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Environmental Health and Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332372/measurement-and-modeling-of-indoor-radon-concentrations-in-residential-buildings
#1
Ji Hyun Park, Sungim Whang, Hyun Young Lee, Cheol-Min Lee, Dae Ryong Kang
Objectives: Radon, the primary constituent of natural radiation, is the second leading environmental cause of lung cancer after smoking. To confirm a relationship between indoor radon exposure and lung cancer, estimating cumulative levels of exposure to indoor radon for an individual or population is necessary. This study sought to develop a model for estimate indoor radon concentrations in Korea. Especially, our model and method may have wider application to other residences, not to specific site, and can be used in situations where actual measurements for input variables are lacking...
January 8, 2018: Environmental Health and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332373/use-of-adverse-outcome-pathways-aop-in-chemical-management-potential-advantages-and-limitations
#2
Jaeseong Jeong, Jinhee Choi
Amid revolutionary changes in toxicity assessment brought about by increasing regulation of chemicals, adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) have emerged as a useful framework to assess adverse effect of chemicals using molecular level effect, which aid in setting environmental regulation policies. AOPs are biological maps that describe mechanisms linking molecular initiating event to adverse outcomes at an individual level. Each AOP consists of a Molecular Initiating Event (MIE), Key Events (KEs), and an Adverse Outcome (AO)...
December 30, 2017: Environmental Health and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198098/role-of-local-government-in-responding-to-environmental-health-challenges-a-case-study-of-chungnam
#3
Hyung-Nam Myung, Hoo-Young Lee
The purpose of this study is to introduce the establishment process, policy target, and projects for "Chungnam's master plan on environmental health policy (2017-2020)" as the local government's role in addressing local environmental health challenges. We first analyzed existing studies and social issues on the media related to "Chungnam's master plan" to understand Chungnam's environmental health status and discussed domestic and international policy trends and related plans. An environmental health perception questionnaire survey and a Delphi expert questionnaire survey were conducted among provincial residents to collect various actors' opinions on Chungnam's environmental health issues and policy...
November 24, 2017: Environmental Health and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161803/modeling-the-effects-of-pollutant-emissions-from-large-industrial-complexes-on-benzene-toluene-and-xylene-btx-concentrations-in-urban-areas
#4
Jin-Hee Bang, Inbo Oh, Soontae Kim, Seunghee You, Yangho Kim, Ho-Jang Kwon, Geun-Bae Kim
This study utilized the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to simulate the spatial distribution of benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) concentrations in Ulsan metropolitan region (UMR), where large national industrial complexes (IC) are located. Through controlling the pollutant emissions in major IC, this study has performed a quantitative analysis on the influence of pollutant emissions from the IC on the BTX concentrations in surrounding urban areas. The seasonal modeling results indicated that the average BTX concentrations were high around the petrochemical complexes, with higher concentrations in the surrounding urban areas during the summer...
November 20, 2017: Environmental Health and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161804/importance-of-biological-ultrafine-particles-in-indoor-dust-as-a-pathogenesis-of-chronic-inflammatory-lung-diseases
#5
Young-Koo Jee, Jinho Yang, Yoon-Keun Kim, You-Young Kim, Tae Soo Kang
The role of infectious agents in the etiology of inflammatory diseases once believed to be non-infectious is increasingly being recognized. Many bacterial components in the indoor dust can evoke inflammatory lung diseases. Bacteria secrete nanometer-sized vesicles into the extracellular milieu, so-called extracellular vesicles (EVs). which are pathophysiologically related to inflammatory diseases. Microbiota compositions in the indoor dust revealed the presence of both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria...
November 17, 2017: Environmental Health and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129043/economic-evaluation-of-environmental-epidemiological-projects-in-national-industrial-complexes
#6
Youngchul Shin
In this economic evaluation of environmental epidemiological monitoring projects, we analyzed the economic feasibility of these projects by determining the social cost and benefit of these projects and conducting a cost/benefit analysis. Here, the social cost was evaluated by converting annual budgets for these research and survey projects into present values. Meanwhile, the societal benefit of these projects was evaluated by using the contingent valuation method to estimate the willingness to pay of residents living in or near industrial complexes...
