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Journal of Functional Biomaterials

Dale S Feldman, John F McCauley
Pressure ulcers are one of the most common forms of skin injury, particularly in the spinal cord injured (SCI). Pressure ulcers are difficult to heal in this population requiring at least six months of bed rest. Surgical treatment (grafting) is the fastest recovery time, but it still requires six weeks of bed rest plus significant additional costs and a high recurrence rate. A significant clinical benefit would be obtained by speeding the healing rate of a non-surgical treatment to close to that of surgical treatment (approximately doubling of healing rate)...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
Leon Bruder, Hendrik Spriestersbach, Kerstin Brakmann, Valentin Stegner, Matthias Sigler, Felix Berger, Boris Schmitt
Many congenital heart defects and degenerative valve diseases require replacement of heart valves in children and young adults. Transcatheter xenografts degenerate over time. Tissue engineering might help to overcome this limitation by providing valves with ability for self-repair. A transcatheter decellularized tissue-engineered heart valve (dTEHV) was developed using a polyglycolic acid (PGA) scaffold. A first prototype showed progressive regurgitation after 6 months in-vivo due to a suboptimal design and misguided remodeling process...
November 13, 2018: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
Lukas Raddatz, Antonina Lavrentieva, Iliyana Pepelanova, Janina Bahnemann, Dominik Geier, Thomas Becker, Thomas Scheper, Sascha Beutel
Three-dimensional (3D)-bioprinting enables scientists to mimic in vivo micro-environments and to perform in vitro cell experiments under more physiological conditions than is possible with conventional two-dimensional (2D) cell culture. Cell-laden biomaterials (bioinks) are precisely processed to bioengineer tissue three-dimensionally. One primarily used matrix material is sodium alginate. This natural biopolymer provides both fine mechanical properties when gelated and high biocompatibility. Commonly, alginate is 3D bioprinted using extrusion based devices...
November 9, 2018: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
Gianluca Turco, Davide Porrelli, Eleonora Marsich, Federica Vecchies, Teresa Lombardi, Claudio Stacchi, Roberto Di Lenarda
BACKGROUND: Bone substitutes, either from human (autografts and allografts) or animal (xenografts) sources, suffer from inherent drawbacks including limited availability or potential infectivity to name a few. In the last decade, synthetic biomaterials have emerged as a valid alternative for biomedical applications in the field of orthopedic and maxillofacial surgery. In particular, phosphate-based bone substitution materials have exhibited a high biocompatibility due to their chemical similitude with natural hydroxyapatite...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
Marina Massaro, Serena Riela
Hybrid material based on halloysite covalently linked to a hyper-reticulated cyclodextrin network was investigated as a potential carrier for polyphenolic compounds. The absorption ability of the hybrid system was studied in different pH conditions as well as the kinetic release of curcumin, chosen as a drug model. A preliminary study was performed to assess the antioxidant capacity of the obtained carrier. The obtained results highlighted that the curcumin molecule can have sustained release from the carrier over the time, retaining its antioxidant properties due to the combination of two different host systems that give rise to an hyper-reticulated structure, allowing an increase in the drug loading and stabilization...
November 3, 2018: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
Giuseppe Cavallaro, Giuseppe Lazzara, Lorenzo Lisuzzo, Stefana Milioto, Filippo Parisi
We investigated the efficacy of several nanoclays (halloysite, sepiolite and laponite) as nanofillers for Mater-Bi, which is a commercial bioplastic extensively used within food packaging applications. The preparation of Mater-Bi/nanoclay nanocomposite films was easily achieved by means of the solvent casting method from dichloroethane. The prepared bio-nanocomposites were characterized by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) in order to explore the effect of the addition of the nanoclays on the mechanical behavior of the Mater-Bi-based films...
