome
#18
David Coynel, Leo Gschwind, Matthias Fastenrath, Virginie Freytag, Annette Milnik, Klara Spalek, Andreas Papassotiropoulos, Dominique J-F de Quervain
INTRODUCTION: Memory functions are highly variable between healthy humans. The neural correlates of this variability remain largely unknown. METHODS: Here, we investigated how differences in free recall performance are associated with DTI-based properties of the brain's structural connectome and with grey matter volumes in 664 healthy young individuals tested in the same MR scanner. RESULTS: Global structural connectivity, but not overall or regional grey matter volumes, positively correlated with recall performance...
July 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729928/the-assessment-of-laboratory-parameters-in-children-with-fever-and-febrile-seizures
#19
Krystyna Gontko-Romanowska, Zbigniew Żaba, Paweł Panieński, Barbara Steinborn, Michał Szemień, Magdalena Łukasik-Głębocka, Krystian Ratajczak, Jacek Górny
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the research paper was to assess selected laboratory results in children with fever without seizures and febrile seizure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The paper presents an analysis of a group of 306 children aged 6 months - 5 years who were admitted with diagnosed fever without seizures and febrile seizures in Specialized Health Care Centre for Mother and Child in Poznan between 1st January 2008 and 31st December 2009. Out of the diagnostics procedures performed in children the following ones were taken into consideration: BCC and CRP...
July 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729927/fatigue-and-cognition-pupillary-responses-to-problem-solving-in-early-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#20
Sigrid A de Rodez Benavent, Gro O Nygaard, Hanne F Harbo, Siren Tønnesen, Piotr Sowa, Nils I Landrø, Marte Wendel-Haga, Lars Etholm, Kristian B Nilsen, Liv Drolsum, Emilia Kerty, Elisabeth G Celius, Bruno Laeng
INTRODUCTION: In early multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, cognitive changes and fatigue are frequent and troublesome symptoms, probably related to both structural and functional brain changes. Whether there is a common cause of these symptoms in MS is unknown. In theory, an altered regulation of central neuropeptides can lead to changes in regulation of autonomic function, cognitive difficulties, and fatigue. Direct measurements of central neuropeptides are difficult to perform, but measurements of the eye pupil can be used as a reliable proxy of function...
July 2017: Brain and Behavior
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