November 13, 2017: Environmental Health and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092393/longitudinal-trends-of-blood-lead-levels-before-and-after-leaded-gasoline-regulation-in-korea
#7
Kyoung-Mu Lee, Se-Eun Oh, Gi Bog Kim, Sung Ho Hwang, Mina Ha
The objective of this study was to verify a change in the longitudinal trend of blood lead levels for the Korean population, before and after the regulation of leaded gasoline-which occurred between 1987 and 1993 in Korea. A total of 77 general Korean population blood lead level reports from between 1981 and 2014 were selected, and the results were summarized to have the variables of year, number of subjects,the subjects' range in age, sex and blood lead concentrations (arithmetic mean). The annual average lead levels for four major cities, i...
October 30, 2017: Environmental Health and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056034/spatial-assessment-of-potential-ecological-risk-of-heavy-metals-in-soils-from-informal-e-waste-recycling-in-ghana
#8
Vincent Nartey Kyere, Klaus Greve, Sampson Manukure Atiemo, James Hawkins Ephraim
The rapidly increasing annual global volume of e-waste, and of its inherently valuable fraction, has created an opportunity for individuals in Agbogbloshie, Accra, Ghana to make a living by using unconventional, uncontrolled, primitive and crude procedures to recycle and recover valuable metals from this waste. The current form of recycling procedures releases hazardous fractions, such as heavy metals, into the soil, posing a significant risk to the environment and human health. Using a handheld GPS, 132 soil samples based on 100 m grid intervals were collected and analysed for cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn)...
October 17, 2017: Environmental Health and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026063/morphological-transformation-induced-by-silver-nanoparticles-in-balb-c-3t3-a31-1-1-mouse-cell-model-to-evaluate-in-vitro-carcinogenic-potential
#9
Wun Hak Choo, Byeonghak Moon, Sulhwa Song, Seung Min Oh
Carcinogenesis is a complex process involving in genotoxic and non-genotoxic pathways. Carcinogenic potential of AgNPs has been predicted by genotoxic effects using several in vitro and in vivo models. However, there is no little information on non-genotoxic effects of AgNPs for carcinogenesis. In vitro cell transformation assay (CTA) can provide specific and sensitive evidence to predict the tumorigenic potential of a chemical, which cannot be supplied by genotoxicity testing. Therefore, we carried out CTA in Balb/c 3T3 A31-1-1 cells to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of silver nanoparticle (AgNPs)...
October 7, 2017: Environmental Health and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026061/from-specific-humidifier-disinfectants-disease-to-humidifier-disinfectants-syndrome
#10
Jong-Han Leem, Jong-Hyeon Lee
Humidifier disinfectant damage was terrible chemical damage caused by household goods that happened in only South Korea, but it is still very little known in humidifier disinfectant damage. Up to now, previous research tried to focus on interstitial fibrosis on terminal bronchiole and alveoli because it is specific finding, compared with other diseases. To figure out overall effects from HDs, many epidemiologic and toxicologic research is underway. Humidifier disinfectants showed to give rise to typical toxicologic effects on various target organs, such as skin, conjunctiva, naval mucosa, bronchial mucosa, alveoli and so on, which were sharing common toxicological responses...
October 7, 2017: Environmental Health and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026062/causal-inference-in-environmental-epidemiology
#11
Sanghyuk Bae, Hwan-Cheol Kim, Byeongjin Ye, Won-Jun Choi, Young-Seoub Hong, Mina Ha
Inferring causality is necessary to achieve the goal of epidemiology, which is to elucidate the cause of disease. Causal inference is conducted in three steps: evaluation of validity of the study, inference of general causality, and inference of individual causality. To evaluate validity of the study, we propose a checklist that focuses on biases and generalizability. For general causal inference, we recommend utilizing Hill's 9 viewpoints. Lastly, individual causality can be inferred based on the general causality and evidence of exposure...
2017: Environmental Health and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859472/fish-consumption-mercury-exposure-and-the-risk-of-cholesterol-profiles-findings-from-the-korea-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-2010-2011
#12
Yong Min Cho
In this study, the associations between mercury (Hg) exposure and cholesterol profiles were analyzed, and increased Hg levels and cholesterol profiles according to the amount of fish consumption were evaluated. Data on levels of blood Hg, the frequency of fish consumption, total blood cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride (TG) in 3951 adults were obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2011 database...
2017: Environmental Health and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793754/necessity-of-purification-during-bacterial-dna-extraction-with-environmental-soils
#13
Hyun Jeong Lim, Jung-Hyun Choi, Ahjeong Son
Complexity and heterogeneity of soil samples have often implied the inclusion of purification steps in conventional DNA extraction for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Unfortunately the purification steps are also time and labor intensive. Therefore the necessity of DNA purification was re-visited and investigated for a variety of environmental soil samples that contained various amounts of PCR inhibitors. Bead beating and centrifugation was used as the baseline (without purification) method for DNA extraction...