October 21, 2018: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
Ryan Newell, Zi Wang, Isabel Arias, Abhishek Mehta, Yongho Sohn, Stephen Florczyk
Transition metal multi-principal element alloys (MPEAs) are novel alloys that may offer enhanced surface and mechanical properties compared with commercial metallic alloys. However, their biocompatibility has not been investigated. In this study, three CoCrFeNi-based MPEAs were fabricated, and the in vitro cytotoxicity was evaluated in direct contact with fibroblasts for 168 h. The cell viability and cell number were assessed at 24, 96, and 168 h using LIVE/DEAD assay and alamarBlue assay, respectively. All MPEA sample wells had a high percentage of viable cells at each time point...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
Marina Massaro, Carmelo Giuseppe Colletti, Giuseppe Lazzara, Serena Riela
The goal of modern research is to use environmentally preferable materials. In this context, clay minerals are emerging candidates for their bio- and ecocompatibility, low cost and natural availability. Clay minerals present different morphologies according to their layer arrangements. The use of clay minerals, especially in biomedical applications is known from ancient times and they are regaining attention in recent years. The most representative clay minerals are kaolinit, montmorillonite, sepiolites and halloysite...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
Cindy Kelder, Astrid Diana Bakker, Jenneke Klein-Nulend, Daniël Wismeijer
Critical-size bone defects are a common clinical problem. The golden standard to treat these defects is autologous bone grafting. Besides the limitations of availability and co-morbidity, autografts have to be manually adapted to fit in the defect, which might result in a sub-optimal fit and impaired healing. Scaffolds with precise dimensions can be created using 3-dimensional (3D) printing, enabling the production of patient-specific, 'tailor-made' bone substitutes with an exact fit. Calcium phosphate (CaP) is a popular material for bone tissue engineering due to its biocompatibility, osteoconductivity, and biodegradable properties...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
Logan Boles, Christopher Alexander, Leslie Pace, Warren Haggard, Joel Bumgardner, Jessica Jennings
Complex open musculoskeletal wounds are a leading cause of morbidity worldwide, partially due to a high risk of bacterial contamination. Local delivery systems may be used as adjunctive therapies to prevent infection, but they may be nondegradable, possess inadequate wound coverage, or migrate from the wound site. To address this issue, a thermo-responsive, injectable chitosan paste was fabricated by incorporating beta-glycerophosphate. The efficacy of thermo-paste as an adjunctive infection prevention tool was evaluated in terms of cytocompatibility, degradation, antibacterial, injectability, and inflammation properties...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
Michael Harris, Hamza Ahmed, Leslie Pace, Jon Minter, Michael Neel, Jessica Jennings
Bone void fillers (BVFs) containing calcium sulfate, tricalcium phosphate (TCP), and hydroxyapatite can be loaded with antibiotics for infection treatment or prevention under surgeon-directed use. The aim of this study was to characterize the handling and elution properties of a triphasic BVF loaded with common antibiotics. BVF was mixed with vancomycin and/or tobramycin to form pellets, and the set time was recorded. A partial refreshment elution study was conducted with time points at 4, 8, and 24 h, as well as 2, 7, 14, 28, and 42 days...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
Pouriska B Kivanany, Kyle C Grose, Nihan Yonet-Tanyeri, Sujal Manohar, Yukta Sunkara, Kevin H Lam, David W Schmidtke, Victor D Varner, W Matthew Petroll
BACKGROUND: Corneal stromal cells (keratocytes) are responsible for developing and maintaining normal corneal structure and transparency, and for repairing the tissue after injury. Corneal keratocytes reside between highly aligned collagen lamellae in vivo. In addition to growth factors and other soluble biochemical factors, feedback from the extracellular matrix (ECM) itself has been shown to modulate corneal keratocyte behavior. METHODS: In this study, we fabricate aligned collagen substrates using a microfluidics approach and assess their impact on corneal keratocyte morphology, cytoskeletal organization, and patterning after stimulation with platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) or transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ)...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
Laurence Cantin-Warren, Rina Guignard, Sergio Cortez Ghio, Danielle Larouche, François A Auger, Lucie Germain
There is a high incidence of failure and recurrence for chronic skin wounds following conventional therapies. To promote healing, the use of skin substitutes containing living cells as wound dressings has been proposed. The aim of this study was to produce a scaffold-free cell-based bilayered tissue-engineered skin substitute (TES) containing living fibroblasts and keratinocytes suitable for use as wound dressing, while considering production time, handling effort during the manufacturing process, and stability of the final product...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
Ameya Sharma, Vivek Puri, Vandita Kakkar, Inderbir Singh
Silymarin-loaded mucoadhesive microbeads of Chitosan-MMT were developed using the ionotropic gelation technique. Characterization of the microbeads was performed by DSC, XRD, SEM, and FTIR techniques. In vitro mucoadhesion and drug release studies; gastroprotective studies including the measurement of ulcerative index; the determination of gastric wall mucus; and the determination of percentage protection, biochemical, and histopathological studies were also performed. Microbeads batches were evaluated for particle size (120⁻140 µm), actual drug content, (49...
