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Environmental Health and Toxicology

Byeonghak Moon, Wonchan Kim, Cho Hee Park, Seung Min Oh
Ginkgo biloba is a dioecious tree that has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for about 5,000 years. In previous studies on ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761) using in vitro systems, we confirmed that EGb761 has biphasic effects on estrogenicity. In this study, we evaluated the agonistic and antagonistic activities of EGb761 using a uterotrophic assay in immature female rats. To evaluate agonistic and antagonistic effects of EGb761 on uterus, 21-day-old immature Sprague-Dawley (SD) female rats were treated with EGb761 (100, 200, or 400 mg/kg) by oral gavage, 10 μg/kg of estradiol (E2) or 1 mg/kg tamoxifen (TM) by subcutaneous injection, or with EGb761 plus E2 or TM for 3 consecutive days...
September 2018: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Nivedita Chatterjee, Jiwan Gim, Jinhee Choi
Epigenetics, potentially heritable changes in genome function that occur without alterations to DNA sequence, is an important but understudied component of ecotoxicology studies. A wide spectrum of environmental challenge, such as temperature, stress, diet, toxic chemicals, are known to impact on epigenetic regulatory mechanisms. Although the role of epigenetic factors in certain biological processes, such as tumourigenesis, has been heavily investigated, in ecotoxicology field, epigenetics still have attracted little attention...
September 2018: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Ha Ryong Kim, Da Young Shin, Kyu Hyuck Chung
Several studies showed that the inflammatory and fibrotic responses induced by polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate (PHMG-p) were similar to those observed for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in South Korea in 2011. "Omic" technologies can be used to understand the mechanisms underlying chemical-induced diseases. Studies to determine the toxicity of chemicals may facilitate understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development of pulmonary fibrosis at a molecular level; thus, such studies may provide information about the toxic characteristics of various substances...
September 2018: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Hyun-Joong Kang, Hee-Jin Park, Oh-Kyung Kwon, Won-Seok Lee, Dong-Hwan Jeong, Byoung-Kyu Ju, Jung-Hwan Kwon
Municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs) are thought to be important point sources of microplastics in freshwater systems and many peer-reviewed articles have been published on this issue since mid-2010s. In this review, we summarize existing literature on the occurrence of microplastics in STPs and experimental methods used for isolation and identification of microplastics. The number concentrations of microplastics in STP influents were 15.1-640 L-1 , whereas those in the STP effluents were highly variable and ranged from not detectable to 65 L-1 ...
September 2018: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Yong-Hyun Kim, Young-Ji An, Seongwon Jo, Sang-Hyub Lee, Sang Jin Lee, Seong-Jin Choi, Kyuhong Lee
Cigarette smoke is a major risk factor for several diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases. The toxicity of the cigarette smoke can be determined in vitro. The cytotoxicity test of the cigarette smoke is commonly conducted using the cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) and cigarette smoke extract (CSE). The CSC and CSE methods are well known for sampling of the particles and water-soluble compounds in the cigarette smoke, respectively. In this study, the CSC and CSE were analyzed by using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) system equipped with a wax column for separation of the volatile organic compounds...
September 2018: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Yong-Hwa Kim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Eun Seon Hong, Seung Hyuck Bang, Yang-Hoon Kim, Jiho Min
A method of rapidly decaying livestock carcasses is sought through Corine glutamicum , and furthermore, lysosomes are used to remove toxic microorganisms from livestock carcasses. The landfill was constructed on a laboratory scale. Optimized growth conditions of C. glutamicum that could quickly decay livestock carcasses were determined. Lysosomes were extracted from egg whites and used to treat contaminated soil to confirm their antimicrobial activities. Condition of C. glutamicum was activated, regardless both anaerobic and aerobic conditions, soil exists and, to be close to the optimum conditions as possible temperatures, moisture content was about 1/10 of the culture...
2018: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Hamidreza Jamaati, Mirsaeed Attarchi, Somayeh Hassani, Elham Farid, Seyed Mohammad Seyedmehdi, Pegah Salimi Pormehr
Studies on the trend of air pollution in Tehran, Iran, as one of the most polluted metropolis in the world are scant, and today Tehran is known for its high levels of air pollutants. In this study, the trend of air pollution concentration was evaluated over the past 10 years (2004-2015). The data were collected from 22 stations of the Air Quality Control Company. Daily concentrations of CO, NO2 , SO2 , O3 , PM10 were analyzed using SPSS 16 based on the statistical method, repeated measures, and intra-group test to determine the pattern of each pollutant changes...
2018: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Sanghyuk Bae, Jonghyuk Choi, Geunbae Kim, Sanghwan Song, Mina Ha, Hojang Kwon
The industrial complexes built during the course of economic development in South Korea played a pivotal role in the country's rapid economic growth. However, this growth was accompanied by health problems due to the pollutants released from the industrial complexes inevitably located near residential areas, given the limited land area available in South Korea. This study was conducted to evaluate the exposure to each pollutant emanating from industrial complexes for residents living in nearby areas, and to determine the substances requiring priority attention in future surveys...
2018: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Amber B Trueblood, Daikwon Han, Eva M Shipp, Leslie H Cizmas
There is limited literature on the frequency and distribution of pesticide exposures, specifically with respect to demographic and environmental factors in the United States. The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate geographic trends and factors associated with unintentional pesticide exposures in children and adolescents in Texas. The study used an ecological design with secondary data. A spatial scan statistic, based on a Poisson regression model, was employed to identify spatial clusters of unintentional pesticide-related poison center exposures...
