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Environmental Health and Toxicology

Eun Seon Hong, Seung Hyuck Bang, Yang-Hoon Kim, Jiho Min
A method of rapidly decaying livestock carcasses is sought through Corine glutamicum , and furthermore, lysosomes are used to remove toxic microorganisms from livestock carcasses. The landfill was constructed on a laboratory scale. Optimized growth conditions of C. glutamicum that could quickly decay livestock carcasses were determined. Lysosomes were extracted from egg whites and used to treat contaminated soil to confirm their antimicrobial activities. Condition of C. glutamicum was activated, regardless both anaerobic and aerobic conditions, soil exists and, to be close to the optimum conditions as possible temperatures, moisture content was about 1/10 of the culture...
2018: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Hamidreza Jamaati, Mirsaeed Attarchi, Somayeh Hassani, Elham Farid, Seyed Mohammad Seyedmehdi, Pegah Salimi Pormehr
Studies on the trend of air pollution in Tehran, Iran, as one of the most polluted metropolis in the world are scant, and today Tehran is known for its high levels of air pollutants. In this study, the trend of air pollution concentration was evaluated over the past 10 years (2004-2015). The data were collected from 22 stations of the Air Quality Control Company. Daily concentrations of CO, NO2 , SO2 , O3 , PM10 were analyzed using SPSS 16 based on the statistical method, repeated measures, and intra-group test to determine the pattern of each pollutant changes...
2018: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Sanghyuk Bae, Jonghyuk Choi, Geunbae Kim, Sanghwan Song, Mina Ha, Hojang Kwon
The industrial complexes built during the course of economic development in South Korea played a pivotal role in the country's rapid economic growth. However, this growth was accompanied by health problems due to the pollutants released from the industrial complexes inevitably located near residential areas, given the limited land area available in South Korea. This study was conducted to evaluate the exposure to each pollutant emanating from industrial complexes for residents living in nearby areas, and to determine the substances requiring priority attention in future surveys...
2018: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Amber B Trueblood, Daikwon Han, Eva M Shipp, Leslie H Cizmas
There is limited literature on the frequency and distribution of pesticide exposures, specifically with respect to demographic and environmental factors in the United States. The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate geographic trends and factors associated with unintentional pesticide exposures in children and adolescents in Texas. The study used an ecological design with secondary data. A spatial scan statistic, based on a Poisson regression model, was employed to identify spatial clusters of unintentional pesticide-related poison center exposures...
2018: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Ji-Yeon Roh, Pil-Gon Kim, Jung-Hwan Kwon
Oxidative stress was evaluated for anthracene (Ant) and alkyl-Ants (9-methylanthracene [9-MA] and 9,10-dimethylanthracene [9,10-DMA]) in Caenorhabditis elegans to compare changes in toxicity due to the degree of alkylation. Worms were exposed at 1) the same external exposure concentration and 2) the maximum water-soluble concentration. Formation of reactive oxygen species, superoxide dismutase activity, total glutathione concentration, and lipid peroxidation were determined under constant exposure conditions using passive dosing...
2018: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Joon Sang Lee, Jung Kyung Yoo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Sang-Yong Eom, Jonghyuk Choi, Sanghyuk Bae, Ji-Ae Lim, Guen-Bae Kim, Seung-Do Yu, Yangho Kim, Hyun-Sul Lim, Bu-Soon Son, Domyung Paek, Yong-Dae Kim, Heon Kim, Mina Ha, Ho-Jang Kwon
Several epidemiological studies have reported an association between environmental pollution and various health conditions in individuals residing in industrial complexes. To evaluate the effects of pollution from industrial complex on human health, we performed a pooled analysis of environmental epidemiologic monitoring data for residents living near national industrial complexes in Korea. The respiratory and allergic symptoms and the prevalence of acute and chronic diseases, including cancer, were used as the outcome variables for health effects...
2018: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Ji Hyun Park, Sungim Whang, Hyun Young Lee, Cheol-Min Lee, Dae Ryong Kang
Radon, the primary constituent of natural radiation, is the second leading environmental cause of lung cancer after smoking. To confirm a relationship between indoor radon exposure and lung cancer, estimating cumulative levels of exposure to indoor radon for an individual or population is necessary. This study sought to develop a model for estimate indoor radon concentrations in Korea. Especially, our model and method may have wider application to other residences, not to specific site, and can be used in situations where actual measurements for input variables are lacking...
2018: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Jaeseong Jeong, Jinhee Choi
Amid revolutionary changes in toxicity assessment brought about by increasing regulation of chemicals, adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) have emerged as a useful framework to assess adverse effect of chemicals using molecular level effect, which aid in setting environmental regulation policies. AOPs are biological maps that describe mechanisms linking molecular initiating event to adverse outcomes (AOs) at an individual level. Each AOP consists of a molecular initiating event, key events, and an AO. AOPs use molecular markers to predict endpoints currently used in risk assessment, promote alternatives to animal model-based test methods, and provide scientific explanations for the effects of chemical exposures...
2017: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Hyung-Nam Myung, Hoo-Young Lee
The purpose of this study is to introduce the establishment process, policy target, and projects for "Chungnam's master plan on environmental health policy (2017-2020)" as the local government's role in addressing local environmental health challenges. We first analyzed existing studies and social issues on the media related to "Chungnam's master plan" to understand Chungnam's environmental health status and discussed domestic and international policy trends and related plans. An environmental health perception questionnaire survey and a Delphi expert questionnaire survey were conducted among provincial residents to collect various actors' opinions on Chungnam's environmental health issues and policy...