2017: Environmental Health and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774164/does-wastewater-discharge-have-relations-with-increase-of-turner-syndrome-and-down-syndrome
#14
Intae Choi
The purpose of this study is to examine whether water and air pollutants have a relationship with an increase in the genetic disorders Turner syndrome and Down syndrome, which are caused by congenital chromosomal abnormalities, and to generate a hypothesis about the genetic health effects of environmental pollutants. A panel regression based on random effect was conducted on Korea's metropolitan councils from 2012 to 2014. The dependent variable was the number of Turner syndrome and Down syndrome cases, and the main independent variables were those regarding the water and air pollution...
2017: Environmental Health and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728354/phytotoxicity-of-glyphosate-in-the-germination-of-pisum-sativum-and-its-effect-on-germinated-seedlings
#15
Subinoy Mondal, Mousumi Kumar, Smaranya Haque, Debajyoti Kundu
The present study evaluated the effects of glyphosate on Pisum sativum germination as well as its effect on the physiology and biochemistry of germinated seedlings. Different physico-chemical biomarkers, viz., chlorophyll, root and shoot length, total protein and soluble sugar, along with sodium and potassium concentration, were investigated in germinated seedlings at different glyphosate concentrations. This study reports the influence of different concentrations of glyphosate on pea seeds and seedlings. Physicochemical biomarkers were significantly changed by glyphosate exposure after 15 days...
2017: Environmental Health and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602069/the-study-to-estimate-the-floating-population-in-seoul-korea
#16
Geon Woo Lee, Yong Jin Lee, Youngeun Kim, Seung-Han Hong, Soohwaun Kim, Jeong Soo Kim, Jong Tae Lee, Dong Chun Shin, Youngwook Lim
Traffic-related pollutants have been reported to increase the morbidity of respiratory diseases. In order to apply management policies related to motor vehicles, studies of the floating population living in cities are important. The rate of metro rail transit system use by passengers residing in Seoul is about 54% of total public transportation use. Through the rate of metro use, the people-flow ratios in each administrative area were calculated. By applying a people-flow ratio based on the official census count, the floating population in 25 regions was calculated...
2017: Environmental Health and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521495/thank-you-for-our-reviewers-of-2016-environmental-health-and-toxicology
#17
Mina Ha
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Environmental Health and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494538/the-exposome-and-the-future-of-epidemiology-a-vision-and-prospect
#18
Kyoung-Nam Kim, Yun-Chul Hong
It is widely accepted that a relatively small proportion of chronic disease can be explained by genetic factors alone. Although information about environmental exposure is important to comprehensively evaluate chronic diseases, this information is not sufficiently or accurately assessed by comparison with genomic factors. To emphasize the importance of more complete evaluation of environmental exposure, the concept of the exposome, which indicates the entirety of environmental exposure from conception onwards, was introduced in 2005...
2017: Environmental Health and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331171/accelerated-ecotoxicity-of-photoreactive-nanoparticles-on-moina-macrocopa
#19
Sun-Hwa Nam, Yu-Jin Shin, Youn-Joo An
Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are well known as photoreactive nanoparticles (NPs). Various phototoxicities of ZnO NPs and TiO2 NPs were reported on several organisms. It was still necessary to evaluate the toxicity of photoreactive ZnO NPs and TiO2 NPs due to species-specific effects under various irradiation conditions. We compared the acute toxicity of Moina macrocopa under visible, ultraviolet (UV) A, and B irradiations, according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development guidelines for the testing of chemicals (Test No...
2017: Environmental Health and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231689/are-children-with-asthma-in-south-korea-also-associated-with-vitamin-d-deficiency
#20
Yu-Ri Kim, Sung Chul Seo, Young Yoo, Ji Tae Choung
Recently, epidemiologic studies have shown that the lack of serum vitamin D levels may be associated with high asthma prevalence, but its effect is still controversial, depending on season, area, and food consumption. We aimed to examine the association of serum vitamin D levels with the prevalence of pediatric asthma in Korea. A total of 80 children (50 asthmatic children and 30 healthy controls) aged 6-14 years were participated in this study. Serum vitamin D levels were measured and compared between the two groups...
2017: Environmental Health and Toxicology
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