2018: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Ji-Yeon Roh, Pil-Gon Kim, Jung-Hwan Kwon
Oxidative stress was evaluated for anthracene (Ant) and alkyl-Ants (9-methylanthracene [9-MA] and 9,10-dimethylanthracene [9,10-DMA]) in Caenorhabditis elegans to compare changes in toxicity due to the degree of alkylation. Worms were exposed at 1) the same external exposure concentration and 2) the maximum water-soluble concentration. Formation of reactive oxygen species, superoxide dismutase activity, total glutathione concentration, and lipid peroxidation were determined under constant exposure conditions using passive dosing...
2018: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Joon Sang Lee, Jung Kyung Yoo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Sang-Yong Eom, Jonghyuk Choi, Sanghyuk Bae, Ji-Ae Lim, Guen-Bae Kim, Seung-Do Yu, Yangho Kim, Hyun-Sul Lim, Bu-Soon Son, Domyung Paek, Yong-Dae Kim, Heon Kim, Mina Ha, Ho-Jang Kwon
Several epidemiological studies have reported an association between environmental pollution and various health conditions in individuals residing in industrial complexes. To evaluate the effects of pollution from industrial complex on human health, we performed a pooled analysis of environmental epidemiologic monitoring data for residents living near national industrial complexes in Korea. The respiratory and allergic symptoms and the prevalence of acute and chronic diseases, including cancer, were used as the outcome variables for health effects...
2018: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Ji Hyun Park, Sungim Whang, Hyun Young Lee, Cheol-Min Lee, Dae Ryong Kang
Radon, the primary constituent of natural radiation, is the second leading environmental cause of lung cancer after smoking. To confirm a relationship between indoor radon exposure and lung cancer, estimating cumulative levels of exposure to indoor radon for an individual or population is necessary. This study sought to develop a model for estimate indoor radon concentrations in Korea. Especially, our model and method may have wider application to other residences, not to specific site, and can be used in situations where actual measurements for input variables are lacking...
2018: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Jaeseong Jeong, Jinhee Choi
Amid revolutionary changes in toxicity assessment brought about by increasing regulation of chemicals, adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) have emerged as a useful framework to assess adverse effect of chemicals using molecular level effect, which aid in setting environmental regulation policies. AOPs are biological maps that describe mechanisms linking molecular initiating event to adverse outcomes (AOs) at an individual level. Each AOP consists of a molecular initiating event, key events, and an AO. AOPs use molecular markers to predict endpoints currently used in risk assessment, promote alternatives to animal model-based test methods, and provide scientific explanations for the effects of chemical exposures...
2017: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Hyung-Nam Myung, Hoo-Young Lee
The purpose of this study is to introduce the establishment process, policy target, and projects for "Chungnam's master plan on environmental health policy (2017-2020)" as the local government's role in addressing local environmental health challenges. We first analyzed existing studies and social issues on the media related to "Chungnam's master plan" to understand Chungnam's environmental health status and discussed domestic and international policy trends and related plans. An environmental health perception questionnaire survey and a Delphi expert questionnaire survey were conducted among provincial residents to collect various actors' opinions on Chungnam's environmental health issues and policy...
2017: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Jinho Yang, Yoon-Keun Kim, Tae Soo Kang, Young-Koo Jee, You-Young Kim
The role of infectious agents in the etiology of inflammatory diseases once believed to be non-infectious is increasingly being recognized. Many bacterial components in the indoor dust can evoke inflammatory lung diseases. Bacteria secrete nanometer-sized vesicles into the extracellular milieu, so-called extracellular vesicles (EV). which are pathophysiologically related to inflammatory diseases. Microbiota compositions in the indoor dust revealed the presence of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria...
2017: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Jin-Hee Bang, Inbo Oh, Soontae Kim, Seunghee You, Yangho Kim, Ho-Jang Kwon, Geun-Bae Kim
This study utilized the Community Multiscale Air Quality model to simulate the spatial distribution of benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) concentrations from large national industrial complexes (IC) located in the Ulsan metropolitan region (UMR). Through controlling pollutant emissions from major IC, this study performed a quantitative analysis of the influence of pollutant emissions on BTX concentrations in surrounding urban areas. The results showed that approximately 40% of the annual average BTX concentrations in nearby urban grids were directly influenced by pollutant emissions from the IC...
2017: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Youngchul Shin
In this economic evaluation of environmental epidemiological monitoring projects, we analyzed the economic feasibility of these projects by determining the social cost and benefit of these projects and conducting a cost/benefit analysis. Here, the social cost was evaluated by converting annual budgets for these research and survey projects into present values. Meanwhile, the societal benefit of these projects was evaluated by using the contingent valuation method to estimate the willingness-to-pay of residents living in or near industrial complexes...
2017: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Se-Eun Oh, Gi Bog Kim, Sung Ho Hwang, Mina Ha, Kyoung-Mu Lee
The objective of this study was to verify a change in the longitudinal trend of blood lead levels for the Korean population, before and after the regulation of leaded gasoline- which occurred between 1987 and 1993 in Korea. A total of 77 reports on blood lead levels among general Korean population between 1981 and 2014 were selected, and the results were summarized to have the variables of year, number of subjects, the subjects' range in age, gender, and blood lead concentrations (arithmetic mean). The annual average atmospheric lead levels for four major cities (i...
2017: Environmental Health and Toxicology
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