September 10, 2018: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
Mythili Prakasam, Ali Chirazi, Grzegorz Pyka, Anna Prokhodtseva, Daniel Lichau, Alain Largeteau
Biomaterial for tissue engineering is a topic of huge progress with a recent surge in fabrication and characterization advances. Biomaterials for tissue engineering applications or as scaffolds depend on various parameters such as fabrication technology, porosity, pore size, mechanical strength, and surface available for cell attachment. To serve the function of the scaffold, the porous biomaterial should have enough mechanical strength to aid in tissue engineering. With a new manufacturing technology, we have obtained high strength materials by optimizing a few processing parameters such as pressure, temperature, and dwell time, yielding the monolith with porosity in the range of 80%⁻93%...
August 24, 2018: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
Ludovica Parisi, Andrea Toffoli, Giulia Ghiacci, Guido M Macaluso
Tissue engineering (TE) is a multidisciplinary science, which including principles from material science, biology and medicine aims to develop biological substitutes to restore damaged tissues and organs. A major challenge in TE is the choice of suitable biomaterial to fabricate a scaffold that mimics native extracellular matrix guiding resident stem cells to regenerate the functional tissue. Ideally, the biomaterial should be tailored in order that the final scaffold would be (i) biodegradable to be gradually replaced by regenerating new tissue, (ii) mechanically similar to the tissue to regenerate, (iii) porous to allow cell growth as nutrient, oxygen and waste transport and (iv) bioactive to promote cell adhesion and differentiation...
August 21, 2018: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
Kenji Mishima, Xiaoyu Du, Naoto Miyamoto, Naoki Kano, Hiroshi Imaizumi
An experiment on the adsorption of uranium (VI) by chitosan was conducted to investigate the efficiency of chitosan as an adsorbent for U(VI). The adsorption potential of U(VI) by chitosan was investigated with ICP-MS by varying the experimental conditions such as the pH in order to obtain the optimum conditions. Adsorption dependence on the pH was confirmed, and the highest uptake of U(VI) was observed at pH 5. In addition, to scrutinize the experimental results, quantum chemistry calculations were performed...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
Renzo Guarnieri, Fabrizio Belleggia, Patricia DeVillier, Luca Testarelli
Anorganic bovine bone mineral matrix (ABBMM) has been reported to have osteoconductive properties and no inflammatory or adverse responses when used as grafting material in sinus augmentation procedures. However, controversy remains in regard to degradation rate of ABBMM. The aim of this study was to histologically and histomorphometrically evaluate the degradation of ABBMM in human bone samples obtained in one patient 24 months after sinus augmentation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The histologic and histomorphometric analysis was performed by means of light microscopy in three specimens harvested from the same patient, Results: After 24 months the tissue pattern appeared to be composed of residual particles, some in close contact with the newly formed bone, others separated by translucent areas and osteoid tissues...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
Basel A Khader, Omar Rodriguez, Mark R Towler
The structural role of Germanium (Ge), when substituting for Zinc (Zn) up to 8 mol % in the 0.48SiO₂⁻0.12CaO⁻0.36ZnO⁻0.04MgO glass series, was investigated with respect to both the glass chemistry and also the properties of glass polyalkenoate cements (GPCs) manufactured from them. The Network connectivity (NC) of the glass was calculated to increase from 1.83 to 2.42 with the addition of GeO₂ (0⁻8 mol %). Differential thermal analysis (DTA) results confirmed an increase in the glass transition temperature ( Tg ) of the glass series with GeO₂ content...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
Angela Alarcon de la Lastra, Katherine R Hixon, Lavanya Aryan, Amanda N Banks, Alexander Y Lin, Andrew F Hall, Scott A Sell
The current gold standard treatment for oral clefts is autologous bone grafting. This treatment, however, presents another wound site for the patient, greater discomfort, and pediatric patients have less bone mass for bone grafting. A potential alternative treatment is the use of tissue engineered scaffolds. Hydrogels are well characterized nanoporous scaffolds and cryogels are mechanically durable, macroporous, sponge-like scaffolds. However, there has been limited research on these scaffolds for cleft craniofacial defects...
July 24, 2018: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
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