2017: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Jinho Yang, Yoon-Keun Kim, Tae Soo Kang, Young-Koo Jee, You-Young Kim
The role of infectious agents in the etiology of inflammatory diseases once believed to be non-infectious is increasingly being recognized. Many bacterial components in the indoor dust can evoke inflammatory lung diseases. Bacteria secrete nanometer-sized vesicles into the extracellular milieu, so-called extracellular vesicles (EV). which are pathophysiologically related to inflammatory diseases. Microbiota compositions in the indoor dust revealed the presence of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria...
2017: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Jin-Hee Bang, Inbo Oh, Soontae Kim, Seunghee You, Yangho Kim, Ho-Jang Kwon, Geun-Bae Kim
This study utilized the Community Multiscale Air Quality model to simulate the spatial distribution of benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) concentrations from large national industrial complexes (IC) located in the Ulsan metropolitan region (UMR). Through controlling pollutant emissions from major IC, this study performed a quantitative analysis of the influence of pollutant emissions on BTX concentrations in surrounding urban areas. The results showed that approximately 40% of the annual average BTX concentrations in nearby urban grids were directly influenced by pollutant emissions from the IC...
2017: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Youngchul Shin
In this economic evaluation of environmental epidemiological monitoring projects, we analyzed the economic feasibility of these projects by determining the social cost and benefit of these projects and conducting a cost/benefit analysis. Here, the social cost was evaluated by converting annual budgets for these research and survey projects into present values. Meanwhile, the societal benefit of these projects was evaluated by using the contingent valuation method to estimate the willingness-to-pay of residents living in or near industrial complexes...
2017: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Se-Eun Oh, Gi Bog Kim, Sung Ho Hwang, Mina Ha, Kyoung-Mu Lee
The objective of this study was to verify a change in the longitudinal trend of blood lead levels for the Korean population, before and after the regulation of leaded gasoline- which occurred between 1987 and 1993 in Korea. A total of 77 reports on blood lead levels among general Korean population between 1981 and 2014 were selected, and the results were summarized to have the variables of year, number of subjects, the subjects' range in age, gender, and blood lead concentrations (arithmetic mean). The annual average atmospheric lead levels for four major cities (i...
2017: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Vincent Nartey Kyere, Klaus Greve, Sampson Manukure Atiemo, James Ephraim
The rapidly increasing annual global volume of e-waste, and of its inherently valuable fraction, has created an opportunity for individuals in Agbogbloshie, Accra, Ghana to make a living by using unconventional, uncontrolled, primitive and crude procedures to recycle and recover valuable metals from this waste. The current form of recycling procedures releases hazardous fractions, such as heavy metals, into the soil, posing a significant risk to the environment and human health. Using a handheld global positioning system, 132 soil samples based on 100 m grid intervals were collected and analysed for cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn)...
2017: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Wunhak Choo, Byeonghak Moon, Sulhwa Song, Seung Min Oh
Carcinogenesis is a complex process involved in genotoxic and non-genotoxic pathways. The carcinogenic potential of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has been predicted by examining their genotoxic effects using several in vitro and in vivo models. However, there is no little information regarding the non-genotoxic effects of AgNPs related to carcinogenesis. The in vitro cell transformation assay (CTA) provides specific and sensitive evidence for predicting the tumorigenic potential of a chemical, which cannot be obtained by genotoxicity testing...
2017: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Sanghyuk Bae, Hwan-Cheol Kim, Byeongjin Ye, Won-Jun Choi, Young-Seoub Hong, Mina Ha
Inferring causality is necessary to achieve the goal of epidemiology, which is to elucidate the cause of disease. Causal inference is conducted in three steps: evaluation of validity of the study, inference of general causality, and inference of individual causality. To evaluate validity of the study, we propose a checklist that focuses on biases and generalizability. For general causal inference, we recommend utilizing Hill's 9 viewpoints. Lastly, individual causality can be inferred based on the general causality and evidence of exposure...
2017: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Jong Han Leem, Jong-Hyeon Lee
Humidifier disinfectant (HD) damage was terrible chemical damage caused by household goods that happened in only South Korea, but still very little is known in HD damage. Up to now, previous research tried to focus on interstitial fibrosis on terminal bronchioles and alveoli because it is a specific finding, compared with other diseases. To figure out whole effects from HDs, much epidemiologic and toxicologic research is underway. HDs were shown to give rise to typical toxicologic effects on various target organs, such as skin, conjunctiva, naval mucosa, bronchial mucosa, alveoli and so on, which shared common toxicological responses...
2017: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Yong Min Cho
In this study, the associations between mercury (Hg) exposure and cholesterol profiles were analyzed, and increased Hg levels and cholesterol profiles according to the amount of fish consumption were evaluated. Data on levels of blood Hg, the frequency of fish consumption, total blood cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride (TG) in 3951 adults were obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2011 database...
2017: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Hyun Jeong Lim, Jung-Hyun Choi, Ahjeong Son
Complexity and heterogeneity of soil samples have often implied the inclusion of purification steps in conventional DNA extraction for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Unfortunately the purification steps are also time and labor intensive. Therefore the necessity of DNA purification was re-visited and investigated for a variety of environmental soil samples that contained various amounts of PCR inhibitors. Bead beating and centrifugation was used as the baseline (without purification) method for DNA extraction...
2017: Environmental Health and Toxicology
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